|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Palatinate|
|Height :||337 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||80.7 km 2|
|Residents:||153,094 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1897 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0941|
|License plate :||R.|
|Community key :||09 3 62 000|
|City structure:||18 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Regensburg in Bavaria|
Regensburg (from Latin Castra Regina ; also Ratisbona and Ratispona ) is the capital of the administrative district of Upper Palatinate with the seat of the government of the Upper Palatinate as well as the district administrator of the district of Regensburg and an independent city in Eastern Bavaria . Since July 13, 2006, the largely preserved old town of Regensburg including the Stadtamhof with its historical ensembles and monuments has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
The city has 153,094 inhabitants (December 31, 2019) and is fourth among the major cities of the Free State of Bavaria after Munich , Nuremberg and Augsburg . Regensburg also ranks 55th among the largest cities in Germany .
Regensburg is economically strongly influenced by the manufacturing industry ( automobile construction , mechanical engineering , electrical engineering , microelectronics ). Unemployment is below the Bavarian national average (January 2018: 2.7%; national average in November 2017: 2.9%). With 760 socially insured employees per 1000 inhabitants, Regensburg has a high job density .
Regensburg is located at the northernmost point of the Danube and at the mouths of the left tributaries Naab and Regen . In the urban area there are two Danube islands, the Obere Wöhrd (eastern tip of the Jahninsel below the Stone Bridge) and the Untere Wöhrd . Today's Stadtamhof district , a small Bavarian town until 1924, originally formed the northern bank of the Danube and after 1970 also became an island, separated by the construction of the European Canal . This canal acts as a shipping bypass for the stone bridge and for the old town of Regensburg .
Four very different natural areas meet in the urban area:
- the Franconian Jura ,
- the Bavarian Forest ,
- the Danube plain or the Lower Bavarian loess plain ( Gäuboden ) and
- the Lower Bavarian Tertiary Hill Country.
These natural spaces shape the shape and extent of the city, the city is located in a classic "gate position" at a transition point between topographical narrowness and expanse. The Danube leaves the hills and mountains here and flows into the Gäuboden plain . This results in little or no expansion potential for the districts in the north and west. All future urban expansion areas are located in the east and south of the city, i.e. in the great Danube plain and in the relatively flat foothills of the Lower Bavarian Tertiary hill country.
The historic Bavarian Iron Road , which connects numerous industrial and cultural monuments, ends in Regensburg . Metals and semi-finished products were brought from the Upper Palatinate to the Regensburg transshipment point on this road . The last section of the Eisenstraße runs from Amberg for 60 km as a waterway of the rivers Vils and Naab until the Naab flows into the Danube near Regensburg.
The following cities and municipalities that belong to the Regensburg district border the city of Regensburg. They are named in clockwise order, starting in the north: Lappersdorf , Zeitlarn , Wenzenbach , Tegernheim , Barbing , Neutraubling , Obertraubling , Pentling , Sinzing and Pettendorf .
Up until the beginning of the 19th century, Regensburg was limited to the area of the old Roman camp and the areas in the west and east of the city that were enclosed with city walls for the first time in the 10th and then as an extension in the 14th century . Since the 12th century, the urban area of Regensburg, bounded by the Danube and the course of the city wall, was divided into eight guards , each headed by a guard who had police and military powers. Until 1663 the guards were responsible for the recruitment of civil soldiers, after which there were professional soldiers. The typical local names of the guards were simplified from 1803 with a capital letter A to H, the so-called litera , and the houses were numbered consecutively in a watch. This resulted in a further division of the buildings with abbreviations consisting of letters and numbers, which can still be seen today on some old house number plates. In 1806 a guard was added, the so-called field guard with litera J, for all areas outside the city wall. However, the expansion of the city soon led to difficulties, and from 1900 there was a change to designations based on street names and house numbers.
In contrast to many other cities, Regensburg retained a relatively compact settlement body until modern times. Although this led to a “ city of short distances ”, the entire city - with the exception of the clearly recognizable old town, the green area of the university and the two Wöhrde (Danube islands) - looks like a very homogeneous settlement area. The inner structural elements of the city include the many large green spaces and water areas, the inner old town with the partially disturbed green belt and the multitude of stressful infrastructure elements such as railway lines, motorways and federal highways.
With the incorporation of Kumpfmühl in 1810/18 there was a leap south over the east-west railway line. After the beginning of the 20th century, Regensburg expanded with a series of incorporations, especially in 1924, 1938 and 1977. For a detailed list of the city districts, their area and the result of the incorporations, including the area gained, see Population and Area of Regensburg .
The city is located in the temperate climatic zone with a continental impact. The Regensburg climate is characterized in particular by stable and dry summers and thus differs from the rain-rich climate of the Alpine foothills in summer. Regensburg is the northern border for the foehn common in the foothills of the Alps . From the Keilberg it offers a view of the Alps, and its appearance is extremely rare. In contrast, in autumn and winter constant fog and high fog persist for a very long time, although longer periods with a closed snow cover are rare. Due to its basin location, Regensburg often suffered from smog in earlier times. The average annual temperature is 8.0 degrees Celsius, the average annual rainfall 646 millimeters. Regensburg is thus at the bottom of the cities of Bavaria.
The warmest months are June to August with an average of 16.2 to 18.0 degrees Celsius and the coldest December to February with an average of −0.9 to −2.7 degrees Celsius.
The greatest amount of precipitation falls from June to August with an average of 74 to 93 millimeters, the lowest in March and November with an average of 33 to 39 millimeters.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Regensburg
The first proven traces of settlement go back to around 5000 BC. The Regensburg Danube arch has been settled since the Stone Age.
Regensburg can prove an early first mention by the emperor Mark Aurel with the establishment of a Roman camp in 179 . Over the centuries Regensburg has been given a multitude of names. That indicates the rich history. The name Radaspona was first found in literature by Arbeo von Freising around 770 , but it probably goes back to older Celtic names. This gave rise to the French name of Regensburg “Ratisbonne” and the Italian “Ratisbona”. The origin of the name is based on two Celtic words: rate or ratis "Wall", "City wall" and bona "Foundation" or "City".
In addition, the city was also given humanistic new forms such as Quadrata, Germanisheim, Hydatospolis, Ymbripolis, Reginopolis and Tyberina .
From the Roman fort to the bishopric (time until 1200)
At the beginning of 2006, about 100 m east of the walls of the later legionary camp, Celtic graves with partly high-quality grave goods were found. They were dated to around 400 BC. Dated.
The Roman history of Regensburg begins around 79 AD with the establishment of the Kumpfmühl cohort fort in the area of today's Kumpfmühl-Ziegetsdorf-Neuprüll district . The camp served as an observation post for the Naab and Regen estuaries and was secured by a ditch and pile palisades, and later also by a stone wall. Auxiliary troops were stationed in the camp, either a 500-man mounted cohort or a 1,000-man double cohort of foot soldiers. Soon a civil settlement (vicus) formed around the fort . There was also a settlement in the form of an elongated village ( vicus ), which began in the area of today's western old town on Bismarckplatz and ran along a road leading to the Danube, where a ship mooring was proven on the bank. As excavations in 1967/77 have shown, this Danube settlement quickly reached a greater extent, extending to the east as far as the later Castra Regina legionary camp . Remains of a Roman observation tower were found near the mouth of the Naab. The oldest Roman brewery north of the Alps is believed to have been around this time (2nd century) (today Roman pavilion on Kornweg). The fort and the civilian settlements were within the Marcomannic storm destroyed in the second half of the 160-years.
After pushing back the Marcomanni to about 170 n. Chr. Was on the orders of Emperor Aurelius Mark from about 175 the legion camp Castra Regina built (camp on the rain). This stone building with its 10 meter high wall, four gates and numerous towers can still be seen today in the plan of Regensburg's old town. From its inauguration in 179 AD, the stone inscription that was once above the east gate and is considered the founding document of Regensburg is still preserved today. The III. Italian Legion with around 6000 soldiers stationed. It was the main military base of the province of Raetia and thus formed an exception in the Roman administrative system, as the legion was not stationed in the provincial capital Augsburg . During the turmoil of the Great Migration , the fort was abandoned by military force in the course of the 5th century, and from then on it was a civilian settlement reinforced with walls.
