|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Karlsruhe|
|Height :||97 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||144.96 km 2|
|Residents:||309,370 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||2134 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0621|
|License plate :||MA|
|Community key :||08 2 22 000|
|LOCODE :||DE MHG|
|City structure:||17 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Peter Kurz ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Mannheim in Baden-Württemberg|
The university town of Mannheim (in the Electoral Palatinate, Mannem [ manemm ], also Monnem ) is an urban district with 309,370 inhabitants (December 31, 2018) in the administrative district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg . It is the third largest city in the country after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe . The former royal seat (1720–1778) of the Electoral Palatinate with its distinctive baroque palace , one of the largest palace complexes in the world, forms the economic and cultural center of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region with 2.35 million inhabitants.
Mannheim is right in the border triangle with Baden-Württemberg , Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse . Mannheim is separated from its sister city Ludwigshafen am Rhein in Rhineland-Palatinate , with which it forms a coherent urban area, by the Rhine .
First mentioned in a document in 766 in the Lorsch Codex , Mannheim received city privileges in 1607 after Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate laid the foundation stone for the construction of the Friedrichsburg Fortress . The grid-shaped street network with blocks of houses instead of streets that was laid out for the citizen city of Mannheim, which is connected to the fortress, has been preserved in the city center. This is where the name square city can be traced back to.
A major city since 1896, Mannheim is now an important industrial and commercial city, university city and important traffic junction between Frankfurt am Main and Stuttgart , including an ICE junction , the second largest marshalling yard in Germany and one of the most important inland ports in Europe.
Many important inventions come from Mannheim:
- In 1817 Karl Drais built the first two-wheeler here ,
- In 1880 Werner von Siemens presented the first electric elevator,
- 1886, the first rolled automobile by Carl Benz on the roads,
- The Lanz Bulldog followed in 1921 .
- 1971 First use of converters in locomotives by Werner Teich
Andreas Flocken , the inventor of the first German electric car , also worked in the Heinrich Lanz AG agricultural machinery factory . In 1924 Hugo Stotz received a patent for the invention of the miniature circuit breaker . Julius Hatry from Mannheim constructed the world's first rocket aircraft in 1929 .
Norms for the global collection of weather data were established here as early as the 18th century. This includes the times of day for the measurement, known as Mannheim hours .
With the Mannheim National Theater , known as the Schillerbühne , the Mannheim Art Gallery , the Reiss-Engelhorn Museums and the Technoseum , Mannheim is a nationally important theater and museum location. The Popakademie Baden-Württemberg and a lively music scene make Mannheim an important center for German pop music, and Mannheim has been a UNESCO City of Music since 2014 . It is also a modern continuation of the Mannheim School , which brought many musicians (including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ) to Mannheim in the middle of the 18th century and enriched the music scene of that time.
Mannheim is also known for its university , which is one of the best business universities in Germany and repeatedly receives top grades, especially in business administration . Furthermore, in Mannheim also a are College , the College of the covenant with its Department of defense administration, a music academy , a Cooperative State University , a university of the Federal Employment Agency and the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg settled.
The city is located in the Rhine-Neckar , a 2.35 million inhabitants compression area , in addition to parts of South Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate Vorderpfalz in Baden-Wuerttemberg , the two urban districts Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the western and southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar Circle includes.
Within the Rhine-Neckar region , Mannheim forms a regional center alongside Heidelberg , of which a total of 14 are designated for the whole of Baden-Württemberg according to the 2002 regional development plan. The Mannheim regional center takes on the function of a central area for the communities of Edingen-Neckarhausen , Heddesheim , Ilvesheim and Ladenburg . There are also links with municipalities in Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate and the central areas there.
Due to its location directly on the Baden-Württemberg state border with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, Mannheim is the only major city in Germany that borders directly on two countries , along with the city-state of Hamburg .
The urban area of Mannheim is divided into six inner and eleven outer city districts :
- City center / Jungbusch
- Neuostheim / Neuhermsheim
- Schwetzingerstadt / Oststadt
- Bird rod
The city districts are further subdivided into city districts and statistical districts.
In each of the 17 city districts there is a district advisory council, which includes 12 residents who are appointed by the local council according to the results of the local council elections. They are to be heard on important matters that affect the municipality and advise the local administration and committees of the municipal council. Since 2008, the district councils have had their own budget, which they can decide on their own use within set limits.
Inner city: the "squares"
The horseshoe-shaped city center of Mannheim between the Rhine and Neckar is laid out as a grid, the "Mannheimer squares". Bismarckstraße runs in front of the front of the castle and connects the ends of the ring road sections with each other. In between there are streets laid out at right angles. The planning of this network goes back to Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate around 1600.
The city center is traversed by two broader main axes. The Kurpfalzstraße, also known as " Breite Straße ", runs in a northeast-southwest direction from the castle to the Neckartor. At Paradeplatz it meets the main shopping street, the " planks " that run in an east-west direction . The streets in the city center usually have no names, instead the squares in between are named using a combination of letters and numbers.
Originally, the arrangement was primarily due to the fortress technology: it enabled enemy formations that had penetrated the fortress to be bombarded with cannons across the city. The Mannheim squares and especially the so-called Breite Straße also emphasize the "new" palace, which was built later, however. Therefore, the urban dominance of the residence created by the street layout is interpreted as a reflection of the absolutist form of government.
The principles of an ideal city were implemented in various residential cities of the absolutist baroque such as Erlangen , Glückstadt or Karlsruhe . But even in more recent times, attempts have been made to connect ideals and architecture ( planned city , planned capital ).
The following cities and communities border the city of Mannheim. They are called clockwise starting in the north:
- Lampertheim and Viernheim (both in the Bergstrasse district in Hesse),
- Heddesheim , Ilvesheim , Edingen-Neckarhausen , Heidelberg , Plankstadt , Schwetzingen , Brühl (all with the exception of the independent city of Heidelberg in the Rhein-Neckar district ) in Baden-Württemberg
- as well as Altrip , Ludwigshafen am Rhein , Frankenthal (Pfalz) and Bobenheim-Roxheim (all with the exception of the independent cities Ludwigshafen am Rhein and Frankenthal (Pfalz) in the Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis ) in Rhineland-Palatinate.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.
The following nine nature reserves exist in the city of Mannheim . This means that 699.4 hectares of the urban area are under nature protection, that is 4.8%.
- Oven-Riedwiesen : 147.7 ha (of which 84.0 ha in the city of Mannheim)
- Ballauf-Wilhelmswörth : 340.9 ha
- For the white poplar : 8.7 ha
- Hirschacker and Dossenwald : 128.9 ha (of which 67.5 ha in the city of Mannheim)
- Head area on the Friesenheimer Altrhein : 20.1 ha
- Tissue Island : 108.2 ha
- Lower Neckar: Mulberry Island : 10.6 ha
- Lower Neckar: Wörthel : 20.9 ha
- Cattle grove, apple chamber, Neuwäldchen : 38.5 ha
Due to the protected location in the Upper Rhine Graben by the Palatinate Forest and Odenwald , Mannheim has a very mild climate by Central European standards. The measurements at the DWD climate station in Mannheim-Vogelstang showed an average temperature of 10.5 ° C between 1971 and 2000 . The warmest month is July with an average of 19.9 ° C, the coldest is January with 1.8 ° C. Temperatures above 30 ° C are not uncommon in midsummer. The peak value was measured on August 7, 2015 at 39.8 ° C (measurement by the DWD weather station, a private weather station in Mannheim-Seckenheim reached 40.1 ° C on August 8, 2003).
What is striking is the low amount of precipitation in Mannheim for western Germany. Over the course of a year, precipitation falls on average only 668 mm. The peak month is again July. Favored by the Rhine and Neckar, banks of fog can appear, especially in autumn. The two rivers and floodplains on the Rhine also provide above-average humidity, particularly in summer to oppressive, burdensome bioclimatic sultriness may result.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Mannheim
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
A brick kiln, excavated in the Seckenheim district in 1929 and operated from AD 74 to the early second century, documents a settlement in Roman times.
The village of Mannenheim (= home of Manno) was first mentioned in the Lorsch Codex in 766 .
Through numerous donations within a short period of time, the Lorsch Monastery received 160½ days of field work, which corresponds to the hay yield of a medium-sized royal court.
In 1284 Mannheim fell to the Count Palatine near Rhine from the House of Wittelsbach . The Zollburg Eichelsheim , built in 1349 on today's Lindenhof , gained regional importance and demanded a contribution from the Rhine boatmen. 1415 the deposed antipope John XXIII was in her . imprisoned on behalf of Emperor Sigismund . With the victory in the Battle of Seckenheim in 1462 over the army of his allied opponents, the Count of Württemberg , the Margrave of Baden and the Bishop of Metz , Elector Friedrich von der Pfalz “the Victorious” established the Palatinate supremacy on the central Upper Rhine. In 1566 Mannheim was one of the largest villages in the Heidelberg Oberamt with around 700 inhabitants .
