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Garden facade of Versailles Palace and water parterre
View of the Grand Canal in Venice with two palaces by Baldassare Longhena : in front right the Palazzo Giustinian Lolin (from 1623), further back on the opposite bank the great Ca 'Pesaro (1652–1710)
The Fountain of the Four Rivers in front of the facade of the Church of Sant 'Agnese in Agone , Piazza Navona , Rome

An epoch in European art history that began at the end of the 16th century and lasted until approx. 1760/70 is referred to as baroque ( masculine “the baroque” or equivalent neuter “the baroque”) . It is not about a completely uniform concept of style, as there were at the same time very different artistic characteristics and undercurrents and also a development within the baroque age, not least also great differences in different regions and countries. A rough subdivision into three or four sub-epochs is common, the time limits of which, however, cannot be clearly stated: early baroque (up to approx. 1650), high baroque(c. 1650–1700), late baroque (c. 1700–1730) and rococo (c. 1730–1760 / 70). Occasionally late baroque and rococo are equated, on the other hand rococo is also seen as an independent epoch.

The epochs of Renaissance and Mannerism preceded the Baroque, followed by Classicism .

Italy was the pioneer and main exponent of the Baroque , from where it spread throughout Europe in an often modified form. The art of the baroque is expressive, moving and emotional, and especially in architecture and interior decoration it is often characterized by a lush display of splendor. It was influenced, among other things, by the political and religious ideals of the Counter Reformation and “ absolutism ”. It is not correct to equate it with the form of government of absolutism, among other things because there were also other forms of government during the period, e.g. B. Aristocratic republics in Venice and Genoa , a constitutional monarchy in England . In France of Louis XIV - the main exponent of absolutism - there was also a more moderate style variant, which is known as classicist baroque ( classicisme ).

In a broader sense, especially with a view to the importance of baroque literature and philosophy , the baroque can be understood as an epoch of European intellectual history , and in the broadest sense it is sometimes referred to as an "age of the baroque".

Word origin and meaning

In German one says the baroque as well as the baroque , with about the same frequency. The genitive of the Baroque is widespread among laypeople, but in the Duden it is pointed out that in specialist circles, especially in art history , the inflectional ending -s is omitted, e.g. B. in the expression "Gardens of the Baroque".

In terms of linguistic history, the adjective baroque was first there (in German around 1750), then the noun baroque (in the 19th century). The word comes from a now generally accepted theory of the Portuguese language , in which irregularly shaped pearls were called barroco , i.e. H. "Crooked" or "uneven". As an expression of the jewelry language, this term is said to have been used since 1581. According to Benedetto Croce , an absurd syllogistic figure of scholasticism was also called this, and in Italy the term is said to have been used for fraudulent transactions and usury. Occasionally the term was also traced back to the names of two important artists who played an important role in the early development of the Baroque: the painter Federigo Barocci and the Roman Baroque architect Giacomo Barozzi , known as Vignola. The term was first used as a category to describe the works of 17th century Italian architecture.

The adjective found its way into German via Italian ( barocco ) and French ( baroque , first documented in 1701 in the sense of “bizarre”). In the French area, the term was first used derogatory in the sense of "strange" for art forms that did not correspond to the simpler taste of classicisme under Louis XIV. An essential design element of the Baroque and Rococo are stucco (see also plasterer ) and carvings , which were often formed into rich and curved ornamental jewelry.

Since 1855 the term was used by Jacob Burckhardt - initially in his work Cicerone with a derogatory, later with a friendly-neutral meaning. The term was then transferred to the music and literature of the time and is now used as a general historical term for a period, also going beyond the field of art. The expansion of meaning can also be recognized by the fact that the word baroque can refer to very different appearances of the baroque age, for example to baroque ornaments, baroque landscaping or the baroque attitude to life. Other authors such as Friedrich Nietzsche or Arnold Hauser have tried to make it fruitful as a concept of style.

In the modern age, which developed a completely different aesthetic, partly in complete simplicity, straight lines, gray concrete and complete asymmetry, the term baroque is sometimes used negatively and equated with overloaded pomp or falsely with “ kitsch ”.


Karlsruhe cityscape from 1721

A characteristic feature of the Baroque is the tendency to blur the boundaries between the individual art genres such as architecture, sculpture and painting. An example of this is the Palace of Versailles , where the park with its fountains, its canal, its bosquets and flower beds are inseparable from the total work of art and connect the palace with the surrounding nature - a model for all of Europe. The baroque style replaces the art of the Renaissance, which aimed at unity and calm. On the one hand, he adopted their clear structure and classic form elements such as columns , pilasters , entablature and the like, but often presented them in an exaggerated manner or in the guise of exuberant or playful décor. Further aspects were a striving for richness and movement in expression, with a simultaneous preference for symmetry .

It is the time of the Counter Reformation , the increase in power and increasing independence of the princes, of absolutism . For the Roman Catholic Church it was important to hold on to the believers or to win them back; with the help of architecture, art and music, the feeling should now be addressed (in contrast to the more rational nature of Renaissance and Mannerism), the contents of the Christian religion also for simple people are presented directly in an appealing way and thus stimulate compassion . This sometimes led to lovely tendencies, such as a preference for little angels and putti . The Baroque arts should also surprise and overwhelm, its subject is the miracle at face, fairy tale -like, theatricality, and the sensational, but in a less artificial, screwed manner as in Mannerism. The display of pomp already played a major role - especially in Italy - but the agitation and glittering splendor of the baroque serve as an expression of intoxication and ecstasy .

The art form that perfectly reflected the zeitgeist and sense of the time of the Baroque and at the same time combined several arts at once was the opera , which originated in Italy around 1600 , with music, singing , poetry , painting , (pseudo) architecture and those at the time novel and astonishing effects of the stage machinery , which could also include fireworks and water arts , worked together to form a whole.

The majority of church baroque art can be found in the Catholic areas of Europe, as well as in South and Central America . The ruling princes also used the baroque arts, but here mainly to show their wealth and power. They endeavored to surpass each other in display of magnificence. Versailles , the magnificent palace of Louis XIV , became the model for a large number of palace buildings, the importance of which was often underlined by the geometrically designed gardens and urban areas (e.g. Mannheim , Karlsruhe ).

While the late Gothic and Renaissance are opposed to each other, the characteristics of the Baroque grew out of the Renaissance and Mannerism only gradually. These epochs are not alien to each other, but related. Greco-Roman antiquity with its forms and mythology also remained an important model in the Baroque era . Since the baroque age spanned almost two hundred years, and different currents coexisted in parallel, it is hardly possible to find a general characteristic that applies to all works.

The late Baroque phase of art history, the Rococo (approx. 1725–1770), is often referred to as a style of its own, which is characterized by greater lightness. While symmetry is typical in the Baroque , asymmetry is increasingly emphasized in the Rococo, especially in the details of the decoration.

It is also characteristic of the Baroque that artistic activity is understood even more than in the Renaissance as a rule-based, sometimes even mechanical activity. This applies not only to the architecture and the planning of urban spaces, but also to literature and music. Numerous artistic sets of rules and "instructions for use" for the production of works of art were created, which were often manufactured in a factory, as the example of hundreds of thousands of Spanish baroque dramas shows. In 1624 , Martin Opitz wrote the book of the German Poetry, the first German-language rule poetics with rules for rule-based poetry for almost all genres. In France, the Académie Française set the norms of regular drama , which Gottsched followed. In music, the notation systems have been perfected in order to increase the reproducibility and precision of playing in ever larger ensembles, although this does not exclude improvisation.

On the other hand, the Baroque especially cultivated the sensual pleasures. Leibniz justifies the sensual perception through which truth can be experienced in his work Von der Weisheit , and thus allows a conception of beauty as "felt truth" - no longer just as an imitation of nature. By Giambattista Vico's appreciation of the imagination the forms of self-expression is granted an independent role alongside science. Art therefore serves the communication between people and with God, no longer just the most faithful reflection of nature.

Visual arts


Curved wall of the Palazzo Carignano in Turin

Baroque art found one of its strongest expressions in architecture . All the strict orders of the Renaissance are gradually being dissolved; Swinging, concave and convex shapes, domes, groups of columns, gables and window crowns with rich ornamental decorations evoke the impression of power and movement in the viewer and bring about an increase in all effects. The individual forms are subordinate to the total work of art, lighting effects are used, and painting , sculpture and plastic are also included in the architectural framework. Among other things, a symbolic, mystifying lighting is characteristic of the baroque church building. The desired effect is closely linked to the desire of the Counter Reformation to convince people of the glory of God and the Catholic Church through structural impressions.

Origin in Italy

Il Gesù , Rome (1568–1584)

Based on the works of the late Renaissance and Mannerism , the new architectural style first developed in Italy . In Rome, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola (1507–1573) created the main type of baroque church with his church Il Gesù , a barrel-vaulted longitudinal building, as early as the late 16th century. The spatial principle designed here (fusion of the long building and the central dome crossing) is one of the most important features of Baroque architecture , along with the colossal order ( conservator's palace ) developed by Michelangelo . With the significant participation of the architects Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680) and Francesco Borromini (1599–1667), whose specialty were curved facades, more than 50 other churches, squares and fountains were built in Rome alone during the Baroque era Redesigned cityscape. St. Peter's Church became a great realization of the baroque ideal after its completion . Guarino Guarini (1624–1683) and Filippo Juvarra (1678–1736) worked primarily in Turin , while the most famous architect in Venice was Baldassare Longhena (1598–1682), creator of the church of Santa Maria della Salute and various palaces.

Spread in Europe

In France, the Baroque style was given a more moderate and rational character, called Classicist Baroque ; Italian exuberance was alien to the French, and the forms of the Louis XIV style are considered "classic" ( classique ). The English and Dutch architecture of the time also showed stricter forms, for example in the architecture of Palladianism and an Inigo Jones , Pieter Post or Jacob van Campen , which lead to early classicism .