Early Middle Ages
From around 500 to 788, Regensburg was the headquarters of the dukes of the Bavarians from the Agilolfinger family . Regensburg became an important center of the early Bavarian tribal duchy. Duke Odilo realized the Bavarian diocesan division in 739. The dioceses of Regensburg, Freising, Passau and Salzburg were founded under canon law and their boundaries were determined. After his victory over the Bavarian Duke Tassilo III. Charlemagne spent two consecutive winters (791–793) in the old Bavarian ducal city of Regensburg to personally secure the incorporation of Bavaria into the Franconian Empire. Under Ludwig II (the German) , Regensburg became the residence and administrative center again.
Regensburg is one of the oldest dioceses in Germany, which already existed for a few decades when it was subordinated to Canon Law by Boniface in 739 and thus to the Bishop of Rome. Remains of various successive epochs can be found in the excavations under the Niedermünster Church , one of the oldest monastery complexes in the city, to which the so-called Erhardi crypt can also be assigned. The Romanesque chapel of St. Georg and Afra is similarly old . Even if Regensburg was Protestant as an imperial city from 1542, the city always remained a Catholic episcopal city, although it was co-administered by other dioceses at times.
In the 9th century Regensburg was one of the most important cities of the East Franconian Carolingian Empire. Hemma († 876), the wife of the East Franconian King Ludwig the German , as well as the last two East Franconian Carolingian rulers, Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia († 899) and his son King Ludwig the Child († 911) were buried in the Benedictine Abbey of St. Emmeram , a monastery, which at that time was still outside the walled city. It was only under the Bavarian Duke Arnulf I that the St. Emmeram monastery was incorporated into the walled city around 920 through the construction of the new Arnulfin city wall . As in all medieval cities, the bishop resided in the Episcopium, in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral , his episcopal church, within the walled city.
High Middle Ages
In 954 Liudolf , the eldest son of Otto the Great , retired to Regensburg after the failure of his rebellion against his father. After several months of siege by Otto's brother Heinrich , Regensburg was conquered and set on fire; However, Liudolf managed to escape.
A Regensburg city legend from this time is the Dollinger legend .
The city experienced its economic heyday through long-distance trade as far as Paris, Venice and Kiev. At that time it was one of the wealthiest and most populous cities in Germany. Around the year 1050, the city with around 40,000 inhabitants was even the largest in the empire, even before Rome or Cologne. As the envoy of the Caliph of Córdoba Ibrahim ibn Yaqub reports, Regensburg was a center of the medieval slave trade , during which Slavs and Baltic prisoners of war were exported to the Muslim area.
The Romanesque and Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages still defines the face of the old town today. A sign of the prosperity of the city at that time is the construction of the stone bridge from 1135 to 1146. The medieval building miracle contributed to the further increase of the prosperity of the city in the 13th century. and became the model for many other bridge structures, for example the Judith Bridge (forerunner of the Charles Bridge ) in Prague. The bridge is also a symbol of the rise of bourgeois urban self-government: In the bridge privilege of Emperor Barbarossa of September 26, 1182, the bridge master (magister pontis) Herbord is the first city official named.
In May 1147, Conrad III broke . in Regensburg on the second crusade , the strategically favorable Danube crossing may have been the decisive factor. Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa set out here in May 1189 with a large force for the third crusade .
Free city and imperial city (1200 to 1800)
In the years 1207 and 1230, King Philip of Swabia and Emperor Friedrich II granted the city extensive privileges (known in research as the Philippinum or Fridericianum ), which subsequently enabled it to become a Free City . As early as November 10, 1245, the citizens of Regensburg had Emperor Friedrich II confirm the city's right of self-government with the privilege of "appointing a mayor and council". The lucrative long-distance trade that increased after the construction of the Stone Bridge made the city a hub of east-west and north-south trade. In the city, which at that time still had about 20,000 inhabitants as one of the largest cities in the empire, a rich bourgeoisie of about 2000 people emerged who played a political role. The heads of 50-60 of these families formed the patriciate , from which the city government was composed. The patrician families started a construction boom and created powerful patrician house castles of stone with gender towers as status symbols, of which the Golden tower is preserved in its original height. The oldest part of today's old town hall with its tower was built according to the model of the house castles . During this time of the rich patricians, the mendicant order churches and monasteries, such as the Minorite Church and the Dominican Church of St. Blasius, also emerged .
The Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbachers residing in the city could not stop the city's development towards independence due to internal conflicts after the Bavarian division of the country in 1255. They gave up their residence in Regensburg on Kornmarkt , left Regensburg and moved to Landshut in 1259 . However, they continued to retain their rights in the city that had existed since 1185, such as coin shelf , escort rights and judicial powers in bailiwicks . The rights were pledged to rich citizens or to the city, which meant a financial burden for the city. This began a conflict between the city and the dukes of the Duchy of Bavaria and with the Regensburg prince-bishops of the Regensburg Monastery , whose territories encompassed the relatively small urban area of Regensburg, which lasted for more than four centuries . It was always the aim of the Bavarian dukes to undermine the viability of the city of Regensburg in order to regain their lost capital.
Presumably around 1273 the construction of the Regensburg Cathedral St. Peter began. Together with the stone bridge , the cathedral is the symbol of the city. From 1293 the construction of the medieval city wall began with seven new city gate towers, with which the new suburbs in the west and east and several churches and monasteries were included in the urban area.
At the beginning of the 14th century, there were signs of an economic downturn in Regensburg, caused by the shifting of trade routes in Eastern and Eastern trade. From the late Middle Ages onwards, other cities such as Augsburg, Vienna and Nuremberg, which recorded economic growth and - unlike Regensburg - increased population numbers, benefited from this. The falling income was offset by high costs, because at the beginning of the century, the city fortifications were built over the course of 30 years .
From 1330 there were unrest and revolts of the guilds and craftsmen in the south of the empire in many cities , who demanded that the patricians participate in the city government. In Regensburg, the uprisings took on very special proportions because the patrician Friedrich Auer, supported by Emperor Ludwig IV , initially allied himself with the guilds and rose to the office of mayor. There he developed a dictatorial regime and was overthrown again in 1334. Friedrich Auer retired to Brennberg Castle near Regensburg and worked from there as a robber baron on the trading routes of the Regensburg patricians. The city of Regensburg, unsettled and weakened by the Auer uprising, was surprisingly threatened in 1337 by an army of Emperor Ludwig IV , who - true to his origins from the Wittelsbach family - wanted to take advantage of the situation and make a new, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempt Bring back the city of Regensburg to the Duchy of Bavaria .
The first major plague pandemic , which spread across Europe and the Middle East from 1347 to 1353 and resulted in a drastic decline in the population, also had a damaging influence on the economic development of the long-distance trading city of Regensburg. The increasingly strong blockade actions of the Bavarian dukes and their increasing harassment against the city's merchants and traders had probably even more serious effects on the economic situation of the city. Therefore, the city of Regensburg joined the Swabian Association of Cities in 1381 . The federation had committed itself to protecting its approx. 50 members from the respective sovereign princes and was also prepared to exert military pressure on the princes. In 1388, during the city war, there were also military actions in the area around Regensburg, during which the army of the Bavarian Duke Albrecht I not only destroyed the city's vineyards. A siege of the city of Regensburg was unsuccessful. The urban war ended with the Peace of Eger , which did not change the pre-war situation. The cities were obliged to pay high war indemnities and had to bear their own high war costs. In addition, the City Council of Regensburg was forced to increase expenditure on improving the city's fortifications in order to maintain independence. As a result, the city's already difficult financial situation worsened even further towards the end of the century.
In the 15th century the economic decline of Regensburg continued and led to the bankruptcy of the city. The crash was initiated when the Hussite Wars began in 1419 . The fighting also expanded into the Upper Palatinate and ended in 1434 with the defeat of the Hussites and the loss of economic power and sales areas in the Bohemia region and the sales areas further to the northeast, which were no longer accessible to long-distance trade merchants from Regensburg. The desolate financial situation of the city had worsened, as the northern bridgehead of the Stone Bridge had been strengthened in anticipation of the Hussites and the eastern buildings of the Katharinenspital had to be demolished.