Origin of the city
Mannheim received city privileges on January 24, 1607 after Elector Friedrich IV of the Palatinate had laid the foundation stone for the Friedrichsburg Fortress on March 17, 1606 . The planning of a grid-shaped road network for the citizen of Mannheim, which is connected to the fortress, has been preserved. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), in which Mannheim fought on the side of the Protestant Union, it was first destroyed by troops in 1622. Due to war and epidemics, Mannheim, which had around 1200 inhabitants in 1618, suffered severe population losses. On his return to the Electoral Palatinate in 1649, Elector Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz found a country largely depopulated and economically ruined by the war destruction. The new regent campaigned resolutely for the rebuilding of Mannheim, which, because of its favorable location at the confluence of the Neckar into the Rhine, was chosen as the center of commercial activity and trade in the Electoral Palatinate. In the Palatinate War of Succession Mannheim was conquered by French troops in 1688 and completely destroyed in March 1689 and the population expelled. After this destruction, Elector Johann Wilhelm was largely responsible for the rebuilding. Before the peace treaty was signed, the elector wrote a proclamation in 1697 in which he ordered the city to be rebuilt and asked the refugees to return. After the start of the reconstruction work, the population rose again quite quickly.
Residence city of the Electoral Palatinate
In 1720, Elector Carl Philipp moved his court from Heidelberg to Mannheim and began building the Mannheim Palace (completed in 1760 together with the Jesuit Church ). Mannheim became the royal seat of the Electoral Palatinate , and a glorious period of only 58 years began for the city, which now had 25,000 inhabitants.
Baden industrial city
In 1795 the city was occupied by the French and then recaptured by Austrian troops. In 1803 Mannheim finally lost its political position: In the course of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , the city fell to Baden , where - geographically pushed to the northwestern edge - it only had the status of a border town.
In the climate catastrophe in the " year without a summer " in 1816, which was caused by the eruption of the Tambora volcano and resulted in famine and horse deaths, Karl Drais invented the two-wheeler and thus mechanized individual transport. The Rheinhafen was opened in 1828 and the first Baden railway line from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Characterized by the economic rise of the bourgeoisie, Mannheim gradually began to flourish again. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a center of the political and revolutionary movement. In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik (BASF) , which was later moved to Ludwigshafen . The paint factory became the largest chemical company in the world. In 1880 Werner von Siemens presented the world's first electric elevator in Mannheim. In 1886, Carl Benz patented his gas-powered velocipede . In 1909 Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte founded the Schütte-Lanz company , which built a total of 22 airships . The company was the main competitor of the Zeppelin works . After the First World War , Heinrich Lanz AG presented the Bulldog, the most successful heavy oil tractor. The pre-chamber diesel engine invented by Prosper L'Orange at the Mannheim engine works was further developed by Benz & Cie to become the world's first compact vehicle diesel engine in 1923. In 1922, the large Mannheim power station went into operation. Around 1930 the city counted 385,000 inhabitants together with its sister city Ludwigshafen, which developed from the old Mannheimer Rheinschanze .
From the Third Reich until today
During the Third Reich , almost 2000 people from Mannheim with a Jewish background were deported . There were around 140 places in the city where forced laborers were housed, many also in the vicinity of the large companies that employed forced laborers and prisoners of war during the Nazi era . In the Sandhofen district there was a subcamp of the Natzweiler-Struthof and the Hinzert concentration camp .
Mannheim was almost completely destroyed by the air raids on Mannheim during World War II. At the end of March 1945, the city was finally occupied by US troops . The war, which was still ongoing elsewhere in Germany, did not end until May 8 with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .
The reconstruction of the city began only with difficulty. The castle and water tower were rebuilt, and the National Theater was built in a new location. In the old place there is a Schiller monument and the pub Zum Zwischen-Akt . The housing shortage led to the development of numerous new residential areas.
In 1975 the Federal Garden Show was a highlight in Luisen and Herzogenried Park . A number of structural measures were implemented: the telecommunications tower and a second Rhine bridge were built, the planks became a pedestrian zone, the new rose garden was inaugurated, and the Aerobus floated through Mannheim. A number of large-scale projects were also implemented in the 1980s and 1990s: the planetarium , the expansion of the Kunsthalle, the new Reiss Museum, the town hall, the new Maimarkt area, the synagogue, the mosque, the State Museum for Technology and Work ( Technoseum ), the Carl Benz Stadium and the Fahrlachtunnel were opened .
In May / June 1992 there were riots for days on the occasion of the accommodation of refugees in the (now demolished) gendarmerie barracks in the Schönau district (see list of anti-refugee attacks in Germany 1990 to 2013 # 1992 ).
In the recent past, the economic decline in industrial jobs has shaped Mannheim. The city tried to shape this structural change with the designation of industrial areas and the settlement of service companies . A prime example is the construction of the Victoria high-rise in 2001, one of the tallest buildings in the city, on the railway site.
With a view to the city's 400th anniversary in 2007, a number of urban planning activities were implemented from 2000: SAP Arena with connection to the new Stadtbahnring Ost, renovation of the Breite Straße pedestrian zone , the armory and the castle, complete redesign of the old measuring square and the new Schafweide urban railway line. The concept of the city anniversary aimed at a diverse spectrum of events without a dominant central event.
During the refugee crisis in Europe in 2015 , Mannheim took in 12,000 refugees, mainly in the former barracks of the US Army.
Between 1895 and 1944, several surrounding villages were incorporated into Mannheim, including Neckarau, the largest village in Baden at the time. During the major community reform in the 1970s, there were plans to incorporate Brühl , Ilvesheim , Edingen-Neckarhausen and Ladenburg . Because of the large protests, however, they refrained from doing so, and Mannheim was one of the few cities in Baden-Württemberg that did not receive any increase in area. Before the first incorporation, the urban area comprised 2384 hectares:
|year||places||Growth in hectares|
|1944||District Rohrhof (partly)||233|
The population of the city of Mannheim exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1896, making it a major city. In 1905 the city had over 160,000 inhabitants, and this number had doubled by 1961. In 1970 the population reached its historic high of around 333,000. Due to migration losses to the surrounding area and a negative birth and death balance, the number of residents decreased to around 295,000 by 1986. The increased influx of people into metropolitan areas currently also applies to Mannheim.
As of December 31, 2015, the municipal statistics office of the city of Mannheim named 337,919 inhabitants, of which 317,744 had their main residence.
The proportion of foreigners based on their main place of residence is 25.2% (79,963 people). 138,428 inhabitants (43.6%) have a migration background taking into account naturalized persons and repatriates . The largest groups of immigrants come from:
In the individual city districts, the proportion of residents with a migration background is:
The first churches can be found in the 8th century in the suburbs of Scharhof, Wallstadt and Feudenheim . A parish in Mannheim itself was first mentioned in the 14th century. She belonged to the Diocese of Worms and was dedicated to St. Consecrated to Sebastian .
According to the 2011 census , 29.8% of the city's population were Catholic , 26.5% Protestant and 43.7% belonged to another or no religious community - this also includes Muslims , who make up around 10% of Mannheim's population. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then and those who do not belong to any legally or corporately constituted religious community are an absolute majority of the population. The current distribution of the city's population according to their religious affiliation (as of December 31, 2019) is Roman Catholic 25.9%, Protestant 20.5% and other / none 53.5%. (52.2% in 2018)
Elector Ottheinrich introduced the Reformation of the Lutheran Confession in the Electoral Palatinate with a mandate of April 4, 1556 , after his predecessor Friedrich II had made serious efforts in this direction ten years earlier (first Lutheran communion in Heidelberg's Heiliggeistkirche on April 18, 1546) . Under Ottheinrich's successor Friedrich III. From 1561 the Electoral Palatinate changed to the Calvinist reformed creed ( Heidelberg Catechism 1563). The time when Mannheim city was founded fell into the phase of the Electorate of the Palatinate Reformed Church, which gave the city a Reformed Protestant character for a long time.
In 1821 the union between Lutheran and Reformed parishes was carried out in the Grand Duchy of Baden . In 2005, the first youth church of the Protestant regional church of Baden was opened in the Waldhof district . With the incorporation of the previously independent Protestant parish Friedrichsfeld in 2008, all Protestant parishes, unless they belong to a free church, belong to the Mannheim church district within the North Baden parish of the Evangelical Church in Baden . The church district of North Baden has its seat in Schwetzingen.
