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The Vitruvian Man , study of proportions based on Vitruvius by Leonardo da Vinci (1492)

Renaissance [ rənɛˈsɑ̃s ] (borrowed from French renaissance "rebirth") describes the European cultural epoch in the period of upheaval from the Middle Ages to the modern era in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was marked by the endeavor to revive the cultural achievements of Greek and Roman antiquity . Starting from the cities of northern Italy , the artists and scholars of the Renaissance influenced the countries north of the Alps with their innovative painting, architecture, sculpture, literature and philosophy, albeit in different ways. The term "Renaissance" itself came about in the 19th century.

Europe had already looked back at antiquity in the Middle Ages , but it was not until the late Middle Ages that important ancient texts were rediscovered and made accessible. The ancient state was studied in Renaissance humanism . The many inventions and discoveries made at the time, which can be described as the result of a general spiritual awakening (see Technology in the Renaissance ) , are also considered characteristic of the Renaissance .

In art history, the 15th ( Quattrocento ) and 16th centuries ( Cinquecento ) are regarded as the core period of the Renaissance . The late Renaissance is also known as Mannerism . The end of the epoch takes place in the beginning of the 17th century in Italy with the newly emerging style of the baroque . Outside Italy, forms of the Gothic dominated for a long time ; the transitions here are fluid and your assessment depends on whether a narrower Renaissance style term or another epoch term is used. In Protestant Northern Europe, the concept of the Renaissance era is overlaid by that of the Reformation .

Italians such as Alberti , Donatello , Botticelli , Leonardo da Vinci , Bramante , Raffael , Michelangelo and Tizian, as well as Albrecht Dürer and the Danube School in the German-speaking area, are particularly known as artists of the Renaissance . Important writers from Dante Alighieri to William Shakespeare also belong to this era . The state philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli is considered an analyst and representative of self-confident power politics. Erasmus von Rotterdam, on the other hand, stands for morality and self-reflection. In music, the epoch is primarily associated with increased polyphony and new harmony, for example in Orlando di Lasso .


The term ( Italian rinascita or Rinascimento [ riˌnaʃːiˈmento ] "rebirth") was first used in 1550 by the Italian artist and artist-biographer Giorgio Vasari to denote the overcoming of medieval art. Vasari differentiates between three ages in the development of art:

  1. the glamorous age of Greco-Roman antiquity,
  2. an intermediate age of decay, which can be equated with the epoch of the Middle Ages ,
  3. the age of the arts revival and the rebirth of the ancient spirit in the Middle Ages since about 1250.

According to Vasari, the Italian sculptors , architects and painters of the second half of the 13th century, including Arnolfo di Cambio , Niccolò Pisano , Cimabue and Giotto , “ showed the masters who came after them the way to perfection in the darkest of times leads".

Around 1830 the French concept of the Renaissance  - which until then had meant the "rebirth [of the Christian] through baptism" (since 1363) and later a general "revival [of literature, science]" (around 1700) - was analogous related to the Italian usage of the culture-historical epoch. This term was borrowed from German-language literature around 1840 to denote the transition period from the Middle Ages to the modern era . The term was largely coined in this meaning by the Basel historian Jacob Burckhardt with his work The Culture of the Renaissance in Italy (1860).

In general, one speaks of a renaissance in other contexts when old values ​​or ideas break through again. It is often referred to as a Renaissance when regional cultures in the 19th and 20th centuries became more interested in their idiosyncrasies (and languages), as in the Irish Renaissance . In English, renaissance refers to a person with a particularly large number of different skills.

Chronological order

Leonardo da Vinci: The Last Supper , 1495–1498, Santa Maria delle Grazie , Milan

The beginnings of the Renaissance are seen in Italy in the late 14th century ; the 15th and 16th centuries are considered to be the core period. In contrast to the older scientific model of an initial movement in Italy and the unstoppable subsequent spread across Europe, today more and more cultural studies are based on a multi-stranded and networked situation of mutual influences.

The preceding cultural-historical epoch of the Renaissance was the Gothic , the following the Baroque . The art-historical epoch of the Renaissance , especially the Italian Renaissance, is usually divided into three periods:

  1. Early renaissance ,
  2. High renaissance ,
  3. Late Renaissance or Mannerism .

In contrast to the 19th century, today's art history (and historical studies in general) sees the break between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance less abruptly. As early as the 13th century or before, developments that were reminiscent of the Renaissance, such as urban planning, were announced. The Carolingian Renaissance refers to the return to antiquity, which began around 800 under Charlemagne .


