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Filippo Tommaso Marinetti

The Futurism was one of Italy coming avant-garde art movement , which claimed due to the broad spectrum of establishing a new culture.

The influence of futurism goes back to its founder Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and his first futuristic manifesto from 1909.

Before the First World War 1909–1914

Founding Manifesto

On February 20, 1909, the young Italian lawyer and poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published his “futuristic manifesto ” in the French newspaper Le Figaro , thereby establishing the futuristic movement:

  1. We want to sing about the love of danger, the familiarity with energy and audacity.
  2. Courage, boldness, and rebellion will be the essential elements of our poetry.
  3. To this day, literature has extolled thoughtless immobility, ecstasy and sleep. We want to praise the aggressive movement, the feverish insomnia, the running step, the somersault, the slap and the punch.
  4. We declare that the glory of the world has been enriched with a new beauty: the beauty of speed . A racing car whose body is adorned with large pipes that resemble snakes with explosive breath ... a howling car that seems to be running on grape is more beautiful than the Nike of Samothrace .
  5. We want to sing about the man who holds the wheel, whose ideal axis crosses the earth, which itself hunts along its path.
  6. The poet must waste himself ardently, brilliantly, and generously in order to increase the passionate ardor of the primordial elements.
  7. There is only beauty in battle. A work without an aggressive character cannot be a masterpiece. Poetry must be viewed as a violent attack on the unknown forces in order to force them to bow to people.
  8. We stand on the farthest foothills of the centuries! ... Why should we look back when we want to break open the mysterious gates of the impossible? Time and space died yesterday. We already live in the Absolute because we have already created the eternal, omnipresent speed.
  9. We want to glorify war - this only hygiene in the world - militarism , patriotism , the destructive act of the anarchists , the beautiful ideas for which one dies, and the contempt for women .
  10. We want to destroy museums, libraries and academies of all kinds and fight against moralism, feminism and all cowardice based on expediency and self-interest.
  11. We will sing of the great crowds that work, pleasure, or commotion stirs; we will sing about the multicolored, polyphonic flood of the revolution in the modern capitals; we will sing about the nightly, vibrating glow of the arsenals and shipyards, which are illuminated by bright electric moons; the voracious train stations devouring smoking snakes; the factories hanging from the clouds with their coiling threads of smoke; the bridges spanning rivers like gigantic athletes that flash like knives in the sun; the adventure-seeking steamers scenting the horizon; the broad-chested locomotives that stomp along the rails like huge, pipe-bridled steel horses and the gliding flight of the aircraft, whose propellers crackle like a flag in the wind and applaud seems to clap like an enthusiastic crowd ...


Despite the frequent use of “we”, Marinetti conceived the manifesto on his own. He was shaped by his literary circle of friends, which included symbolists such as Guillaume Apollinaire , Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stéphane Mallarmé , who professed to be violent and revolted against the ruling bourgeois order. With them, Marinetti was not far from anarchists like Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , Michail Bakunin and above all Georges Sorel and welcomed the attacks by their activists. Friedrich Nietzsche's ideas can also be found in the manifesto . Like Nietzsche's Zarathustra , Marinetti's heroes pursue their goals violently against a hostile world without regard to their surroundings.

In addition to the rejection of (Christian) morality and Marinetti's aversion to women, the manifesto shows the absence of any social references. After completing his law degree, he made the decision not to follow in the footsteps of his successful father, but to create a new cultural direction.

The manifesto was conceived as a provocative breach of taboo, which glorified youth, violence, aggressiveness, speed, war and ruthlessness and declared war on the established cultural bearers and their supporters known as "Passatists" (adherents of the past). The destruction of libraries, museums and academies as a haven of tradeism (outdated beliefs) should pave the way for the new culture and give Italy a new cultural identity. On this Giovanni Lista:

“Italian artists have always been paralyzed by the idea that they are just the offspring of a fame that has now disappeared. Against this obsession with the inaccessible past, Marinetti proclaimed that a new world was looming, and that Italy must now bury its centuries-old glory and free it from the weight of its glorious ... past. "

Even this provocative manifesto would not have gotten beyond the talk of the day in Paris, which is used to scandal, had not Marinetti used the interest aroused in artistic circles to gather a group of young artists and encourage concerted work, which he knew how to promote through financial donations.


The basic ritual of Futurism included the numerous manifestos with which Futurism presented itself in its entirety and in its sub-areas.

