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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Mannheim
Map of Germany, position of the city of Mannheim highlighted

Coordinates: 49 ° 29 '  N , 8 ° 28'  E

Basic data
State : Baden-Württemberg
Administrative region : Karlsruhe
Height : 97 m above sea level NHN
Area : 144.96 km 2
Residents: 309,370 (Dec. 31, 2018)
Population density : 2134 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 68159-68309
Area code : 0621
License plate : MA
Community key : 08 2 22 000
City structure: 17 boroughs

City administration address :
E 5
68159 Mannheim
Website :
Lord Mayor : Peter Kurz ( SPD )
Location of the city of Mannheim in Baden-Württemberg
Frankreich Schweiz Österreich Bodensee Rheinland-Pfalz Hessen Freistaat Bayern Alb-Donau-Kreis Baden-Baden Landkreis Biberach Landkreis Böblingen Bodenseekreis Landkreis Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald Landkreis Calw Landkreis Emmendingen Enzkreis Landkreis Esslingen Freiburg im Breisgau Landkreis Freudenstadt Landkreis Göppingen Heidelberg Landkreis Heidenheim Landkreis Heilbronn Heilbronn Hohenlohekreis Landkreis Karlsruhe Karlsruhe Landkreis Konstanz Landkreis Lörrach Landkreis Ludwigsburg Main-Tauber-Kreis Mannheim Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis Ortenaukreis Ostalbkreis Pforzheim Landkreis Rastatt Landkreis Ravensburg Rems-Murr-Kreis Landkreis Reutlingen Rhein-Neckar-Kreis Landkreis Rottweil Landkreis Schwäbisch Hall Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis Landkreis Sigmaringen Stuttgart Landkreis Tübingen Landkreis Tuttlingen Ulm Landkreis Waldshut Zollernalbkreismap
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Logo of the city of Mannheim
Aerial view of the city center, which lies between the Rhine and Neckar

The university town of Mannheim (in the Electoral Palatinate, Mannem [ manemm ], also Monnem ) is an urban district with 309,370 inhabitants (December 31, 2018) in the administrative district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg . It is the third largest city in the country after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe . The former royal seat (1720–1778) of the Electoral Palatinate with its distinctive baroque palace , one of the largest palace complexes in the world, forms the economic and cultural center of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region with 2.35 million inhabitants.

Mannheim is right in the border triangle with Baden-Württemberg , Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse . Mannheim is separated from its sister city Ludwigshafen am Rhein in Rhineland-Palatinate , with which it forms a coherent urban area, by the Rhine .

First mentioned in a document in 766 in the Lorsch Codex , Mannheim received city ​​privileges in 1607 after Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate laid the foundation stone for the construction of the Friedrichsburg Fortress . The grid-shaped street network with blocks of houses instead of streets that was laid out for the citizen city of Mannheim, which is connected to the fortress, has been preserved in the city center. This is where the name square city can be traced back to.

A major city since 1896, Mannheim is now an important industrial and commercial city, university city and important traffic junction between Frankfurt am Main and Stuttgart , including an ICE junction , the second largest marshalling yard in Germany and one of the most important inland ports in Europe.

Many important inventions come from Mannheim:

Andreas Flocken , the inventor of the first German electric car , also worked in the Heinrich Lanz AG agricultural machinery factory . In 1924 Hugo Stotz received a patent for the invention of the miniature circuit breaker . Julius Hatry from Mannheim constructed the world's first rocket aircraft in 1929 .

Norms for the global collection of weather data were established here as early as the 18th century. This includes the times of day for the measurement, known as Mannheim hours .

With the Mannheim National Theater , known as the Schillerbühne , the Mannheim Art Gallery , the Reiss-Engelhorn Museums and the Technoseum , Mannheim is a nationally important theater and museum location. The Popakademie Baden-Württemberg and a lively music scene make Mannheim an important center for German pop music, and Mannheim has been a UNESCO City of Music since 2014 . It is also a modern continuation of the Mannheim School , which brought many musicians (including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ) to Mannheim in the middle of the 18th century and enriched the music scene of that time.

Mannheim is also known for its university , which is one of the best business universities in Germany and repeatedly receives top grades, especially in business administration . Furthermore, in Mannheim also a are College , the College of the covenant with its Department of defense administration, a music academy , a Cooperative State University , a university of the Federal Employment Agency and the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg settled.

Mannheim is located on Burgenstraße , is the start and end point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route and part of the Straße der Demokratie .


Mannheim is located in the northern Upper Rhine region at the mouth of the Neckar and the Rhine . The districts are distributed on the right bank of the Rhine on both sides of the Neckar.

The city is located in the Rhine-Neckar , a 2.35 million inhabitants compression area , in addition to parts of South Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate Vorderpfalz in Baden-Wuerttemberg , the two urban districts Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the western and southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar Circle includes.

Within the Rhine-Neckar region , Mannheim forms a regional center alongside Heidelberg , of which a total of 14 are designated for the whole of Baden-Württemberg according to the 2002 regional development plan. The Mannheim regional center takes on the function of a central area for the communities of Edingen-Neckarhausen , Heddesheim , Ilvesheim and Ladenburg . There are also links with municipalities in Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate and the central areas there.

The nearest larger cities are Frankfurt am Main , around 70 kilometers north, Karlsruhe , around 50 kilometers southwest and Stuttgart , around 95 kilometers southeast.

Due to its location directly on the Baden-Württemberg state border with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Mannheim is the only major city in Germany that borders directly on two countries , along with the city-state of Hamburg .

City structure

Sandhofen Schönau Gartenstadt Waldhof Luzenberg Neckarstadt-West Innenstadt/Jungbusch Lindenhof Käfertal Vogelstang Wallstadt Feudenheim Seckenheim Hochstätt Friedrichsfeld Rheinau Almenhof Neckarau Niederfeld Neckarstadt-Ost Neuostheim Neuhermsheim Oststadt (Mannheim) Schwetzingerstadt
Districts of Mannheim (clickable map)

The urban area of ​​Mannheim is divided into six inner and eleven outer city ​​districts :

such as

The city districts are further subdivided into city districts and statistical districts.

In each of the 17 city districts there is a district advisory council, which includes 12 residents who are appointed by the local council according to the results of the local council elections. They are to be heard on important matters that affect the municipality and advise the local administration and committees of the municipal council. Since 2008, the district councils have had their own budget, which they can decide on their own use within set limits.

Inner city: the "squares"

Inner city scheme
Street sign in the Mannheimer squares
Floor plan from 1799, upper half

The horseshoe-shaped city ​​center of Mannheim between the Rhine and Neckar is laid out as a grid, the "Mannheimer squares". Bismarckstraße runs in front of the front of the castle and connects the ends of the ring road sections with each other. In between there are streets laid out at right angles. The planning of this network goes back to Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate around 1600.

The city center is traversed by two broader main axes. The Kurpfalzstraße, also known as " Breite Straße ", runs in a northeast-southwest direction from the castle to the Neckartor. At Paradeplatz it meets the main shopping street, the " planks " that run in an east-west direction . The streets in the city center usually have no names, instead the squares in between are named using a combination of letters and numbers.

Originally, the arrangement was primarily due to the fortress technology: it enabled enemy formations that had penetrated the fortress to be bombarded with cannons across the city. The Mannheim squares and especially the so-called Breite Straße also emphasize the "new" palace, which was built later, however. Therefore, the urban dominance of the residence created by the street layout is interpreted as a reflection of the absolutist form of government.

The principles of an ideal city were implemented in various residential cities of the absolutist baroque such as Erlangen , Glückstadt or Karlsruhe . But even in more recent times, attempts have been made to connect ideals and architecture ( planned city , planned capital ).

Neighboring communities

The following cities and communities border the city of Mannheim. They are called clockwise starting in the north:

Division of space

According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.

natural reserve

The following nine nature reserves exist in the city of Mannheim . This means that 699.4 hectares of the urban area are under nature protection, that is 4.8%.