After the turmoil of the Thirty Years War, building activity began in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire . As a result, splendid baroque churches, castles and aristocratic houses were built in many cities and in the countryside - especially in the south, but also in smaller numbers in the north. According to Wilfried Koch, the baroque in Germany and Austria is characterized by four features: first, the rough division into the north , which is characterized by the French baroque and Protestant culture, and the south, which is characterized by the Italian baroque and Catholic culture; second, the severe fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire into hundreds of territories, including Catholic in the north and Protestant in the south; third, the changing political alliances and artistic tastes of the sovereigns ; and fourth, the few special forms of the German baroque. Two well-known examples of these special forms are the Frederician Rococo under King Friedrich II in Prussia and the Theresian style under Empress Maria Theresa in Austria. The distinction between the North German Baroque and the South German Baroque is also common in the manuals of the German art monuments by Georg Dehio and Ernst Gall .

The great master builders Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656–1723), who created the Karlskirche in Vienna and Schönbrunn Palace , Lucas von Hildebrandt (1668–1645), architect of the Upper Belvedere , Johann Dientzenhofer (1665–1726) worked in southern Germany and Austria. and his brothers ( Fulda Cathedral , Banz Monastery , Pommersfelden Castle and others), Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), who worked for five Schönborn bishops, and Dominikus Zimmermann (1685–1766), master of the Wieskirche . The plasterers of the Wessobrunn school were important for the design, the best-known artists are Johann Baptist and Dominikus Zimmermann or the creator of the " honey lover ", the sculptor and plasterer Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer . In Munich, the Theatinerkirche St. Kajetan was built north of the Alps as the first church built in the style of Italian high baroque, and Nymphenburg and Schleissheim were built as electoral country palaces . Famous baroque monastery and pilgrimage churches are Banz monastery and the Vierzehnheiligen basilica , the Birnau pilgrimage church , Ottobeuren monastery and the Wieskirche, in Austria and others. the Abbey of Melk , in Switzerland were Baroque old monasteries, the Cathedral of St. Gallen , Einsiedeln Abbey and Disentis Abbey . The Ludwigsburg residential palace was built in Württemberg and the Karlsruhe palace in Baden . The prince-bishops from the Schönborn family were major clients of the Franconian Baroque, including the Würzburg Residence , the New Residence Bamberg , the Pommersfelden , Werneck and Bruchsal castles and numerous churches.

In northern Germany and Prussia, the Dresden Baroque , mediated via Vienna and Prague ( Bohemian Baroque ), reached a climax with the Zwinger of Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (1662–1736) under August the Strong . Zacharias Longuelune introduced the French classical baroque in Dresden from 1713 and Johann Christoph Knöffel founded the Saxon Rococo based on this. The Saxon Baroque is characterized as festive and cheerful, noble and moderate; Catholic counter-Reformation and Nordic Protestant tendencies merge in it. It radiated further to Poland and Brandenburg; in Berlin, Andreas Schlueter (1660–1714), who had studied in Warsaw, created the Berlin City Palace and Jean de Bodt , who later worked in Dresden, the armory . The Frederician Rococo of the Prussian King Friedrich II ( Sanssouci , Potsdam City Palace , New Palace , State Opera Unter den Linden ) was shaped by Dresden models and often also craftsmen, and Bohemian-Austrian models also flowed into Silesia. In the Thuringian region, especially in Weimar, Gottfried Heinrich Krohne (1703–1756) set the tone in the Baroque and Late Baroque periods with buildings such as the Eisenach City Palace. In northern Germany, the Great Garden at Herrenhausen in Hanover was an ideal type of baroque garden , and with the main church Sankt Michaelis in Hamburg the most important Protestant baroque church - next to the Dresden Frauenkirche . Friedrich Seltendorff (1700–1778) was an architect of the Leipzig Baroque .

Stylistic development

Baroque art developed from Italy all over Europe and was carried into the colonies of the New World . Studying in Italy was the norm for almost every great master builder of this era. Baroque architects often traveled across Europe and brought their ideas and suggestions with them. His assignments took Filippo Juvarra from Milan to Madrid and Andreas Schlueter traveled to Italy and then worked in Prussia and Russia .

In contrast to the Renaissance, which in Northern Europe was interpreted in part with completely different stylistic devices than in Italy (cf. for example Nordic Renaissance ), a style relatively similar to the model was now developed, but artistically repeatedly modified. In the process, very own stylistic directions of the Baroque were expressed in different regions of Europe, which came about not least through the mixture of Italian and French elements. These style variants can approximately, but not comprehensively, be separated into a Catholic, more Italian-influenced southern European baroque and a Protestant-influenced northern European baroque of somewhat more rational forms.

France was the first country to adopt the new currents, but the lively Roman style was implemented more strictly here, in the sense of a specifically French “classic”. England also adopted the new art direction, the transition from Palladianism to Baroque and the subsequent Classicism , however, happened here fluently and largely without the playful forms of construction that were typical in the Habsburg countries. The serious expression of the style prevailing in France and England is therefore called classicist baroque . Examples include the east facade of the Louvre , the garden facade of the Palace of Versailles , the Invalides in Paris or London's St Paul's Cathedral .

In Spain and its colonies, the sober style of the Renaissance, Mannerism and a desornamentado was followed by a particularly lush, rampant baroque, which is known as Churriguerism and which was mainly used in sacred buildings. Here, entire walls were dissolved into a surging sea of ​​ornaments, mostly made of stucco . The best-known example is the facade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela or, in the area of ​​interior decoration, the Charterhouse of Granada . Also typical of the Spanish and especially the Portuguese Baroque are altars carved from wood and gilded - this type of decoration is called Talha dourada in Portuguese . There it was often combined with tiles (so-called azulejos ). Buildings in the forms of the Spanish and Portuguese Baroque were also built in Latin America , among others. in Ouro Preto in Brazil .

In Catholic southern Germany and the Habsburg ruled countries such as Austria, Bohemia Baroque was initially almost unchanged from Italy and then unfolded to its own elegant and serene-moving variant, as exemplified at Vienna's Belvedere Palace or at Melk to find are. A rich and imaginative construction activity unfolded and the Saxon electors in and around Dresden ( Zwinger , Moritzburg Castle , Pillnitz u. A.). The European Baroque style only came to Russia under Peter the Great and, in the late Rococo phase, took on a tendency towards monumental grandeur and pomp, with bold color accents and lavish jewelry such as in Peterhof Palace and the Petersburg Winter Palace .

In Protestant Northern Europe, on the other hand, a more sober path was taken, which is exemplified by the Stockholm Palace .

Architects and their buildings (selection)

Interior decoration and furniture art

Room types

In France, the sequence of rooms of an apartment was formed with typically one or two anteroom ( antichambre ), the audience room or (parade) bedroom ( chambre ), and one (or more) cabinet (s). This has been widely adopted across Europe. In the case of large castles, and to a certain extent also in Baroque monasteries, special representative rooms and salons were added, which were often lined up according to the principle of the enfilade . The most important official rooms included the stairwell and a large ballroom or festival hall , and sometimes one (or more) gallery (s) . The gallery was basically a connecting corridor, but often entire art collections were presented, especially paintings and sculptures. Following the example of Versailles, mirror galleries or mirror cabinets were sometimes built elsewhere . The so-called Sala terrena came from the Italian palace construction - a ground floor hall, which is located on the ground floor, usually in the center of the building on the garden side and is intended as a transition to the garden. It was often designed as a grotto hall with a decoration of shells and small stones and was mainly intended for the summer. Large and splendid library rooms were also created in Baroque or Baroque-style monastery and monastery complexes (see also: monastery library and monastery library ).


Typical Neapolitan baroque decor made of polychrome marble by Fra 'Bonaventura Presti (1664–67) on the floor of the Certosa di San Martino , Naples

In the interior decoration of churches and official state rooms, colored marbles and other decorative stones such as porphyry and granite were popular, from which multicolored decorations on walls and floors were created, especially in Italy and in the early Louis Quatorze in France. Particularly virtuoso in this respect were the polychrome marble decorations in the Neapolitan Baroque, which among other things. was coined by Cosimo Fanzago . Partly and especially in the late baroque, and here again especially in Germany and Austria, artificial marble was also used, with which one could achieve even more unusual color effects that would not be possible with real marble, e.g. B. also blue or turquoise tones. Examples of this are the church and library of Altenburg Abbey or the extremely colorful staircase of Augustusburg Castle in Brühl , one of the main creations of Balthasar Neumann (1740–46).

In the secular area, ie in the living rooms of castles or palaces, wood paneling with carvings was also used (so-called boiseries ). In the early baroque period, but also later in Italy, these were mostly multicolored and painted with various ornaments, mascarons , arabesques or grotesques . From the end of the 17th century under Louis XIV, the style changed and the boiseries were then mostly kept in white and gold. Especially outside of France, silver (e.g. Amalienburg ) or a colored version was sometimes chosen instead of gold . In England, the traditional natural (i.e. not painted) paneling made of oak or walnut remained modern, which means that English living rooms from the Baroque era have a certain heaviness, but also appear appropriately warm to the climate. Natural wood paneling sometimes existed in other European countries, but these were often made of precious woods such as rosewood , e.g. B. in some 'Chinese' or East Asian rooms in the Schönbrunn or Hetzendorf palaces near Vienna.

Ceilings were often decorated with paintings or frescoes , which were initially framed by rich decorations of stucco or carvings, later the ceiling paintings became larger and then covered the entire vault, the internal framing then fell away. In living rooms as in churches, illusion painting was also used , e.g. Partly common with pseudo-architecture . Italy was the leader in ceiling and decorative painting (see painting below). If a ceiling was not given a painting, it was mostly decorated with stucco , which was especially common outside of Italy and in living areas. In the 17th century, stucco decoration was often very plastic, especially in Italy and the countries influenced by it, in the late baroque it became finer and more elegant, even if it was still often exuberant (rococo).

The floors in southern Europe were traditionally covered with marble or ceramic tiles, marble was also often used in state rooms in northern Europe. In the living rooms of French and Northern European palaces, on the other hand, the floors mostly had parquet , which was sometimes laid into virtuoso patterns using different colored woods, especially in small cabinets (e.g. the mirror cabinet in Pommersfelden ). In an effort to increase living comfort, tapestries were not only used on the walls, but also on the floors. were made in French factories ( Aubusson , Gobelin ).