Acquisition of Greek and Arabic knowledge

The knowledge and ideas of antiquity , which were forgotten in Latin Western Europe in the early and high Middle Ages, had been preserved in monastery libraries, in the Arab culture and in Byzantium . Scientists such as Poggio Bracciolini or Niccolò Niccoli searched libraries for works by classical authors such as Plato , Cicero and Vitruvius . In addition, after the ongoing Reconquista on the Iberian Peninsula, the Christian conquerors had access to a large number of works by Greek and Arabic authors. The library of Cordoba alone is said to have contained 400,000 books.

The decline of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade in 1204 up to the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks led to the fact that numerous Greek scholars came to Italy who brought with them the knowledge of the culture of ancient Greece, which in the Byzantine Empire after the "fall" of Western Rome ( ie the fall of the western Roman provinces from the Roman Empire ) had been preserved and honored for almost 1000 years. A generation before the end of the Eastern Roman "Byzantine Empire", to which Greece and parts of present-day Turkey belonged, the Italian Giovanni Aurispa traveled to Constantinople and from there in 1423 brought over 200 codices with texts from ancient secular literature to Italy.

Social and political structures

The social and political conditions in Italy at the end of the Middle Ages also contributed to the upheaval. Italy did not exist as a political unit, but was divided into smaller city-states and territories. In the 15th century it was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. The cities were republics ( oligarchies from today's perspective ) and offered relative political freedom, which was reflected in scientific and artistic advances.

In Italy the memory of antiquity was most vivid. It was accessible on all sides by the connecting routes of the Mediterranean region. The commercial centers of the cities brought it into contact with distant areas, especially with the Levant (see: Economic history of the Republic of Venice ). The prosperity created by trade made it possible to commission large public and private art projects. In addition, more time could be spent on education.

Black Death

Another theory sees the Black Death as an impetus for changing worldview in the 14th century . It led to a concentration on the earthly rather than on spirituality and the hereafter. None of this explains why the renaissance began in Italy, however, as the plague was a pandemic that raged across Europe, not just Italy. Presumably the renaissance must be seen as a complex interplay of all factors.


A main characteristic of the "Renaissance" is the rebirth of the ancient spirit. The humanism is the essential intellectual movement of the time. Pioneers were Italian poets of the 14th century such as Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), who through his extensive preoccupation with ancient writers and through his individualism promoted belief in the value of humanistic education and the study of languages , literature , history and philosophy advocated as an end in itself outside of a religious context. The theocentric worldview of the Middle Ages was replaced by a more anthropocentric view of things.

This “rebirth” manifested itself in the fact that numerous elements of ancient thought were rediscovered and revived (writings, monuments , sculptures , philosophical thinking, etc.). This becomes particularly clear in the arts and their new, perceived as progressive principles, in which the mystical-spiritual-oriented formal language of the Middle Ages was replaced by secular, mathematical-scientific clarity. Leonardo da Vinci's study of proportions can be seen as an example of the new worldview. In it, the human being in his physical constitution is placed in the center and made the standard for a new system of order. The Renaissance can thus be understood as the beginning of the modern anthropocentric worldview.

The arts and sciences enjoy a similarly high reputation in the Italian city-states as in ancient Greece. Artists are no longer anonymous craftsmen, but rather appear with the self-confidence of polymaths. Her works are seen as individual creations of high standing.


Page with woodcut border from the first volume of the nine-volume complete work on the writings of St. Jerome (around 350–420), which was printed from January 13 to August 25, 1516 by Johannes Froben (1460–1527) in Basel. Contributed significantly to the Erasmus of Rotterdam edition .