After the city of Mannheim was founded, Catholic parishioners also moved in. The oldest Catholic church is the parish church of St. Sebastian on the market square, which was completed in 1723. In 1729, Elector Karl Philipp donated 100,000 guilders for the construction of the Jesuit Church , which was to serve as the court church . Together with the Church of Our Lady , it has been part of a joint parish of St. Sebastian since 2005. The remaining 28 Roman Catholic parishes are grouped into ten pastoral care units and belong to the city dean of Mannheim of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .
There are also numerous Protestant free churches. These include B. the Free Evangelical Congregation (FEG), the Church House of the Lord (HdH-Mannheim) in Mannheim-Rheinau, the Free Church of the Seventh-day Adventists (STA) and the Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists ). Your Hope Church has been in the Neckarstadt district since 1961.
In addition, there are other Christian denominations in Mannheim today, including the New Apostolic Church , Jehovah's Witnesses and a free religious community that emerged during the Baden Revolution in the mid-19th century.
The first synagogue was in Mannheim in 1660. The electors specifically encouraged the settlement of Jews with tax breaks and the privilege of freedom of trade in order to boost trade and handicrafts, particularly after the city was destroyed in the 17th century. In 1719 10.6% of the population was Jewish. By 1895 the Jewish community had grown to 4768 members. The rest of the population growth was even faster, so that after 1900 the Jewish share was only around three percent. In 1933 there were 6,402 Jews in Mannheim, which made up the largest community in Baden.
By reprisals after the seizure of power of the Nazis , many Jews came early in need. As early as 1933, the then Lord Mayor Carl Renninger ( NSDAP ) forbade the awarding of contracts to Jewish companies. Jewish lecturers at the local commercial college were given leave of absence, the Mannheim National Theater dismissed Jewish actors, and Jewish doctors were withdrawn from health insurance. Many families emigrated abroad, especially to the USA . After the three synagogues in Mannheim were devastated in 1939, around 2000 and thus almost all of the remaining Jews were deported to Gurs in 1940. Most of them were deported to the German concentration camps in occupied Poland and murdered.
After the Second World War , only a few emigrants returned to Mannheim. The reestablishment of the Jewish community after the Nazi persecution took place with only 120 members. The new synagogue of the Jewish community opened in 1987. In 2012 the congregation had around 500 members.
With the second wave of guest workers in the mid-1960s, many immigrants from Turkey came to Mannheim, and thus for the first time a significant number of Muslims . Their number rose to 20,827 by 2004, which is seven percent of the Mannheim population, the majority of whom are immigrants from Muslim countries and their descendants. In 1995, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque , the largest mosque in Germany until then , was built with 2500 places for prayer. In 2005 the already dilapidated minaret was rebuilt slimmer and higher. In 2010, the Ehsan Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat was built in Mannheim-Casterfeld . There are also other mosques in the city center / Jungbusch (three), Neckarstadt-West (two) and Neckarstadt-East, Waldhof, Neckarau, Rheinau and Hochstätt districts (one each).
The municipal council has 48 seats and is directly elected for five years. In addition, the mayor acts as the voting chairman of the municipal council. According to Baden-Württemberg's municipal electoral law, voters have the option of accumulating and variegating .
The 2019 local elections led to the following result (in brackets: difference to 2014):
|City council election 2019|
|Party / group of voters||be right||Seats|
|GREEN||24.4% (+8.1)||12 (+4)|
|SPD||21.2% (−6.1)||10 (−3)|
|CDU||19.1% (−7.0)||9 (−3)|
|AfD||9.2% (+1.4)||4 (± 0)|
|FW - ML||7.4% (−1.9)||4 (± 0)|
|FDP||6.1% (+1.6)||3 (+1)|
|THE LEFT.||6.0% (−0.2)||3 (± 0)|
|The party||3.0% (+3.0)||1 (+1)|
|Medium-sized companies for Mannheim (MfM)||1.3% (−0.1)||1 (± 0)|
|Animal welfare party||1.1% (+1.1)||1 (+1)|
|Others||1.2% (+0.1)||0 (−1)|
|Turnout: 49.8% (+11.1)|
At the head of the city administration is the mayor , who is also chairman of the council. He is directly elected for a term of eight years. Acting Lord Mayor is Peter Kurz (SPD), who was elected in the 2007 Mayor election with 50.53% and a voter turnout of 36.64% in the first ballot.
The first round of the Mayor elections 2015 took place on June 14th. The incumbent, supported by the SPD, Greens and Die Linke, achieved 46.8%. The results of the challengers: Christopher Probst (Mannheimer Liste) 15.9%, Peter Rosenberger (CDU) 33.8% and Christian Sommer (The Party) 3.3%. Other elected received 0.2%. The turnout was 30.7%. Since no candidate achieved the required absolute majority, the decision was made in a second ballot on July 5, 2015. There, a simple majority was sufficient according to the electoral principles laid down in the Baden-Württemberg municipal code .
A first mayor (also deputy mayor) and four other mayors are placed alongside the mayor. They are elected by the local council for a term of eight years and therefore reflect the political majority at the time of the election. Each mayor has a department in the city administration:
- Christian Specht (CDU) is the first mayor responsible for finances, assets, security and order.
- Michael Grötsch (CDU) heads the department for economy, labor, social affairs and culture.
- Dirk Grunert (Greens) is responsible for education, youth, family and health.
- Lothar Quast (SPD) is responsible for building, planning, traffic and sports.
- Felicitas Kubala (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) heads the Department for Citizen Service, Environment and Technical Operations.
The city administration has a total of around 7100 employees.
The city leaders since 1810 were:
In the federal election on September 24, 2017 , Nikolas Löbel (CDU) won the direct mandate in constituency 275 with 29.3% . This was followed by the candidates Stefan Rebmann (SPD) with 27.9% and Gerhard Schick (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen) with 13.1% of the first votes. Schick, like Gökay Akbulut (DIE LINKE), entered the Bundestag via the state lists of their parties.
The CDU in Mannheim was also ahead of the SPD (21.2%) with 27.1% of the second votes.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "Split of gold and black, in front a standing red double hook ( wolf's tang ), behind a red-armored, tongued and crowned double-tailed golden lion ."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms was established by the city council in 1896 and confirmed by the Grand Duke of Baden. The Wolfsangel has been traceable on a district boundary stone since the 17th century. It is probably a stain mark . The lion is the electoral Palatinate lion , the heraldic animal of the Elector Palatinate, whose royal seat Mannheim was from 1720. Both coats of arms have appeared in the city's seals since the 18th century. The city usually uses the coat of arms in a simplified form in the New Objectivity style .|
The city colors blue-white-red have only been in use since the 19th century and point to a sealing cord from 1613. The city colors are not derived from the coat of arms colors, which is completely unusual.
At the beginning of 2003, the city administration acquired a new logo for outdoor advertising: Mannheim im Quadrat . It shows a red square with the number two inside in white in the sans serif, semi-bold font FF Kievit and is intended to symbolize the squaring of the streets in the city center. But the superscript 2 should also stand for the potential of the city, “culture to the power of two”, “science to the power of two” and “Mannheim is life to the power of two”.
Mannheim maintains twinning agreements with the following cities :
- Swansea , United Kingdom , since 1957
- Toulon , France , since 1959
- Berlin district Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf , since 1961 with the district Charlottenburg
- Windsor , Canada, since 1980
- Riesa , Saxony , since 1988
- Chișinău , Moldova , since 1989
- Bydgoszcz , Poland , since 1991
- Klaipėda (until 1923: German Memel ), Lithuania , since 2002 (sponsorship with Memel existed since 1915)
- Zhenjiang , People's Republic of China , since 2004
- Haifa , Israel , since 2009
- Qingdao , People's Republic of China, since 2016
There are also friendship agreements (1989) with El Viejo in Nicaragua and (2011) with Beyoğlu , a district of Istanbul . In December 2013, Mannheim and Hebron ( Palestinian Autonomous Territories ) signed a cooperation agreement, initially valid for two years.
Culture and sights
The Stadt.Wand.Kunst project launched by the Alte Feuerwache cultural center to paint houses in the city with large-scale wall paintings (so-called murals) by national and international artists from the street art scene began in 2013 and is ultimately intended to be turned into a kind of public gallery flow into urban space.
In 1782 Friedrich Schiller's Die Räuber was premiered here. Today the four-part theater has its own ensembles for music theater ( opera , operetta , musical ), drama , ballet and the Schnawwl children's and youth theater .
There are also several smaller stages, including the Oststadt-Theater , Theaterhaus G7 , Theater Oliv , the Freilichtbühne, Theater31, Theater ImPuls, Theater Felina-Areal, the Mannheim puppet shows , the cabaret Klapsmühl ' , Schatzkistl and zeitraumexit as well as that Rhein-Neckar-Theater in Mannheim-Neckarau.