Painted and gilded leather wallpaper, Rosenholm Castle , Denmark

In addition to the traditional tapestries, more and more wall coverings made of fabrics such as velvet or silk appeared . Silk was especially popular in the Rococo. In terms of color, there was also a tendency from stronger colors in the actual baroque (including red) to lighter and lighter, sometimes pastel tones in the late baroque and rococo. A heat-insulating and very valuable alternative were leather wallpapers , which were punched with patterns, colored and decorated with gold or silver - very little of this type of decoration has survived (e.g. in the Moritzburg and in the Palazzo Chigi in Ariccia ).

Baroque furniture

For French styles of baroque furniture, see:

The furniture art of the Baroque is very diverse due to the very long period of at least 150 years. There are also significant differences in the different countries, although there was also a significant exchange of artists between the countries. In the early baroque period, the forms slowly broke away from the previous epoch of late mannerism, which in some cases continued to have an effect for decades, especially in peripheral areas such as the Iberian Peninsula or northern Europe.

Richly decorated furniture with marquetry made of various woods and valuable materials such as tortoiseshell , ivory or mother-of-pearl and with gold-plated and 'ornate' fittings made of brass or bronze were popular . These materials came into their own thanks to the contrast to black ebony , which is normally only used as a veneer and is not infrequently also imitated by artificial blackening of valuable woods. In France, André-Charles Boulle (1642–1732) developed the particularly elegant Boulle technique .
In Italy, Pietra-dura works were mainly made from valuable marble and semi-precious stones , which are among others. used for table tops or to decorate cabinets, and which were valued throughout Europe. The centers of Pietra dura art were Florence and Naples .

The legs of chairs, tables or frames were often turned or richly carved, but the basic shapes of the furniture remained simple and straightforward throughout the 17th century. It was not until the late baroque and even more so in the rococo that curved baselines appeared everywhere alongside rich ornamental jewelry. In addition to simple chairs made of wood and wickerwork, there were chairs with covers and upholstery made of leather , tapestries or velvet , and increasingly made of silk in the 18th century .
Throughout the 17th century, people loved cabinet cupboards called
vargueño in Spain and chest of drawers in England . They were particularly rich and lavishly furnished, were often a work of art themselves, and mostly stood on a rack. Towards the end of the 17th century, due to the influence of furniture culture at the French court, the chest of drawers became increasingly popular.

Parade bed with tapestries in the Mercury salon at Versailles

Beds often had a canopy and curtains that could be drawn. In general, the bed and the bedroom became a center of the noble world, especially in France: Salon ladies (the so-called precious ) and aristocrats often received their guests lying on the bed or in the sumptuous bedroom. In palaces and castles, the bed was often in an alcove and screened off by a balustrade .

In France alone, four different epochs are distinguished according to the government of the respective kings: Louis-treize , Louis-quatorze , Régence and the late phase of Louis-quinze (= Rococo, from around 1730). Because of the almost mystical reputation of Versailles Palace and Louis XIV as the Sun King, but also because of their great elegance and high quality, French furniture art became the leader from the end of the 17th century (see Louis quatorze ). In Germany and the Netherlands, too, there were excellent cabinetmakers who were among the best in their craft, but also often worked abroad. From the second half of the 17th century in particular, many artists emigrated to Paris, were naturalized there and contributed to the high quality and famous elegance of French furniture art. In some cases, the following generations took over the father's workshop. Well-known examples are the Oppenordt family with Alexandre-Jean Oppenordt (1639 Gelderland province - 1715 Paris) and his son Gilles, the Boulle family, also of Dutch descent, with André-Charles Boulle (1642-1732) and his sons, or the three Bernard Vanriesamburghs.

The Italian style of furniture and interior decoration was much more exuberant and curved in the forms than the 'classical' French art and thus corresponded in a special way to the ideal of the Baroque. Apart from France, where even in the late Rococo phase a more moderate bon gôut was worshiped , the particularly imaginative forms of the Italian Baroque had an inspiring effect on other European countries, especially in Austria and Germany, and there especially in the south and in Saxony. Various luxury goods such as velvet and brocade fabrics, which were used for furniture and wall coverings, as well as Venetian chandeliers and mirrors also came from Italy . The latter, however, faced competition from France, from where the now modern crystal chandeliers and tapestries were also exported.

The joy of faience and porcelain , which was exported from China and Japan as well as manufactured in Europe, especially in Holland ( Delft ), Spain and Portugal , and later also in Germany ( Meißen and others ) played an important role throughout almost the entire epoch ). It was valued not only in the form of vases or other vessels, but also as a tile - or azulejo - decoration on the walls. There is a close connection to the fashion of chinoiserie .


Since the time of the Renaissance, the princely garden has been a place of relaxation and pleasure as well as a place of representation. Garden art stood in the field of tension between geometry and planning on the one hand, and courtly amusement on the other. The aesthetic design and shaping of the surrounding nature belonged directly and inseparably to the castle building and formed a unit with the building, it led in a clever way over to the actual untouched nature.

André Le Nôtre (1613–1700) is considered to be the founder of the French garden style - and thus of the baroque garden . The park of Versailles with its water features , flower parterres and bosket n was formed from what was originally apparently completely unsuitable swampy terrain. Huge masses of earth had to be dug and moved to create terraces , and large amounts of water had to be supplied for the wells. Le Nôtre also used the new scientific knowledge of optics and perspective for garden design in a way never seen before . The ubiquity of ancient mythology was also part of the park's atmosphere. All of this demonstrated the power of the Sun King over nature, and the park was considered a miracle of technology and beauty at the time. In the succession of the gardens in Vaux-le-Vicomte , Versailles and Marly , numerous corresponding plants were created in Europe, e. For example, the Nymphenburg Palace Park , the Augustusburg Palace Park near Brühl , the Delitzsch Baroque Garden or the Great Garden in Hanover . Dominique Girard was one of the most important students of Le Nôtres .


In the Baroque era, sculpture and sculpture belong essentially to the furnishing of a building or a park - as a continuation of the architecture by other means or, as far as they are free-standing figures, by integrating them into the space through sign language and movement tendencies. The wealth of movement and the pre-calculated play of light and shadow give the pictures their amazing liveliness and expressiveness. In Italy it was again Bernini who brought baroque sculpture to its very best. And also Alessandro Algardi (1598–1654) and Ercole Ferrata (1610–1686). The main French masters François Girardon (1628–1715), Antoine Coysevox (1640–1720), Jean-Baptiste Tuby (1635–1700) and the Gaspard brothers (approx. 1624–1681) and Balthazar Marsy (1628–1674) are above all Known for a whole sculpture people of classically noble elegance in the palace and park of Versailles , but also worked in other places and for churches. Major contributions in Germany were made by Georg Petel (1601–1634), Balthasar Permoser (1651–1732), Andreas Schlüter (1659–1714), Egid Quirin Asam (1692–1750), Ignaz Günther (1725–1775) and, in Austria, Georg Raphael Donner (1693-1741). In Bohemia Ferdinand Maximilian Brokoff (1688–1731) and Matthias Bernhard Braun (1684–1738). In Spain Gregorio Fernández (1576–1636), Juan Martínez Montañés (1568–1649) and Pedro de Mena y Medrano (1628–1688). And Aleijadinho (1738–1814) in Brazil.


Andrea Pozzo : Glory of St. Ignazius , ceiling fresco in Sant'Ignazio , Rome, 1685–94

In the form of wall and ceiling paintings, painting was incorporated into the architecture as a total work of art. In addition to wall and ceiling paintings, panel painting continued to find practice.

By shortening the perspective one achieved extraordinary depth effects and in this way expanded the rooms in an illusionistic way. A dynamic figure style, high-contrast colors and the emphasis on light and shadow are characteristic of Baroque painting. The way of painting can also be found in theatrical decorations. The main themes were the representation of the divine and the profane (worldly), historical images and the myths of antiquity.

In Baroque painting, the inspiration came from Italy. The brothers Agostino (1557–1602) and Annibale Carracci (1560–1609), Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610) and Guido Reni (1575–1642) laid the foundations of Baroque painting. The Italians were also leaders in the art of fresco and ceiling painting, where i.a. Giovanni Lanfranco (1582–1647), Pietro da Cortona (1596–1669), Luca Giordano (1634–1705), Andrea Pozzo (1642–1709), Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (1682–1754) and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who also worked in Germany (1696–1770) belong to the chief masters.

Several important French painters worked in Italy in the early Baroque, such as Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) and Claude Lorrain (1600–1682), for Louis XIV later a whole group of artists around Charles Le Brun worked in Versailles. Germany was not actually a country of painters, but there were still some important artists: In the transition from Mannerism to Baroque Adam Elsheimer (1578–1610), and in the late Baroque Cosmas Damian Asam (1686–1739), Johannes Zick (1702–1762) and his son Januarius (1730–1797), Joseph Wannenmacher (1722–1780) and in Tyrol Stephan Kessler (1622–1700).

Spanish painting experienced a golden age ( siglo de oro ) in the 17th century with Jusepe de Ribera (1591–1652), who actually lived in Naples and also influenced painting there, and with Diego Velázquez (1599–1660) and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1618–1682) as the most important representatives; in addition, numerous other artists also created important works.

The same is true of early Baroque Dutch painting, the most important representatives of which in the Catholic Flemish region were Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) and Anthonis Van Dyck (1599–1641), and in Protestant Holland Rembrandt (1606–1669) and Vermeer (1632–1632). 1675). In the Golden Age of the Netherlands around 1650, around 700 painters produced around 70,000 paintings annually, in contrast to Italy and Spain for an increasingly bourgeois audience and to a large extent with completely different subjects, such as still lifes , landscapes and genre painting .