There was an outflow of capital and the departure of wealthy families from Regensburg, because the city, which lived only from long-distance and transit trade, had failed to promote handicrafts and the production of consumer goods in the 14th century, as had happened in Nuremberg . Nuremberg and Augsburg now also benefited from trade with Venice and Italy through new possibilities for using the Brenner Pass , while the Tauern Pass used by Regensburg traders was sidelined.
Even as a long-distance trading town with the Middle East, Regensburg had become marginalized due to the Turkish advance in southeastern Europe . The expansion of the Turks could not be stopped after the defeat of the Serbs in 1389 in the Battle of the Blackbird Field and in 1396 in the Battle of Nicopolis and in the subsequent Turkish Wars. The trade route to the east, which had previously been hindered by the City of Vienna's right of stacking , which had been in effect since 1221, was finally blocked by the Turkish conquest of Constantinople .
The Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III. tried in the 15th century on every Reichstag to get money from the imperial estates for the war against the Turks. In the case of the free imperial city of Regensburg efforts were not successful, so the emperor in 1483 the city with the imperial ban threaten had to extort 6,000 guilders. Regensburg, whose population had meanwhile decreased to about 12,000, could not raise the money, especially since Friedrich, as patron of the Jews, had already sentenced the city to a fine of 8,000 guilders in 1476 for years of unjustified incarceration of seventeen prominent Jews . In order to pay off the debt, the city council levied new taxes. This led to a revolt of the guilds in August 1585, whereby the anger of the population was directed against the emperor.
In this situation the Bavarian Duke Albrecht IV used his old rights as burgrave as a lure. He had pledged the rights to the city of Regensburg for 19,000 guilders in 1479 and now offered them to the council for repurchase. With this sum, the city was able to settle its debts with the emperor and received additional financial assets. A pro-Bavarian, anti-Imperial mood prevailed in the population, expressed in the slogan: “Better a duke than an emperor! The duke makes rich, the empire makes poor. ”In October 1485, a pro-Bavarian group in the city council pushed through the acceptance of the Bavarian duke's proposals. In July 1486, the complete annexation of the city to the Duchy of Bavaria was regulated in a transfer agreement. The decisive factor was the argument that, like other Bavarian country towns that were prospering at the beginning of modern times, an economic upswing for Regensburg could only be achieved with Bavarian funding. In August 1486, Duke Albrecht IV entered Regensburg splendidly. As a Wittelsbacher, he had pursued a policy of expansion and confrontation towards the imperial house of Habsburg for years and had now achieved one of his greatest successes. In the following years up to 1492, the Bavarian duke began some construction measures to stimulate the economy in Regensburg, such as B. 1487 the construction of the first salt barn in Regensburg. The old trade route to Nuremberg through the Prebrunn Gate on the southern bank of the Danube was relocated to the northern bank of the Danube, which is dominated by Bavaria. Plans to build a ducal residence in front of the Prebrunntor and plans to found a university were not implemented.
Emperor Friedrich and his son, who had been crowned king and co-ruled since 1486, and who later became Emperor Maximilian I, reacted sharply to Regensburg's submission to Bavarian rule and took legal action against Wittelsbach's competitors. In October 1491 and in January 1492 imposed Reichskammergericht the imperial ban over the city of Regensburg and the Bavarian Duke. The emperor found the necessary military support in the Swabian Confederation , an association of Swabian imperial estates that offered resistance to the Wittelsbach's expansionist efforts. The Bavarian Duke Albrecht IV had to give in to the military pressure and the urban imperial immediacy of the city of Regensburg was restored in 1492. This required several agreements in which the territorial boundaries between Regensburg and Bavaria were redefined. In these treaties of 1496, the city of Regensburg lost its status as a free city and became an imperial city under the supervision of imperial commissioners, whose powers were laid down in regimental regulations and protection treaties. The Bavarian Duke lost his old rights as burgrave in the city, including the income from it. To compensate for this, the “Am Hof” settlement was elevated to the status of the Bavarian country town of Stadtamhof .
The mood in the population remained tense, however, because the economic situation did not improve and because there were still supporters of the Bavarian Duke, with whom the imperial commissioners, who were called Reichshauptmen from 1499, settled hard. A 30-year phase of social unrest began in the city, which in 1519 led to the expulsion of the Regensburg Jews.
The internal unrest in the city escalated in 1511 when Emperor Maximilian I appointed the Franconian nobleman Thomas Fuchs von Wallburg as the new imperial governor for Regensburg. The majority in the city council resisted the appeal for two years. A power struggle began between the emperor and the city council, in the course of which the loyal councilor Konrad Liskircher was kidnapped, imprisoned, tortured and hanged by the mob in 1513. After sending some imperial commissions, the appointment of Thomas Fuchs von Wallburg as the new imperial governor was finally enforced. Then the party members of the Bavarian duke were settled and, as ringleader, the cathedral builder Wolfgang Roritzer was executed together with more than 100 followers . Emperor Maximilian I imposed a new city constitution on the city in 1514, the so-called "regimental order", which formally remained in force until 1803. After his appointment, the new imperial governor Thomas Fuchs von Wallburg played an important and beneficial role for the city in the financial affairs of the city and in negotiations with Bishop Johann von der Pfalz , so that his appointment was no longer in question.
After the death of Emperor Maximilian in January 1519 and the election of the new King Charles V in June 1519, the City Council of Regensburg used the short period of power vacuum without an emperor and organized a pogrom to expel the Regensburg Jews , the largest Jewish community in Germany at the time . This was preceded by an order from the city council on February 21, with which a request by Christian craftsmen was met. The old Jewish quarter on today's Neupfarrplatz and the Jewish cemetery in front of Peterstor were totally destroyed. A successful accident during the demolition work was mystified as a miracle and led to the pilgrimage “Zur Schönen Maria” . The pilgrimage was very popular and brought high income for the city and the bishop for several years. The money was used to start building a pilgrimage church using Jewish tombstones. After the completion of the choir, the pilgrimage declined and the construction had to be canceled due to lack of money. The hull structure was temporarily closed and used as a Protestant town church after the introduction of the Reformation in 1542. It was not until the 19th century that the church in the west was closed; this is how today's Neupfarrkirche was built on the square of the same name.
In 1524, the first alliance of early ecclesiastical imperial estates in the city was concluded with the Regensburg Convention . In 1541 the Regensburg Religious Discussion between Philipp Melanchthon and Johannes Eck took place in the Neue Waag on Haidplatz . The conversation was an attempt to bridge the deep rifts that had emerged between Catholics and Protestants after Luther posted his theses in 1517 in Wittenberg, but it did not succeed.
In the years after 1517, when more and more cities joined the Reformation, the religious and political scope of action of the city council in Regensburg was restricted several times. And by the border of the imperial city, the city also included the territories of the bishop with the cathedral, the monastery St. Emmeran , the pin Obermünster and pin Niedermünster one. Even the Duke of Bavaria, who surrounded the city with his territory, did not hesitate to put the city under pressure in terms of religious policy with the threat of economic blockades. In the years after 1517, the city council had to perform a political balancing act and was led and advised by the imperial governor Thomas Fuchs von Wallburg, who was very influential under the emperor . He held the city council back so that the city never took the lead in the Reformation movement. At the same time, however, the many reformatory approaches that existed in the city on the part of the citizens and that were supported by foreign nobles who were in the city were not hindered. Since 1526, Protestant communion celebrations have been tolerated in town houses and noble houses. But this also increased the risk of religious sectarianism. The Anabaptists had settled in Regensburg since 1525 and in 1528 the Anabaptist Wützelburger was executed.
When the emperor released the cities to join the Augsburg denomination in the imperial decree of 1541, the city council seized the opportunity and, following a petition from the citizens of September 28, 1542, decided to hold a communion on October 15, 1542 Service in the Neupfarrkirche to officially introduce the Reformation in Regensburg. The council counselor Johann Hiltner provided the necessary justification. After the introduction of the Reformation, various conflicts continued with the prince-bishop . The situation only calmed down after the chamberlain Stephan Fugger vom Reh († 1602) had signed the Lutheran Agreement of 1577 for the City Council of Regensburg .