The Kunsthalle Mannheim was founded on the 300th anniversary of Mannheim in 1907. A traditional focus of the collection is the German and French painting of the 19th and 20th centuries as well as the international sculptures of the 20th century. In addition, there is an extensive collection of copper engravings , a collection of graphics, posters, art and recent photographs and video installations. In line with its founding motto “Kunsthalle für alle”, admission is free on the first Wednesday of the month and on every subsequent Wednesday between 6 and 8 p.m.
The Technoseum - opened in 1990 as the State Museum for Technology and Work and renamed Technoseum in 2010 - offers illustrative material on the industrialization of the German south-west. There are also temporary exhibitions, the were Körperwelten of Gunther von Hagens in 1997 for the first time shown in Europe in Mannheim.
The Reiss-Engelhorn-Museums go back to the Electoral Academy of Sciences founded in 1763. Today several museums and institutions are united under one roof:
- World Cultures Museum for archeology and cultures of the world
- Zeughaus museum for art, city and theater history
- Schiller House Museum
- Institute for International Art and Cultural History
- Curt Engelhorn Center for Archaeometry ( affiliated institute of the University of Tübingen)
- Zephyr (in square C4), an exhibition space for contemporary photography
- Bassermannhaus Museum for Music and Art
The Mannheimer Kunstverein , which shows current and new art, has existed since 1833 and is one of the oldest and largest art associations. These and other cultural institutions are connected by the culture mile . The annual Long Night of Museums (together with Heidelberg and Ludwigshafen) is the second largest event of its kind in Germany after Berlin.
The Stadtgalerie Mannheim in S4 was launched in May 2011. The rooms rented by the city and subsidized annually with 100,000 euros offer regional artists the opportunity to present themselves and their works. The concept offers both the possibility of a pure exhibition area and the testing of new exhibition concepts. Up to eight changing exhibitions are planned annually. The Stadtgalerie Mannheim is managed by the curator Benedikt Stegmayer. Entry is free. In 2014 the city gallery will move to the newly planned creative business center in Jungbusch.
In December 2012, the Mannheim municipal council approved a new building for the Kunsthalle (“Museum City”) on Friedrichsplatz. The costs amount to around 70 million euros and completion is scheduled for 2017.
In the Mannheim-Sandhofen district there is a documentation center for the branch of the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp .
The Mannheim School - founded by Johann Stamitz around 1750 - was initially a group of musicians at the Palatinate court. Later, it was understood to be a whole school of composition that turned away from the orchestral composition dominated by the bass dominated by the European tradition and the late Baroque pathos and developed a new, more graceful style whose harmony followed the course of the melody. In doing so, she performed essential preparatory work for the development of Viennese classicism .
The Mannheim school and the internationally famous court music of Elector Karl Theodor prompted Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to stay in Mannheim for months. But Mozart could not gain a foothold there professionally.
The Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester was founded in 1952. It maintains the tradition of the Mannheim School, but also the music of the Vienna School and the Viennese Classic.
The City of Mannheim Concert Choir was founded in 2002 and is one of the large ensembles of the Mannheim City Music School.
The formerly numerous choral societies have recently suffered from problems with young talent. Many gospel choirs have developed for this, such as the Celebration Gospel Choir, the Preacherman's Friends, the Rainbow Gospel & Soul Connection and the Joyful Voices. The Young Chamber Choir Mannheim has existed since 2005, which is aimed primarily at young people and rehearses every semester.
In recent years, Mannheim has also made a name for itself in popular music. The Popakademie Baden-Württemberg is the first such institution in Germany. Successful Mannheim musicians include Joy Fleming , Joana , Mardi Gras.BB , Silke Hauck , Elly Lapp, Raffaella, Xavier Naidoo and the sons of Mannheim , Claus Eisenmann , Laith Al-Deen , Wallis Bird , the band Blaues Wunder , Rolf Stahlhofen , the Krautrock Band Kin Ping Meh , Johanna Zeul , Danny Fresh , Get Well Soon , Edo Zanki , Norbert Schwefel , Peter Seiler and others.
Mannheim is also considered the cradle of the drum and bass music style in Germany: The Mannheimer Milk! -Club was the first club in Germany that was only dedicated to this music. Greats of the British scene came here first. Bassface Sascha , one of the resident DJs next to “Groover Klein”, later founded the first major German drum and bass labels and also put together the first widely used samplers such as Jungle Fever and Hardstep Upfront. The milk! was voted Club of the Year by Groove Magazine in 1992, and Milk! was presented as Love Pirates. and the Milk! poses at the Love Parade in Berlin.
Popular venues are the Alte Feuerwache Mannheim and the Capitol Mannheim , the Rosengarten congress center , the SAP Arena , the Maimarktclub , the open-air area on the Maimarkt, the 7er Club on Friesenheimer Insel and the Alte Seilerei in Neckarau .
The symphonic metal band " Beyond the Black " was founded in 2014 in Mannheim.
Youth and socioculture
With the FORUM, Mannheim has a youth culture center that houses a total of three play areas for different cultural genres. The multi- disciplinary house in the immediate vicinity of the Neckar is home to the areas of music , film , theater , visual arts , literature , transculture and political education with courses, cultural education offers, concerts, theater performances, readings and networking opportunities. As a mouthpiece for youth culture, the FORUM repeatedly ensures broad debates in urban society.
Well-known cornerstones of the FORUM program are the multi-award-winning inclusive theater ensemble “Moment Theater”, the gender sensitive short film festival “Girls Go Movie” by “fresh! Club ”for young bands, the young urban design initiative“ JUGA Mannheim ”and the young literary program“ Der Schreibpool ”. The Stadtjugendring Mannheim eV is responsible for the FORUM youth culture center
The Friedrichsplatz lies to the east of downtown. At its center is Mannheim's landmark, the 60-meter-high water tower . It was built in 1889 in neo-baroque style and is crowned by a 3.50 meter statue of Amphitrite . The square around it was designed by Bruno Schmitz until 1903 with fountains, water features, arcades and green spaces in Art Nouveau style. The water features are illuminated for an hour after dark in summer. In the run-up to Christmas there is a Christmas market around the water tower and the Triton Fountain . The eastern semicircle of Friedrichsplatz is bounded by arcade houses with red sandstone facades . Art and festival halls were built in the north-south axis of the water tower. The art gallery - built in 1907 by Hermann Billing and provided with an extension in 1983 - corresponds with its red sandstone to the existing buildings on Friedrichsplatz. The rose garden - the name of which is derived from an old trade name - was opened as a festival hall in 1903 and at that time housed the largest hall in Germany, the Nibelung Hall. Today there is a congress and conference center there. In addition to the water tower on Friedrichsplatz, there are almost 20 other historic water towers in Mannheim.
The Planken pedestrian zone leads west from Friedrichsplatz to the central square in Mannheim, the Paradeplatz . It originally served the electors for troop parades. In the center of the square is the Grupello pyramid . It was created in 1711 by Gabriel Grupello for Elector Johann Wilhelm and installed in the Düsseldorf palace garden. Karl Philipp had them brought to Mannheim across the Rhine in 1743. The pyramid bears the name "Allegory of the ruling virtues" and represents the triumph of the princely virtues. At the end of the 19th century, the parade ground was designed with green areas, which are separated by star-shaped paths leading to the Grupello pyramid. On the south side of the square, the old department store was built by 1746, which initially housed shops and from 1909 the town hall. After it was destroyed in the Second World War , it was not rebuilt, but the town hall was built until 1991 , in which shops, the town library and the town council were located. The memorial for the Jewish victims of National Socialism was erected on the planks in 2003 . The names of the Jewish victims from Mannheim are written in mirror writing on the glass cube . The cube was set up horizontally rotated by 45 degrees to the course of the planks so that a side axis points to the center of the parade ground.
The market square is north of Paradeplatz on the Breite Straße pedestrian zone in the center of the lower town. In its center there is a fountain monument from 1719. It was created by Peter van den Branden and placed in the Heidelberg castle garden . Elector Carl Theodor then gave it to the city of Mannheim as a gift in 1767. The figures of the monument, which originally symbolized the four elements earth, water, air and fire, were redesigned so that they now represent an allegory of Mannheim, Handel, Rhine and Neckar. On the south side of the market square is a baroque double building, which is probably the oldest surviving building in Mannheim: the old town hall and the lower parish church of St. Sebastian were built until 1713. In the middle, both are connected to a bell tower that ends in a multi-tiered helmet. The different sculptures on the facade indicate the function. At the old town hall there are Justitia and atlases at the parish church Pietas and angel figures. The carillon sounds three times a day.
The Jesuit church was built until 1760 as a court church for the electors according to plans by da Bibienas . The art historian Dehio described it as the most important baroque church in southwest Germany. The mighty crossing dome has a height of 75 m. The interior murals were made by the Munich artist Egid Quirin Asam . The high altar and the six side altars were designed by Egell and Verschaffelt in the late Baroque and early Classicism periods.
