In linguistics, a word that is used only once or very rarely and is not (yet) part of the established vocabulary of a language is referred to as casual education (also: occassionalism , ad hoc education or instantaneous education ) . In a broader sense, it can also be a phrase . The characteristics of the opportunity education are "their strong contextual dependence, their rare use and their short-lived nature". Occasionalisms appear particularly in media language, in youth language and in poetry. Often they are compound words; in these cases one speaks of an occasional compound.
An opportunity education can only be used once or multiple times. It is crucial for the classification as an opportunity education that the word remains a “linguistic one-day flyer”. If the new word has been included in the well-known vocabulary and has been in use for some time, it is no longer an occasional formation, but a neologism . As a conclusion to this process of establishment one can consider the inclusion of the word in a general dictionary.
The reason for creating an opportunity is often that a lexical gap is closed in a current naming situation . Language economy also often plays a role. For example, an ad hoc designation such as beer mat tax reform is simpler and easier to understand in context than a cumbersome description of the complex issue (“a tax reform, after which a tax return is so short that it fits on a beer mat”). Furthermore, the creation of opportunity can also arise from the need to express a certain attitude of the speaker.
- Christiane Wanzeck: Lexicology. Description of words and vocabulary in German. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010 (UTB 3316), ISBN 978-3-8385-3316-2 , pp. 39-42.
- Peter Hohenhaus: Ad hoc word formation. Terminology, typology and theory of creative word formation in English. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1996, ISBN 3-631-30266-5 ( European university publications . Series 14: Anglo-Saxon language and literature 317), (At the same time: Hamburg, Univ., Diss., 1995).
- Vida Jesenšek: Occasionalisms. A contribution to the lexicology of German. Slavisticno Drustvo, Maribor 1998, ISBN 961-90073-4-4 ( Zora 2 ).
- Corinna Peschel: On the connection between word formation and text constitution. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-484-31237-8 ( German language linguistics series 237), (also: Dortmund, Univ., Diss., 2000).
- Robert Fellner: Occasionalisms in advertising slogans between 2003 and 2008 with special consideration of the cosmetics, nutrition, beverages and pharmaceuticals industries. Grin Verlag GmbH, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-640-52714-4 (also: Vienna, Univ., Diploma thesis, 2009).
- ↑ Duden online: Opportunity education
- ↑ For the synonyms see opportunity formation in the DWDS
- ^ Siegfried Heusinger: The Lexic of German Contemporary Language. An introduction. W. Fink, Munich 2004 (UTB 2491), p. 32
- ^ A b Christiane Wanzeck: Lexicology. Description of words and vocabulary in German. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010 (UTB 3316), ISBN 978-3-8385-3316-2 , p. 39
- ^ A b Volker Harm: Introduction to Lexicology. WBG, Darmstadt 2015 (Introduction to German Studies), ISBN 978-3-534-26384-4 , p. 119