Since the end of the 16th century, but especially during the Thirty Years' War and for years after the Peace of Westphalia , the city was one of the most important, first places of refuge for evangelical expellees from Austria. Of the total of around 100,000 exiles , some settled permanently in Regensburg, but many moved on to Nuremberg , Franconia , Swabia , Prussia and the Netherlands . A second wave of exiles from Salzburg followed in the late autumn and winter of 1731/32.
In the first fourteen years of the Thirty Years' War Regensburg was not affected by acts of war. On the Regensburg Electoral Congress of 1630, the commander-in-chief of the imperial army Wallenstein was initially removed, but then recalled at the end of 1631 because the military situation for the emperor and Bavaria had deteriorated drastically. An attack on Austria along the Danube line seemed possible and Regensburg became an important fortress. With the occupation of the city by Bavarian troops in April 1632, the fighting for Regensburg began . The city's fortifications were expanded, but this remained ineffective because Wallenstein failed to send supplies and troop reinforcements. In November 1633 Regensburg was stormed and occupied by Swedish troops under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar . All Catholic clergy were expelled and Protestant services were held in the cathedral. Only a few months after the murder of Wallenstein, Regensburg was re-conquered by Imperial and Bavarian troops together under the leadership of the new Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army, Archduke Ferdinand , son of Emperor Ferdinand II, after a three-month siege in July 1634. However, the city was occupied exclusively by imperial troops, which annoyed the Bavarian Elector Maximilian I and resulted in years of economic sanctions. For Archduke Ferdinand, the victory at Regensburg was the first military success, which was followed by an even greater victory in the battle of Nördlingen that followed. After this military performance record, Archduke Ferdinand was elected Roman-German King at the Regensburg Electoral Congress in 1636 . In 1637 he was named Emperor Ferdinand III. Successor to his father and convened an electoral convention in Regensburg in 1641, at which the possibilities of a peace treaty were discussed but not decided. A Swedish army used the presence of the emperor for a raid-like attack on the city with a violent cannonade, but had to withdraw again without success.
End of the Thirty Years War, beginning of the Perpetual Reichstag
Regensburg was already an important center at the time of the East Franconian Empire , where Reichstag was also held. From 1594 the Reichstag was only held in the Reichssaal of the Regensburg town hall and after the end of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the first Reichstag was convened again in Regensburg after the war. At this Reichstag, details of the provisions of the peace treaty were discussed and passed, and a further convocation of the Reichstag was decided for 1663. This Reichstag from 1663 subsequently developed into the Perpetual Reichstag, at which the emperor was usually represented by the imperial principal commissioners he chose . As a rule, the imperial princes were also represented by envoys , some of whom settled in Regensburg with families, set up embassies with servants in the city and, in the event of death, were buried in the city either in monastery churches or, if they were Protestant, in the envoys cemetery .
In the course of the War of the Spanish Succession , which began in 1701 , in which many imperial estates in the Hague alliance with the Emperor and with England fought against the spa Bavaria , which was allied with France , the keys to the city were lost to the Bavarian General Alessandro Maffei on April 8, 1703 on the Stone Bridge to hand over. At the same time, however, the Elector Max Emanuel , who was allied with France against the Austrian Emperor, undertook to withdraw the Bavarian troops stationed in Stadtamhof as soon as the neutrality of the city of Regensburg in the conflict had been assured to him and he had the guarantee that neither of the two warring parties would defend the stone Bridge could use. In fact, however, there was a sweeping occupation of the city and also heavy fighting and destruction in Stadtamhof .
In 1713/14 the last plague epidemic occurred in the city, which resulted in around 8,000 deaths. At the end of August 1713, the ambassadors at the Perpetual Reichstag left the city with their servants and moved to Augsburg, followed by many clergymen. After around 7,000 people had left the city, it was completely cordoned off by Bavarian hussars. A plague hospital was set up on the Untere Wöhrd , where mass graves were also created. A second wave of Salzburg exiles reached Regensburg in the late autumn and winter of 1731/32.
In 1742, after the election of the Bavarian Elector Karl Albrecht as Emperor Karl VII (HRR), the Imperial General Postmaster Prince Alexander Ferdinand von Thurn und Taxis was appointed Principal Commissioner and Deputy of the Emperor at the Perpetual Reichstag. At this time the Reichstag met in Frankfurt, where the new principal commissioner also had his residence. After the unexpected death of Emperor Charles VII in January 1745 and the election of Franz I of Lorraine , the husband of Maria Theresa , as the new emperor, the seat of the Reichstag was moved back to Regensburg. Only after Alexander Ferdinand von Thurn und Taxis, who had initially lost his office as principal commissioner, agreed to move his residence to Regensburg, was he reappointed principal commissioner on January 15, 1748. In Regensburg, the Freisinger Hof on the north side of Emmeramsplatz was rented as a representative building for a splendid royal household and was lavishly converted into a residence palace at the expense of the Thurn und Taxis family. In April 1750 the palace was occupied and became the place of a splendid court holding, where gala soupers and a court music band provided for the amusement and amusement of the ambassadors after Reichstag sessions. In 1773 Alexander Ferdinand von Thurn und Taxis died. His successor as principal commissioner was his son Karl Anselm von Thurn und Taxis . After the palace was destroyed by a large fire in 1792, it was moved to the western outbuilding (today the government of the Upper Palatinate ). The quarters for the chancellery, the library and the archive required for the administration of office as the emperor's deputy, as well as the mailing department, were housed in the Zanthaus on Gesandersstrasse, where numerous embassies had set up in rented apartments. These tenancies had an economic benefit for the city, but it was small, since the ambassadors were neither duty nor taxable. In 1771, the Zanthaus was bought by Thurn und Taxis and, after the move to the Sankt Emmeram monastery , sold again in 1812 to the Bernhard brothers who set up a snuff factory there.
End of the 18th century Regensburg was shaken by serious internal political disputes when, against the background of an impending financial collapse of the city, representatives of the citizenship and the magistrate successfully sued the city's secret council (the actual government body) for mismanagement and breach of the constitution before the Reichshofrat in Vienna. The emperor ordered a selective revision of the city constitution and granted Regensburg - to the detriment of the city's creditors - a moratorium that averted the collapse of the city-state. During the Second Coalition War , 5,000 Russian soldiers marched through the city in December 1799. In the summer of 1800 French troops occupied Munich and took up quarters in Regensburg on their way to the Battle of Hohenlinden . The city was given high contributions, which completely ruined the city's finances.
From imperial city to district capital (1800 to 1945)
Transitional period as a Bavarian provincial town
In 1803, one of the last decisions of the Reichstag was made in Regensburg : The main decision of the Reichsdeputation led, among other things, to the secularization of most of the monasteries . With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, the independent Principality of Regensburg was created under Karl Theodor von Dalberg , who was only able to take up his post as archbishop on February 1, 1805 due to Bavarian objections. The Confederation of the Rhine States declared at the last meeting of the Regensburg Reichstag on August 1, 1806 to withdraw from the Association of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. In the fifth coalition war (France against Great Britain and Austria) an Austrian army corps occupied Regensburg on April 20, 1809. Three days later, the city was recaptured by a French army, destroying the houses and monasteries in the south-eastern part of the city between Klarenanger (today Dachauplatz ) and Peterstor . Here Napoleon suffered the only injury during all of his campaigns.
Subsequently, Dalberg retained his office as Archbishop of Regensburg until his death in 1817 , but had to cede his Principality of Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria on May 22, 1810 . The integration into the Kingdom of Bavaria meant the loss of the political importance and the special position of the former imperial city or principality. However, even in the time of the imperial city, the economic conditions had become so desolate that further independence seemed problematic for that very reason. Reconstruction in the south-east of the city began under the police director Franz Xaver Gruber , appointed by the Bavarian king in 1810 , who set up a city administration. Only after the city had regained self-government in urban affairs through the Bavarian municipal edict of May 17, 1818 , Johann Karl Martin Mauerer was elected the first legally qualified mayor of the city of Regensburg in September 1818.