  1. Oven-Riedwiesen : 147.7 ha (of which 84.0 ha in the city of Mannheim)
  2. Ballauf-Wilhelmswörth : 340.9 ha
  3. For the white poplar : 8.7 ha
  4. Hirschacker and Dossenwald : 128.9 ha (of which 67.5 ha in the city of Mannheim)
  5. Head area on the Friesenheimer Altrhein : 20.1 ha
  6. Tissue Island : 108.2 ha
  7. Lower Neckar: Mulberry Island : 10.6 ha
  8. Lower Neckar: Wörthel : 20.9 ha
  9. Cattle grove, apple chamber, Neuwäldchen : 38.5 ha


Due to the protected location in the Upper Rhine Graben by the Palatinate Forest and Odenwald , Mannheim has a very mild climate by Central European standards. The measurements at the DWD climate station in Mannheim-Vogelstang showed an average temperature of 10.5 ° C between 1971 and 2000 . The warmest month is July with an average of 19.9 ° C, the coldest is January with 1.8 ° C. Temperatures above 30 ° C are not uncommon in midsummer. The peak value was measured on August 7, 2015 at 39.8 ° C (measurement by the DWD weather station, a private weather station in Mannheim-Seckenheim reached 40.1 ° C on August 8, 2003).

What is striking is the low amount of precipitation in Mannheim for western Germany. Over the course of a year, precipitation falls on average only 668 mm. The peak month is again July. Favored by the Rhine and Neckar, banks of fog can appear, especially in autumn. The two rivers and floodplains on the Rhine also provide above-average humidity, particularly in summer to oppressive, burdensome bioclimatic sultriness may result.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Mannheim
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 6.0 9.0 12.3 17.0 21.1 25.6 27.7 26.3 22.4 16.1 9.5 7.4 O 16.7
Min. Temperature (° C) 0.2 0.6 2.3 4.4 8.9 13.4 14.8 14.0 10.4 6.6 3.0 1.8 O 6.7
Temperature (° C) 3.2 4.7 7.4 11.1 15.4 19.7 21.7 20.6 16.2 11.3 6.5 4.7 O 11.9
Precipitation ( mm ) 44 40 41 32 69 69 54 44 46 46 43 50 Σ 578
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.4 3.3 4.5 6.8 7.0 8.0 8.3 7.8 6.1 3.6 1.8 1.4 O 5
Rainy days ( d ) 16 12 15th 11 13 11 12 11 10 11 14th 17th Σ 153
Humidity ( % ) 84 78 73 67 67 68 66 70 76 82 84 84 O 74.9
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020


The beginnings

A brick kiln, excavated in the Seckenheim district in 1929 and operated from AD 74 to the early second century, documents a settlement in Roman times.

The village of Mannenheim (= home of Manno) was first mentioned in the Lorsch Codex in 766 .

Through numerous donations within a short period of time, the Lorsch Monastery received 160½ days of field work, which corresponds to the hay yield of a medium-sized royal court.

In 1284 Mannheim fell to the Count Palatine near Rhine from the House of Wittelsbach . The Zollburg Eichelsheim , built in 1349 on today's Lindenhof , gained regional importance and demanded a contribution from the Rhine boatmen. 1415 the deposed antipope John XXIII was in her . imprisoned on behalf of Emperor Sigismund . With the victory in the Battle of Seckenheim in 1462 over the army of his allied opponents, the Count of Württemberg , the Margrave of Baden and the Bishop of Metz , Elector Friedrich von der Pfalz “the Victorious” established the Palatinate supremacy on the central Upper Rhine. In 1566 Mannheim was one of the largest villages in the Heidelberg Oberamt with around 700 inhabitants .

Origin of the city

Rheinschanze and Citadel Mannheim in 1620

Mannheim received city privileges on January 24, 1607 after Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate had laid the foundation stone for the Friedrichsburg Fortress on March 17, 1606 . The planning of a grid-shaped road network for the citizen of Mannheim, which is connected to the fortress, has been preserved. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), in which Mannheim fought on the side of the Protestant Union, it was first destroyed by troops in 1622. Due to war and epidemics, Mannheim, which had around 1200 inhabitants in 1618, suffered severe population losses. On his return to the Electoral Palatinate in 1649, Elector Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz found a country largely depopulated and economically ruined by the war destruction. The new regent campaigned resolutely for the rebuilding of Mannheim, which, because of its favorable location at the confluence of the Neckar into the Rhine, was chosen as the center of commercial activity and trade in the Electoral Palatinate. In the Palatinate War of Succession Mannheim was conquered by French troops in 1688 and completely destroyed in March 1689 and the population expelled. After this destruction, Elector Johann Wilhelm was largely responsible for the rebuilding. Before the peace treaty was signed, the elector wrote a proclamation in 1697 in which he ordered the city to be rebuilt and asked the refugees to return. After the start of the reconstruction work, the population rose again quite quickly.

Residence city of the Electoral Palatinate

Mannheim 1758

In 1720, Elector Carl Philipp moved his court from Heidelberg to Mannheim and began building the Mannheim Palace (completed in 1760 together with the Jesuit Church ). Mannheim became the royal seat of the Electoral Palatinate , and a glorious period of only 58 years began for the city, which now had 25,000 inhabitants.

The Palatinate court promoted art and music, science and trade. Goethe , Schiller and Lessing stayed in Mannheim as did Mozart .

In 1778, Elector Carl Theodor moved his residence to Munich in order to be able to take over his Bavarian inheritance. An economic and cultural bloodletting began in Mannheim.

Baden industrial city

Mannheim 1813

In 1795 the city was occupied by the French and then recaptured by Austrian troops. In 1803 Mannheim finally lost its political position: In the course of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , the city fell to Baden , where - geographically pushed to the northwestern edge - it only had the status of a border town.

Historical map of Mannheim 1880

In the climate catastrophe in the " year without a summer " in 1816, which was caused by the eruption of the Tambora volcano and resulted in famine and horse deaths, Karl Drais invented the two-wheeler and thus mechanized individual transport. The Rheinhafen was opened in 1828 and the first Baden railway line from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Characterized by the economic rise of the bourgeoisie, Mannheim gradually began to flourish again. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a center of the political and revolutionary movement. In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik (BASF) , which was later moved to Ludwigshafen . The paint factory became the largest chemical company in the world. In 1880 Werner von Siemens presented the world's first electric elevator in Mannheim. In 1886, Carl Benz patented his gas-powered velocipede . In 1909 Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte founded the Schütte-Lanz company , which built a total of 22  airships . The company was the main competitor of the Zeppelin works . After the First World War , Heinrich Lanz AG presented the Bulldog, the most successful heavy oil tractor. The pre-chamber diesel engine invented by Prosper L'Orange at the Mannheim engine works was further developed by Benz & Cie to become the world's first compact vehicle diesel engine in 1923. In 1922, the large Mannheim power station went into operation. Around 1930 the city counted 385,000 inhabitants together with its sister city Ludwigshafen, which developed from the old Mannheimer Rheinschanze .

From the Third Reich until today

The former Friedrichschule, today the Gustav-Wiederkehr-Schule (middle building), served as a concentration camp outpost
US troops in the street fight in Mannheim, 1945

During the Third Reich , almost 2000 people from Mannheim with a Jewish background were deported . There were around 140 places in the city where forced laborers were housed, many also in the vicinity of the large companies that employed forced laborers and prisoners of war during the Nazi era . In the Sandhofen district there was a subcamp of the Natzweiler-Struthof and the Hinzert concentration camp .

Mannheim was almost completely destroyed by the air raids on Mannheim during World War II. At the end of March 1945, the city was finally occupied by US troops . The war, which was still ongoing elsewhere in Germany, did not end until May 8 with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .

The reconstruction of the city began only with difficulty. The castle and water tower were rebuilt, and the National Theater was built in a new location. In the old place there is a Schiller monument and the pub Zum Zwischen-Akt . The housing shortage led to the development of numerous new residential areas.

1964 became the municipal hospital on the Neckar Faculty of the University of Heidelberg for clinical medicine Mannheim. In 1967 Mannheim became a university town .

In 1975 the Federal Garden Show was a highlight in Luisen and Herzogenried Park . A number of structural measures were implemented: the telecommunications tower and a second Rhine bridge were built, the planks became a pedestrian zone, the new rose garden was inaugurated, and the Aerobus floated through Mannheim. A number of large-scale projects were also implemented in the 1980s and 1990s: the planetarium , the expansion of the Kunsthalle, the new Reiss Museum, the town hall, the new Maimarkt area, the synagogue, the mosque, the State Museum for Technology and Work ( Technoseum ), the Carl Benz Stadium and the Fahrlachtunnel were opened .

In May / June 1992 there were riots for days on the occasion of the accommodation of refugees in the (now demolished) gendarmerie barracks in the Schönau district (see list of anti-refugee attacks in Germany 1990 to 2013 # 1992 ).