The Christ Church was built until 1911 as a representative sacred building of the Protestant church in the eastern part of the city. Built in the neo-baroque style with Art Nouveau elements, it stands on Werderplatz and thus forms the end point of three visual axes. The dome has a height of 65 meters. Larger-than-life statues of the twelve apostles surround the first tower corridor . The four-manual Steinmeyer organ from 1911 is one of the largest organs in Germany with 96 registers and around 8000 sounding pipes (including a spacious "remote control" in the dome). In addition, in 1988 the Danish company Marcussen built a two-manual organ in the baroque style.
The history of the neo-baroque Konkordienkirche goes back to the year 1685. Originally planned as a double church for the German and Walloon Reformed parishes, it was destroyed and used several times. It has existed in its present form since 1918 with a Protestant church in one part and a school in the other. At 92 meters, the church tower is the highest in Mannheim.
The synagogue was completed in 1987. The granite red facade of the cube building is characterized by high lead-glazed arched windows. A flat dome spans over it. The two main entrances have replicas of a wrought iron skylight grille from the main synagogue that was destroyed in 1938 .
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque , built in 1995, was the largest representative mosque in Germany when it was completed. The light plaster facade is emphasized in the middle by the overhang of the prayer niche and is designed with offset triangular windows. The reinforced concrete supports of the minaret showed cracks after a short time, so that in 2005 it was rebuilt slightly higher at 35 meters.
The palace was the residence of the Elector Palatinate. Built between 1720 and 1760, it is the largest closed baroque complex in Europe after Versailles . The front facing the city center is 440 meters long and is the end point of seven parallel streets. In the design have included Bibiena since Alessandro Galli , Egell, Rabaliatti , Pigage and Cosmas Damian Asam involved. Completely destroyed in World War II, the castle was rebuilt in a simplified form by 1968. By 2006 the roof of the Corps de Logis was restored in its original form, thanks to a generous donation from Hasso Plattner .
Since April 2007, the Mannheim Palace with its newly opened Palace Museum has again offered an insight into life in the Baroque and Empire. Rooms that were destroyed in the war were reconstructed to provide a backdrop for high-quality exhibits. The visitor gets an insight into the life of the Palatinate Electors (especially Karl Theodor) and the Baden Princess Stéphanie von Baden, an adopted daughter of the French Emperor Napoléon I.
The armory dates back to 1779. It was built by Peter Anton von Verschaffelt in the classical style. Since 1918 it housed the collections of Carl Reiss and since 1956 it has been the seat of the Reiss Museum. The building will be extensively renovated by 2007.
The neo-classical Palais Bretzenheim , which Elector Karl Theodor gave to his mistress and her children, was also built according to plans by Verschaffelt by 1788 . In 1899 the building became the headquarters of the Rheinische Hypothekenbank and has been used by the Mannheim District Court since 2004.
The telecommunications tower is the tallest building in the city at 212.8 meters. It was built in 1975 according to plans by Heinle and Schlaich . At a height of 125 meters there is a revolving restaurant and a viewing platform from which one has a wide panoramic view of Mannheim and the surrounding area.
Five of the six tallest skyscrapers in Baden-Württemberg are in Mannheim. They were all built on the outer side of the inner city ring. The three residential towers of the north bank of the Neckar and the apartment house Collini-Center were built as early as 1975 . The Victoria Tower was completed in 2001 and is the tallest office building in the city. All five high-rise buildings are roughly the same height at 95–102 meters.
There are 19 water towers in Mannheim , more than in any other comparable city.
Parks and green spaces
The Luisenpark is the largest city park with 41 hectares. It was laid out in 1903 (Unterer Luisenpark) and expanded for the Federal Garden Show in 1975 (Oberer Luisenpark). Located near the city center on the Neckar, the upper part offers numerous attractions such as a plant show house, Chinese tea garden, butterfly house, gondolettas and a floating stage. The lower part is freely accessible.
The Herzogenriedpark was also part of the Federal Garden Show. At 22 hectares, it is slightly smaller than its “big brother”, north of the Neckar city. The animal enclosure, the rosarium and the multi-hall with a tent-like roof construction based on a design by Frei Otto are worth seeing .
The palace garden extends behind the palace to the Rhine and is the second largest park in Mannheim with 38 hectares. From 1808 Grand Duchess Stephanie had it laid out as an English Garden on the remains of the former city fortifications. The park was considerably reduced in size by the railway line built between 1863 and 1867, the federal highways built from 1959 with their countless entrances and exits and the light rail line to Ludwigshafen. Some of the green has been pushed back on a few traffic islands. At the west end, in the so-called Friedrichspark, is the former ice rink.
The forest park with the associated Reißinsel is one of the largest natural floodplains on the Rhine. The peninsula belonged to Carl Reiss , who bequeathed it to the city on condition that it be preserved in its natural state and made accessible to the city's citizens. Numerous rare bird species such as black woodpeckers , gray herons and kites , but also neozoa such as ringed parakeets and Canada geese can be observed on the tearing island.
In 2000, over 29 percent of the urban area in Mannheim was designated as a nature or landscape protection area. Mannheim will host the Federal Garden Show in 2023 . A connection to the garden shows of 1907 and 1975 is planned for the concept.
The most popular sport in Mannheim is ice hockey . The Adler Mannheim (formerly Mannheimer ERC ) were 1980, 1997-1999, 2001, 2007, 2015 and 2019 German Hockey Champion . They have played their home games in the SAP Arena since 2005 .
The Rhein-Neckar Löwen are a handball Bundesliga team whose home games are also played in the SAP Arena. The Lions' greatest successes were the German championship in 2016 and 2017, victory in the EHF Europe Cup 2013, reaching the semi-finals in the Champions League in 2009 and victory in the DHB Cup in 2018.
The two football clubs VfR Mannheim (German football champion 1949) and SV Waldhof Mannheim (Bundesliga club 1983–1990) are still known nationwide, even if the greatest successes were a long time ago . The latter managed to return to professional football in 2019 with promotion to the 3rd football league after 16 years.
In 2005 MTG Mannheim founded a football department, the Rhein-Neckar Bandits . She has been playing in the German Football League since 2012 . Before that, the Mannheim Redskins played in the first division. Her greatest success was the German runner-up in 1981.
The German Basketball Federation plays since 1958 in memory of Albert Schweitzer every other year in the spring in Mannheim on his Europe -Jugend- Basketball Tournament , the Albert Schweitzer Tournament for youth national teams. This international friendship meeting, in the spirit of the doctor and Nobel Peace Prize laureate , is one of the most important and best-attended basketball tournaments for youth teams worldwide, in which numerous later NBA professionals have already participated.
The athletics club MTG Mannheim has consistently produced outstanding athletes since it was founded. The female sprinters are particularly successful at the moment. At the German Championships 2016 in Kassel Ricarda Lobe won the bronze medal in the 100 meter hurdles sprint and the 4 x 100 meter relay of the MTG Mannheim with Ricarda Lobe, Alexandra Burghardt , Nadine Gonska and Yasmin Kwadwo the gold medal. Also in 2015 in Nuremberg, the MTG relay won the gold medal at the German championships with the women's 4 x 100 meter relay in the line-up of Verena Sailer , Ricarda Lobe, Alexandra Burghardt and Yasmin Kwadwo. The former successful sprinters of MTG, Verena Sailer, who became European champion in the 100-meter sprint in 2016, and Carolin Nytra have ended their careers.
With the support of the large American colony of the US Army in Mannheim, baseball has enjoyed great success in the past. The Mannheim clubs Knights, VfR, Amigos and Tornados won the German baseball championship nineteen times between 1954 and 1997 . The Mannheim Tornados play in the Bundesliga baseball . Mannheim's Claus T. Helmig was the first German baseball player with a professional contract in the USA in 1956.
The cycling club RRC Endspurt Mannheim enjoyed worldwide success in the 1950s and 1960s and nationally until the 1990s . Particularly noteworthy are Willi and Rudi Altig under the coach Karl Ziegler .
The Mannheim Glider Club is a cross-country flight club and operates its activities at Mannheim Airport . He flies in the first German glider league and has provided German and international champions several times.
In the past, the Mannheimer RV Amicitia rowing club, which has existed since 1876, has produced some successful athletes at World Championships and Olympic Games. The rowing club Mannheimer Rudergesellschaft Baden (MRG Baden for short), founded in 1875, has also produced well-known rowers, such as Filip Adamski .
Mannheim has hosted several top-class sporting events such as the 2010 Ice Hockey World Championship (together with Cologne), the Men's Handball World Championship in 2007 , the European Show Jumping Championship in 2007, the first German Championship in individual vaulting in 1986 and the World Vaulting Championship in 2000.