What clearly differentiated Futurism from other art movements and contributed decisively to its spread was the way it was presented. Marinetti's Serate futuriste (Futuristic Evenings) , which he organized from 1910, especially in theaters in northern Italy, were primarily intended to provoke . Therefore, such evenings always began with the verbal degradation of the respective city and its citizens. Then manifestos were read out, futuristic works of art were shown, futuristic (noise) music played and excerpts from futuristic theatrical art were offered. From Marinetti's point of view, such evenings were only successful if there was a commotion with the intervention of the security forces by the end of the event and the media coverage was correspondingly high.

Building on the level of awareness gained in this way, the futuristic traveling exhibition that started in Milan on April 30, 1911, was a complete success. In 1912 the exhibition went abroad, where it remained until the outbreak of the war. The most important stops were Paris, London (twice), Berlin (twice), Vienna, Brussels, The Hague, Amsterdam, Munich, Budapest, Rotterdam, Karlsruhe, Leipzig, Rome and St. Petersburg. Almost everywhere, visitors and critics were impressed by the variety and intensity of the performance; the effect on the local art scene was particularly strong.


Along with sculpture, painting became the leading art movement in Futurism. Umberto Boccioni presented the manifesto of futuristic painting as the undisputed doyen of the group on February 11, 1910 in Turin. In addition to Boccioni, the signatories were Giacomo Balla , Luigi Russolo , Gino Severini and Carlo Carrà . The manifesto addressed the country's young artists with a “cry of rebellion” against the “fanatical, irresponsible and snobbish cult of the past” . Every form of originality was praised, the courage to be crazy and the reproduction of everyday life were required. The following were rejected: the cult of the past, the obsession with the old, the pedantry, the academic formalism, every form of imitation, all themes and motifs already worn out and the art critics.

A few days later, this paper was followed by the Technical Manifesto of Futuristic Painting , which postulates universal dynamism, sincerity and purity in the representation of nature and the destruction of the materiality of the body through movement and light. Classical motifs were rejected, and nude painting was described in the Manifesto as just as repulsive and depressing as adultery in literature . The aim is not to portray an event, but to portray the world of experience of the artist or the person he portrays. What Boccioni propagated was still untested on the screen. In practice, it should be difficult to distinguish yourself clearly enough from Cubism , Pointillism and the Impressionists . The last distinguishing feature was often the forced representation of motion sequences. In addition to the signatories of the manifesto, Fortunato Depero , Ottone Rosai , Mario Sironi , Ardengo Soffici , Enrico Prampolini and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti were particularly active in the pre-war futuristic painting .

Plastic and theater

In the field of plastic, the all-rounder Umberto Boccioni was almost exclusively active until the war . His sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space is now considered an icon of Futurism, its importance is reflected in the fact that it adorns the current Italian 20 euro cent coin .

Fortunato Depero and Gilbert Clavel tried to combine sculpture and theater . Both wanted to create “plastic theater” as a new art form from a clear language of forms, colors and light, music and movement. On May 14, 1918, their fairy tale play Balli Plastici was premiered in the Teatro dei Piccoli in Rome . In an alternation between concrete narrative strands and abstract moments, wooden puppets in five acts mimic the music of Alfredo Casella , Gérald Tyrwhitt , Béla Bartók and Francesco Malipiero . Clavel, who saw himself as the initiator and sponsor of the Balli Plastici , which was enthusiastically received in Rome, tried in vain to show the work in Paris, Naples and Switzerland.


Besides Marinetti, Giacomo Balla , Francesco Cangiullo , Pasqualino Cangiullo , Mario Carli , Luciano De Nardis , Carlo Carrà and Fortunato Depero were also active in the field of futuristic literature . The literary palette ranged from poems to plays, from manifestos to novels. The mouthpiece was initially the magazine Poesia , which appeared from 1905 to 1909. Marinetti initiated a revolution in the field of the written word in 1912 with the Technical Manifesto of Futuristic Literature , which was to be followed by several other relevant manifestos. With the "liberated words" not only the syntax was overridden, letters and words were also presented in different sizes and with different fonts and in different orientations. Since printing machines could not display these types of writing, the technique of collage and montage, which was adopted from painting, was used . Large formats and connecting curved lines removed the boundaries between literature and the fine arts. This had an impact on the visual arts as well as on the literature and typography of the 20th century.

Nevertheless , the slogan in libertà (Eng. Liberated words ) did not become a commercial success . In terms of content, efforts were made not to imitate the modern in a naturalistic way, but rather to exaggerate and stylize them and to express the dynamics and simultaneity of all processes as simultaneity . However, this content was pushed so far into the background by the form that it could only emerge in the form of a catchphrase, which was seen more as a break-up than a liberation.