The philosophy of the Renaissance turns away from scholastic - Aristotelian thinking and is above all committed to Platonism . All of Plato's writings were translated into Latin. Many Renaissance thinkers adhered to Neoplatonism , which was promoted by Georgios Gemistos Plethon , Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola . A widespread mindset among Renaissance scholars was humanism , advocated by the following thinkers, among others:

Visual arts


Imitation of ancient art was joined in the 15th century by a more intensive preoccupation with nature , which is an important aspect in the history of the development of Renaissance art. Even before Vasari, poets such as Giovanni Boccaccio had praised the painter Giotto for the fact that he knew how to depict things more faithfully than anyone before him. The tendency to design objects and people according to nature has been a main concern of the artists ever since . However, they only succeeded in such a naturalistic representation in an almost perfect form from the 15th century. This is why art historians mostly limit the concept of the Renaissance to art expressions of the 15th century, the Quattrocento , and those of the 16th century, the Cinquecento .

The artist's commitment to antiquity was closely related to the demand for natural truth in art . The ancient works of art were admired as exemplary examples of natural design. One saw in them examples worthy of imitation of how one had to represent nature. The important Italian theorist Leon Battista Alberti demanded that the artist should endeavor not only to “not only be equal to the ancient masters, but possibly even to surpass them”. The artist should improve and idealize the natural model. The representation of “reality”, the faithful representation, was not the task of the artist ( artifex ).

Albrecht Dürer : The Draftsman of the Lute , drawing from Dürer's textbook Instruction of Measurement (1525)

In addition to the redefinition of the relationship between art and nature and the veneration of antiquity, the Renaissance also posed the question of the essence of beauty . The artists try z. B. to represent the ideally beautiful person. Ideal dimensions and proportions play a role both in the representation of the human body in painting and sculpture and in the design of buildings. With the central perspective, the artists develop a method for depicting foreshortenings in the depth of space with mathematical precision.


In art, Filippo Brunelleschi , Lorenzo Ghiberti and Donatello were the pioneers of the new direction, which had its forerunners in the Protenaissance of the 13th and 14th centuries with Nicola Pisano , Giotto di Bondone and other artists.

The early Renaissance starts in Florence with Donatello's sculptures , Ghiberti's bronze reliefs , Masaccio's frescoes and Filippo Brunelleschi's buildings .

The period from around 1490/1500 to 1520 is known as the High Renaissance. The center of this period, which is characterized by the pursuit of the highest perfection and harmony in art, is papal Rome . This period saw Bramante's central building Designs for the new St. Peter's in Rome, Leonardo da Vinci's most famous images ( The Last Supper , Mona Lisa , Lady with an Ermine ), Raphael's painting of the punches and his most famous altarpiece, the Sistine Madonna , Michelangelo's sculptures ( Pietà , David , Moses ) and his frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel as well as Dürer's master engravings .

This was followed by the late Renaissance or Mannerism period , which lasted until around 1590 and was characterized by different artistic tendencies. Mannerism tends to exaggerate the formal repertoire of the High Renaissance (e.g. exaggerated room lines, excessively long and twisted human bodies in vigorous motion). A characteristic of mannerism is e.g. B. the Figura serpentinata , as portrayed by the sculptor Giovanni da Bologna in his Rape of the Sabine Woman (1583). Human figures are shown as bodies winding up like a snake. The last phase of the late Renaissance then gradually changes into the Baroque .


The majority of Renaissance art paintings are altarpieces and frescoes of religious content painted for churches. However, the religious figure has been humanized by being depicted in an earthly setting. The people in multi-figure pictures often appear in the everyday clothes of the Renaissance era. In addition, pictures with secular or pagan-mythological themes (e.g. allegories , ancient sagas of gods and heroes, ancient history) and individual portraits of contemporary personalities were created. In addition, the first depictions of landscapes and moral images were developed that represent contemporary life. However, the landscapes should not represent an exact representation of reality, rather they symbolized the basic principle of beauty. This beauty was defined as nature.

The depth of the room is constructed geometrically precisely using the means of the central perspective , i.e. a line of flight system . Added to this are the means of aerial and color perspective . In order to be able to represent a three-dimensional image on a two-dimensional surface, the artist had to adhere to optical and geometric rules. This stipulated that the horizon was horizontal at eye level with the beholder. In order to give an image spatial depth, all of its depth lines, which run parallel to the ground, converge towards a vanishing point that lies on the horizon line.

During the Renaissance, more and more emphasis was placed on natural reproductions, in particular on human anatomy. The artists explored muscle pulls, movements, foreshortening and body proportions as such. Despite these precise studies, the naked human body was represented as a nude in idealized proportions , as it was in ancient times . The artist saw his task in filtering out the beautiful from the fullness of human nature and thus expressing physical perfection. The nudity was symbolic of innocence , as it was felt to be natural and thus expressed original beauty. All of these conceptions of the human form were carried over from antiquity like other things.