The Mannheim section of the German Alpine Club is one of the largest sections in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region with over 3,400 members. It operates two alpine refuges in the Rätikon , the Mannheimer Hütte and the Oberzalimhütte .
- January: New Year's reception of the city of Mannheim in the rose garden
- February: Carnival parade (annually alternating with Ludwigshafen) (Sundays)
- February: Reading.Listening , Mannheim Literature Festival. Roger Willemsen is the patron of the literature festival, which has been taking place since 2007 . Venue: old fire station
- March: Spotlight Festival , international advertising film festival
- March / April: Time Warp music festival in the Maimarkthallen
- April: Albert Schweitzer tournament , European youth basketball tournament for youth national teams (every second year)
- April: Upper Rhine early regatta, annual rowing competition in Mannheim's Mühlauhafen
- April / May: Maimess
- April / May: Mannheim Maimarkt with Maimarkt horse show
- May: City festival on the planks
- May: Mannheim Marathon
- June: International Schiller Days Mannheim (every two years in odd years)
- July: Sports & games at the water tower
- July: Lanz Park Festival Lindenhof
- August: Christopher Street Day
- Kurpfalzfest in Herzogenriedpark
- September / November: Biennale for contemporary photography (biannual)
- September: Miracles of the Prairie Festival International Festival of Theater | Performance | Dance | Art since 2004
- September / October: Autumn Mass
- October: Flower Peter Festival (on the first Saturday)
- October: Kerwe in Feudenheim
- October: Veterama Oldtimer Market on the Maimarkt site
- October: Night walk in Jungbusch
- October / November: Mannheim Oktoberfest
- October / November: International Film Festival Mannheim-Heidelberg
- October / November: Enjoy Jazz
- November / December: Two Christmas markets - under the water tower and on the Kapuzinerplanken
In Mannheim, as with the origins of the inhabitants (around 170 nationalities from all over the world), a wide range of gastronomy is represented. Typical culinary specialties from Mannheim are the gingerbread-like pastries Mannemer Dreck and the alcoholic drink Mannheimer Hafenwasser . The typical Mannheim beer is the "Eichbaum", which is produced and sold in different variations by the Mannheimer Eichbaum breweries . As the market leader in the Rhine-Neckar region, the brands Eichbaum, Ureich, Gerstel and Karamalz are also sold nationwide .
Spaghetti ice cream is an ice cream that owes its name to its special look: It looks like spaghetti pasta with tomato sauce. It was invented in 1969 by the Mannheim ice cream manufacturer Dario Fontanella .
Economy and Infrastructure
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the urban district of Mannheim was ranked 52nd out of 402 rural districts and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future opportunities". In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 35th out of 401.
In 2017, of the 185,371 employees subject to social insurance contributions, 27.9% were employed in the manufacturing industry, 22.7% in trade , hospitality and transport and 49.2% in the other service sector. In 2016, Mannheim achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 19.685 billion within the city limits, making it 18th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The share in the economic output of Baden-Württemberg was 4.1%. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 64,483 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and is thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 3.8%. In 2016 there were around 243,000 employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in January 2020 was 6.2% and thus above the Baden-Württemberg average of 3.5%.
Although Mannheim has been characterized by a profound structural change since the 1970s at the latest, which is marked by a reduction in industrial jobs and the increase in the service sector, the metal and chemical industries are still very present.
- Daimler (engines)
- EvoBus (buses)
- ABB (electrical and automation technology)
- General Electric (power plants)
- Bombardier (electrical equipment for railcars)
- John Deere (agricultural machinery)
- Caterpillar Energy Solutions (gas gensets for decentralized energy generation)
- Pepperl + Fuchs (factory and process automation)
- WIMA (electronic components)
The chemical industry is represented by:
- Roche (pharmaceuticals and diagnostics)
- Essity (cellulose and paper products such as Zewa )
- Fuchs Petrolub (lubricants)
- Unilever (Dove soaps)
- Reckitt Benckiser (household cleaner)
- Phoenix (pharmaceutical trade)
- German Hutchinson (rubber products)
The Mannheim financial center is no longer leading as it was in 1900, but is still of great importance, especially with its insurance companies . The Mannheimer Insurance and the Inter Insurance Group are based here. One of the four Headquarters of LBBW is located in Mannheim, the new legal protection insurance maintains a central claims office, the SV Sparkasse insurance an important branch, the Ergo Versicherungsgruppe has here also a location.
The food industry is represented by Südzucker , Birkel Pasta, the Eichbaum private brewery , Pfalzmühle Mannheim (a PMG Premium Mühlen Group company) and Bunge Germany (oil and grain seed processing).
The publishing house Edition-Panorama , made famous by the series New-York Vertical by the Mannheim photographer Horst Hamann and the Huber Verlag , publisher u. a. des TatowierMagazin and Bikers News , is based in Mannheim. In addition, the Bibliographical Institute & F. A. Brockhaus (Brockhaus, Duden, Langenscheidt, Meyer) previously had its seat in Mannheim.
Large trade fairs are held regularly on the Mannheim Maimarkt site. The most important is the 400-year-old Mannheimer Maimarkt , which is Germany's largest regional consumer exhibition with 1,400 exhibitors and 350,000 visitors. But Europe's largest classic car market, the Veterama , also takes place every year on the Maimarkt site.
The Mannheim / Ludwigshafen agglomeration is surrounded by a motorway ring with a total of seven motorway junctions. In the north and east, the Federal Motorway 6 ( Saarbrücken - Nuremberg ) encloses the city area, the motorway ring completes the A 61 on the left bank of the Rhine in the west and south of Ludwigshafen. In the northeast of Mannheim, the A 67 branches off to Darmstadt and Frankfurt , in the east the A 656 to Heidelberg and the A 659 to Weinheim . Further to the east, the A 5 (Frankfurt– Basel ) runs parallel . The federal highways 36 , 37 , 38 , 38a and 44 run through the city .
Rail / public transport
Mannheim is the second largest railway junction in southwest Germany. In 2010, 238 long-distance trains stopped daily at the main train station , providing direct connections to Hamburg , Berlin and Cologne, among others . Since 1991, there has been a fast and efficient ICE connection to the Stuttgart region via the Mannheim – Stuttgart high-speed line.
A comparable connection to the neighboring Rhine-Main region is being planned with the new Rhine / Main – Rhine / Neckar line , since trains coming from Frankfurt have been able to stop without turning at the main station since the western introduction of the Riedbahn (WER) in 1985 to have to. The European high-speed connection Paris- Frankfurt ( LGV Est européenne ) has been running through Mannheim since 2007 .
The RheinNeckar S-Bahn has been running since 2003, opening up almost the entire Rhine-Neckar area and running lines to the Palatinate, the Odenwald and southern Hesse. Four of the seven S-Bahn lines go via Mannheim Central Station.
Local public transport in Mannheim has been supplied by trams since 1878 . Ten light rail and numerous RNV bus lines are in operation today. All public transport can be used at uniform prices within the Rhein-Neckar transport association. The Mannheim-Ludwigshafen underground network, which began in the 1970s, was not implemented, apart from small sections, for cost reasons. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Dalbergstraße stop. The subway plans have now been discontinued.
Benefiting from the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar rivers, the Mannheim port, with an area of 1,131 hectares, is one of the most important and largest inland ports in Europe today . In 2016, 6.9 million tons of goods were handled on the waterside. Almost 500 companies with 20,000 jobs are located in the port area.
Mannheim has a commercial airfield located in the Neuostheim district , Mannheim Airport . There are currently two daily scheduled connections to Berlin-Tegel Airport and Hamburg Airport , operated by Rhein-Neckar Air . Until December 2012, the scheduled service was carried out by Cirrus Airlines . Frankfurt International Airport is 65 kilometers north and can be reached by ICE in 30 minutes.
In addition to the only local daily newspaper Mannheimer Morgen , the Ludwigshafener Rheinpfalz , the Heidelberger Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung and the Bild Rhein-Neckar offer a local section for Mannheim. In addition, there is the weekly Mannheim newspaper with the official gazette. The municipal info Mannheim appears every 14 days. Free neighborhood newspapers are distributed in almost all parts of the city .
As the regional television broadcaster for the Rhein-Neckar-Dreieck , Rhein-Neckar Fernsehen is at home. There is also a studio for Südwestrundfunk (SWR) in Mannheim . From here, among other things, the regional program Kurpfalz-Radio is broadcast by SWR4 . The private radio stations bigFM , Radio Regenbogen and sunshine live are also based in Mannheim . The bermuda.funk - the Free Radio Rhein Neckar - has been receivable since 2000 . In 2001, the campus radio took radioactively on the transmit mode. From 1993 to 2009, the American Forces Network of the US armed forces produced the local program AFN Heidelberg in Seckenheim. From 2009 to 2012 the studios were located in the AFN European headquarters, which had moved from Frankfurt am Main to Sandhofen in 2004.