The manifestos represented an important part of the futuristic literature.


Luigi Russolo: Intonarumori , 1913

Futuristic music, also known as bruitism , is closely associated with the names Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo . Pratella joined the Futurists in 1910 and published the Futurist Musicians ' first manifesto that same year ; two more manifestos followed and in 1912 a book on futuristic music. Russolo initially worked as a painter and also exhibited. In 1913 he appeared as the author of the manifesto L'Arte dei rumori , which appeared in a book with further chapters in 1916 and in which he announced the replacement of music by the art of noise. He built his noise sources, so-called intonarumori , himself and played numerous concerts. After the war he built a rumorharmonium ( Russolophon ) into which he integrated several sound sources . In 1927 he turned away from Italy as an anti-fascist, gave his last public concert in 1929 and finally turned back to painting. Today he is considered one of the fathers of synthetic music .

As a result, the Ondes Martenot (1928) and the Trautonium (1930) were developed as less radical electronic musical instruments that could be more permanently integrated into musical life.

More fields

Designed by Antonio Sant'Elia

In January 1914, Enrico Prampolini wrote the first futuristic manifesto on architecture (L'atmosferastruttura. Basi per una architettura futurista) . The most important representative of architecture was Antonio Sant'Elia until well into the war . His designs were original and impressive, but his death in the war in 1916 prevented them from being implemented.

Anton Giulio Bragalia and Enrico Prampolini dedicated themselves to the subject of photography and film. Above all, Bragalia tried to depict the dynamics required in painting by means of multiple exposures of motion sequences.

Giacomo Balla and Fortunato Depero worked in the fashion and arts and crafts sector. In addition to fabric samples, suits, hats and tapestries were also designed. Tie clips and futuristic gilets designed by Depero were actually worn.

The last area the term took hold before World War I was politics. She first brought Marinetti, who advocated Italy's rapid entry into the war, in contact with Benito Mussolini. Marinetti joined Mussolini's "Fascio d'Azione Rivoluzionario" and organized events in which Mussolini appeared as a speaker, who also called for war and the liberation of the Irredenti (unsaved) from the Austrian yoke. In September 1914, Marinetti, Boccioni and Russolo were imprisoned in Milan at one of these events for burning Austrian flags. The brief stay in prison is followed by the manifesto Futuristic War Synthesis , in which the support of the Futurists for an intervention by Italy in the sense of the Irredenta was expressed.

During the First World War 1914–1918

When Italy entered the war against the will of the Church and the Socialists in 1915, the Futurists, propagandists of violence, rushed to the flags. The artistic work almost came to a standstill.

The war turned out to be a turning point in two respects.

The cohesion within the leadership group had already loosened alarmingly before the war began. Some of these were typical side effects after the establishment of revolutionary currents, but they also show that many futurists had their problems with the new focus of futurism, politics. While Marinetti strove for constant expansion of the circle under this new sign, Boccioni refused such an expansion and wanted to see art and its quality in the foreground. He also addressed this problem in his book, which appeared in April 1914 and was primarily devoted to futuristic painting and the visual arts in futurism. This work did not put the common ground in the foreground, but the talents and merits of the author, which led not only to disagreements with Marinetti, but also with the criticized in the book Carrá. Another wedge into the community drove an article that although members of the Futuristengruppe Florence and Giovanni Papini , Aldo Palazzeschi and ardengo soffici was drafted and on 14 February 1915 the futuristic Gazette Lacerba entitled "Futurism and Marinettismus" appeared . The authors differentiated here between the “real” Futurists Carrá, Severini and Tavolato and those who had been disloyal to the principles such as Boccioni, Balla, Pratella, Russolo and Marinetti.

The actual depth of the caesura was ultimately determined by the war losses. A total of thirteen futurists lost their lives and forty-one were wounded. Among the dead were the architect Sant'Elia and Boccioni, who fell from his horse in 1916 and died soon after.

Between World War I and Fascism 1918–1920

After the war, the focus was initially on political futurism. Marinetti founded the Partito Politico Futurista (Futurist Political Party) before the end of the war and gave it a nationalist, social, anti-capitalist and anti-clerical profile. This party was not intended as a mass party, but as a reservoir for people close to the futuristic movement. With Piero Bolzon , Giuseppe Bottai , the writer Mario Carli and the sculptor Ferruccio Vecchi , the leader of the regular military command units Arditi, people were also recruited who would later make a career in the fascist movement.