Regensburg became the capital of the rain district, from 1838 of the district "Regensburg and Upper Palatinate", the later administrative district of Upper Palatinate . Regensburg slowly began to gain in importance again as a “district city ” and at the same time the seat of the district office of the same name. In 1859 the city was connected to the railway network with connections to Nuremberg and Munich.
In the following years, under Mayor Oskar von Stobäus (1869–1903), the modernization of the city began with the almost complete demolition of the medieval city fortifications . After that, nine new schools, new districts and connecting roads could be built, such as B. D. Martin Luther Straße and in 1871 after the founding of the Empire the Reichsstraße . The first gasworks in Landshuterstraße was put into operation as early as December 1857 . The gas produced from coal from 1865 was initially used for street lighting and from 1900 for heat generation. In 1897 the gas works was communicated. At the end of 1899, the first power station went into operation in Augustenstrasse , initially with Thurn und Taxis Castle as the largest customer, then replaced by the Regensburg tram in 1903 . Because of the high child mortality rate, the search for new sources of drinking water supply was particularly urgent, and it turned out to be very costly. The springs finally found in Sallern required the construction of elevated tanks and new pipes. The subsequent canalization of the city aimed to discharge all sewage and faeces from the city area and by 1911 had only covered 2/3 of the properties. The facility was very expensive, but significantly improved the poor health of the population.
Despite all these measures, there was hardly any industrial settlement in the period that followed . Towards the end of the century the number of inhabitants had almost tripled, but had increased tenfold in the cities of Munich and Nuremberg and quadrupled in the comparable city of Augsburg. Regensburg was no longer the fifth largest city within Bavaria, but had sunk to eighth place, overtaken by the new industrial cities of Ludwigshafen, Fürth and Kaiserslautern. For a long time, Regensburg's role was limited to that of an economic and trading center for a relatively limited agricultural area. In addition, however, the traditional meaning of the old, calm city as a church and school town as well as the seat of the authorities was preserved.
Beginning of the 20th century
In the municipal elections of 1899, the candidates from the former conservative-Catholic Bavarian Patriot Party joined the new Center Party . They had led a strongly denominational election campaign against the Protestant National Liberal Party of Mayor Stobäus and achieved a 43% share of the vote. Nevertheless, the Center Party had not been given a seat on the community bodies. The result was repeated in the municipal elections in 1902 and 1905. The unjust result was a consequence of the local electoral law at the time and had two causes. On the one hand, eligibility to vote was dependent on the acquisition of citizenship, which had to be bought, which many poor Catholic residents could not afford. In addition, with the prescribed majority vote and with sophisticated constituency delimitations, it was possible to ensure that all mandates fell to the Liberals. In this way, the bourgeois liberal ruling class that had ruled Regensburg for decades had secured supremacy and prevented the middle and petty bourgeoisie and the later new workers from being represented in the community bodies. This very unjust conditions changed only after the 1899 in Regensburg as editor in chief of the Regensburger morning paper active Heinrich Held from 1907 deputy of the center in the Bavarian parliament was. There Held demanded a new municipal electoral law for large cities and was able to enforce this demand in 1908 with the support of the Social Democrats . The result was that in the same year six of the twelve seats in the college of municipal representatives went to the Center Party and the chairman of the farmers' association Georg Heim was even elected a member of the city council of Regensburg. Under Mayor Hermann Geib , the opening of the Luitpoldhafen planned by his predecessor Stobäus in 1910 brought an economic boom. The Westhafen still has an important function today. Until the First World War and also during the war, Danube shipping was of great importance because of the import of oil from Romania . The Regensburg petroleum port soon proved to be too small. In 1913 the inland shipping company Bayerische Lloyd was founded.
An expansion of the urban area of more than 26 square kilometers and an increase of around 20,000 inhabitants resulted in the incorporation of seven communities of the former Stadtamhof district office in 1924 , which then became the Regensburg district office, today's Regensburg district . The incorporations were the current city districts of Stadtamhof , Reinhausen , Sallern , Schwabelweis , Steinweg , Weichs and Winzer .
time of the nationalsocialism
After the NSDAP regime “came to power ” on January 30, 1933, Lord Mayor Otto Hipp ( Bavarian People's Party ) was deposed on March 20, 1933. The latter was a staunch opponent of the National Socialists and at the beginning of the 1930s had legally prohibited the NSDAP from using city buildings. On May 12, 1933, an official book burning also took place on Neupfarrplatz in Regensburg . In the same year Otto Schottenheim (Mayor from 1933 to 1945; NSDAP) had the construction of a "National Socialist model settlement" started in the north of the city (today: Konradsiedlung-Wutzlhofen ). A second model settlement, especially for workers in the Messerschmitt aircraft factory , the so-called "Hermann-Göring-Siedlung" (today Ganghofersiedlung ), was built later in the south of the city. Further suburban settlements emerged at the same time on Brandlberg, in Steinweg (Palatinate settlement) and in the west of the city ( Westheimsiedlung ).
In 1933 Regensburg was added to the Gau Bayerische Ostmark of the NSDAP (seat: Bayreuth ) - from 1943: Gau Bayreuth ; it remained the seat of the government of the district formed in 1932 (from 1939: administrative district) Niederbayern / Oberpfalz . In autumn 1932 the elementary school teacher Wolfgang Weigert took over the office of NSDAP district leader from Wilhelm Brodmerkel . On November 9, 1938, the synagogue at the Brixner Hof was burned down in the course of the Reichspogromnacht , the remaining Jewish shops were plundered and the Jewish population of Regensburg was terrorized.
On April 2, 1942, 106 Regensburg Jews were transported from the site of the destroyed synagogue to Piaski and later murdered in the Belzec and Sobibor extermination camps . Further transports led to Auschwitz and Theresienstadt concentration camps . A total of around 250 of the Jews deported from Regensburg were murdered during the Shoah . About 230 Regensburg Jews were able to escape extermination by emigrating or fleeing.
The Colosseum subcamp , a subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp, was located in the Stadtamhof district at the beginning of 1945 . In the neighboring village of Obertraubling at that existed on the premises Messerschmitt AG , the concentration camp Obertraubling . Today part of this area (for example the former so-called Russian camp II with over a thousand mostly Russian forced laborers at the time) belongs to the urban area of Regensburg.
In autumn 1942 the Gestapo arrested over 30 people and accused them of behavior that was hostile to the state. Since the persecuted, who belonged to all political camps from the KPD to BVP to NSDAP, met in loose succession on the Regensburg Neupfarrplatz, the Gestapo named them "Neupfarrplatz-Gruppe". In their final report, the police accused those arrested of corrosive word of mouth ; this had "weakened many German national comrades in their confidence in victory quite considerably". Two of the accused, Josef Bollwein and Johann Kellner, were sentenced to death by the 6th Senate of the People's Court for “preparing for high treason ” and executed on August 12, 1943 in Munich-Stadelheim .
From 1940 onwards, a total of 638 women, men and young people were deported from the district nerve hospital on Ludwig-Thoma-Straße to the Hartheim killing center as part of the “ euthanasia ” - T 4 patient murder . More than 500 other people were forcibly sterilized .
With the beginning of the Second World War , several labor camps for prisoners of war from many nations were set up in and around Regensburg . Around 700 of them fell victim to Nazi forced labor or died of epidemics and miserable living conditions. A total of almost 14,000 so-called foreign workers had to do forced labor in Regensburg during the war .
In the Second World War, Regensburg suffered relatively little from air raids compared to other larger cities. However, the Messerschmitt aircraft works , which were an important strategic target for air strikes, were located in the west of the city . Two further strategic goals were the port facilities and the bridges over the Danube in the east of the city and the railway facilities on the southern edge of the old town with Regensburg as the railway junction between Munich and Berlin. The Messerschmitt aircraft factory, which was one of the largest of its kind at the time, was destroyed on August 17, 1943 ( Operation Double Strike ) and by the end of the war the other two targets were completely destroyed in several attacks. The old town, however, was hardly affected in comparison to the degree of destruction in other German inner cities, although one of the most important architectural monuments of the city was completely lost with the Obermünster collegiate church and other historical buildings in the old town, such as the old chapel or the Neue Waag am Haidplatz, were badly damaged. In a total of 20 bombing raids by the Royal Air Force and the 8th US Air Force in 1943–1945, around 3,000 people died, many of them prisoners of war. There was relatively little damage to the living space in the city: 82% of the apartments were considered undamaged, 9% as moderately to severely damaged and 9% as completely destroyed.