In the recent past, the economic decline in industrial jobs has shaped Mannheim. The city tried to shape this structural change with the designation of industrial areas and the settlement of service companies . A prime example is the construction of the Victoria high-rise in 2001, one of the tallest buildings in the city, on the railway site.

With a view to the city's 400th anniversary in 2007, a number of urban planning activities were implemented from 2000: SAP Arena with connection to the new Stadtbahnring Ost, renovation of the Breite Straße pedestrian zone , the armory and the castle, complete redesign of the old measuring square and the new Schafweide urban railway line. The concept of the city anniversary aimed at a diverse spectrum of events without a dominant central event.

During the refugee crisis in Europe in 2015 , Mannheim took in 12,000 refugees, mainly in the former barracks of the US Army.


Between 1895 and 1944, several surrounding villages were incorporated into Mannheim, including Neckarau, the largest village in Baden at the time. During the major community reform in the 1970s, there were plans to incorporate Brühl , Ilvesheim , Edingen-Neckarhausen and Ladenburg . Because of the large protests, however, they refrained from doing so, and Mannheim was one of the few cities in Baden-Württemberg that did not receive any increase in area. Before the first incorporation, the urban area comprised 2384 hectares:

"Planken" pedestrian zone
"Breite Straße" pedestrian zone
year places Growth in hectares
1895 Friesenheim Island 717
1897 Käfertal 1777
1899 Neckarau 1575
1910 Feudenheim 781
1913 Sandhofen 2437
1913 Rheinau 959
1929 Wallstadt 674
1930 Seckenheim 1687
1930 Friedrichsfeld 225
1930 Kirschgartshausen 489
1930 Sand peat 264
1930 Street home 406
1944 District Rohrhof (partly) 233

Population development

Population development of Mannheim from 1871 to 2017

The population of the city of Mannheim exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1896, making it a major city. In 1905 the city had over 160,000 inhabitants, and this number had doubled by 1961. In 1970 the population reached its historic high of around 333,000. Due to migration losses to the surrounding area and a negative birth and death balance, the number of residents decreased to around 295,000 by 1986. The increased influx of people into metropolitan areas currently also applies to Mannheim.

As of December 31, 2015, the municipal statistics office of the city of Mannheim named 337,919 inhabitants, of which 317,744 had their main residence.

The proportion of foreigners based on their main place of residence is 25.2% (79,963 people). 138,428 inhabitants (43.6%) have a migration background taking into account naturalized persons and repatriates . The largest groups of immigrants come from:

In the individual city districts, the proportion of residents with a migration background is:


The first churches can be found in the 8th century in the suburbs of Scharhof, Wallstadt and Feudenheim . A parish in Mannheim itself was first mentioned in the 14th century. She belonged to the Diocese of Worms and was dedicated to St. Consecrated to Sebastian .

According to the 2011 census , 29.8% of the city's population were Catholic , 26.5% Protestant and 43.7% belonged to another or no religious community - this also includes Muslims , who make up around 10% of Mannheim's population. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then and those who do not belong to any legally or corporately constituted religious community are an absolute majority of the population. The current distribution of the city's population according to their religious affiliation (as of December 31, 2019) is Roman Catholic 25.9%, Protestant 20.5% and other / none 53.5%. (52.2% in 2018)


Elector Ottheinrich introduced the Reformation of the Lutheran Confession in the Electoral Palatinate with a mandate of April 4, 1556 , after his predecessor Friedrich II had made serious efforts in this direction ten years earlier (first Lutheran communion in Heidelberg's Heiliggeistkirche on April 18, 1546) . Under Ottheinrich's successor Friedrich III. From 1561 the Electoral Palatinate changed to the Calvinist reformed creed ( Heidelberg Catechism 1563). The time when Mannheim city was founded fell into the phase of the Electorate of the Palatinate Reformed Church, which gave the city a Reformed Protestant character for a long time.

In 1821 the union between Lutheran and Reformed parishes was carried out in the Grand Duchy of Baden . In 2005, the first youth church of the Protestant regional church of Baden was opened in the Waldhof district . With the incorporation of the previously independent Protestant parish Friedrichsfeld in 2008, all Protestant parishes, unless they belong to a free church, belong to the Mannheim church district within the North Baden parish of the Evangelical Church in Baden . The church district of North Baden has its seat in Schwetzingen.


After the city of Mannheim was founded, Catholic parishioners also moved in. The oldest Catholic church is the parish church of St. Sebastian on the market square, which was completed in 1723. In 1729, Elector Karl Philipp donated 100,000  guilders for the construction of the Jesuit Church , which was to serve as the court church . Together with the Church of Our Lady , it has been part of a joint parish of St. Sebastian since 2005. The remaining 28 Roman Catholic parishes are grouped into ten pastoral care units and belong to the city ​​dean of Mannheim of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .

Other churches

Hope Church of the Evangelical Free Church Community

There are also several Orthodox parishes, among others, the Russian Orthodox Church of St.  Alexander Nevsky and the Greek Orthodox church Exaltation .

There are also numerous Protestant free churches. These include B. the Free Evangelical Congregation (FEG), the Church House of the Lord (HdH-Mannheim) in Mannheim-Rheinau, the Free Church of the Seventh-day Adventists  (STA) and the Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists ). Your Hope Church has been in the Neckarstadt district since 1961.

The congregation of the Old Catholic Church has been at home in the Schlosskirche and the only blue church in Mannheim, the Erlöserkirche Gartenstadt , since 1873 .

In addition, there are other Christian denominations in Mannheim today, including the New Apostolic Church , Jehovah's Witnesses and a free religious community that emerged during the Baden Revolution in the mid-19th century.


The first synagogue was in Mannheim in 1660. The electors specifically encouraged the settlement of Jews with tax breaks and the privilege of freedom of trade in order to boost trade and handicrafts, particularly after the city was destroyed in the 17th century. In 1719 10.6% of the population was Jewish. By 1895 the Jewish community had grown to 4768 members. The rest of the population growth was even faster, so that after 1900 the Jewish share was only around three percent. In 1933 there were 6,402 Jews in Mannheim, which made up the largest community in Baden.

By reprisals after the seizure of power of the Nazis , many Jews came early in need. As early as 1933, the then Lord Mayor Carl Renninger ( NSDAP ) forbade the awarding of contracts to Jewish companies. Jewish lecturers at the local commercial college were given leave of absence, the Mannheim National Theater dismissed Jewish actors, and Jewish doctors were withdrawn from health insurance. Many families emigrated abroad, especially to the USA . After the three synagogues in Mannheim were devastated in 1939, around 2000 and thus almost all of the remaining Jews were deported to Gurs in 1940. Most of them were deported to the German concentration camps in occupied Poland and murdered.

After the Second World War , only a few emigrants returned to Mannheim. The reestablishment of the Jewish community after the Nazi persecution took place with only 120 members. The new synagogue of the Jewish community opened in 1987. In 2012 the congregation had around 500 members.


Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque in the Jungbusch district

With the second wave of guest workers in the mid-1960s, many immigrants from Turkey came to Mannheim, and thus for the first time a significant number of Muslims . Their number rose to 20,827 by 2004, which is seven percent of the Mannheim population, the majority of whom are immigrants from Muslim countries and their descendants. In 1995, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque , the largest mosque in Germany until then , was built with 2500 places for prayer. In 2005 the already dilapidated minaret was rebuilt slimmer and higher. In 2010, the Ehsan Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat was built in Mannheim-Casterfeld . There are also other mosques in the city center / Jungbusch (three), Neckarstadt-West (two) and Neckarstadt-East, Waldhof, Neckarau, Rheinau and Hochstätt districts (one each).


Town hall in E5

Municipal council

City council election 2019
in percent
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
Distribution of seats in the
Mannheim City Council 2019
A total of 48 seats

The municipal council has 48 seats and is directly elected for five years. In addition, the mayor acts as the voting chairman of the municipal council. According to Baden-Württemberg's municipal electoral law, voters have the option of accumulating and variegating .