A symmetrical, harmoniously balanced picture structure, supported by inner-picture circles, semicircles and triangles, was preferred in painting.


The sculptors of the Renaissance mainly create standing figures and busts . Monumental sculptures, for example in the form of equestrian statues, are set up in the squares of the cities . The grave sculpture for secular and spiritual dignitaries, for example in the form of a wall grave, combines the sculpture with the architecture to form a total work of art.

Sculpture also frees itself more and more from its medieval ties to architecture. In addition to niche figures, which are inconceivable without a close connection with the associated building, free-standing sculptures are increasingly being created that can be viewed from all sides while standing in public places.

Renaissance sculptors base their work on ancient models. Sculptures are modeled on all sides, the human being is shown in his nakedness, the legs are often positioned in classical contrapost . Anatomical preliminary studies are used to realistically reproduce the human body.


Antique, classicist renaissance

La Rotonda, Andrea Palladio , 1571

A tendency in architecture is to revive the formal language of antiquity with classical austerity. In Italy this goal was achieved with the High Renaissance by Donato Bramante around 1500 and from then on it established itself throughout Italy. Italian Renaissance buildings were designed to be clear, manageable and harmoniously balanced.

The architects based the floor plans on simple, ideal geometric shapes such as the square or the circle . Construction elements such as columns , pilasters , capitals , triangular gables etc. are borrowed directly from (Greek) antiquity. So you can find Doric, Ionic or Corinthian capitals on columns. In addition, there is an increased use of the Tuscan column , which is already known in Roman architecture , especially in the basement of the Renaissance buildings. The individual structural members had to be in harmony with themselves and with the whole building. One studies the architecture treatises of the Roman master builder Vitruvius in order to gain clues for ideally beautiful proportions.

Analogic renaissance

Banquet in the Renaissance interior , painting by Bartholomeus van Bassen , 1618–1620
The Pellerhaus in Nuremberg , completed in 1605, was considered one of the most important buildings of the Renaissance until its facade was destroyed in 1945 .
The house at the Breiten Herd in Erfurt was built in 1584. It is one of the most magnificent German Renaissance buildings.

A further tendency in architecture is to vary elements borrowed from antiquity, but also new elements of the language of form, as in medieval architecture, in an analogous way, without striving for strictly legal architecture. More important than the classic rule is the content-related aspect of the antiquing motifs, which convey high social prestige, but also ancient ethos.

The imitation of ancient building elements such as beams, capitals or profiles is not done here with full severity, but only in an imitation-varying manner according to medieval building practice. Some of the templates come from Romanesque architecture similar to ancient times. Example: The tower of Kilian's Church in Heilbronn from 1513. Often, rich ornamentation with tracery , arabesques , later with scrollwork , fittings , swings, etc. a. The vertical in the Gothic tradition is still strongly emphasized. As a rule, the foremen are not intellectuals, as in Italy, but are often committed to the tradition of medieval handicraft businesses. The floor plans and facades are often asymmetrical.

Renaissance Gothic or Post-Gothic

A third tendency is the continued use of Gothic motifs, which, in contrast to the ancient forms, are perceived as modern and are often used to mark church buildings. One example is the Church of St. Mary of the Assumption in Cologne.

On the side of architectural theory , the former tendency can be found in the architectural treatise, the latter in the sample book . In general it can be said that the more a culture did not perceive the Middle Ages as a cultural decline and in contrast to antiquity, the more the second and third tendencies were preferred. This is especially true in Central and Northern Europe, where the architecture of the Nordic Renaissance took on completely different forms.

In France, the classical, antique-like austerity of the High Renaissance was overtaken around 1550 (cf. the west wing of the Louvre , built 1550–1558 by Pierre Lescot ), there were also numerous church construction sites on which Gothic motifs were still being built. On the Iberian Peninsula, both tendencies form a side by side that continued into the Baroque period . In Germanic Europe and Poland there was a mixture of both tendencies (e.g. at Heidelberg Castle or the Wawel Castle in Krakow), but the analogical form of the Renaissance remained dominant until the end.