Judith Leyster : The Concert , 1631–33, National Museum of Women in the Arts , Washington
Stage design by Ludovico Burnacini from Cesti's opera Il Pomo D'Oro , Vienna 1668, Metropolitan Museum , New York


In terms of time, baroque music is usually classified in the general art epochs of the baroque. For the musical epoch, Monteverdi's creative period at the beginning of the 17th century was seen as the beginning and the death of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1750 as the end. The music of the baroque followed the renaissance and was replaced by the classical . The early baroque was strongly influenced by Italian influences, while French music also appeared in the high baroque period. In these phases, major regional differences in the chronological sequence of developments can be identified. In France, the enthusiasm for dance at the court of Louis XIV dominated music, in Italy the love of song and opera and virtuoso violin music, while Germany was particularly shaped by the work of some important organists and church musicians. The different styles of the countries then converged more and more in the late baroque period.


Baroque music bears the same traits that characterize all areas of life of the age. With the modern keys of major and minor , which grew out of the numerous church modes, she created the opportunity to express contrasts and tensions. No longer the calm togetherness, but the opposition of passionate agitation and from this the gain of the higher unity became the goal of the musical development. This explains the turn to the monodic style, instrumentally accompanied single singing in contrast to choral polyphony .

At the same time, a whole new way of hearing emerged. Only the upper ( treble ) and the lower part ( bass ) were notated, while the entire abundance of the middle voices was left to improvisation, i.e. playing around the melody. This type of music-making is called figured bass , which is why the music of the baroque is often called that of the figured bass era. The instruments used for this were harpsichord , lute or theorbo , but also bassoon and cello . Other important musical instruments in the baroque era are the organ and baroque versions of the string and woodwind instruments that are still known today. These sounded quieter and softer than today's forms and thus corresponded to the prevailing ideal of sounding as similar as possible to the human voice.

Typical forms of baroque music are the opera , the cantata , the oratorio , the fugue , the suite and the sonata . Part of the essence of baroque music is that it unites individual parts into a larger whole. Dances are combined into suites ( French suite , "sequence"), songs and choirs into cantatas ( Italian cantata , "singing piece"). The interplay of the arts in opera, with its unity of word, music, plot and stage design, was most splendidly realized.

In terms of music theory, the age is among other things. characterized by the attempt to work out a doctrine of affect in analogy to rhetoric ; Whether this was put into practice in music is of course controversial.

Important baroque composers

Like all other arts, baroque music received decisive impulses from Italy, where the invention of opera and ornamental song , as well as the development of virtuoso and solo instrumental music, had far-reaching consequences and gradually spread across (almost) all of Europe. The most influential and important opera composers of the early Baroque era were Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), who also created unsurpassable works as a church composer , and the Venetian Cavalli (1602–1676). The Roman Giacomo Carissimi (1605–1674) transferred the characteristics of the opera into the sacred form of the oratorio . From there the development leads to composers such as Alessandro Stradella (1643–1682), Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725) and Giovanni Bononcini (1670–1747) to the composers of the Neapolitan school in the late Baroque, to whom the late Giovanni Battista Pergolesi ( 1710–1736) belonged. In instrumental music, the keyboard virtuosos Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643) and Domenico Scarlatti (1685–1757), and the instrumental concertos and sonatas by violin virtuosos such as Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713) and Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741), exerted a strong influence , also on German composers like Handel and Bach.

The early Baroque era began in Germany with Michael Praetorius (1571–1621), Johann Hermann Schein (1586–1630), Samuel Scheidt (1587–1654) and Heinrich Schütz (1585–1672). From them and the Dutchman Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562–1621), the aforementioned Italian Frescobaldi, and the Nuremberg Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706) the organ received powerful impulses. As the largest organ master before Johann Sebastian Bach whose teacher who applies in Lübeck active Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707).

England's greatest musical genius of the Baroque era, in all genres of music, was Henry Purcell (1659–1695).
Music in France developed, perhaps more than any other genre, of its own, both in the field of opera, from Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687) to Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683–1764), as well as in church music with Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1644–1704) and André Campra (1660–1740) as the main exponents. In the field of instrumental music, the so-called ' clavecinists ' with François Couperin (1668–1733) as the greatest and most original representative stand out, as well as the viol music by Marin Marais (1656–1728) and Antoine Forqueray (1672–1745), and in the late baroque finally Italian-influenced masters such as Rameau, Boismortier (1689–1755) and the violinist Jean-Marie Leclair (1698–1764).

According to the general opinion, baroque music finds its culmination with Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) and Georg Friedrich Händel (1685–1759). All the musical endeavors of the time converge in their personalities and gain highly personal expression. Masters such as Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767) in Hamburg and Johann Adolph Hasse (1699–1783) in Dresden are close to Bach and Handel . Some of the Bach sons and many others no longer belong directly to the Baroque, but rather form the transition from the so-called gallant and sensitive style to the classical music of Haydn and Mozart .


The troops of Molière , 1670

The theater develops in the Baroque era and becomes a multimedia experience, starting with the current architectural space. During this age, many of the theatrical devices that we see to this day in contemporary Broadway or commercial gaming were invented and developed. The stage transforms from a romantic garden into the interior of a palace within seconds. The visible stage space is restricted by a frame that allows the audience to see only a specific action and to immerse themselves completely in the illusion. Supporting this illusion, the frame also largely hides the machinery and technology. This technology affects the content of the pieces narrated or performed. For example, for the conflict resolution practiced in many pieces by the Deus ex Machina. Gods were able - literally - to come down from heaven and save the hero from his dangerous, even absurd situation. The idea of ​​the world as a theater stage Theatrum mundi originated in the baroque era.

The form of theater that emerged in Italy is called Commedia all'improvviso , Commedia a soggetto (theater in which the text is improvised depending on the subject, i.e. a scene or "draft") or Commedia di zanni . The Commedia dell'arte initially describes a theater with professional actors and then, in a broader sense, a form of drama, its repertoire (not only the improvised comedy, but also the novella , the comedy , the shepherd's play , the tragic comedy , the classical and literary tragedy and covers the opera) is based on a large number of drafts that are interpreted by solid persons, most of whom wear masks. The commedia unfolds from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. The first groups of professional actors appear in Italy from 1545. Until then, theatrical performances were held as part of courtly or religious celebrations, the random performers of which belonged to the staff of the courts or the clergy.

Festival culture of the baroque

Allegorical festivities for the reception of Queen Christine of Sweden in the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, February 28, 1656
Festive decoration by Ludovico Burnacini for a nocturnal opera performance in the open air and by torchlight at the Viennese imperial court 1699 ( L'Euleo festeggiante nel ritorno d'Alessandro dall'India ). The musicians from two orchestras sit on the right and left

The big festivals in the Baroque period were mostly not only for entertainment, but also for representation . The baroque festival culture did not come out of nowhere, but its roots lay in the Italian Renaissance , especially in the festival parades known as trionfi . The princes tried to project a glamorous image to the outside world and to increase their reputation through spectacular and carefully staged splendor (as with the palace buildings) - not infrequently with success. Participation in the elegant and well-rounded baroque dances danced on tiptoe at a 'simple' court ball required long training with a dance master in order to achieve the necessary elegance and strength at all. The same applies all the more to other productions in which half the court took part in allegorical or mythological robes, and where singing and text performance also played a role, such as were necessary for the French ballets de cour or the English masques .

Occasions for larger festivities offered - apart from such extraordinary events as accession to the throne - princely weddings, which were often celebrated for days; Births of princely children (especially heirs to the throne ) or the (as successful as possible) end of a war. There were not only court balls and gala dinners , but also particularly splendid performances of operas composed especially for the occasion and of comedies or plays ; there were also public fireworks and gun salutes . Horse ballets were also very popular in Vienna (see below), and festive sleigh rides in cool regions like Russia . The people were mostly included in the aforementioned occasions. E.g. when wine poured out of public wells instead of water or there was something else to eat or drink free of charge. In the case of princely weddings, the bride, who mostly came from abroad, was often honored on her trip with festive entrances and receptions in the places along the way, such as B. 1613 Elisabeth Stuart on the occasion of her wedding to Elector Friedrich V of the Palatinate (later the "Winter King"). For this purpose, just like for theatrical performances, architects and painters often created large and effective festive decorations that were very artistic, but were basically just theatrical sets. Most of the festivities were covered with mythological or allegorical disguise, and everything was carried out according to a precise ceremony . Of course there were also parties that the nobility celebrated among themselves. The death of important princes or personalities was also celebrated with special honor, for which purpose large festive decorations were sometimes created for the church where the deceased was laid out. A series of copperplate engravings were later made of some particularly great celebrations in order to increase the representative effect abroad as well.

Louis XIV as the sun god Apollo in the Ballet de la nuit , 1653

Some legendary celebrations took place at the court of Louis XIV , who was nicknamed "the Sun King" because he was already 14 years old when he danced in a ballet de cour in the costume of the sun god Apollo and later often performed as a dancer. The finance minister Nicolas Fouquet gave a famous party with an unfortunate outcome for the king on August 17, 1661 at Vaux-le-Vicomte Castle ; the king found this demonstration of luxury a bit too nice, and since Fouquet evaded taxes and threatened to get into the king's enclosure in other ways, he was arrested only a short time later. The mythical reputation of Ludwig as the Sun King and his fairy-tale Palace of Versailles was promoted a few years later by a number of large celebrations: The most famous are the seven-day "Pleasures of the Enchanted Island" ( Les Plaisirs de l'île enchantée ) in May 1664. a ring piercing and ballet de cour, the background music was in the hands of Jean-Baptiste Lully , and several pieces by Molière were performed: La Princesse d'Elide , The Troublesome and Tartuffe . A contemporary newspaper writer reports how at the end of the first day of the festival Lully appeared "at the head of a large troupe of concert performers ... with small steps to the rhythm of their instruments":

“... and at the same time the four seasons emerged from the avenue on the right: spring on a Spanish horse, summer on an elephant, autumn on a camel and winter on a bear. The seasons were accompanied by twelve gardeners, twelve reapers, twelve winemakers and twelve old men. They represented the differences of their seasons with flowers, ears of wheat, fruits and ice cream and carried the bowls with the snack on their heads ... The Contrôleurs de la Maison du Roi ... (in allegorical costumes; author's note) let ... set up a large semicircular table, which was decorated with garlands and a myriad of flowers ... "

- Carpentier de Marigny

The Grand divertissement de Versailles in July 1668 on the occasion of the Peace of Aachen was similarly magical . The music was again by Lully, who also contributed a ballet "Triumph des Bacchus"; this time Molière's George Dandin was premiered; at the end of the event there was a big fireworks display in the park of Versailles, during which "the palace truly appeared like the palace of the sun".