The 2019 local elections led to the following result (in brackets: difference to 2014):

City council election 2019
Party / group of voters be right Seats
GREEN 24.4% (+8.1) 12 (+4)
SPD 21.2% (−6.1) 10 (−3)
CDU 19.1% (−7.0) 9 (−3)
AfD 9.2% (+1.4) 4 (± 0)
FW - ML 7.4% (−1.9) 4 (± 0)
FDP 6.1% (+1.6) 3 (+1)
THE LEFT. 6.0% (−0.2) 3 (± 0)
The party 3.0% (+3.0) 1 (+1)
Medium-sized companies for Mannheim (MfM) 1.3% (−0.1) 1 (± 0)
Animal welfare party 1.1% (+1.1) 1 (+1)
Others 1.2% (+0.1) 0 (−1)
Turnout: 49.8% (+11.1)


Lord Mayor Peter Kurz (SPD)

At the head of the city ​​administration is the mayor , who is also chairman of the council. He is directly elected for a term of eight years. Acting Lord Mayor is Peter Kurz (SPD), who was elected in the 2007 Mayor election with 50.53% and a voter turnout of 36.64% in the first ballot.

The first round of the Mayor elections 2015 took place on June 14th. The incumbent, supported by the SPD, Greens and Die Linke, achieved 46.8%. The results of the challengers: Christopher Probst (Mannheimer Liste) 15.9%, Peter Rosenberger (CDU) 33.8% and Christian Sommer (The Party) 3.3%. Other elected received 0.2%. The turnout was 30.7%. Since no candidate achieved the required absolute majority, the decision was made in a second ballot on July 5, 2015. There, a simple majority was sufficient according to the electoral principles laid down in the Baden-Württemberg municipal code .

A first mayor (also deputy mayor) and four other mayors are placed alongside the mayor. They are elected by the local council for a term of eight years and therefore reflect the political majority at the time of the election. Each mayor has a department in the city administration:

  • Christian Specht (CDU) is the first mayor responsible for finances, assets, security and order.
  • Michael Grötsch (CDU) heads the department for economy, labor, social affairs and culture.
  • Dirk Grunert (Greens) is responsible for education, youth, family and health.
  • Lothar Quast (SPD) is responsible for building, planning, traffic and sports.
  • Felicitas Kubala (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) heads the Department for Citizen Service, Environment and Technical Operations.

The city administration has a total of around 7100 employees.

The city leaders since 1810 were:


In the federal election on September 24, 2017 , Nikolas Löbel (CDU) won the direct mandate in constituency 275 with 29.3% . This was followed by the candidates Stefan Rebmann (SPD) with 27.9% and Gerhard Schick (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) with 13.1% of the first votes. Schick, like Gökay Akbulut (DIE LINKE), entered the Bundestag via the state lists of their parties.

The CDU in Mannheim was also ahead of the SPD (21.2%) with 27.1% of the second votes.

coat of arms

Mannheim city flag
Mannheim coat of arms
Blazon : "Split of gold and black, in front a standing red double hook ( wolf's tang ), behind a red-armored, tongued and crowned double-tailed golden lion ."
Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms was established by the city council in 1896 and confirmed by the Grand Duke of Baden. The Wolfsangel has been traceable on a district boundary stone since the 17th century. It is probably a stain mark . The lion is the electoral Palatinate lion , the heraldic animal of the Elector Palatinate, whose royal seat Mannheim was from 1720. Both coats of arms have appeared in the city's seals since the 18th century. The city usually uses the coat of arms in a simplified form in the New Objectivity style .

The city colors blue-white-red have only been in use since the 19th century and point to a sealing cord from 1613. The city colors are not derived from the coat of arms colors, which is completely unusual.

At the beginning of 2003, the city administration acquired a new logo for outdoor advertising: Mannheim im Quadrat . It shows a red square with the number two inside in white in the sans serif, semi-bold font FF Kievit and is intended to symbolize the squaring of the streets in the city center. But the superscript 2 should also stand for the potential of the city, “culture to the power of two”, “science to the power of two” and “Mannheim is life to the power of two”.

Town twinning

Mannheim maintains twinning agreements with the following cities :

There are also friendship agreements (1989) with El Viejo in Nicaragua and (2011) with Beyoğlu , a district of Istanbul . In December 2013, Mannheim and Hebron ( Palestinian Autonomous Territories ) signed a cooperation agreement, initially valid for two years.

Neighborhood association

Mannheim belongs to the Heidelberg-Mannheim neighborhood association , whose task it is to draw up the regional land use plan.

Culture and sights

The Stadt.Wand.Kunst project launched by the Alte Feuerwache cultural center to paint houses in the city with large-scale wall paintings (so-called murals) by national and international artists from the street art scene began in 2013 and is ultimately intended to be turned into a kind of public gallery flow into urban space.

National Theater Mannheim


The Nationaltheater Mannheim was founded in 1779 by Elector Karl Theodor . Already in 1839 completely subordinated to the city's responsibility, it is today the oldest communal theater in the world.

In 1782 Friedrich Schiller's Die Räuber was premiered here. Today the four-part theater has its own ensembles for music theater ( opera , operetta , musical ), drama , ballet and the Schnawwl children's and youth theater .

There are also several smaller stages, including the Oststadt-Theater , Theaterhaus G7 , Theater Oliv , the Freilichtbühne, Theater31, Theater ImPuls, Theater Felina-Areal, the Mannheim puppet shows , the cabaret Klapsmühl ' , Schatzkistl and zeitraumexit as well as that Rhein-Neckar-Theater in Mannheim-Neckarau.


Art Gallery
Armory Museum in C5

The Kunsthalle Mannheim was founded on the 300th anniversary of Mannheim in 1907. A traditional focus of the collection is the German and French painting of the 19th and 20th centuries as well as the international sculptures of the 20th century. In addition, there is an extensive collection of copper engravings , a collection of graphics, posters, art and recent photographs and video installations. In line with its founding motto “Kunsthalle für alle”, admission is free on the first Wednesday of the month and on every subsequent Wednesday between 6 and 8 p.m.

The Technoseum - opened in 1990 as the State Museum for Technology and Work and renamed Technoseum in 2010 - offers illustrative material on the industrialization of the German south-west. There are also temporary exhibitions, the were Körperwelten of Gunther von Hagens in 1997 for the first time shown in Europe in Mannheim.

The Reiss-Engelhorn-Museums go back to the Electoral Academy of Sciences founded in 1763. Today several museums and institutions are united under one roof:

Furthermore, changing special exhibitions take place in the Museum Weltkulturen. Topics of past exhibitions were, for example, the Maya , Pompeii , early history of Japan and the Germanic peoples .

From May 2013 to May 2014, the Panoptikum wax museum was located in the town hall .

The Mannheimer Kunstverein , which shows current and new art, has existed since 1833 and is one of the oldest and largest art associations. These and other cultural institutions are connected by the culture mile . The annual Long Night of Museums (together with Heidelberg and Ludwigshafen) is the second largest event of its kind in Germany after Berlin.

The Stadtgalerie Mannheim in S4 was launched in May 2011. The rooms rented by the city and subsidized annually with 100,000 euros offer regional artists the opportunity to present themselves and their works. The concept offers both the possibility of a pure exhibition area and the testing of new exhibition concepts. Up to eight changing exhibitions are planned annually. The Stadtgalerie Mannheim is managed by the curator Benedikt Stegmayer. Entry is free. In 2014 the city gallery will move to the newly planned creative business center in Jungbusch.

In December 2012, the Mannheim municipal council approved a new building for the Kunsthalle (“Museum City”) on Friedrichsplatz. The costs amount to around 70 million euros and completion is scheduled for 2017.

In the Mannheim-Sandhofen district there is a documentation center for the branch of the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp .


The Mannheim dialect is spoken in Mannheim , a dialect from the Electoral Palatinate.


The Mannheim School - founded by Johann Stamitz around 1750 - was initially a group of musicians at the Palatinate court. Later, it was understood to be a whole school of composition that turned away from the orchestral composition dominated by the bass dominated by the European tradition and the late Baroque pathos and developed a new, more graceful style whose harmony followed the course of the melody. In doing so, she performed essential preparatory work for the development of Viennese classicism .

The Mannheim school and the internationally famous court music of Elector Karl Theodor prompted Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to stay in Mannheim for months. But Mozart could not gain a foothold there professionally.

The Baden-Württemberg Pop Academy
Mannheim Music Park in the Jungbusch district

The Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester was founded in 1952. It maintains the tradition of the Mannheim School, but also the music of the Vienna School and the Viennese Classic.

The opera singer Anneliese Rothenberger and the classical violinist Clara-Jumi Kang also come from Mannheim .

The Mannheim Wind Philharmonic dates back to the Mannheim Youth Symphony Orchestra, founded by Stefan Fritzen in 1987 .