Important Renaissance artists

Renaissance poet and writer

In literature, Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy ( La Divina Commedia, 1307-1321), Francesco Petrarca's letters, treatises and poems and Giovanni Boccaccio's Il Decamerone (1353) usher in the Renaissance era. Count Baldassare Castiglione describes in Il Libro del Cortegiano (1528) the ideal type of a Renaissance man .

Since the invention of printing with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg around 1450 , literature has experienced a tremendous boom.

Famous poets and writers of the Renaissance include:

English theater flourished during the Renaissance. The Elizabethan theater , including the Jacobean theater and the Caroline theater , is also known as the Early modern theater or the English Renaissance theater . In Italy, the Commedia dell'arte and the Comedia erudita emerged as popular trends in amateur theater in the late Renaissance .


In the Renaissance, Franco-Flemish music was the style-defining element, from the middle of the 16th century the main impulses came from Italy, especially through compositional currents known as the Florentine Camerata , Roman School and Venetian School . The following characteristics and stylistic devices of Renaissance music can be cited:

  • The music is understood as the work of (no longer anonymous) composers. It is used for social entertainment (e.g. love, drinking and seasonal songs) and no longer just to praise God. There is a rich polyphony (multiple voices) in church music and folk song melodies treated homophonically in the secular area.
  • A high point in the musical realization of ideas from the Renaissance was the emergence of the opera around 1600, operated primarily by Florentine circles.

Economy and Social

In economic terms, the renaissance saw the breach of the medieval ban on interest and the abolition of the medieval bracteate currency. On the one hand, this enabled the rise of early modern banking houses such as the Fuggers or the Medici ; on the other hand, it meant a considerable social decline for many, especially for the rural population. The resulting social tensions may be released. a. through the peasant wars .

The introduction of double entry bookkeeping in accounts allowed much greater control over the success of economic ventures.


The Renaissance is not only an art epoch, but also an epoch of general cultural and scientific-rational awakening, which was primarily based on ancient models. In mathematics, it is marked by a revival of Greek mathematics. In addition, Arabic mathematics had a fundamental influence with terms such as “ algebra ” and “ algorithm ” and the Arabic numerals that increasingly replaced the Roman numerals. Ancient classics became accessible to many scholars through the printing press. In art, too, mathematical influences cannot be overlooked, for example in the application of the laws of perspective in painting or in the use of representational geometry and projective geometry in architecture. Mathematical knowledge was also useful in cartography, navigation, land surveying and astronomy.

Exercise and sports

As in antiquity, physical exercises were practiced and explored in the entire breadth of utilization contexts. Modern thinking showed itself in the formulation of the rules, in the application of natural sciences and mathematics (especially geometry) to sport. Physical exercises were carried out for the purpose of health, the craft of war, self-defense or simply as a competitive sport. The changing understanding of the body was also evident in dance and other body practices.

See also


  • Bernd Roeck : The morning of the world. History of the renaissance. CH Beck, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3406698767 .
  • Walter Paatz: The Art of the Renaissance in Italy . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1961.
  • Rudolf Wittkower: Basics of Architecture in the Age of Humanism . Munich 1969.
  • Hartmut Biermann : Renaissance . Heyne, Munich 1976. (Heyne books; 5).
  • Leonid M. Batkin: The historical totality of the Italian Renaissance . Verlag der Kunst, Dresden 1979.
  • Ludwig Heinrich Heydenreich : Studies on the architecture of the Renaissance . Fink, Munich 1981.
  • Ernst Gombrich : On the art of the Renaissance. Selected essays . 4 volumes. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1985–1988.
  • Georg Kauffmann : The Art of the 16th Century . Propylaen-Verlag, Berlin 1990.
  • Michael Jäger: The Theory of Beauty in the Italian Renaissance . DuMont, Cologne 1990.
  • Johan Huizinga : The problem of the Renaissance . Wagenbach, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-8031-5135-X .
  • Jörg Traeger : Renaissance and Religion. The Art of Faith in the Age of Raphael . Beck, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-42801-0 .
  • Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann: Courtyards, monasteries and cities. Art and culture in Central Europe 1450–1800. DuMont, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-7701-3924-0 .
  • Boris von Brauchitsch (ed.): Renaissance. The 16th Century, Gallery of the Great Masters. DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4620-4 .
  • Volker Reinhardt: The Renaissance in Italy. History and culture . Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47991-X .
  • Anne Schunicht-Rawe, Vera Lüpkes (Ed.): Manual of the Renaissance. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria . DuMont, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8321-5962-2 .
  • Jacob Burckhardt : The culture of the Renaissance in Italy. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-933203-89-9 . (The work was published in 1860; also published by Kröner Verlag 2009)
  • Manfred Wundram : Renaissance . Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-018173-9 .
  • Erwin Panofsky : The Renaissance of European Art . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt / M. 2004.
  • Jeffrey C. Smith: The Northern Renaissance . Phaidon Books, London 2004, ISBN 0-7148-3867-5 .
  • Peter Burke : The European Renaissance. Centers and peripheries. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52796-5 .
  • Hubertus Günther: What is Renaissance? A characteristic of architecture at the beginning of modern times. Primus, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-89678-654-8 .
  • Stephen Greenblatt : The turning point. How the renaissance began . Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-88680-848-9 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Renaissance  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Renaissance  - collection of images, videos and audio files