This party became part of the Fasci di Combattimento movement founded by Mussolini on March 23, 1919 . When the elections in October 1919 could only win 4,000 votes, tension arose. After the defeat, Marinetti turned even more sharply to the left and called for the Bolshevik Revolution (albeit without internationalism) to intensify the struggle against the monarchy, church and bureaucracy, as well as the abolition of prisons and the dissolution of the Carabinieri. Since Mussolini was blocked this way to the left, where he was still regarded as a traitor after his expulsion from the party for promoting Italian participation in the war, he turned to the right. At the second Fasci Congress in 1920, he spoke out in favor of ending the fight against the monarchy and the Church, which led to a scandal. In addition to several Squadristi, the futurists Marinetti, Carli and Vecchi also left the movement.

A little later, Marinetti made the incompatible views visible in a manifesto that was closer to anarchism than ever before. In “Al di là del communismo” (“Beyond Communism”), which was dedicated to the futurists outside Italy, he says goodbye to political futurism and praises the Russian October Revolution as a model for Italy. At first this only earned him recognition from the Bolsheviks. In 1921 he was called the “only revolutionary intellectual” in Italy by the Soviet People's Commissar for Culture, Lunatcharsky.

Position on fascism from 1920

From 1920 to 1924 Marinetti kept silent, while the former syndicalists Mino Maccari and Curzio Suckert further developed the anti-clerical and revolutionary program of the original Futurism in the futuristic newspaper "L'impero" founded in 1920.

With the anthology Futurismo e Fascismo , which he dedicated to his “great and dear friend Mussolini”, Marinetti initiated the reconciliation with fascism in 1924, which earned him the post of minister of culture. The role of Futurism in the art of established fascism had already been decided beforehand. Futurism had to share political recognition with the 'Passatist' Novecento , a more classical art movement preferred by Mussolini. Not Marinetti, but the Fascist Association of Fine Arts , founded in 1929, made sure that exhibitions and state commissions were placed in the style that the top management wanted. In doing so, futurism often only came into play when it came to expressing the dynamic, future-oriented character of the new Italy. That futurism was fighting for its position can be inferred from the numerous manifestos of this time. You had u. a. sacred art, aviation architecture, ceramics, the new aesthetic of war, war companionship and ties on the subject. Marinetti also created a new way of dealing with the human environment with "tattilismo" (searching for contact, touching with the aim of building social relationships). Marinetti's Manifesto of the Futuristic Kitchen (1930) also caused a sensation, which was less dedicated to kitchen furnishings than to the eating habits of Italians. Marinetti blamed the pasta asciutta for its provinciality and low political status in the concert of Europeans and pleaded for rice dishes to be preferred from now on. In the long term, he advocated changing the diet to chemical products.

As the most important movement of the “2. Futurism "may, inspired by d'Annunzio and Mino Somenzi with a manifest ennobled Aeropittura be referred to the nickname" received Arte Sacra Futurista ". With the aerospace literature and aeropoesy reaching out into space , Marinetti found points of contact with the old futuristic topoi of dynamism, progress and speed, which have now been adapted to the new times with patriotism, flying fieldism and subtle war propaganda. The architecture, which was not put into practice in the first futuristic phase, was now able to develop much better due to the lively public construction activity of the regime. Although the futuristic architects had to live with Mussolini's fondness for classicism, it was nevertheless possible to build buildings according to futuristic principles, which were based on the principles of practicality and modernity and exploited the possibilities offered by the new building materials. The famous Trento train station , designed by Angiolo Mazzoni , is one of the public buildings, including railway stations, seaside resorts, post offices, power stations, schools and barracks .

The most important representatives of this 'second' Futurism (1924–1945) were the all-rounders Enrico Prampolini , Giacomo Balla and Fortunato Depero (acting, painting, presentation), the painters Gerardo Dottori , Tullio Crali , Ivano Gambini , Giovanni Korompay , Guglielmo Tato and Fillia as well as the architects Paladini, Chessa and Sartoris. The newspaper “Noi”, which appeared from 1924, became their most important mouthpiece.

Futurism outside of Italy


Herwarth Walden brought the futurists to Berlin

In Germany, the circle around Herwarth Walden's expressionist-avant-garde magazine Der Sturm took up elements of futurism from 1910 onwards. He organized a futurist exhibition in the Sturm Gallery on April 12, 1912 and ensured that the futurists Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, Gino Severini and Ardengo Soffici took part in the First German Autumn Salon with fourteen pictures in September 1913 in Berlin. Severini scandalized the Berlin press with the sticky beard on Marinetti's portrait.