The City of Mannheim Concert Choir was founded in 2002 and is one of the large ensembles of the Mannheim City Music School.

The formerly numerous choral societies have recently suffered from problems with young talent. Many gospel choirs have developed for this, such as the Celebration Gospel Choir, the Preacherman's Friends, the Rainbow Gospel & Soul Connection and the Joyful Voices. The Young Chamber Choir Mannheim has existed since 2005, which is aimed primarily at young people and rehearses every semester.

In recent years, Mannheim has also made a name for itself in popular music. The Popakademie Baden-Württemberg is the first such institution in Germany. Successful Mannheim musicians include Joy Fleming , Joana , Mardi Gras.BB , Silke Hauck , Elly Lapp, Raffaella, Xavier Naidoo and the sons of Mannheim , Claus Eisenmann , Laith Al-Deen , Wallis Bird , the band Blaues Wunder , Rolf Stahlhofen , the Krautrock Band Kin Ping Meh , Johanna Zeul , Danny Fresh , Get Well Soon , Edo Zanki , Norbert Schwefel , Peter Seiler and others.

Rosengarten Congress Center in the Oststadt district

Mannheim is also considered the cradle of the drum and bass music style in Germany: The Mannheimer Milk! -Club was the first club in Germany that was only dedicated to this music. Greats of the British scene came here first. Bassface Sascha , one of the resident DJs next to “Groover Klein”, later founded the first major German drum and bass labels and also put together the first widely used samplers such as Jungle Fever and Hardstep Upfront. The milk! was voted Club of the Year by Groove Magazine in 1992, and Milk! was presented as Love Pirates. and the Milk! poses at the Love Parade in Berlin.

Popular venues are the Alte Feuerwache Mannheim and the Capitol Mannheim , the Rosengarten congress center , the SAP Arena , the Maimarktclub , the open-air area on the Maimarkt, the 7er Club on Friesenheimer Insel and the Alte Seilerei in Neckarau .

In November 2014 Mannheim received the title “City of Music” from UNESCO .

The symphonic metal band " Beyond the Black " was founded in 2014 in Mannheim.

Youth and socioculture

The FORUM youth culture center in Mannheim - view from the "sheep pasture"

With the FORUM, Mannheim has a youth culture center that houses a total of three play areas for different cultural genres. The multi- disciplinary house in the immediate vicinity of the Neckar is home to the areas of music , film , theater , visual arts , literature , transculture and political education with courses, cultural education offers, concerts, theater performances, readings and networking opportunities. As a mouthpiece for youth culture, the FORUM repeatedly ensures broad debates in urban society.

Well-known cornerstones of the FORUM program are the multi-award-winning inclusive theater ensemble “Moment Theater”, the gender sensitive short film festival “Girls Go Movie” by “fresh! Club ”for young bands, the young urban design initiative“ JUGA Mannheim ”and the young literary program“ Der Schreibpool ”. The Stadtjugendring Mannheim eV is responsible for the FORUM youth culture center


Water tower with fountain and park on Friedrichsplatz


The Friedrichsplatz lies to the east of downtown. At its center is Mannheim's landmark, the 60-meter-high water tower . It was built in 1889 in neo-baroque style and is crowned by a 3.50 meter statue of Amphitrite . The square around it was designed by Bruno Schmitz until 1903 with fountains, water features, arcades and green spaces in Art Nouveau style. The water features are illuminated for an hour after dark in summer. In the run-up to Christmas there is a Christmas market around the water tower and the Triton Fountain . The eastern semicircle of Friedrichsplatz is bounded by arcade houses with red sandstone facades . Art and festival halls were built in the north-south axis of the water tower. The art gallery - built in 1907 by Hermann Billing and provided with an extension in 1983 - corresponds with its red sandstone to the existing buildings on Friedrichsplatz. The rose garden - the name of which is derived from an old trade name - was opened as a festival hall in 1903 and at that time housed the largest hall in Germany, the Nibelung Hall. Today there is a congress and conference center there. In addition to the water tower on Friedrichsplatz, there are almost 20 other historic water towers in Mannheim.


The Planken pedestrian zone leads west from Friedrichsplatz to the central square in Mannheim, the Paradeplatz . It originally served the electors for troop parades. In the center of the square is the Grupello pyramid . It was created in 1711 by Gabriel Grupello for Elector Johann Wilhelm and installed in the Düsseldorf palace garden. Karl Philipp had them brought to Mannheim across the Rhine in 1743. The pyramid bears the name "Allegory of the ruling virtues" and represents the triumph of the princely virtues. At the end of the 19th century, the parade ground was designed with green areas, which are separated by star-shaped paths leading to the Grupello pyramid. On the south side of the square, the old department store was built by 1746, which initially housed shops and from 1909 the town hall. After it was destroyed in the Second World War , it was not rebuilt, but the town hall was built until 1991 , in which shops, the town library and the town council were located. The memorial for the Jewish victims of National Socialism was erected on the planks in 2003 . The names of the Jewish victims from Mannheim are written in mirror writing on the glass cube . The cube was set up horizontally rotated by 45 degrees to the course of the planks so that a side axis points to the center of the parade ground.

Market square on "Breiten Straße" with a weekly market
Fountain monument by Peter van den Branden from 1719

The market square is north of Paradeplatz on the Breite Straße pedestrian zone in the center of the lower town. In its center there is a fountain monument from 1719. It was created by Peter van den Branden and placed in the Heidelberg castle garden . Elector Carl Theodor then gave it to the city of Mannheim as a gift in 1767. The figures of the monument, which originally symbolized the four elements earth, water, air and fire, were redesigned so that they now represent an allegory of Mannheim, Handel, Rhine and Neckar. On the south side of the market square is a baroque double building, which is probably the oldest surviving building in Mannheim: the old town hall and the lower parish church of St. Sebastian were built until 1713. In the middle, both are connected to a bell tower that ends in a multi-tiered helmet. The different sculptures on the facade indicate the function. At the old town hall there are Justitia and atlases at the parish church Pietas and angel figures. The carillon sounds three times a day.

Sacred buildings

The Jesuit church was built until 1760 as a court church for the electors according to plans by da Bibienas . The art historian Dehio described it as the most important baroque church in southwest Germany. The mighty crossing dome has a height of 75 m. The interior murals were made by the Munich artist Egid Quirin Asam . The high altar and the six side altars were designed by Egell and Verschaffelt in the late Baroque and early Classicism periods.

Christ Church

The Christ Church was built until 1911 as a representative sacred building of the Protestant church in the eastern part of the city. Built in the neo-baroque style with Art Nouveau elements, it stands on Werderplatz and thus forms the end point of three visual axes. The dome has a height of 65 meters. Larger-than-life statues of the twelve apostles surround the first tower corridor . The four-manual Steinmeyer organ from 1911 is one of the largest organs in Germany with 96 registers and around 8000 sounding pipes (including a spacious "remote control" in the dome). In addition, in 1988 the Danish company Marcussen built a two-manual organ in the baroque style.

The history of the neo-baroque Konkordienkirche goes back to the year 1685. Originally planned as a double church for the German and Walloon Reformed parishes, it was destroyed and used several times. It has existed in its present form since 1918 with a Protestant church in one part and a school in the other. At 92 meters, the church tower is the highest in Mannheim.

The synagogue was completed in 1987. The granite red facade of the cube building is characterized by high lead-glazed arched windows. A flat dome spans over it. The two main entrances have replicas of a wrought iron skylight grille from the main synagogue that was destroyed in 1938 .

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque , built in 1995, was the largest representative mosque in Germany when it was completed. The light plaster facade is emphasized in the middle by the overhang of the prayer niche and is designed with offset triangular windows. The reinforced concrete supports of the minaret showed cracks after a short time, so that in 2005 it was rebuilt slightly higher at 35 meters.

Secular buildings

Main courtyard of the palace

The palace was the residence of the Elector Palatinate. Built between 1720 and 1760, it is the largest closed baroque complex in Europe after Versailles . The front facing the city center is 440 meters long and is the end point of seven parallel streets. In the design have included Bibiena since Alessandro Galli , Egell, Rabaliatti , Pigage and Cosmas Damian Asam involved. Completely destroyed in World War II, the castle was rebuilt in a simplified form by 1968. By 2006 the roof of the Corps de Logis was restored in its original form, thanks to a generous donation from Hasso Plattner .

