The British citizenship ( english British citizenship ) is the citizenship of the United Kingdom in the narrow sense that exists in its present form only since the 1981st
Since the Act of Union 1707 , the subjects of the British kings had the status of British Subject . This placed the citizens under the protection of the crown and allowed them to stay in the United Kingdom. This form of citizenship was not linked to birth or residence, but to the position as a subject of the crown. In the course of decolonization , this status was shared. The British Nationality Act of 1948 allowed the now independent Dominions to have their own citizenships. However, these citizens remained British subjects . A distinction was made between Citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies and Citizenship of independent Commonwealth countries . In order to reduce the immigration to Great Britain, which had risen sharply in the 1950s, the Commonwealth Immigrations Act of 1962 largely restricted the immigration rights of citizens of the independent colonies.
With the accession of Great Britain to the European Community (EC) in 1973 the need arose again to define citizenship more clearly. This was done with the British Nationality Act of 1981 (BNA), which is still in force today . This divided the British into three categories: British Citizen (residents of the mother country), British Dependent Territories Citizen (residents of the dependent territories) and British Subjects without Citizenship (all holders of the Citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies , who did not enter the first in 1981 both categories fell).
British Citizen is therefore the nationality of the United Kingdom in the strictest sense. Only these persons have the right of unrestricted entry and residence in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (English Right of Abode ).
Acquisition usually takes place via a modified ius soli . British is anyone who was nationally born and either has a parent who is British or is a permanent UK resident. British nationals' children abroad may be registered as a British citizen in certain circumstances.
Spouses can obtain citizenship after three years. Other naturalizations require a five-year residence period. There must be no criminal offenses. In any case, naturalization is a discretionary decision against which no legal remedies are permitted.
In 2014 the laws were changed and the withdrawal of British citizenship made easier. These changes were initially targeted at those who hold dual citizenship and pose a threat to the UK due to terrorist activities. The rule was later broadened to include organized crime .
- UK Border Agency (British citizenship)
- British Nationality Acts: 1981 , 1965 , 1964 , 1958 , 1948 , 1772 , 1730
- Home Office Nationality Instructions (British nationality policy and background notes)
- Dominik Nagl: No Part of the Mother Country, but Distinct Dominions Legal Transfer, State Building and Governance in England, Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1630–1769. LIT, Berlin 2013, p. 49 ff .: Calvin's Case (1608) and Citizenship in Common Law, ISBN 978-3-643-11817-2 . de.scribd.com