The group of Acmeists was formed from 1911 and wanted to replace the mysticism , the complicated ambiguity and the occultism of symbolism with the creation of a new aesthetic in Russia . In contrast to symbolism, acmeism strived for objectivity and clarity of representation.
The name of the group, which was decided at the 3rd meeting in Anna Akhmatova's apartment , should indicate the desired maximum performance. The basic tendency was to emphasize the primal earthly and the handicraft as well as a solution from the mystical symbolism. From the point of view of the symbolists, the concentration on the thing threatened to obscure the view of the spiritual source of the visible world. Other names for the lyric poetry of acmeism such as " neoclassicism ", "adamism" and " clarism " show the context of acmeism.
In contrast to Futurism , which also emerged as a counter-movement to Symbolism, Akmeism was not interested in a revolutionary change in the technique of comprehension, but rather in a balanced, conscious and unambiguous use of everyday language in poetry.
Nikolai Gumiljow , the theoretical head of the Akmeisten group, brought together several other artists such as Sergei Gorodetsky , Anna Akhmatova , Ossip Mandelstam and others. a. around. Mikhail Kuzmin and Innokenti Annenski were among the most important forerunners . In 1911 they founded the association “ Poets Guild ” (Russian Цех поэтов Zech poetow ) in St. Petersburg / Petrograd, the organizational center of the group. From 1913 they published the magazine " Apollon ", in which poems and theoretical articles appeared.
Due to the strong influence that the most important representatives of acmeism had on Russian poetry of the 20th century in the Soviet Union and in Russian exile literature , the term used to define poetry that was created much later in contrast to symbolism or futurism was retained.
- Harenberg's Lexicon of World Literature. Authors - works - terms. Edited by François Bondy . Vol. 1: A-Cli. Harenberg-Lexikon-Verl., Dortmund 1981, ISBN 3-611-00091-4 .
- Wolfgang Kasack : Lexicon of Russian literature of the 20th century (= work and texts on Slavic Studies. Vol. 52) [part: main volume]. Sagner, Munich 1992, 2nd, revised. and substantially exp. Ed., ISBN 3-87690-459-5 . [Part:] Bibliogr. and biographical results (= Works and texts on Slavic Studies. Vol. 68). Munich 2000, ISBN 3-87690-761-6 . (1st edition udT: Wolfgang Kasack: Lexicon of Russian Literature from 1917. Kröner, Stuttgart 1976 [main volume]. Erg.-Bd. 1986.)