Since April 2007, the Mannheim Palace with its newly opened Palace Museum has again offered an insight into life in the Baroque and Empire. Rooms that were destroyed in the war were reconstructed to provide a backdrop for high-quality exhibits. The visitor gets an insight into the life of the Palatinate Electors (especially Karl Theodor) and the Baden Princess Stéphanie von Baden, an adopted daughter of the French Emperor Napoléon I.

The north bank of the Neckar in the style of brutalism
The Collini Center with the technical town hall

The armory dates back to 1779. It was built by Peter Anton von Verschaffelt in the classical style. Since 1918 it housed the collections of Carl Reiss and since 1956 it has been the seat of the Reiss Museum. The building will be extensively renovated by 2007.

The neo-classical Palais Bretzenheim , which Elector Karl Theodor gave to his mistress and her children, was also built according to plans by Verschaffelt by 1788 . In 1899 the building became the headquarters of the Rheinische Hypothekenbank and has been used by the Mannheim District Court since 2004.

The telecommunications tower is the tallest building in the city at 212.8 meters. It was built in 1975 according to plans by Heinle and Schlaich . At a height of 125 meters there is a revolving restaurant and a viewing platform from which one has a wide panoramic view of Mannheim and the surrounding area.

Five of the six tallest skyscrapers in Baden-Württemberg are in Mannheim. They were all built on the outer side of the inner city ring. The three residential towers of the north bank of the Neckar and the apartment house Collini-Center were built as early as 1975 . The Victoria Tower was completed in 2001 and is the tallest office building in the city. All five high-rise buildings are roughly the same height at 95–102 meters.

There are 19 water towers in Mannheim , more than in any other comparable city.

Parks and green spaces

Luisenpark: tulip bed in spring

The Luisenpark is the largest city park with 41 hectares. It was laid out in 1903 (Unterer Luisenpark) and expanded for the Federal Garden Show in 1975 (Oberer Luisenpark). Located near the city center on the Neckar, the upper part offers numerous attractions such as a plant show house, Chinese tea garden, butterfly house, gondolettas and a floating stage. The lower part is freely accessible.

The Herzogenriedpark was also part of the Federal Garden Show. At 22 hectares, it is slightly smaller than its “big brother”, north of the Neckar city. The animal enclosure, the rosarium and the multi-hall with a tent-like roof construction based on a design by Frei Otto are worth seeing .

The palace garden extends behind the palace to the Rhine and is the second largest park in Mannheim with 38 hectares. From 1808 Grand Duchess Stephanie had it laid out as an English Garden on the remains of the former city fortifications. The park was considerably reduced in size by the railway line built between 1863 and 1867, the federal highways built from 1959 with their countless entrances and exits and the light rail line to Ludwigshafen. Some of the green has been pushed back on a few traffic islands. At the west end, in the so-called Friedrichspark, is the former ice rink.

The forest park with the associated Reißinsel is one of the largest natural floodplains on the Rhine. The peninsula belonged to Carl Reiss , who bequeathed it to the city on condition that it be preserved in its natural state and made accessible to the city's citizens. Numerous rare bird species such as black woodpeckers , gray herons and kites , but also neozoa such as ringed parakeets and Canada geese can be observed on the tearing island.

In 2000, over 29 percent of the urban area in Mannheim was designated as a nature or landscape protection area. Mannheim will host the Federal Garden Show in 2023 . A connection to the garden shows of 1907 and 1975 is planned for the concept.


SAP arena
Carl-Benz-Stadion : home of SV Waldhof-Mannheim

The most popular sport in Mannheim is ice hockey . The Adler Mannheim (formerly Mannheimer ERC ) were 1980, 1997-1999, 2001, 2007, 2015 and 2019 German Hockey Champion . They have played their home games in the SAP Arena since 2005 .

The Rhein-Neckar Löwen are a handball Bundesliga team whose home games are also played in the SAP Arena. The Lions' greatest successes were the German championship in 2016 and 2017, victory in the EHF Europe Cup 2013, reaching the semi-finals in the Champions League in 2009 and victory in the DHB Cup in 2018.

The two football clubs VfR Mannheim (German football champion 1949) and SV Waldhof Mannheim (Bundesliga club 1983–1990) are still known nationwide, even if the greatest successes were a long time ago . The latter managed to return to professional football in 2019 with promotion to the 3rd football league after 16 years.

The men's team of TSV Mannheim hockey plays in the first Hockey League , the women's team in the 2. Bundesliga. The Mannheimer HC teams also play in the 1st  Bundesliga .

In 2005 MTG Mannheim founded a football department, the Rhein-Neckar Bandits . She has been playing in the German Football League since 2012 . Before that, the Mannheim Redskins played in the first division. Her greatest success was the German runner-up in 1981.

The German Basketball Federation plays since 1958 in memory of Albert Schweitzer every other year in the spring in Mannheim on his Europe -Jugend- Basketball Tournament , the Albert Schweitzer Tournament for youth national teams. This international friendship meeting, in the spirit of the doctor and Nobel Peace Prize laureate , is one of the most important and best-attended basketball tournaments for youth teams worldwide, in which numerous later NBA professionals have already participated.

The TK Grün-Weiss Mannheim plays successfully in the Tennis -Bundesliga. The club was German team champion in 1922, 1993, 1996, 2005, 2007 and 2010.

The athletics club MTG Mannheim has consistently produced outstanding athletes since it was founded. The female sprinters are particularly successful at the moment. At the German Championships 2016 in Kassel Ricarda Lobe won the bronze medal in the 100 meter hurdles sprint and the 4 x 100 meter relay of the MTG Mannheim with Ricarda Lobe, Alexandra Burghardt , Nadine Gonska and Yasmin Kwadwo the gold medal. Also in 2015 in Nuremberg, the MTG relay won the gold medal at the German championships with the women's 4 x 100 meter relay in the line-up of Verena Sailer , Ricarda Lobe, Alexandra Burghardt and Yasmin Kwadwo. The former successful sprinters of MTG, Verena Sailer, who became European champion in the 100-meter sprint in 2016, and Carolin Nytra have ended their careers.

With the support of the large American colony of the US Army in Mannheim, baseball has enjoyed great success in the past. The Mannheim clubs Knights, VfR, Amigos and Tornados won the German baseball championship nineteen times between 1954 and 1997 . The Mannheim Tornados play in the Bundesliga baseball . Mannheim's Claus T. Helmig was the first German baseball player with a professional contract in the USA in 1956.

The cycling club RRC Endspurt Mannheim enjoyed worldwide success in the 1950s and 1960s and nationally until the 1990s . Particularly noteworthy are Willi and Rudi Altig under the coach Karl Ziegler .

The Mannheim Glider Club is a cross-country flight club and operates its activities at Mannheim Airport . He flies in the first German glider league and has provided German and international champions several times.

In the past, the Mannheimer RV Amicitia rowing club, which has existed since 1876, has produced some successful athletes at World Championships and Olympic Games. The rowing club Mannheimer Rudergesellschaft Baden (MRG Baden for short), founded in 1875, has also produced well-known rowers, such as Filip Adamski .

The Mannheim-Sandhofen water sports club was founded in 1925. He presented world and Olympic champions in canoe racing. The Canoe Club Mannheim won several German championships in the 1960s.

Mannheim has hosted several top-class sporting events such as the 2010 Ice Hockey World Championship (together with Cologne), the Men's Handball World Championship in 2007 , the European Show Jumping Championship in 2007, the first German Championship in individual vaulting in 1986 and the World Vaulting Championship in 2000.

The Mannheim section of the German Alpine Club is one of the largest sections in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region with over 3,400 members. It operates two alpine refuges in the Rätikon , the Mannheimer Hütte and the Oberzalimhütte .

Regular events

Carnival parade 2013
Cultural center Alte Feuerwache in the Neckarstadt-Ost district
Capitol event center in the Neckarstadt-Ost district

Culinary specialties

Original "Mannemer Dreck"

In Mannheim, as with the origins of the inhabitants (around 170 nationalities from all over the world), a wide range of gastronomy is represented. Typical culinary specialties from Mannheim are the gingerbread-like pastries Mannemer Dreck and the alcoholic drink Mannheimer Hafenwasser . The typical Mannheim beer is the "Eichbaum", which is produced and sold in different variations by the Mannheimer Eichbaum breweries . As the market leader in the Rhine-Neckar region, the brands Eichbaum, Ureich, Gerstel and Karamalz are also sold nationwide .