Johannes Thomas: Empress Margarita Teresa in allegorical festive garb , 1667

So much splendid display triggered a kind of competition and the imperial court in Vienna responded from 1666 to 1668 with the wedding celebrations for Leopold I and Margarita Teresa of Spain , which are still famous to this day , in particular with a gigantic horse ballet "La contesa dell'aria e dell'aqua "in the courtyard of the Vienna Castle on January 24, 1667, in which 1700 people and 600 horses took part, all in splendid (and sometimes heavy!) costumes with feather-trimmed headdresses; Leopold himself also rode on a dancing horse to the music of Johann Heinrich Schmelzer , which was played by 100 instrumentalists in several places in the courtyard. The performance of the festival opera Il Pomo d'Oro by Antonio Cesti with decorations by Ludovico Burnacini , documented by copper engravings, is particularly famous - since the spectacular productions first had to be built on the Burgplatz, the performance was delayed until the 13th and 13th July 14, 1668 (Margarita's birthday). It is said to have lasted 9 hours, was repeated several times and "the people" are said to have seen the spectacle "in unbelievable numbers".

Apart from special occasions, the Venice Carnival also experienced its greatest heyday in the 17th and 18th centuries and attracted numerous wealthy tourists, including those from the aristocracy. For months there was one ridotto and one opera performance after the other. Because of the commonly used masking , a certain degree of incognito was possible and it was less ceremonial than at official court festivals - the customs were so relaxed that the risk of infection for venereal diseases was increased (example: Georg Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , the left his own fiancée Sophie von Hannover to his brother Ernst August in a famous "bridal swap" because he was infected (presumably with syphilis ) in Venice ). Even outside of the carnival season, Venice was known for other festivals that were regularly celebrated, such as the wedding of the Doge with the sea with the Bucintoro on Ascension Day or the feast of the Madonna della Salute . Also receptions of foreign ambassadors were often in Venice magnificently with official regattas committed and other celebrations, many onlookers attracted and were (just like the Bucintoro), not least of Vedute nmalern as Luca Carlevarijs and Canaletto painted. Her pictures still bear witness to the dazzling splendor of Venice in the baroque era.

Zeithainer giant stollen with oven

August the Strong of Saxony was also famous for his glamorous court and his magnificent festivities : One of the most famous events was the wedding of his son and heir to the throne with the daughter of the emperor . in the Dutch palace the "Seven Planet Merrymaking" in mythological disguise. August's Zeithainer Lustlager in 1730 was one of the most famous baroque festivals of its time, the “spectacle of the century”, which due to its splendor and opulence is still the epitome of the baroque way of life. It was also an organizational masterpiece that caused a sensation across Europe. For example, the builder of the Dresden Zwinger , Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann , built the oven for the seven-meter-long giant tunnel. The architect Joachim Daniel von Jauch , who was responsible for organizing the countless festivals and illuminations of the Polish court, organized the five-hour fireworks display on the Elbe, which consumed 18,000 tree trunks.

Some baroque festivals live on not only in engravings and pictures, but also in the music composed for them. Among the most famous are some events in England for which George Frideric Handel contributed the music for the festival. This refers to one (or more) royal festival (s) on the Thames , at which his famous water music was played (probably 1717, 1719 and 1736), and the celebrations in April 1749 on the occasion of the Peace of Aachen , for which Handel was Fireworks music wrote. Even the dress rehearsal in Vauxhall Gardens drew 12,000 spectators who blocked London traffic for hours, but during the actual fireworks in Green Park a pavilion of the wooden decoration burned down and the set designer Servadoni attacked the supervisor "with a bare sword" in a nervous attack.

Baroque literature

The art-historical style designation baroque was transferred to the literature of the 17th century, i.e. the period between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment . In Germany it was the time of the Thirty Years' War with its tensions between greed for life and fear of death, the time of the incipient absolutism with its conflict between bourgeois class consciousness and court culture. The split in attitudes towards life was reflected in German baroque literature: the contrast between style and subject matter often led to pompous and distracted representations and gave the impression of being inharmonious. Because of the threat to his mental and physical existence, the poet looked for his own ways, but everywhere there is a strong dependence on the currents of contemporary literature from other countries.

Baroque literature reached its ultimate perfection in the works of the Spaniards Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), Lope de Vega (1562-1635) and Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681), while in France the strict classical forms of Pierre Corneille (1606–1684), Jean Racine (1639–1699) and Molière (1622–1673) ruled. The most influential contributions to European baroque literature were made by Spanish gongorism , Italian marinism and also English euphuism , all gay styles that took their names from the Spanish poet Luis de Góngora (1561–1627), the Italian Giambattista Marino (1569–1625) and the novel "Euphues" by the Englishman John Lyly (1554–1606).

In further training of the Spanish Amadi novels (title hero of knight and adventure novels), the multi-volume courtly novels of Duke Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1633–1714) and Daniel Casper von Lohenstein (1635–1683) found widespread use in Germany. But only Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen'sThe adventurous Simplicissimus ” rises to a timeless height .

In lyric poetry , the contradicting basic features of the attitude to life, which fluctuates between mystical religiosity and zest for life, are most evident. In the case of the leading and often imitated Martin Opitz (1597–1639), Andreas Gryphius (1616–1664), Lohenstein, Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau (1616–1679), Paul Fleming (1609 –1640), Simon Dach (1605–1659), Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld (1591–1635) and Georg Philipp Harsdörffer (1607–1658). This also includes the rhymes of Friedrich von Logau (pseudonym: Salomon von Golaw; 1604–1655).

Natural and emerging social philosophy

Natural philosophers and scientists of the Baroque era such as Francis Bacon and Galileo Galilei proposed an alternative to the scholastic natural philosophy and helped empiricism to break through. Galileo's postulate of a heliocentric world could be supported and reinterpreted by Newton's laws . The empiricists had their greatest success with the separation of science from politics: From then on, scientists no longer had to orientate themselves to political considerations or interventions that had hindered their work in previous centuries. A new image of man and nature was used to legitimize this political guarantee: Since the end of the Baroque era, man has been understood as an acting subject ( social contract ), while nature should be made up of passive and merely reactive objects, as mechanicism postulated. The formerly important God, the director of world theater, was removed from the world and from then on was only important as the creator, more or less as the one who gave the first impetus to the clockwork of celestial mechanics, or in disputes as a mediator between nature and man. This political and metaphysical dualism also heralded the end of the Baroque: philosophies aimed at universal harmony such as that of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were pushed back in favor of empiricism. The independence of the sciences and the simultaneous empowerment of the people as the original source of all earthly power severely curtailed the power of the absolutist princes. The distant rapture of God and the declaration of religion as a private matter ultimately laid the foundation for the spiritual and material secularization of the 19th century.

The epoch of intellectual history that followed the Baroque era is generally referred to as the Age of Enlightenment ; However, it should be noted that the early Enlightenment is already rooted in the first half of the 17th century, i.e. in the late Renaissance , while the Enlightenment in Italy, for example, does not take effect until the late Baroque era around 1760 and in East Central Europe or Greece even later.

Science and Technology

The modern sciences were created in Europe during the Baroque period; it organized itself in learned societies and academies . The development of theoretical, increasingly mathematical mechanics and its application to technical, atmospheric, biological, astronomical etc. phenomena made great strides: William Harvey discovered the blood circulation , Galileo Galilei tried to determine the weight of the air, Evangelista Torricelli , Blaise Pascal and Otto von Guericke studied the effects of air pressure , Christiaan Huygens developed the pendulum clock , Isaac Newton the law of gravitation . Mechanics thus became the dominant paradigm of science and the explanation of the world . It also served to explain the material fine structure of the world ( atomism , monadology ). The clockwork model was used to interpret the laws of motion in the universe . Mechanistic explanatory models were heavily overused due to the lack of other theories available at the time of natural research, so that the hierarchical order and politics of the absolutist state designed according to a rational plan was interpreted using the machine model.

Academies of science and technology were founded by royal decree or under princely protection and with the support of other patrons, such as the British Royal Society in 1660 and the French Académie des Sciences in 1666 . These academies were often associated with collections of natural and technological history.

In manufacturing technology , the medieval specialization of trades and tools continued under the influence of empirical and theoretical-mechanical knowledge, while the driving forces (water and wind power, animal and human power) remained the same, but were made more effective, e.g. B. through advances in the construction of (wooden) gears . The specialized trades were grouped in large ( tapestry , porcelain , coach etc.) factories , arsenals and shipyards under central, often state management. European mining, which had got into a crisis due to the import of precious metals from Latin America, came under state control in many countries due to the impending shortage of metal for coinage. The art of hydraulic engineering, which was used in palace gardens, but also on the stage, reached a climax in the pumping stations of Marly-le-Roi .


Model of the stern of the Swedish Vasa

In the Baroque period, the classic ship shapes of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, with their tall superstructures modeled on towers or forts, were lively remodeled and provided with partly gilded ornaments, consoles, turned columns, biblical or mythological allegories and huge lanterns, which show the influences of the Jesuit style . The splendid rear galleries were shaped like the architecture of the Vasa (1628). "Voluptuous lines" and a long figurehead underlined the luxurious and representative character of the war and state ships of absolutist powers as floating palaces and at the same time a claim to power. For example, the galion of the English three-decker Sovereign of the Seas showed an equestrian statue of King Edgar , whose horse had seven kings under its hooves. The functionality and martial ability of these ships were impaired despite their streamlined forms by the decoration and a high center of gravity.

In the age of the Rococo and the Enlightenment, the height of the superstructures was reduced. The lines of the ships became more objective and functional, with the architecture-like structures quickly disappearing.