From 1986 to 2012 the city magazine meier was published monthly as a print edition. The Mannheim Sports Week was published weekly from 2006 to 2007 . Both magazines are now published as an online medium.
The media group Dr. Haas , who owns all of Mannheimer Morgen and partly of Radio Regenbogen and big FM.
Authorities and institutions
There was a municipal police force in Mannheim until 1971 . The Baden-Württemberg State Police has been responsible for Mannheim since 1971 . The Mannheim Police Headquarters is headed by Police President Andreas Stenger. The police stations in the city center, Oststadt, Neckarstadt, Neckarau, Käfertal, Sandhofen and Ladenburg , Wiesloch , Schwetzingen , Eberbach , Hockenheim , Heidelberg- Süd, Heidelberg-Mitte, Heidelberg-Nord, Weinheim , Sinsheim and Neckargemünd, each with their associated police posts, are subordinate to the police headquarters. The police headquarters are also assigned offices of the criminal police and traffic police, as well as a service dog handler unit. Since 1965 there has been a police music corps at the Mannheim police headquarters.
There is a French and an Italian honorary consulate in the city. Mannheim is the seat of the office of the Rhine-Neckar Region Association and the Heidelberg-Mannheim Neighborhood Association . The Chamber of Crafts and the IHK Rhein-Neckar are also located here, whose chamber districts each include the city districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg as well as the Rhein-Neckar district and the Neckar-Odenwald district. There is also an employment agency and two tax offices. The Mannheim correctional facility is the largest in Baden-Württemberg with over 800 prison places. Due to the number of inhabitants, Mannheim has a fire brigade made up of volunteers and full-time workers .
Two major statutory accident insurance institutions have their headquarters in Mannheim: the professional association for food and hospitality and the professional association for trade and goods distribution . Mannheim is also the seat of a parish of the Evangelical Church in Baden and a deanery of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .
In Mannheim there are four large hospitals with the University Clinic , the Diakoniekrankenhaus , the Theresienkrankenhaus and St. Hedwig Clinic and the Central Institute for Mental Health . They are spread over several locations in the city.
Mannheim was a garrison for parts of the 110th Grenadier Regiment ( XIV. (Baden) Army Corps ) of the Prussian Army until 1918 . As of 1936 , as a result of the rearmament operated by the Nazi regime , several new barracks were built for the Mannheim Wehrmacht garrison. These were used on a large scale by the US Army in the Cold War period after 1945 . At times there were several thousand US soldiers in Mannheim, including z. B. Parts of the 8th US Infantry Division . The Bundeswehr presence was limited to a few smaller units of the territorial army .
A number of important NATO and US Army facilities were located in Mannheim for a long time. However, when USAREUR moved to the new headquarters in Wiesbaden in September 2013, the number of US soldiers and employees fell drastically. All American military facilities in Mannheim are to be closed by the end of 2015.
- University of Mannheim , founded in 1907 as a commercial college, has been a university since 1967. Your economics and social sciences regularly take top positions in university rankings in Germany. Around 12,000 students are registered here.
- Mannheim Medical Faculty , affiliated with Heidelberg University , with 1400 students.
- Federal University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration , founded in 1978. The Bundeswehr Administration Department is based in Mannheim. Around 350 students have registered.
- University of the Federal Employment Agency , which emerged from the Federal University of Applied Sciences in 2006, offers bachelor's degrees for 900 study places.
- Mannheim University of Applied Sciences , originally founded in 1898 as an engineering school, since 1971 University of Applied Sciences for Technology. Due to the merger in 1995 with the University of Applied Sciences for Design and in 2006 with the University of Applied Sciences for Social Work, 4,500 students are now enrolled at it.
- State University of Music and Performing Arts Mannheim , successor to the Academie de Danse founded in 1762 and a private sound school founded in 1776 at the court of Carl Theodor, has around 630 students.
- Free University for Anthroposophical Education Mannheim, trains teachers according to the anthroposophical principles of Waldorf education .
- Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Mannheim , founded as a vocational academy in 1974 as part of a pilot project, with 5,300 students is one of the three largest locations of the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University .
- SRH Fernhochschule - The Mobile University , is a state-recognized university with a study center in Mannheim. Since September 2017, students have been able to take part in face-to-face events, take exams or find out more on site.
- Popakademie Baden-Württemberg , founded in 2003, the institution, unique in Germany, offers courses in music business , pop music design , world music , popular music and music and creative industries .
- Academy for Business Administration and World Trade Languages (ABW), founded in 1956, Private Business School in E1
- Federal Academy for Defense Administration and Defense Technology , founded in 1961, is today the highest central educational institution in the Federal Armed Forces administration and responsible for career training in the field of defense technology.
- Bundeswehr Administration School I (technology), offers training and further education for civil servants in the technical service.
- Theater Academy Mannheim , is a state-recognized vocational school for acting and directing and was founded in 1994. The drama school has been under new management since 2006.
- Business School for Management , opened in 2011, is a state-recognized university.
- FOM University of Economics and Management is the largest private university in Germany. It maintains a location in the Neckarau district .
- Mannheim Evening Academy and Adult Education Center , founded in 1899, is one of the oldest adult education centers in Germany. With over 150,000 hours of teaching annually, it is the most powerful adult education center in Baden-Württemberg.
Research centers and institutes
- Institute for German-Turkish Integration Studies: Islam Studies-Islamic Nutrition, Islamic Pastoral Care-Rhein Neckar Metropol
- Institute for German, European and International Medical Law, Health Law and Bioethics (IMGB), founded in 1998 by the Universities of Heidelberg and Mannheim, is one of the most renowned centers in Germany for research in the fields of medical and health law and bioethics.
- Institute for German Language , founded in 1964, is dedicated to language research.
- Institute for SME Research, has been researching the development of SMEs on an empirical and interdisciplinary basis since 1989.
- Research association for electrical systems and electricity management , promotes the efficiency, safety and economic efficiency of the supply of electrical energy.
- Fraunhofer project group for automation in medicine and biotechnology , deals with automation solutions in medicine and biotechnology
- Elections research group , researches voter behavior and observes social trends and moods.
- International Institute for Vocational Training Mannheim, subordinate to the Ministry for Culture, Youth and Sport Baden-Württemberg
- State seminar for didactics and teacher training, responsible for primary and secondary schools
- Mannheim Center for European Social Research , has been researching societal, social and political developments in Europe since it was founded in 1989.
- Center for European Economic Research , has been working in the field of applied empirical economic research since 1991.
- GESIS - Leibniz Institute for Social Sciences is the largest German infrastructure facility for the social sciences .
- Goethe-Institut , the Goethe-Institut Mannheim is located in the Almenhof district.
- Marchivum (Mannheim City Archives), founded in 1907, researches the history of Mannheim
Numerous well-known personalities were born in Mannheim or have worked here. Since 1820, the city has granted honorary citizenship 43 times . The Bloomaulorden , which has been awarded annually since 1970, is Mannheim's highest civic honor .
Honorary Citizen Wilhelm Wundt
- Red flags - green lawn. Workers' settlements in Mannheim. Documentary, Germany, 2014, 44:30 min., Script and director: Ursula Schlosser, production: SWR , first broadcast: July 15, 2013 on SWR, summary by SWR, online video available until April 23, 2017.
- Mannheim - A journey through time through the 50s and 60s. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 44 min., Directors: Eberhard Reuß and Christiane Schmied, production: SWR , first broadcast: November 1, 2012 on SWR, synopsis by ARD with online video .
- Mozart in Mannheim. Documentary, Germany, 2008, 29 min., Written and directed: Harold Woetzel, production: SWR , series: Musical travel guide, first broadcast: May 24, 2010 in Das Erste , Film-Informations vom SWR, ( Memento from February 12, 2013 in Web archive archive.today ).
- Schiller . TV feature film, Germany, 2005, 90 min., Written by: Hendrik Hölzemann, Martin Weinhart, directed by Martin Weinhart.
- Picture book Germany : Mannheim - opposites in the square. Documentary, Germany, 2002, 43 min., Script and director: Christina Brecht-Benze, production: SWR , first broadcast: June 30, 2002, synopsis by NDR .
sorted by year of publication
- Gustav Wiederkehr: Mannheim in legend and history , H. Haas'schen Buchdruckerei, Mannheim 1907, (ceremony to celebrate the city's three hundredth anniversary)
- Manfred David: Mannheim city studies . Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 1982, ISBN 3-87804-125-X .
- State Archive administration Baden-Württemberg in connection with the cities and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim (ed.): The city and the districts of Heidelberg and Mannheim: Official district description .