On April 22, 1945 Gauleiter (Gau Bayreuth) and Reich Defense Commissioner Ludwig Ruckdeschel demanded the defense of Regensburg down to the last stone in a fanatical speech and radio address in the Velodrom . That night he had all bridges over the Danube blown up except for the Stone Bridge. A short time later, Ruckdeschel and District President Gerhard Bommel fled to the Schloss Haus near Neueglofsheim.
On April 23, 1945, cathedral preacher Johann Maier (1906–1945) asked for the surrender without a fight at a demonstration on Moltkeplatz, which was mainly carried by Regensburg women with children and old people, but also soldiers and clergy, so that the city would not be over yet more damaged or to avoid further victims. The following day he was publicly executed for "sabotage" together with the Regensburg citizen Josef Zirkl and the retired gendarmerie officer Michael Lottner on Moltkeplatz, today's Dachauplatz (see also final phase crimes ).
Also on April 23, the Danube bridges were partially blasted towards the evening . In particular, four pillars of one of the city's most important cultural monuments, the stone bridge from the 12th century, were blown up. In the afternoon of April 25, units of the 71st Infantry Division occupied the Stadtamhof district. They reached Donaustauf on the same day and Bad Abbach in the evening.
On April 26th, the Wehrmacht units and combat commander Hans Hüsson left the city of Regensburg in a south-east direction. Major Othmar Matzke , the highest-ranking officer who remained in the city against the order of the day, sent a retired major general in the morning hours of April 27 in consultation with Mayor Otto Schottenheim . D. as a member of parliament to the US troops. This offered an unconditional surrender and then Regensburg was handed over to the 3rd US Army without a fight .
In June 1945, under American occupation, Regensburg became a collection point for around 2,200 Italian citizens who had been liberated from concentration camps by the Americans and were housed in the halls of the former Messerschmitt aircraft factory. They were brought back to Italy in late July 1945. Among them was the painter Aldo Carpi , who lived in a residential building with American soldiers and who left detailed reports on the immediate post-war period in Regensburg.
Post-war and modern
As early as 1945 shortly after the end of the war, the population clearly exceeded the 100,000 mark and reached 150,000 by the turn of the millennium. After the war, refugee flows from the east (especially from the Sudetenland ) were the main reason for the population growth. After the war, the refugees were housed in the old town, where around 1955 the population density was higher than anywhere else in the Federal Republic. Because of the unreasonable living conditions and the high risk of fire, the first plans and measures to renovate the old town of Regensburg had to be tackled. In addition to the refugees, there was a group of approx. 6,000 people, including 5,000 Ukrainians and 1,000 people of unclear nationality, who were housed in the Ganghofer settlement as so-called displaced persons until 1949 . The settlement was called "Little Ukraine" at that time. See also UNRRA and refugee policy (Germany) .
Between 1971 and 1983 there were new reasons for population growth. In the course of the municipal area reform , there were numerous incorporations and various infrastructure measures were also carried out that led to new arrivals, such as the establishment of the university and the establishment of industrial companies.
In 1960 the Osthafen (built in 1960/61 and 1970-72) started operations, followed in 1978 by the Main-Danube Canal . In 1965 the foundation stone was laid for building the university , the faculties of which began operations in the early 1970s. Then there was the university of applied sciences . The planned construction of a university hospital was delayed. It was not until 1984 when the foundation stone was laid for the dental clinic that construction began on the clinic , which opened in 1992.
The Siemens Group has permanently expanded its Regensburg site, including building a factory for chip production (today Infineon AG). In the course of the amalgamations already mentioned, Regensburg experienced an area increase of almost 3 km². This made it possible for the BMW plant to start production at Harting in 1986 . From 1989 Toshiba produced laptops and notebooks in Regensburg, but gave up its location in Regensburg again in 2009. For this, u. a. Osram has relocated to the former Toshiba site, which produces and researches classic and novel light sources here. 1997 Regensburg has been awarded the European Prize awarded for its outstanding efforts to European integration thoughts.
The historic city center of Regensburg with its narrow streets, numerous patrician houses and chapels, churches and monasteries from all artistic epochs of the Middle Ages was largely preserved despite some losses as a result of the urban renovation measures that began after 1955 and were supported by the population. The city center now offers the largest medieval old town in Germany with over 1000 protected monuments. In addition, the Old Town has the largest number of gender towers north of the Alps, which has given Regensburg the nickname “ Italy's northernmost city ”.
On July 13, 2006, the old town of Regensburg, including the Stadtamthof, was recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2007, the city established a World Heritage Center, which is housed in the historic Salzstadel near the southern bridge tower of the Stone Bridge . There, detailed information on the city's history is given at a central point (~ 2000 years) and current exhibitions are carried out.
At the end of 2018, 84,499 (50.2%) of the 168,426 inhabitants were Catholic, 21,524 (12.8%) Protestant and 62,403 inhabitants (37.1%) belonged to other or no religious community. In 2017, 51.4% of the population of Regensburg were Catholic, 13.1% Protestant, and 35.5% belonged to another or no religious community. In 1970, 82.4% of the population were Catholic and 14.5% Protestant. The term “Evangelical” includes the Lutheran, Reformed and Uniate Confessions, but not the Free Churches. Since 1950 the proportion of Catholics in the total population has been decreasing continuously.
In 739, St. Boniface founded the diocese of Regensburg . In the following years numerous monasteries were founded. Regensburg was in close cultural exchange with Cashel , Ireland. There, clergymen were trained who later came to Regensburg. The diocese of Regensburg was initially subordinate to the Archdiocese of Mainz and later to the Archdiocese of Salzburg . Even if Regensburg often lacked the personal presence of its pastor due to the accumulation of benefices, there has been a succession of Regensburg bishops only slightly interrupted by the appointment modalities since the canonical establishment of the diocese.
After the introduction of the Reformation in October 1542 and the first public Lord's Supper on October 15, 1542 in the Neupfarrkirche , the city council and the citizens had converted to Protestantism , but the Catholic imperial estates remained in the urban area of Regensburg, as did the Catholic bishopric and the imperial free pins Obermünster and Niedermünster and rich free Kloster St. Emmeran that did not belong to the territory of the imperial city itself. The Catholic denomination continued to be represented in the city and became the predominant denomination after 1810 due to numerous immigrants. The confessional mixture had given Regensburg a special position in the empire early on and, in addition to its proximity to imperial Vienna, was also a reason why the Perpetual Reichstag took its seat in Regensburg. The city offered a territory in the empire in which both denominations could meet peacefully.
Up until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, the office of Reichserzkanzler was bound to the Archbishopric of Mainz . In 1803 this was Carl Theodor Anton Maria Baron von Dalberg . With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the Mainz rights were transferred to Regensburg, Dalberg became Archbishop of Regensburg, which he remained until his death in 1817. In 1817/1821 the diocese of Regensburg was rewritten and placed under the church province of Munich and Freising . The diocese of Regensburg is the largest Bavarian diocese in terms of area with 14,665 square kilometers and is composed of 33 deaneries. The 24 parishes and 4 other pastoral care offices of the city of Regensburg belong within the diocese to the dean's office of Regensburg, which forms the Regensburg region with the dean's offices of Laaber, Alteglofsheim, Donaustauf and Regenstauf.
The Protestant congregations were led by a superintendent after the introduction of the Reformation . A consistory existed as the church administration authority. After the transition to Bavaria in 1810, the parishes became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . The seven Regensburg parishes within this regional church belong to the Regensburg deanery in the church district of the same name.
In the area of free churches in Regensburg today there are Adventist , Baptist , Mennonite (since 1820) and Methodist congregations as well as a Pentecostal Free Christian Congregation and a Free Evangelical Congregation .