Carriage building art

The Carrosse , a masterpiece of baroque engineering , was first developed in France during the Baroque period. Carosse comes from carrozza and carro (Italian), which means something like heavy car or translated into German: body .

The big state coach in St. Petersburg

In the development of carriage construction , the car body type from the second half of the 17th century represents an important innovation. This type of car developed from the primitive Kobel , the simple box of which was improved by providing it with a solid roof, side walls and decorated it elaborately and artistically. In order to ensure easy access, the doors were set lower than the long tree, which was barely recognizable in this way. No major changes were made to the structure of the chassis itself, especially the boom and suspension. Due to the lavish pomp, the body was a state car with the status of a traveling throne. This hung in four springs and had front and back seats, so that up to four people could be seated in it. Only special horses, the coaches were harnessed to this type of car.

A special type of car was the grand carrosse . It was mainly used by important heads of state and mostly served as a coronation or representation and gala car. Today there are only four examples of this type left globally. These carriages are the Stockholm “Burmannia” (approx. 1700–1710) in the Livrustkammer, the special housesGoldene Kutsche ” (approx. 1707–1715) in the Sondershausen Castle Museum , the Lisbon “Coche da Cora” (around 1715) in the Museu dos coches and a body from 1720 and 1722, which is exhibited in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg .

The bodies were produced in large factories with an extreme division of labor, whereby wheelwright , carpenters, varnishers, blacksmiths, liners, gilders, saddlers and others. Professions were involved.

In the 18th century, the Berlin superseded the body and so in France the name le carrosse narrowed to the word that denotes such a magnificent state car and was also adopted into German.


Anthonis van Dyck : Portrait of Marie-Louise de Tassis, oil on canvas, around 1630

The development of historical epochs can be seen very well in clothing and hairstyle fashion - as well as the various contemporary trends of the Baroque. In other areas of cultural history , changes were usually gradual. In fashion, on the other hand, changes came through again and again spontaneously and suddenly, usually prompted by famous personalities. Baroque fashion was mainly influenced by the great European courts.

Baroque fashion can be divided into three main styles:

The Spanish fashion of the Renaissance was followed around 1620–1650 by a fashion that was mainly influenced by the Netherlands and Flanders. It appears as a countermovement to the extreme rigidity and artificiality of Spanish fashion: ruffles are replaced by sweeping lace collars, tight trousers with a pubic capsule by wide knee breeches, the high-necked tops denying the bosom with cleavages , and the skirt, which previously draped over the verdugado had been draped, was now allowed to fall freely. Wide-brimmed hats and the dominance of black and other dark, muted colors are typical of Dutch fashion.

Another significant change becomes noticeable in the 1660s. The men's trousers became wider and wider, almost like a trouser skirt, while the doublet was shortened and showed a lot of the shirt ( Rheingrafen fashion ). At first one wore a wide, round-cut wrap coat over it; later the tunic , the jacket-like men's skirt , prevailed . The men also wore long, loose hair. The dresses of women are becoming simpler: A tight-fitting, stiffened bodice with a wide, almost shoulder-free neckline and three-quarter sleeves is worn with the floor-length skirt without an overskirt. The cleavage is often framed by a wide border made of needlepoint. The typical hairstyle for this is the Hurluberlu with curls piled on both sides of the face.

In the 1680s, the type of suit that will dominate the entire 18th century prevailed among men. The Justaucorps (French: close to the body) consisted of a waistcoat and narrower breeches, the allong wig and the three -cornered hat are worn on the head, the brim of which is turned up on three sides.

A new form of dress comes into fashion for women, which also had an effect until almost the end of the 18th century. The manteau , a coat-like overdress open at the front, is worn with a matching skirt and plug . The skirt of the overdress usually has a train and is gathered to the back. The narrow silhouette is emphasized by the corresponding hairstyle with a high hood, the fontange .

The “liturgical fashion” of the Roman Catholic Church was also significantly influenced in the Baroque era. Probably the best known and most valuable pieces of chasubles , dalmatic, cope and miter originate from that time. The chasuble, which became known as the "bass violin" (also known as the Roman chasuble), experienced a special Baroque influence. Due to heavy brocade fabrics , sometimes combined with valuable high embroidery , the gothic cut of the chasuble had to be reduced more and more due to the insufficient flexibility of the fabrics until it only covered the priest's back or chest and stomach. The curved cut-outs on the front to further facilitate movement of the priest at the altar gave the baroque chasuble or bass violin their nickname.

Art historical evaluation

Just as the term Gothic stood for crude Germanic art for a long time and that of Mannerism for bad maniera - an over-the-top presentation of the successful mastery of technical difficulties - the term baroque was also used disparagingly for a long time before it differed from the Renaissance as an epoch term Period prevailed.


Francesco Milizia and Allessandro Pompei ( Verona 1705–1772) as well as the Piedmontese architects who were under French influence and who distinguished themselves from the "Roman style" had the original rule violations of the classicist norms of the formation of architectural members, the errori and abusi (errors and abuses) sharply condemned since Michelangelo's bizarre events. Milizia wrote of the follie Borrominesche ("Borrominesque follies"), which he associated with Borromini's suicide and warnedly described as contagious. In literature (criticism) too, a strong classicist counter-movement against the baroque exaggerations of Marinism soon began.


As early as the beginning of the 18th century, the first criticism of baroque rule-based art production was asserted in France , first in the Réflexions critiques sur la poésie et sur la peinture "(Critical considerations on poetry and painting"), which refers to the spirit of the Enlightenment. 1719) of the Abbé Dubos . Above all, art should please and bring pleasure; There are no uniform rules for this, rather the judgment about art depends on the viewer.

The “exaggerations” of the Italian architectural style also found few friends in France. Even Bernini's facade designs for the Louvre were considered too Italian at the French court. The adjective baroque and the noun le baroque were first defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the sense of a refinement of architecture; At the same time, however, the baroque style was seen as an expression of bizarre abuse, as an excessive and ridiculous exaggeration of its formal elements. Borromini's and Bernini's works are examples of this. Quincy thus developed a preliminary stage (albeit a pejorative) of a baroque style concept. The aesthetics of Sainte-Beuve also remained connected to the classicist valuation system. At best, the French baroque was considered préclassique . This approach was only rudimentarily overcome by Jules Michelet , the real “discoverer” of the French Baroque, who referred to the important role of the Henri Quatre era in the formation of French identity, even though he was a staunch Calvinist and polemicized against the Jesuit Counter-Reformation.

However, the existence of a French baroque in France was only finally recognized when the French art historians and historians focused on their own classical epoch extended to all of Europe. It was not until the 1950s that the term baroque was used in France in a neutral sense and no longer just as a synonym for the irregular, bizarre or extravagant.

In 1980 Marc Fumaroli was still speaking of the French Baroque as a foreign body in French culture and distanced himself from the term by using the German word "Baroque term" to mark its origin.

Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, representatives of French post-structuralism, describe the relationship between classical and baroque as one of order and chaos, between which no clear line can be drawn, i.e. as a kind of tense coexistence, not one after the other.


In terms of art, the German classical school, dominant since Adam Friedrich Oeser and Winckelmann, devalued the baroque as “overloaded”. Despite his own appreciation for various Hellenistic works of art that were close to the baroque sense of style - according to the Laocoon group - Bernini Winckelmann was almost an "arch enemy". This was also due to the noticeable preference in Germany since Winckelmann for the Greek-ancient over the Roman tradition, which was directed against the reception of French classicism in Germany. The predominantly Protestant art theorists, critics and historians considered the baroque to be Catholic, “papist”, monarchistic, authoritarian, too opulent and counter-Reformation.

The same applies to French literature of the Baroque period. Even the early Enlightenment artist Johann Christoph Gottsched rejected French literary classicism and his artistic understanding of poetry as constructed and not original. From a rationalist perspective, he criticized the works of Klopstock and the baroque gay style , in which the French dominance was always expressed, as a phenomenon of decay and compared this style with that of Hellenism . Lessing turned even more radically against baroque rule poetics. In Corneille's Rodogune he saw the pinnacle of artlessness and sketched in the Hamburg Dramaturgy the requirements for a new bourgeois drama that can do without the “pomp and majesty” of Corneilles' drama. His "bourgeois tragedy" Miss Sara Sampson ushered in the farewell to the baroque on the German stage and paved the way for the ideal of "naturalness".

For Johann Georg Hamann as a representative of the Christian-mystical genius cult of the Sturm und Drang epoch, which already referred to Romanticism , it was clear that the artist had to work free of rules and that the depth of feeling had to be the most important criterion for artistic creation . With this he turned against the baroque rule poetics as well as against the rationalism of the Enlightenment.

Goethe criticizes the bulky and overloaded baroque architecture, but used baroque forms of lyric poetry himself.

The rejection of everything French, which shaped the German romanticism of the 19th century, also led to the distant formulation in the German dictionary of the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm : “Baroque should the French. baroque, bizarre in our language comfortable (like antique sp. 500, ideal, theatrical): the baroque ornament of multicolored shells. "

However, there were also opposing tendencies: August Wilhelm Schlegel praised the baroque rhetoric despite his criticism of the aesthetics of the age of Louis XIV . German literary romanticism was thoroughly drawn to the baroque machine and clockwork metaphor - the subordination of the ego to a mindless mechanism; but this was reflected more in her works (e.g. with a glossy tendency in Jean Paul's The Invisible Lodge , ETA Hoffmann's Der Sandmann , Der Elementargeist , Kleist's Über das Marionettentheater, etc.) than in the art and literary critical view of the time. ETA Hoffmann was enthusiastic about Spanish baroque theater and translated Calderón's plays .

Jacob Burckhardt in Cicerone (1855) almost morally devalued the Baroque (as “misunderstood freedom”, “fraud”, “boasting”, even as “pathological”), but praised the artistic “freedom” that the baroque artists took . It was only around 1875 that a more neutral phenomenological-descriptive definition of the baroque was achieved.