In literature, the writer Alfred Döblin used the futuristic technique of montage and simultaneity in his stories in the volume The Murder of a Buttercup (1913). This German variant of literary futurism was also known under the name Berliner Futurismus . Döblin perfected it in his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929), which has been filmed several times .


In France, futurism received little attention. In France, which described itself as the leading cultural nation of its time, the futurists were rather ridiculed, and futuristic painting, as a variant of Cubism, was reduced in its independence.

Great Britain

Unlike the Russians, the British Vortizists never denied that they were heavily influenced by Italian Futurism. This was also expressed in her newspaper "Blast", which appeared until 1915.


Marinetti's idea of ​​the metallization of the body is still taken up by many Japanese mangas and artists, for example in the film Tetsuo: The Iron Man by Shinya Tsukamoto . Shinya Tsukamoto also took up other elements of futurism, such as the depiction of the fist in Tokyo Fist or the transformation of humans into a weapon in Tetsuo II: The Body Hammer .


In Portugal, there were futuristic experiments within the circle of Primeiro Modernismo poets, especially by José de Almada Negreiros and Mário de Sá-Carneiro . The painter Santa Rita Pintor saw himself as Marinetti's “envoy” , and with his death in 1918 the Portuguese phase of futurism could be seen as ended. Perhaps the most interesting contributions are the poems by the Pessoa heteronym Álvaro de Campos , including Óde Triunfal , Óde marítima and Saudação a Walt Whitman . Pessoa referred to this variety as sensacionismo and differs from Italian futurism, among other things, through irony and more conventional stylistic devices.

Russia, Soviet Union

It was probably no coincidence that Russian Futurism , which is more closely related to Cubism ( Cubofuturism ), arose immediately after Marinetti's futuristic traveling exhibition in St. Petersburg in 1912, even if these roots were always denied by Russian artists. The most important of them, Velimir Khlebnikov , Alexei Kruchonych , Vladimir Mayakovsky , David Burljuk and the versatile and bustling Georgian Iliazd , were just as fascinated by the dynamism, speed and restlessness of urban life as the Italians, they too tried to provoke they pleaded for a radical departure from traditional art. In contrast to Italy, however, Russian Futurism was primarily a literary movement.

The Bolsheviks first promoted Futurism from 1917 onwards. A number of writers and artists, in turn, committed themselves to transforming futurism in the service of the Bolshevik authorities and associations, such as Sergei Tretyakov . However, support from the regime came to an abrupt end under Josef Stalin , who made socialist realism the official art direction - a policy that would last for 60 years.

In 2005, another exit of the Mayakovskaya metro was reopened with elaborate marble and stainless steel elements in a futuristic style as well as a mosaic and a poem by Mayakovsky. From 2008 to 2010 a series of futurism exhibitions were held in Moscow on the occasion of the 100th birthday of the Manifesto, including a. in the State Pushkin Museum .


Since the 1910s, futurism found its way into Hungarian painting, which proved to be particularly receptive to any avant-garde trend. Some artists in the vicinity of Lajos Kassák were inspired by the Futurists , such as Sándor Bortnyik , Lajos Tihanyi , Béla Uitz and János Schadl , who mainly transferred the aspects of the dynamism and power of Italian futuristic works to theirs. Further exponents of Hungarian futurism were two artists who were successful in Berlin, namely Béla Kádár and Hugó Scheiber , who discovered the later, decorative, style of futurism and paired it with expressionist elements. The artist György Ruzicskay is also counted among the later Futurists , whose few, sporadic futuristic works were created between the mid-1920s and mid-1930s.

In 2010 the exhibition " Depero: a futurista " with the above-mentioned artists was opened in the Hungarian National Gallery and in the Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto to illustrate the influence of the Italian futurists on the Hungarian avant-garde .

Continuation of Effects and Influences

Umberto Boccioni is in all hands across Europe today

Beyond Italy, Futurism influenced the development of modernist trends such as Expressionism , Dadaism , Vorticism , Art Deco , Surrealism and Constructivism . The modern novel was decisively influenced by Futurism: The groundbreaking novels Ulysses (1918) by James Joyce , Manhattan Transfer (1925) by John Dos Passos and Berlin Alexanderplatz (1929) by Alfred Doblin are (next to the stream of consciousness / stream of consciousness also marked) of the futuristic techniques of montage and simultaneity . The language was enriched by the term avant-garde through futurism - as far as known, this appears in connection with art for the first time in the founding manifesto of 1909.