Spaghetti ice cream is an ice cream that owes its name to its special look: It looks like spaghetti pasta with tomato sauce. It was invented in 1969 by the Mannheim ice cream manufacturer Dario Fontanella .


The Amador restaurant , named after its operator Juan Amador , was the first three-star restaurant in Mannheim from November 2011 to May 2015 .

Economy and Infrastructure

Omnibus made in Mannheim
Zewa comes from Mannheim


In the Future Atlas 2016 , the urban district of Mannheim was ranked 52nd out of 402 rural districts and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future opportunities". In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 35th out of 401.

In 2017, of the 185,371 employees subject to social insurance contributions, 27.9% were employed in the manufacturing industry, 22.7% in trade , hospitality and transport and 49.2% in the other service sector. In 2016, Mannheim achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 19.685 billion within the city limits, making it 18th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The share in the economic output of Baden-Württemberg was 4.1%. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 64,483 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and is thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 3.8%. In 2016 there were around 243,000 employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in January 2020 was 6.2% and thus above the Baden-Württemberg average of 3.5%.

Although Mannheim has been characterized by a profound structural change since the 1970s at the latest, which is marked by a reduction in industrial jobs and the increase in the service sector, the metal and chemical industries are still very present.

The electrical and mechanical engineering industries are strongest . The largest companies include:

The chemical industry is represented by:

The Mannheim financial center is no longer leading as it was in 1900, but is still of great importance, especially with its insurance companies . The Mannheimer Insurance and the Inter Insurance Group are based here. One of the four Headquarters of LBBW is located in Mannheim, the new legal protection insurance maintains a central claims office, the SV Sparkasse insurance an important branch, the Ergo Versicherungsgruppe has here also a location.

The food industry is represented by Südzucker , Birkel Pasta, the Eichbaum private brewery , Pfalzmühle Mannheim (a PMG Premium Mühlen Group company) and Bunge Germany (oil and grain seed processing).

Bilfinger and Diringer & Scheidel belong to the construction industry, Bauhaus and Engelhorn are represented in the retail sector .

The publishing house Edition-Panorama , made famous by the series New-York Vertical by the Mannheim photographer Horst Hamann and the Huber Verlag , publisher u. a. des TatowierMagazin and Bikers News , is based in Mannheim. In addition, the Bibliographical Institute & F. A. Brockhaus (Brockhaus, Duden, Langenscheidt, Meyer) previously had its seat in Mannheim.

The MVV Energie is the largest municipal utilities in Germany. The Berrang Group is an internationally operating large company in mechanical connection technology.

Large trade fairs are held regularly on the Mannheim Maimarkt site. The most important is the 400-year-old Mannheimer Maimarkt , which is Germany's largest regional consumer exhibition with 1,400 exhibitors and 350,000 visitors. But Europe's largest classic car market, the Veterama , also takes place every year on the Maimarkt site.


Major roads


The Mannheim / Ludwigshafen agglomeration is surrounded by a motorway ring with a total of seven motorway junctions. In the north and east, the Federal Motorway 6 ( Saarbrücken - Nuremberg ) encloses the city ​​area, the motorway ring completes the A 61 on the left bank of the Rhine in the west and south of Ludwigshafen. In the northeast of Mannheim, the A 67 branches off to Darmstadt and Frankfurt , in the east the A 656 to Heidelberg and the A 659 to Weinheim . Further to the east, the A 5 (Frankfurt– Basel ) runs parallel . The federal highways 36 , 37 , 38 , 38a and 44 run through the city .

Rail / public transport

An ICE on the western Riedbahn entry.

Mannheim is the second largest railway junction in southwest Germany. In 2010, 238 long-distance trains stopped daily at the main train station , providing direct connections to Hamburg , Berlin and Cologne, among others . Since 1991, there has been a fast and efficient ICE connection to the Stuttgart region via the Mannheim – Stuttgart high-speed line.

A comparable connection to the neighboring Rhine-Main region is being planned with the new Rhine / Main – Rhine / Neckar line , since trains coming from Frankfurt have been able to stop without turning at the main station since the western introduction of the Riedbahn (WER) in 1985 to have to. The European high-speed connection Paris- Frankfurt ( LGV Est européenne ) has been running through Mannheim since 2007 .

The marshalling yard is the second largest in Europe after Maschen . In 2005, 30 international, 60 national and 440 regional freight trains were handled every day .

The RheinNeckar S-Bahn has been running since 2003, opening up almost the entire Rhine-Neckar area and running lines to the Palatinate, the Odenwald and southern Hesse. Four of the seven S-Bahn lines go via Mannheim Central Station.

Local public transport in Mannheim has been supplied by trams since 1878 . Ten light rail and numerous RNV bus lines are in operation today. All public transport can be used at uniform prices within the Rhein-Neckar transport association. The Mannheim-Ludwigshafen underground network, which began in the 1970s, was not implemented, apart from small sections, for cost reasons. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Dalbergstraße stop. The subway plans have now been discontinued.


Container port

Benefiting from the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar rivers, the Mannheim port, with an area of ​​1,131 hectares, is one of the most important and largest inland ports in Europe today . In 2016, 6.9 million tons of goods were handled on the waterside. Almost 500 companies with 20,000 jobs are located in the port area.


Mannheim has a commercial airfield located in the Neuostheim district , Mannheim Airport . There are currently two daily scheduled connections to Berlin-Tegel Airport and Hamburg Airport , operated by Rhein-Neckar Air . Until December 2012, the scheduled service was carried out by Cirrus Airlines . Frankfurt International Airport is 65 kilometers north and can be reached by ICE in 30 minutes.


In addition to the only local daily newspaper Mannheimer Morgen , the Ludwigshafener Rheinpfalz , the Heidelberger Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung and the Bild Rhein-Neckar offer a local section for Mannheim. In addition, there is the weekly Mannheim newspaper with the official gazette. The municipal info Mannheim appears every 14 days. Free neighborhood newspapers are distributed in almost all parts of the city .

As the regional television broadcaster for the Rhein-Neckar-Dreieck , Rhein-Neckar Fernsehen is at home. There is also a studio for Südwestrundfunk (SWR) in Mannheim . From here, among other things, the regional program Kurpfalz-Radio is broadcast by SWR4 . The private radio stations bigFM , Radio Regenbogen and sunshine live are also based in Mannheim . The bermuda.funk - the Free Radio Rhein Neckar - has been receivable since 2000 . In 2001, the campus radio took radioactively on the transmit mode. From 1993 to 2009, the American Forces Network of the US armed forces produced the local program AFN Heidelberg in Seckenheim. From 2009 to 2012 the studios were located in the AFN European headquarters, which had moved from Frankfurt am Main to Sandhofen in 2004.

From 1986 to 2012 the city magazine meier was published monthly as a print edition. The Mannheim Sports Week was published weekly from 2006 to 2007 . Both magazines are now published as an online medium.

The media group Dr. Haas , who owns all of Mannheimer Morgen and partly of Radio Regenbogen and big FM.

Authorities and institutions

Police car of the KOD Mannheim

There was a municipal police force in Mannheim until 1971 . The Baden-Württemberg State Police has been responsible for Mannheim since 1971 . The Mannheim Police Headquarters is headed by Police President Andreas Stenger. The police stations in the city center, Oststadt, Neckarstadt, Neckarau, Käfertal, Sandhofen and Ladenburg , Wiesloch , Schwetzingen , Eberbach , Hockenheim , Heidelberg- Süd, Heidelberg-Mitte, Heidelberg-Nord, Weinheim , Sinsheim and Neckargemünd, each with their associated police posts, are subordinate to the police headquarters. The police headquarters are also assigned offices of the criminal police and traffic police, as well as a service dog handler unit. Since 1965 there has been a police music corps at the Mannheim police headquarters.

In addition to the Baden-Württemberg state police , a KOD, municipal security service, has also been operating as a kind of resurgent city ​​police since 1998 .

There is a French and an Italian honorary consulate in the city. Mannheim is the seat of the office of the Rhine-Neckar Region Association and the Heidelberg-Mannheim Neighborhood Association . The Chamber of Crafts and the IHK Rhein-Neckar are also located here, whose chamber districts each include the city districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the Rhein-Neckar district and the Neckar-Odenwald district. There is also an employment agency and two tax offices. The Mannheim correctional facility is the largest in Baden-Württemberg with over 800 prison places. Due to the number of inhabitants, Mannheim has a fire brigade made up of volunteers and full-time workers .