A more theoretical view of the Baroque phenomenon - still tinged by Protestantism's view of the century of the Counter Reformation and its aversion to the theatrical and the illusionistic - developed in the 1860s. Nietzsche was probably the first to see the countless parallels in architecture, sculpture, literature and music, although this thought was in the air at the time. Aphoristically he formulated: "Greek dithyramb is a baroque style in poetry" and thus transferred the baroque term to literature.

Nietzsche was not concerned with the uniqueness of the baroque style, but with a legal return of styles, i.e. a periodic, timeless phenomenon of the "fading" of a culture that always occurs when a classical period has exhausted its means of expression and can no longer be surpassed : "(...) from the Greek times onwards there was often a baroque style in poetry, eloquence, prose style, in sculpture as well as in architecture," which should not be judged disparagingly. Baroque music is a kind of counter-renaissance , an expression of a style, albeit a decadent one, which arises every time a great art fades, an art by artists "only for artists", not for laypeople. He placed the music of the late 19th century in this tradition in a postponed draft in 1888. He probably always has Wagner's music in mind when he defines the baroque as ecstatic and decadent at the same time . His mention of the cruel humor, the lust for ugly distortion in Cervantes ' Don Quixote points in a similar direction. The grotesque or ugly distortion is also typical of many works of German baroque poetry such as Grimmelshausen's “Simplicissimus Teutsch” (and its frontispiece, see the illustration above).

A short time later (1881) Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff speaks of a “baroque era” of Hellenistic culture and the Roman imperial period (here especially of imperial Roman literature).

In the sense of a sequence of early forms, blossoming and withering of artistic autonomy, 70 years later Arnold Hauser also constructed a sequence from the purpose-based (church) art of the Middle Ages through an early bourgeois-handicraft development phase of the Quattrocento to the autonomous, enjoyable art of the High Renaissance with aristocratic features the individualized, highly artistic phase of Mannerism, with its increasingly specialized arts, to a again purposeful, counter-reformational Baroque phase with its schematized, easily understandable iconography , in which art loses its spontaneous, subjectivist traits.

The danger of a purely stylistic approach detached from the epoch lies in the inflation of the baroque term, which means that the structural features of baroque architecture were also transferred to the dramas of Shakespeare , for example . But even the overstretching of an epoch-historical term by transferring it to all possible artistic spheres of an epoch does not take sufficient account of the non-simultaneity of the development of special stylistic features of the individual arts.

Heinrich Wölfflin , of whom we do not know whether he has read Nietzsche, developed a psychologically founded theory of the change in style and its causes, which he sees in the "numbness" to the forms of the Renaissance. Every style is an expression of its time, it wears itself out and changes with the changes in human emotions. Wölfflin aimed at a comparative style analysis that should be free of judgments; From the descriptive concept of the epoch he developed a concept of style from the Baroque as a basic artistic pattern. He renounced the previously used attributes such as “overloaded” and “artificial” and traced the change in form to a psychological disposition that sees the world as a product of decay and is characterized by “intoxication” and “ecstasy” as well as a new concept of physicality . This is expressed in a changed morphology of the building and pictorial representations: the linear representation gives way to a painterly, the closed form to the open, the surface of the depth, the subdivision of the (pictorial etc.) - components of their fusion. Tangibility is replaced by obscurity and unfathomability, finitude by infinity. Other elements are mass, monumentality, ornament and movement. Ultimately, Wölfflin still viewed the more self-contained Renaissance art as the superior one. This may have already happened under the influence of the neo-baroque style , which was designed to appear imperial and representative and which quickly spread at the end of the 19th century.

In this approach, which focuses on individual stylistic elements, Impressionism, with its dissolution of clear contours, is a kind of baroque phenomenon, the study of which Wölfflin evidently led to the development of his theory. Likewise, many aspects of postmodern architecture can be identified as “baroque”.

At the turn of the 20th century, music theorists such as Hugo Riemann , who conceived the history of music as a history of style, turned against the consideration of the baroque era as a unity and the acceptance of the unity of all arts . For him, the "baroque" style was called "music of the thoroughbass age ".

Since Wölfflin, the world of the Baroque has often been defined antithetically: the objective world is broken and dissolved, and pure subjectivity is thereby reinforced (even if Wölfflin may have exaggerated the contrast to the Renaissance). Characteristics of this baroque world are fear of death and sensual joy, mathematical predictability of the world and illusionism. In the baroque era, however, unbridled subjectivity was domesticated by the compulsion to adhere to fixed (composition, etc.) rules, which is how the artisan-mechanical prevailed.

Walter Benjamin sees the beginning of modernity in the eccentricities of the baroque drama, in its allegorical-monumental representation, melancholy and antithetical structure of the constant tension between this world and the hereafter.


In Austria, Albert Ilg was the first to reassess the baroque (for him a feminine word: the "baroque") around 1870, the style elements of which had never become unpopular with the Viennese imperial court and the high nobility (allegedly also for reasons of economy, so as not to constantly seek new styles having to adjust); nevertheless, Ilg still speaks of "plait style" and "overgrown era".

Alois Riegl developed the Wöfflin theory further, which in his opinion lacked a justification for its compelling inner development. He no longer attributed the style changes to external factors, but to the necessities of artistic production, which he illustrated using the example of ornamentation. Nor does he share the theories of decay and decadence and the distinction between serious arts and decorative arts and crafts. Rather, he succeeded in saving the honor of the Baroque (and Roman late antiquity ) by placing the question of the continuity and the inner development dynamics of the arts in the foreground.


There was no consistent Baroque epoch style in Puritan England. Counter-Reformation and mysticism did not prevail here, but pre-Enlightenment and rationalism, even if their representatives like John Milton sometimes used baroque literary forms. In 1642 the Roundheads even banned the theater. As a result, English art historiography tended to extend the era of the Renaissance well into the 17th century and to connect Palladian classicism directly to it.

Spain, Portugal, Latin America

The German baroque theories led to a reassessment of the phenomenon in other countries as well. They became known in the Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries through Walter Benjamin and Ortega y Gasset .

In Spain Wölfflin's writings were mainly distributed through the translations of the poet and surrealist painter José Moreno Villa . Wölfflin's theories were taken up by Ortega's student José Antonio Maravall (1911–1986), who saw the movement as the main aesthetic principle in Velázquez's work as the most important principle of the baroque age and modernity in general.

"Maya Baroque": building detail at the so-called nunnery in Uxmal (approx. 9th century)
Baroque monastery church São Francisco in Salvador (Bahia) , Brazil (built 1686–1755)

In art and literary historiography, the Latin American Baroque was initially viewed as a coarse adaptation of Spanish models, but later as an aesthetic form of expression for the mixing of cultures, as was the case by Alejo Carpentier . The New World Baroque ( Barroco de Indias ) appeared as the result of "mestizization"; Last but not least, the stylistic similarities between the European and the so-called “ Maya Baroque” (especially the Puuc style from Uxmal ), which gave the mystical dialogue between humans and gods elaborate architectural forms, invited us to do so.

After the heyday of magical realism was over, literary criticism tends to see its own communication code in the Barroco de Indias , which shows the increasing self-confidence of the bourgeois Creole classes against the repressive secular and spiritual hierarchy under the mask of the conventional canon of forms, as in the work of the Peruvian Juan de Espinosa Medrano (approx. 1629–1688), the "American Tertullian ", or the Mexican nun Juana Inés de la Cruz . The authoritarian clerical and administrative hierarchy was replaced by a Creole “pigmentocracy” that appropriated this code and used it as a symbol of its formation.

The Latin American literary neo-baroque of the 20th century questions the European Enlightenment and realism; he experiments with new forms and attempts a cultural-political definition of a “different” Baroque identity of Latin America as a demarcation from Europe. Characteristics of this “other” baroque are imagery, fragmentation and transculturation through re-mythization and a performative language that produces physical feelings and affects. There are parallels to the Jesuit theater . Allegories are not to be riddled first (just as the Latin Jesuit drama remained untranslated); rather, one should follow the movement of the figures. Examples are the Brazilian Teatro negro or the folk plays and novels by Ariano Suassuna .


Numerous modern writers and literary historians today recognize parallels or continuities between the 17th century and the present day with regard to existential problems, which increases the interest in the Baroque period and its literature.

The mechanistic world view of the Baroque and its machine metaphors also make it an important object of literary historical and sociological consideration in the computer age.