supporting documents

  1. ^ Entry "renaissance" , in Le Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé .
  2. ^ Peter Burke: The European Renaissance. Centers and peripheries. Munich 1998. Marina Belozerskaya : Rethinking the Renaissance. Burgundian Arts across Europe. Cambridge 2002.
  3. ^ Paul Strathern: The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. 2003, pp. 81-90, 172-197.
  4. ^ The Islamic World to 1600. University of Calgary website, as of May 10, 2007.
  5. ^ History of the Renaissance. HistoryWorld, as of May 10, 2007.
  6. Julius Kirshner: Family and Marriage: A socio-legal perspective. Italy in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300-1550. Edited by John M. Najemy. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, p. 89.
  7. ^ Jacob Burckhardt : The culture of the Renaissance in Italy. Edited by Walter Goetz . 12th edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-05311-4 . Burckhardt describes the Italians of the early Renaissance as a "still half ancient people."
  8. The Republics: Venice and Florence. In: Jacob Burckhardt: The culture of the Renaissance in Italy. 2009.
  9. ^ J. Brotton: The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-19-280163-5 .
  10. Fritz Koreney: Albrecht Dürer and the animal and plant representations of the Renaissance. Munich 1985.
  11. Hermann Hipp: Studies on "Post-Gothic" of the 16th and 17th centuries in Germany, Bohemia, Austria and Switzerland . Three volumes. Diss. Tübingen 1979.
  12. Ethan Matt Kavaler: Renaissance Gothic. Pictures of Geometry and Narratives of Ornament. In: Art History. 29 (2006), pp. 1-46.
  13. Hermann Hipp: The Bückeburg “structura”. Aspects of the post-Gothic in connection with the German Renaissance. In: Renaissance in North Central Europe. Volume I (= writings of the Weser Renaissance Museum Castle Brake 4). Munich and Berlin 1990, pp. 159–170.
  14. Werner Körbs: From the meaning of physical exercises at the time of the Italian Renaissance. 2nd Edition. Edited by Wolfgang Decker . With a foreword by Christiane Stang-Voss . - [Reprint. der Ausg.] Berlin 1938. Weidmann, Hildesheim 1988, ISBN 3-615-00037-4 .
  15. Arnd Krüger , John McClelland (ed.): The beginnings of modern sports in the Renaissance. Arena, London 1984
    John McClelland: Body and Mind: Sport in Europe from the Roman Empire to the Renaissance (Sport in the Global Society). Routledge, London 2007. The most extensive bibliography still with Arnd Krüger, John McClelland: Selected bibliography on physical exercise and sport in the Renaissance. In: A. Krüger, J. McClelland (eds.): The beginnings of modern sport in the Renaissance. Arena, London 1984, pp. 132-180.
  16. ^ Jean-Claude Margolin, Jean Ceard, Marie-Madeleine Fontaine (eds.): Le Corps à la Renaissance: actes du XXXe colloque de Tours 1987. Aux amateurs de livres, Paris 1990, ISBN 2-87841-022-X ; John McClelland, Brian Merrilees (Eds.): Sport and culture in early modern Europe. Le sport et la civilization de l'Europe pré-Moderne . Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, Toronto 2009, ISBN 978-0-7727-2052-8 .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on August 12, 2005 .