There is also an old Catholic parish in Regensburg . The Russian Orthodox community uses the Maria-Schutz-Kirche in the city park. The Romanian Orthodox Church Community of the Holy Trinity uses the monastery church of St. Matthias in Ostengasse. In their monk choir behind the high altar, a chapel was set up in 1974 by the Regensburg Eastern Church Institute , which is used today by the Serbian Orthodox community.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a congregation in Regensburg.
During his six-day pastoral journey through Bavaria in 2006, Pope Benedict XVI. three days in Regensburg. He celebrated Holy Mass on the Islinger Feld on the southern outskirts of the city together with around 230,000 people . He also held a lecture at the university that was subsequently criticized by the Islamic side and celebrated an ecumenical Vespers in the cathedral with high representatives of the Protestant and Orthodox Churches.
The 99th German Catholic Day took place in Regensburg from May 28 to June 1, 2014 . It was the third Catholic Day in Regensburg, the first took place in 1849 and the second in 1904.
Regensburg was the first Jewish community in Bavaria and one of the most important in Europe during the Middle Ages. The earliest documentary mention of a Jew in Regensburg comes from the year 981. In the centuries that followed, the community flourished, producing some of the most famous contemporary scribes and poets such as Isak ben Mordechai , Efraim ben Isaak (Efraim the Great from Regensburg), and Jehuda ben Samuel he-Chasid (Yehuda the Pious). The Jewish quarter was on today's Neupfarrplatz . In 1519 the synagogue was destroyed and the Jews were expelled. From 1669 Jews lived in the city again. Between 1861 and 1871 the congregation grew from 150 to 430 members. A new synagogue was built in 1912.
The checkered history of the Jewish community in Regensburg temporarily ended with the destruction of the synagogue in the pogrom night of 1938 and the deportation and murder of Regensburg Jews during World War II . The 400 or so Jews in Regensburg were expropriated, robbed and deported. Around 250 were murdered.
After the end of the war in 1945, Regensburg took in around 3,500 Jews who had been liberated from the Flossenbürg concentration camp . In addition, there were Jews with unclear citizenship who had fled from camps in Eastern Europe to the Bavarian US occupation zone and were therefore included in the large group of so-called displaced persons . They were housed in the Ganghofer settlement . Most of them emigrated to the USA or Israel, so that Regensburg only had around 400 Jews in 1953. In the early 1990s there were just 60. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union , the number has risen to around 400.
During excavations at Neupfarrplatz in 1995, remains of the synagogue were rediscovered. There the city set up an information center, the document Neupfarrplatz . It provides information underground about the changeful history of the Neupfarrplatz: Jewish ghetto and religious center of international importance, expulsion of Jews, Catholic pilgrimage church Zur Schönen Maria , Evangelische Neupfarrkirche as the mother church of Austrian and south-east European Protestantism. The floor plan of the former synagogue is traced by an accessible floor relief made of white concrete designed by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan , which was inaugurated on July 13, 2005. The Jewish Community Center with a synagogue, which was inaugurated in 2019, is located on the site of the previous building, which was destroyed in the night of the pogrom , a few 100 meters east of the Neupfarrplatz in the street “Am Brixener Hof”. Jewish cemeteries are located in Schillerstraße west of the city park and in a section of the city cemetery on Dreifaltigkeitsberg.
The number of registered Muslims living in Regensburg is likely to be between 4,000 and 5,000, more than half of them of Turkish origin. From the rest of the countries of origin of Muslim immigrants , which, like in many other major German cities, range from Morocco to Pakistan and Indonesia, a larger group of Tunisians who have lived in the city since 1969, and the Iraqis who settled in the years after 1995 in particular, are worth mentioning. In addition to two Turkish mosque associations, the DITIB (Merkez Mosque, Lindnergasse, founded in 1978, later DITIB association) and the VIKZ (Adolf-Schmetzer-Strasse), there is an "Albanian-Islamic Cultural Center" (Alte Straubinger Strasse), a branch of the Ahmadiyya ( Von-Donle-Strasse ) and two Arab associations, the “Islamic-Arab Cultural Association” (As-Siddiq, Walderdorffstrasse) and the “Islamic-Arab Cultural Center” (Al-Rahman Mosque / Masjid Arrahman).
After moving out of the previous premises on Hemauerstrasse, the latter built a large community hall on Alte Straubinger Strasse in 2009.
Muslim cemeteries are located in a section of the municipal cemetery on the Trinity Mountain and in the town of Kareth, north of Regensburg.
In 1978 a Buddhist meditation group was established in Regensburg under the guidance of Lama Ole Nydahl. As a result, the Buddhist Center Regensburg was founded, since 1999 in the historic Brixener Hof building, currently the largest Buddhist group in the city. The Buddhist center is part of the non-profit association Buddhist Centers Bavaria of the Karma-Kagyü-Lineage e. V. under the Buddhist umbrella organization Diamantweg (BDD) e. V. organized. In addition to the Diamond Way Center, several other Buddhist groups are active in Regensburg, such as the Regensburg Buddhist meditation group, Zen Buddhists and Won Buddhists.
Urban development and politics
On January 1, 1904, the previously independent municipality of Karthaus-Prüll was incorporated. On April 1st, 1924 Reinhausen, Sallern, Schwabelweis, Stadtamhof, Steinweg, Weichs and Winzer were added. On April 1st, 1938 Dech Betten, Großprüfening and Ziegetsdorf followed. On the occasion of the municipal reform in Bavaria , Burgweinting, Harting and Oberisling were incorporated on January 1, 1977. Part of the neighboring municipality of Barbing with more than 400 inhabitants followed on January 1, 1978.
With the onset of industrialization in the 19th century, the population grew rapidly. While 18,933 inhabitants lived in the city in 1818, there were already 30,357 in 1867, then 37,934 in 1890 and 52,624 in 1910. Due to numerous incorporations in 1924 and 1938, the population rose to 96,000 by 1939. In 1940 the city's population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city . On March 31, 2007, the "official population" according to updates by the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing was 131,489. Only main residences count after comparison with the other state offices. In 2011 the limit of 150,000 inhabitants was exceeded for the first time (152,089 inhabitants). In October 2018 the population (total population with main and secondary residence) was 166,467. 81,590 were male and 84,877 female.
Between 1988 and 2018, the urban district grew from 119,078 to 152,610 by 33,532 inhabitants or by 28.2%.
|1861||27,875||in 7175 families, including 102 families and 3,626 people from the military|
|1864||29,893||mostly Catholic residents, including 3868 military residents, including 6232 Protestants , 22 other Christians, 137 Israelites|
|1871||29,185||on December 1, 1871, including 697 active military personnel, 2,363 residential buildings, 23,209 Catholics, 5506 Protestants , 15 Reformed , 13 Mennonites , seven Anabaptists , three German Catholics , two free religious, 430 Israelites|
|1900||45,429||5790 Protestants, 39.018 Catholics|
|1905||68,412||with the garrison (an infantry regiment No. 11), of which 5960 Protestants, 529 Jews|
|1910||52,624||6531 Protestants, 45,440 Catholics|
|1925||76,948||thereof 7128 Evangelicals, 69,080 Catholics, 102 other Christians, 478 Jews|
|1933||81.106||of which 6,632 Protestants, 73,632 Catholics, 86 other Christians, 427 Jews|
|1939||90,651||thereof 8,685 Evangelicals, 80,383 Catholics, 255 other Christians, 226 Jews|
|1960||123,400||including 23,900 displaced persons|
For centuries, Regensburg's political leadership was based on imperial immediacy . Regensburg received the right of self-administration and the privilege to “appoint a mayor and council” through Emperor Friedrich II . This made it a Free Imperial City and remained so until 1803. The council had 16 members. This number was retained until 1803. Between 1803 and 1810 Regensburg was an electorate under the Imperial Chancellor Carl Theodor von Dalberg . In 1809 the city was under French occupation. With the transition to Bavaria in 1810, Regensburg became the capital of the rain district and was led by a royal police director from 1811 .
From 1818 the city was headed by a first mayor, who from 1907 received the title of Lord Mayor (OB). Today there are two other full-time mayors in addition to the mayor. The OB and the City Council are for a legislature chosen by six years. Both elections take place on the same date. The city council consists of 50 elected members and the mayor. In addition, there are four professional councilors without voting rights: Economic, scientific and financial advisor, legal and environmental advisor, planning and construction advisor and a cultural advisor.