Other forms of the baroque

With an ironic connotation


sorted alphabetically by author

Web links

Commons : Baroque art  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Baroque  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 7
  2. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 9
  3. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 9
  4. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 7
  5. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 9
  6. José Antonio Maravall: Culture of the baroque: analysis of a historical structure . Manchester University Press, Manchester 1986, ISBN 0-7190-1912-5 .
  7. ^ Ofer Gal: Baroque Modes and the Production of Knowledge. Introduction: The Great Opposition . In: Ofer Gal, Raz Chen-Morris (ed.): Science in the age of Baroque . Springer, Dordrecht / New York 2013, ISBN 978-94-007-4807-1 , pp. 1-10 .
  8. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 7
  9. ^ Gerhart Hoffmeister: German and European baroque literature. Stuttgart 1987, p. 2.
  10. So Alois Riegl; see Wilhelm Emrich: German Literature of the Baroque Period. Koenigstein / Ts. 1981, p. 14 f.
  11. ^ "Barock", in: Lexikon der Kunst, Vol. 2 , Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 7–24, here p. 7
  12. Article “Barock” in: Etymological Dictionary of German, Volume 1, Berlin 1993.
  13. ^ Heinz Duchhardt: Baroque and Enlightenment. Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-49744-1 .
  14. See e.g. B. Wolfgang Kostujak: From “imitation of nature” to “artificial Logick”: Lorenz Christoph Mizler's “general bass machine”. Deutschlandradio Kultur, August 5, 2014
  15. ^ Wilhelm Perpeet: The being of art and the art-philosophical method. Munich 1970, p. 33.
  16. Koch 2014, p. 325 ff.
  17. ^ "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: p. 17
  18. ^ "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: p. 18
  19. Detailed description of the wedding celebrations in: Dirk Van der Cruysse: Being a Madame is an elling craft. Liselotte of the Palatinate. A German princess at the court of the Sun King. From the French by Inge Leipold. 7th edition, Piper, Munich 2001, pp. 23–29 (Only the journey with receptions: pp. 26–29)
  20. ^ "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: p. 18
  21. ^ "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: p. 18
  22. ^ "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: p. 18
  23. Among other things, he had tries to approach the king's mistress , Louise de La Vallière . Gilette Ziegler: The court of Louis XIV in eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, p. 40.
  24. Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, pp. 34–37, here: 35.
  25. ^ Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, pp. 36-37.
  26. ^ Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, pp. 35-36.
  27. ^ Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, pp. 35-36.
  28. Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, p. 58.
  29. Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, p. 58.
  30. ^ Quote from Félibien des Avaux , the historian of Louis XIV. Gilette Ziegler: The court of Ludwig XIV. In eyewitness reports . Rauch, Düsseldorf 1964, p. 58.
  31. "The competition between air and water"
  32. ^ Franz Endler: Wien im Barock , Carl Ueberreuter Verlag, Vienna-Heidelberg, 1979, pp. 14-16
  33. Lorenz Duftschmid & Elisabeth Short: Text book of the CD: Johann Heinrich Schmelzer - La Margarita , Armonico Tributo Austria , Lorenz Duftschmid , Arcana 1996, p. 10 (and CD, Track 1: "Balletto a cavallo", 1667).
  34. ^ Franz Endler: Wien im Barock , Carl Ueberreuter Verlag, Vienna-Heidelberg, 1979, pp. 10-14, here: p. 10
  35. ^ Franz Endler: Wien im Barock , Carl Ueberreuter Verlag, Vienna-Heidelberg, 1979, pp. 10-14, here: p. 14
  36. Dirk Van der Cruysse: Being a Madame is a great craft. Liselotte of the Palatinate. A German princess at the court of the Sun King. From the French by Inge Leipold. 7th edition, Piper, Munich 2001, pp. 57-58
  37. Detailed description in the chapter: "Höfische Feste", in: Reinhard Bentmann & Heinrich Lickes: Europäische Paläste , Ebeling Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1977, pp. 17–30, here: pp. 19–29
  38. Walther Siegmund-Schultze: Handel, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik in Leipzig, 1980, pp. 155–156
  39. Robert King in the text booklet for the CD: Handel: Music for the Royal Fireworks (+ Four Coronation Anthems) , The King's Consort , Robert King and others, hyperion records, 1989, p. 19
  40. Steven Shapin, Simon Schaffer: Leviathan and the air-pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life . Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 1985, ISBN 0-691-08393-2 .
  41. Bruno Latour: We have never been modern. Attempt at a symmetrical anthropology . Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-596-13777-2 .
  42. Spyridon Koutroufinis: Fold, Garden and Monad, Deleuze and Leibniz . In: B. Heinecke, H. Hecht (Ed.): At the midpoint of the messages that occurred between Hanover and Berlin. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in Hundisburg . CULTURE landscape Haldensleben-Hundisburg e. V. , Hundisburg 2006, p. 127-134 .
  43. ^ Alfred North Whitehead: Science and the Modern World. Lowell Lectures, 1925 . Pelican Mentor Books, New York 1925.
  44. Franz Borkenau : The transition from the feudal to the bourgeois worldview. Paris 1934, reprint Stuttgart 1971.
  45. Christoph Bartels, Markus A. Denzel: Business cycles in European mining in pre-industrial times. Stuttgart 2000, p. 79 ff.
  46. ^ Jacob Leupold: Theatri machinarum hydraulicarum. Or: the setting for the water arts. First part, and: Other part. Gleditsch, Leipzig 1724/25.
  47. Christoph Voigt: Ship Aesthetics. 1921. Reprint Bremen 2013, p. 32. ISBN 978-3-95427-260-0 .
  48. Francesco Scricco: Tipo, formatted e struttura nelle architetture di Bernardo Antonio Vittone. Gangemi Editore, Rome 2014, p. 20 f.
  49. Werner Oechslin: Baroque and Modern. 2. International Baroque Summer Course.
  50. ^ Howard Hibbard: Bernini. Penguin Books, London 1965, ISBN 978-0-14-013598-5 , p. 181.
  51. Quatremère de Quincy: Enyclopédie méthodique: Architecture. Vol. 1, Paris 1788, keyword “baroque”.
  52. ^ Dorothea Scholl: Between historiography and poetry: Jules Michelet. In: Mark-Georg Dehrmann, Alexander Nebrig (ed.): Poeta philologus: a threshold figure in the 19th century. Bern 2010, p. 145 f.
  53. ^ Dorothea Scholl: Between historiography and poetry: Jules Michelet. In: Mark-Georg Dehrmann, Alexander Nebrig: Poeta philologus: a threshold figure in the 19th century. Bern 2010, p. 139 ff.
  54. Reinhard Klescewski: Actors and directors in French baroque drama. In: Franz H. Link, Günter Niggl: Theatrum mundi. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1981, p. 177 ff.
  55. ^ Walter Moser: Pour une grammaire du concept de "transfer" appliqué au culturel. In: Transfert. Head: Pascal Gin, Nicolas Goyer, Walter Moser. Ottawa 2014, p. 61. epub ISBN 978-2-7603-2161-8
  56. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Berlin 2010, p. 460 f.
  57. ^ Stephanie-Gerrit Bruer : Winckelmann and the Baroque. Thoughts on his theory of imitation. In: Antiquity and Baroque, Winckelmann Society. Lectures and essays Vol. 1, Stendal 1989, pp. 17–24, here: pp. 18 f.
  58. Ulla Fix: Rhetoric and Stylistics. Half volume 2, Berlin 2009, p. 2084.
  59. Fourteenth Piece, the 16th of June, 1767
  60. Udo Kultermann: Small history of art theory. Darmstadt 1987, p. 102 f.
  61. Alste Horn-Oncken: About the decent. (= Studies on the History of Architectural Theory Vol. 1.) Göttingen 1967, p. 9 ff.
  62. Online version in:
  63. ^ Fix: Rhetorik , p. 2085.
  64. Christine Tauber: Jacob Burckhardt's "Cicerone": A task to be enjoyed. Berlin 2000, p. 249 f.
  65. Friedrich Nietzsche: Aphorisms. In: Werke Volume 11, p. 105 (between 1875 and 1879).
  66. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche: Menschliches, Allzumenschliches. Second volume, first section: On the baroque styles. Works in three volumes. Munich 1954, Volume 1, p. 792.
  67. Wolfram Groddeck: Dionysus dithyrambs. Berlin / New York 1986, p. 44.
  68. ^ Rolando Pérez: Nietzsche's Reading of Cervantes' "Cruel" Humor in Don Quixote. eHumanista 30 (2015), pp. 168–175.  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  69. ^ Hubert Gersch: literary monster and book of the world. Berlin, New York 2004, p. 24 ff.
  70. Wilfried Barner: Baroque rhetoric: Investigations into their historical foundations. Berlin 2002, p. 7 ff.
  71. ^ Arnold Hauser: Social history of art and literature. Munich 1990 (new edition), p. 331 ff.
  72. ^ Arnold Hauser: Social history of art and literature. Munich 1990 (new edition), p. 380 ff .; ders .: The Origin of Modern Art and Literature: The Development of Mannerism since the Crisis of the Renaissance. Munich, dtv Wissenschaft 1979 (new edition).
  73. ^ Arnold Hauser: Social history of art and literature. Munich 1990 (new edition), p. 466 ff.
  74. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 58 ff.
  75. Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 58 ff.
  76. Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, pp. 15-19
  77. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 38
  78. Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 20
  79. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 52
  80. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 30 ff.
  81. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 25
  82. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Renaissance and Baroque: An investigation into the nature and origin of the Baroque style in Italy. Munich 1888, p. 46 ff.
  83. ^ Heinrich Wölfflin: Art-historical basic concepts: The problem of style development in modern art. Munich 1915.
  84. Hauser: Social History , p. 457
  85. ^ W. van Reijen: Labyrinth and Ruin. The return of the baroque in postmodernism. In: W. van Reijen: Allegory and Melancholie. Frankfurt / M. 1992.
  86. Hauser, Social History , p. 457 f.
  87. ^ Walter Benjamin: Origin of the German tragedy. Collected writings Volume I. Frankfurt 1974 (first 1925), p. 317 ff.
  88. ^ Edzard Rust, Huberta Weigl : The fishermen from Erlach and their first monograph Albert Ilg. In: Kunsthistoriker aktuell. Announcements from the Austrian Association of Art Historians 13. Vienna 1996, pp. 9-10.
  89. Alois Riegl: The emergence of baroque art in Rome. Academic lectures, edited from his papers. by Arthur Burda and Max Dvoríak 1908.
  90. Hans-Dieter Gelfert: Brief history of the English literature. Munich 1997, p. 99 ff.
  91. JA Maravall: Velázquez y el espíritu de la modernidad . 1960, new edition Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales 1999, ISBN 84-259-1084-6 .
  92. ^ Monika Kaup: Becoming-Baroque: Folding European forms into the New World baroque with Alejo Carpentier. In: The New Centennial Review, Michigan State University Press. 5, No. 2, 2005. pp. 107–149, here: pp. 109 ff.
  93. ^ Henri Stierlin: Living Architecture: Mayan. Grosset & Dunlap, New York 1964, pp. 139 ff.
  94. ^ Dania Schüürmann: Personification, Prosopopoeia, Persona. Figurative varieties of the daimon as a design of the expressionless in Brazilian literature. Diss., FU Berlin. P. 16 ff.
  95. Victoria von Flemming (ed.): Baroque - Modern - Postmodern: unexplained relationships. Wiesbaden 2014. - Eberhard Mannack: Baroque in the modern age: German writers of the 20th century as recipients of German baroque literature. Wiesbaden 2014; see inter alia Günter Grass : The meeting in Telgte . 1979.
  96. Peter Berger: Computer and Weltbild. Wiesbaden 2011. pp. 219-221.