Despite its political ambivalence, the proto-fascist and anti-feminist motives, futurism meant an important step for Italy towards cultural emancipation and creative self-confidence of Italian artists, who suffered for centuries from the cultural dominance of Roman antiquity and the Renaissance . After 1945 and the end of Mussolini's fascism, Italy gained a clear head start when it came to connecting with international modernism that it succeeded in keeping some of the basic motifs and the urge for renewal of Futurism alive beyond the Second World War .

The contents of most manifestos are now completely out of date. The changed attitude to war and violence caused by the Second World War as a negative breach of civilization contributed as much as the destruction of nature and the ecological movement. What remains of the material are some exemplary works of art, including those of Boccionis and those of “Aeropittura”. Marinetti's method of presenting ideas and works of art to a broad public using multimedia on the one hand and provocation on the other hand remains timeless .

List of futuristic artists


The Harvard library , the Biblioteca di via del Senato (Milano), the library of the Art History Institute in Florence and the Zurich Central Library house extensive holdings on Futurism . The latter has valuable first editions by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti as well as magazines, pamphlets and manifestos. The MART ( Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto ) is important as a futuristic exhibition and research facility beyond the borders of Italy.


  • Futurism. Radical Avant-garde March 7, 2003 to June 29, 2003, Kunstforum, Vienna.
  • Italian Futurism 1909-1944. Guggenheim Museum, New York. (Until September 1, 2014). Richly commented and illustrated catalog.

Exhibition catalogs, conferences

  • Berliner Festspiele (Ed.): Languages ​​of Futurism, literature, painting, sculpture, music, theater, photography , JOVIS Verlag: Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86859-066-1 .
  • Donatella Chiancone-Schneider (Ed.): Music for the future or yesterday's news ? Interdisciplinarity, internationality and topicality of futurism . Cologne 2010 DNB , Italian Cultural Institute Cologne, July 13, 2009. Conference
  • Ingo Bartsch, Maurizio Scudiero (Ed.): “... we machines too, we also mechanized! … “The second phase of Italian futurism 1915–1945 , Bielefeld 2002, ISBN 3-933040-81-7 Museum am Ostwall visits the Museum for Art and Cultural History, Dortmund 2002.
  • Evelyn Benesch, Ingried Brugger: Futurism - Radical Avantgarde , Milan 2003, ISBN 88-202-1602-7 (exhibition catalog)


Web links

Commons : Futurism  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Futurism  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Baumgarth, pp. 26-27, in: Benesch / Brugger, pp. 263-265.
  2. ^ Giovanni Lista: What is futurism? In: Bartsch / Scudiero, p. 30 ff.
  3. Benesch / Brugger, p. 233.
  4. Benesch / Brugger, p. 235.
  5. Tisdall / Bozzola, p. 58
  6. Baumgarth, p. 49 ff.
  7. Baumgarth, p. 181 ff.
  8. Benesch / Brugger, pp. 31–45.
  9. Benesch / Brugger, p. 200 ff.
  10. Benesch / Brugger, p. 162 ff.
  11. Benesch / Brugger, p. 71.
  12. ^ Luigi Russolo: The Art of Noise (1916, 1999) [1] PDF at nanoästhetik.de
  13. Benesch / Brugger, p. 101 ff.
  14. Bartsch / Scudiero. 19
  15. Benesch / Brugger, p. 188.
  16. Benesch / Brugger, p. 194.
  17. Benesch / Brugger, pp. 220-221.
  18. Tisdall / Bozzola: Futurism , p 179
  19. Bartsch / Scudiero, p. 27
  20. ^ Article by Antonio Gramsci in the party newspaper Ordine Nuovo of January 5, 1921
  21. Christoph Kivelitz: Ogni mostra realizzata é una rivoluzione ... The second futurism and propaganda exhibitions in Italian fascism , in: Bartsch / Scuderio, p. 145 ff.
  22. Jump up ↑ Gudrun Escher: Aeropittura-Arte Sacra Futurista , in: Bartsch / Scudiero, p. 47
  23. Futurism.ru: Events , accessed December 17, 2016
  24. New York Celebrates Futurism - Spiral of the Future, Regardless , Review by Martin Meyer in the NZZ on July 5, 2014, accessed on July 5, 2014