Two major statutory accident insurance institutions have their headquarters in Mannheim: the professional association for food and hospitality and the professional association for trade and goods distribution . Mannheim is also the seat of a parish of the Evangelical Church in Baden and a deanery of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .


In Mannheim, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Court is the court of appeal for all administrative courts in the state. The regional labor court , based in Stuttgart , has chambers in Mannheim.

Furthermore, the city has an office - and a district court with patent law chambers, both the Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe include, as well as a labor court and a social court .


Entrance to the university hospital

In Mannheim there are four large hospitals with the University Clinic , the Diakoniekrankenhaus , the Theresienkrankenhaus and St. Hedwig Clinic and the Central Institute for Mental Health . They are spread over several locations in the city.


Mannheim was a garrison for parts of the 110th Grenadier Regiment ( XIV. (Baden) Army Corps ) of the Prussian Army until 1918 . As of 1936 , as a result of the rearmament operated by the Nazi regime , several new barracks were built for the Mannheim Wehrmacht garrison. These were used on a large scale by the US Army in the Cold War period after 1945 . At times there were several thousand US soldiers in Mannheim, including z. B. Parts of the 8th US Infantry Division . The Bundeswehr presence was limited to a few smaller units of the territorial army .

A number of important NATO and US Army facilities were located in Mannheim for a long time. However, when USAREUR moved to the new headquarters in Wiesbaden in September 2013, the number of US soldiers and employees fell drastically. All American military facilities in Mannheim are to be closed by the end of 2015.


Main entrance of the economics faculty of the University of Mannheim
University of the Federal Employment Agency
State University for Music and Performing Arts
IDS Institute for the German Language

The school reformer Joseph Anton Sickinger developed the Mannheim school system at the beginning of the 20th century . He made important contributions to education.

Tertiary education

Quaternary education

Research centers and institutes

  • Institute for German-Turkish Integration Studies: Islam Studies-Islamic Nutrition, Islamic Pastoral Care-Rhein Neckar Metropol
  • Institute for German, European and International Medical Law, Health Law and Bioethics (IMGB), founded in 1998 by the Universities of Heidelberg and Mannheim, is one of the most renowned centers in Germany for research in the fields of medical and health law and bioethics.
  • Institute for German Language , founded in 1964, is dedicated to language research.
  • Institute for SME Research, has been researching the development of SMEs on an empirical and interdisciplinary basis since 1989.
  • Research association for electrical systems and electricity management , promotes the efficiency, safety and economic efficiency of the supply of electrical energy.
  • Fraunhofer project group for automation in medicine and biotechnology , deals with automation solutions in medicine and biotechnology
  • Elections research group , researches voter behavior and observes social trends and moods.
  • International Institute for Vocational Training Mannheim, subordinate to the Ministry for Culture, Youth and Sport Baden-Württemberg
  • State seminar for didactics and teacher training, responsible for primary and secondary schools
  • Mannheim Center for European Social Research , has been researching societal, social and political developments in Europe since it was founded in 1989.
  • Center for European Economic Research , has been working in the field of applied empirical economic research since 1991.
  • GESIS - Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences is the largest German infrastructure facility for the social sciences .
  • Goethe-Institut , the Goethe-Institut Mannheim is located in the Almenhof district.
  • Marchivum (Mannheim City Archives), founded in 1907, researches the history of Mannheim


Numerous well-known personalities were born in Mannheim or have worked here. Since 1820, the city has granted honorary citizenship 43 times . The Bloomaulorden , which has been awarded annually since 1970, is Mannheim's highest civic honor .


  • Red flags - green lawn. Workers' settlements in Mannheim. Documentary, Germany, 2014, 44:30 min., Script and director: Ursula Schlosser, production: SWR , first broadcast: July 15, 2013 on SWR, summary by SWR, online video available until April 23, 2017.
  • Mannheim - A journey through time through the 50s and 60s. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 44 min., Directors: Eberhard Reuß and Christiane Schmied, production: SWR , first broadcast: November 1, 2012 on SWR, synopsis by ARD with online video .
  • Mozart in Mannheim. Documentary, Germany, 2008, 29 min., Written and directed: Harold Woetzel, production: SWR , series: Musical travel guide, first broadcast: May 24, 2010 in Das Erste , Film-Informations vom SWR, ( Memento from February 12, 2013 in Web archive ).
  • Schiller . TV feature film, Germany, 2005, 90 min., Written by: Hendrik Hölzemann, Martin Weinhart, directed by Martin Weinhart.
  • Picture book Germany : Mannheim - opposites in the square. Documentary, Germany, 2002, 43 min., Script and director: Christina Brecht-Benze, production: SWR , first broadcast: June 30, 2002, synopsis by NDR .

See also

Portal: Mannheim  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Mannheim


sorted by year of publication

  • Gustav Wiederkehr: Mannheim in legend and history , H. Haas'schen Buchdruckerei, Mannheim 1907, (ceremony to celebrate the city's three hundredth anniversary)
  • Manfred David: Mannheim city studies . Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 1982, ISBN 3-87804-125-X .
  • State Archive administration Baden-Württemberg in connection with the cities and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim (ed.): The city and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim: Official district description .
    • Volume 1: General Part . Karlsruhe 1966, DNB 458203858 .
    • Volume 3: The city of Mannheim and the municipalities of the Mannheim district . Karlsruhe 1970, DNB 366145509 .
  • Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg (Ed.): The state of Baden-Württemberg - official description by districts and communities . Volume 5. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2 .
  • Hans Huth : The art monuments of the city district of Mannheim. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-422-00556-0 .
  • Carmen and Volker Oesterreich (eds.): Mannheim, where it is most beautiful - 55 favorite places . B&S Siebenhaar, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-936962-43-7 .
  • Andreas Schenk: Mannheim and its buildings 1907–2007 . Edited by Mannheim City Archive and Mannheim Architecture and Building Archive e. V. 5 vols. Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 2000–2007, ISBN 3-923003-83-8 .
  • Guido Walz (Red.): The Brockhaus Mannheim. 400 years of the city of squares - The Lexicon . Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 2006, ISBN 3-7653-0181-7 (same features as Brockhaus encyclopedia , around 1300 keywords and 500 biographies of Mannheim personalities and originals).
  • City of Mannheim, District Office for Nature Conservation and Landscape Management Karlsruhe (Ed.): Naturführer Mannheim. Discoveries in the square. Regional culture publishing house, Ubstadt-Weiher 2000, ISBN 3-89735-132-3 .
  • Hansjörg Probst: Little Mannheim City History , Pustet, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7917-1972-6 .
  • Hartmut Ellrich : Mannheim . Sutton, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-148-6 .
  • Wilhelm Kreutz / Hermann Wiegand: A Little History of the City of Mannheim , DRW-Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-7650-8358-7 .
  • Ulrich Niess , Michael Caroli (ed.): History of the city of Mannheim. Publishing house regional culture, Ubstadt-Weiher,
  • Mannheimer Altertumsverein / Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen: Mannheim before the city was founded - parts I and II. Ed. Hansjörg Probst , 4 volumes. Mannheim 2007/08, ISBN 978-3-7917-2074-6 .
  • Ferdinand Werner : Mannheim villas. Architecture and home decor in the squares and the east town . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2009. ISBN 978-3-88462-289-6

Web links

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Individual evidence

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  2. Palatinate Dictionary - Mannheim. University of Trier Department II / German Studies, accessed on November 27, 2013 .
  3. State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
  4. City district budget . City of Mannheim, accessed April 4, 2014 .
  5. State Statistical Office , area survey according to type of actual use
  6. cf. List of protected areas of the State Agency for the Environment (select type of area and city or district) , accessed on April 7, 2016.
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  47. Girls Go Movie
  48. moment theater
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  50. Landesschau BW of March 27, 2014
  51. The writing pool ( Memento from January 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  52. "gigs, gigs and gigs again"
  53. "Be crazy as you want"
  54. INTERKUNST workshop
  55. Festival against Frei.Wild concert
  56. Blooming shoes encourage participation
  57. Moment Theater - About Us
  58. "Lifestyle implemented in film scenes"
  59. Interview with Rainer Döhring
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  61. ^ Homepage of the SJR Mannheim
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  64. Carolin Dietrich ends her career
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This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on February 21, 2006 .