- Volume 1: General Part . Karlsruhe 1966, .
- Volume 3: The city of Mannheim and the municipalities of the Mannheim district . Karlsruhe 1970, .
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg (Ed.): The state of Baden-Württemberg - official description by districts and communities . Volume 5. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2 .
- Hans Huth : The art monuments of the city district of Mannheim. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-422-00556-0 .
- Carmen and Volker Oesterreich (eds.): Mannheim, where it is most beautiful - 55 favorite places . B&S Siebenhaar, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-936962-43-7 .
- Andreas Schenk: Mannheim and its buildings 1907–2007 . Edited by Mannheim City Archive and Mannheim Architecture and Building Archive e. V. 5 vols. Edition Quadrat, Mannheim 2000–2007, ISBN 3-923003-83-8 .
- Guido Walz (Red.): The Brockhaus Mannheim. 400 years of the city of squares - The Lexicon . Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus, Mannheim 2006, ISBN 3-7653-0181-7 (same features as Brockhaus encyclopedia , around 1300 keywords and 500 biographies of Mannheim personalities and originals).
- City of Mannheim, District Office for Nature Conservation and Landscape Management Karlsruhe (Ed.): Naturführer Mannheim. Discoveries in the square. Regional culture publishing house, Ubstadt-Weiher 2000, ISBN 3-89735-132-3 .
- Hansjörg Probst: Little Mannheim City History , Pustet, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7917-1972-6 .
- Hartmut Ellrich : Mannheim . Sutton, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-148-6 .
- Wilhelm Kreutz / Hermann Wiegand: A Little History of the City of Mannheim , DRW-Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-7650-8358-7 .
- Ulrich Niess , Michael Caroli (ed.): History of the city of Mannheim. Publishing house regional culture, Ubstadt-Weiher,
- Mannheimer Altertumsverein / Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen: Mannheim before the city was founded - parts I and II. Ed. Hansjörg Probst , 4 volumes. Mannheim 2007/08, ISBN 978-3-7917-2074-6 .
- Ferdinand Werner : Mannheim villas. Architecture and home decor in the squares and the east town . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2009. ISBN 978-3-88462-289-6
Further content in the
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|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
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|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Website of the city of Mannheim
- Literature on Mannheim in the catalog of the German National Library
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Palatinate Dictionary - Mannheim. University of Trier Department II / German Studies, accessed on November 27, 2013 .
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- City district. City of Mannheim, accessed April 4, 2014 .
- State Statistical Office , area survey according to type of actual use
- cf. List of protected areas of the State Agency for the Environment (select type of area and city or district) , accessed on April 7, 2016.
- Description of the district. Vol. 1, p. 54.
- Bernhard Mühr: The climate in Mannheim. June 1, 2007, accessed February 16, 2014 .
- DPA-InfolineRS: Weather: DWD measures again 40.3 degrees in Kitzingen. In: Focus Online . August 8, 2015, accessed October 14, 2018 .
- August 8, 2003, private weather station Mannheim-Seckenheim
- Climate Mannheim, University City - Weather Service , German Weather Service, on wetterdienst.de
- Ulrich Brandl and Emmi Federhofer: Ton + Technik. Roman bricks. Theiss, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-8062-2403-0 ( publications from the Limes Museum Aalen. No. 61)
- Karl Josef Minst [transl.]: Lorscher Codex (Volume 2), Certificate 549, March 11, 766 - Reg. 20. In: Heidelberg historical stocks - digital. Heidelberg University Library, p. 197 , accessed on January 29, 2016 .
- List of places for the Lorsch Codex, Mannheim , Archivum Laureshamense - digital, Heidelberg University Library.
- Mannheimer Morgen , March 19, 2016, page 21, “But no poor fishing village”, online at  www.morgenweb.de, accessed on March 21, 2016.
- Wolfgang Thierse visits the memorial in Mannheim. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 30, 2014 ; accessed on October 30, 2014 .
- The year 1945. Mannheim , accessed on: May 27, 2018
- Focus on North Baden - Mannheimer Morgen . ( Morgenweb.de [accessed on March 10, 2018]).
- Occupies the halls, the villa remains empty . In: Context: weekly newspaper . ( kontextwochenzeitung.de [accessed on March 10, 2018]).
- City of Mannheim: Population 2015 in small-scale breakdown. (PDF 679 kB) Statistical data Mannheim № 1/2016. March 30, 2016, pp. 5 ff. , Accessed on April 13, 2016 .
- City of Mannheim: Residents with a migration background. Retrieved April 13, 2016 .
- City of Mannheim: Residents with a migration background in a small-scale breakdown, statistical data № 3/2016. (PDF 332 kB) Retrieved April 13, 2016 .
- City of Mannheim: Religion , 2011 census
- Statistical data for Mannheim religion 2019
- Statistical data Mannheim religious affiliation 2018
- Corinna Hiss: Right in the middle of Jewish life , Mannheimer Morgen, November 16, 2012, p. 35
- State Statistical Office of Baden-Württemberg: Municipal council elections 2019, University City of Mannheim ; City of Mannheim: municipal council election 2019 ; accessed June 1, 2019.
- Department distribution plan of the city of Mannheim. (PDF; 26 kB) (No longer available online.) City of Mannheim, April 1, 2014, archived from the original on April 7, 2014 ; Retrieved April 4, 2014 .
- General Staff Council. City of Mannheim, accessed on July 17, 2014 .
- Result of the 2017 federal election in the Mannheim constituency , accessed on February 12, 2017.
- The Mannheim brand - Corporate Design Manual, City of Mannheim, 2003
- partner and friend cities. (No longer available online.) City of Mannheim, archived from the original on April 7, 2014 ; accessed on December 11, 2018 . :
- Section on the partnership on Qingdao on the homepage of the city of Mannheim.Retrieved on March 18, 2019, 7:22 pm
- El Viejo. City of Mannheim, accessed on December 11, 2018 .
- Cooperation agreement signed with Hebron. City of Mannheim, December 5, 2013, accessed on July 17, 2014 .
- Opening times, admission &prices - Kunsthalle-Mannheim (DE). (No longer available online.) In: www.kunsthalle-mannheim.de. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016 ; Retrieved November 4, 2016 .
- Homepage of the museum
- New Mannheim City Gallery in S 4 is opened. Retrieved October 30, 2014 .
- City Gallery Mannheim. Retrieved October 30, 2014 .
- Von Gerkan, Marg and Partners build the Mannheim Art Gallery. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 3, 2015 ; accessed on January 30, 2015 .
- Homepage of the Sandhofen concentration camp memorial
- Gerald Drebes: The "Mannheim School" - a center of pre-classical music and Mozart. In: Rhein-Neckar-Dreieck 1992, pp. 14-18, online ( Memento from February 7, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Mannheim is “Unesco City of Music” in: Mannheimer Morgen from December 1, 2014.
- Official website of the youth culture center FORUM
- Youth Culture Center FORUM - Spaces ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Youth Culture Center FORUM - Program ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Girls Go Movie
- moment theater
- Youth Culture Center FORUM - Groups and Courses ( Memento from March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Landesschau BW of March 27, 2014
- The writing pool ( Memento from January 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- "gigs, gigs and gigs again"
- "Be crazy as you want"
- INTERKUNST workshop
- Festival against Frei.Wild concert
- Blooming shoes encourage participation
- Moment Theater - About Us
- "Lifestyle implemented in film scenes"
- Interview with Rainer Döhring
- The writing pool ( Memento from January 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Homepage of the SJR Mannheim
- German Federal Horticultural Show Society - BUGA23 Mannheim connects . Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Sport1.de: EX European Champion Verena Sailer ends her career
- Leichtathletik.de: Carolin Dietrich ends her career
- Tornados.de: 1945 - How it all began in Mannheim ( Memento from July 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Mannheim Tornados, accessed on September 29, 2015
- Baseball-Softball.de: Claus T. Helmig DBV Hall of Fame
- DAV Mannheim. Retrieved March 10, 2018 .
- Zukunftsatlas 2016. Archived from the original ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- PROGNOS future atlas. Handelsblatt, accessed on December 10, 2019 .
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 30, 2020 .
- Mannheim and Ludwigshafen stable . In: Daily port report of January 31, 2017, p. 13
- Port of Mannheim
- Website of the Mannheim Police Department
- Structure of the Mannheim Police Headquarters
- Website Police Music Corps Mannheim
- Municipal security service Mannheim at the Rhein-Neckar-Wiki
- US location continues to shrink. In: Mannheimer Morgen. January 15, 2011, accessed April 4, 2014 .
- Student statistics for the autumn semester 2013/2014. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 4, 2014 ; accessed on October 30, 2014 .
- SRH Fernhochschule now also represented in Mannheim. Retrieved August 7, 2018 .