The last city council election took place on March 15, 2020 , as in the entire Free State of Bavaria . The Council therefore consists of eight political groups. The Left, The Party, Ribisl and the CSB have no parliamentary group status.
On January 18, 2017, Mayor Joachim Wolbergs , who has been in office since 2014 (until April 2019 SPD), was arrested on suspicion of bribery and taken into custody in the course of the Regensburg party donation affair. The responsible public prosecutor in Regensburg stated a risk of blackout as the reason for detention. On January 27, 2017, he was temporarily relieved of his duties, since then Mayor Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer (SPD) has been acting on a temporary basis. On February 28, 2017, the warrant for the Wolbergs' arrest was suspended with conditions, but he has been temporarily removed from office. On July 3, 2019, Wolbergs was acquitted on all major charges. In two cases from 2015 and 2016 - the court judged these cases to be a “mistake in the prohibition” - he was found guilty of accepting benefits totaling € 150,000. The court refrained from sentencing, but the provisional removal from office remained. The public prosecutor's office immediately announced an appeal against the judgment, as did Wolbergs. At the beginning of October 2019, a second corruption process began against Wolbergs at the Regensburg Regional Court. The public prosecutor's office is accused of taking bribes and accepting benefits; In this process, too, donations from the construction industry to Wolbergs' former SPD local association are the focus.
In the runoff election for the local elections in Bavaria 2020 , Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer (SPD) was elected mayor from May 1, 2020 with 50.74 percent of the validly cast votes. The opposing candidate in the runoff election was Astrid Freudenstein (CSU).
coat of arms
|Blazon : "Two silver keys crossed at an anglein red ."|
Reasons for the coat of arms: The keys are the attribute of Saint Peter , who is the patron saint of Regensburg Cathedral and the patron saint of the city. It has been traceable in the city's seals since the 12th century, but it has been depicted differently throughout history. From 1395 the secret seal of the city shows the key coat of arms under the guise of the city's patron. The coat of arms has been depicted in heraldic books since 1398 . The coat of arms has been used as a watermark for the Regensburg paper mill since 1549 . From this year the keys appear as symbols on their own and were also changed several times later. However, they were able to assert themselves as the city arms.
The coat of arms on the bay window of the old town hall was originally designated as the oldest plastic representation of the city's coat ofarms . Art historians date this key coat of arms to the middle of the 14th century.
The city flag is silver (white) and red.
Regensburg maintains the following city partnerships :
- Aberdeen , Scotland (United Kingdom), since 1955
- Clermont-Ferrand (France), since 1969
- Brixen , South Tyrol, since 1969
- Tempe , Arizona (USA), since 1978
- Odessa (Ukraine), since 1990
- Pilsen (Czech Republic), since 1993
- Budavár (Municipality of Budapest , Hungary), since May 26, 2005
- Qingdao , Province Shandong (China), since 2009
City Freedom Day and Bridge Prize
Since 1980, the city has celebrated City Freedom Day every year on November 10th . On this day in 1245 she received the certificate for her independence, for city freedom. Today, on this day, deserving citizens of the city are honored and honored.
On the occasion of the 750th anniversary of imperial freedom, the city donated the bridge prize of the city of Regensburg .
Culture and sights
Regensburg has 1,347 listed objects (as of May 1, 2020). 984 of these form the historical core of the “Altstadt mit Stadtamhof” ensemble, which was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2006. It is the largest medieval city complex north of the Alps.
With the municipal theaters, Regensburg has a fully equipped three-part theater and thus offers a program of operas, operettas, musicals, drama and ballet. The ensemble performs at several venues in the city:
- The theater on Bismarckplatz is the city theater with the large house and the Neuhaussaal. In the two-hundred-year-old three-tier theater, operas, operettas and musicals as well as ballet and drama are shown for 519 spectators. Symphony concerts by the Regensburg Philharmonic Orchestra are given in the Neuhaussaal.
- The theater in the Velodrom was originally the alternative location during the theater renovation, but will be retained as an additional venue, mainly for musicals, ballet and drama. There is space for 620 spectators in the velodrome.
- The Theater am Haidplatz is a studio stage in the Thon-Dittmer-Palais with 138 seats and has been used for over 20 years. Here the drama of literary and modern theater predominates.
- In the tower theater in the Goliathhaus , plays, boulevard pieces , cabaret, musicals and children's theater are shown.
There are also a number of smaller houses. These include the puppet theater in the city park , the Regensburg farmers' theater in the Hubertushöhe restaurant, the STATT theater (cabaret), the theater at the university and the Regensburg Open Theater. In addition, there are the Regensburg Days of School Theater, with around 20 school stages performing their plays in three weeks in June.
The official museum portal of the city of Regensburg lists 22 museums and permanent exhibitions. In addition to municipal museums, these include those of religious communities, other public institutions and private collections.
Municipal museums and exhibitions
The Historical Museum , located on the Dachauplatz in the former Minorite Monastery, is operated by the City of Regensburg . The old town hall houses the Reichstag Museum as the “document Reichstag” . Its main attractions are the torture chamber, which has been preserved unchanged from the Middle Ages, and the Reichssaal as the venue for the everlasting Reichstag. This is followed by the Kepler Gedächtnishaus and the municipal gallery “ Empty Bag ”. The Regensburg Jazz Club is also located there. A new addition is the document Neupfarrplatz about the synagogue and the former Jewish quarter. Together with the Natural Science Association Regensburg, the city runs the Natural History Museum in East Bavaria .
The Museum of Bavarian History opened on June 4, 2019. The Art Forum Ostdeutsche Galerie is supported by a foundation of the same name, which in turn is supported by the Free State together with the federal government and the city.
Museums and exhibitions of the diocese of Regensburg
The diocese of Regensburg maintains the diocese museums of Regensburg , which are divided into the Cathedral Treasury Museum, the Diocesan Museum Obermünster and the Museum St. Ulrich. In addition, the cathedral chapter is responsible for the “document niedermünster”, which opens up the excavations under the church of the same name.
Thurn and Taxis museums
In Regensburg , the Free State owns the Princely Treasury Thurn und Taxis Regensburg as a branch museum of the Bavarian National Museum , which is housed in the former stables of St. Emmeram Castle. The Marstallmuseum, housed in the neighboring riding arena, with the carriage collection is still owned by the Princely House of Thurn und Taxis.
Other museums are the Regensburg World Heritage Visitor Center in the Salzstadel, the Danube Shipping Museum , the Trinity Church Museum , the Psychiatry Museum of the District Clinic, the Regensburg Public Observatory and, at privately owned museums, the Bridge Tower Museum, the Clock Museum, the Golf Museum, the Post Museum and the Dinoraeum. The Friedrichzeche Feldbahnmuseum is operated together with a geological nature trail on a site in the south of Dech Betten, where clay and lignite are still being mined.
At the union hall in the Richard-Wagner-Straße victims NS is since 1986 with a plaque on two recalls of the labor movement: the SPD Reichstag deputy Antonie Pfülf who had gone out of despair over the inability to act of their party and the trade unions in 1933 to suicide . The local party headquarters were named after her and a prize was donated with her name. The other was the SPD member of the state parliament Alfons Bayerer , who died of the consequences of imprisonment in 1939 after years of imprisonment.
Memorial sites to the victims of the Holocaust
Since 1986 a memorial plaque on the Jewish community hall has been commemorating the destruction of the synagogue and the persecution and murder of hundreds of Jewish citizens who were victims of the Holocaust . In 1987, pupils from Von-Müller-Gymnasium put up a plaque commemorating murdered Jewish schoolgirls in the foyer of their school. In the Jewish cemetery on Schillerstrasse, inscriptions on gravestones provide information about the violent death of these deceased.
Memory of the victims of the National Socialist racial hygiene
At the so-called old gate of the district clinic, a memorial plaque has been commemorating the 638 murdered psychiatric patients and other victims of the National Socialist racial madness since 1990 .
Memory of concentration camp inmates and prisoners of war
In a green area at the intersection of Siemensstrasse and Straubingerstrasse , the “Memorial at the High Cross” (sculptor Heinrich Glas ) has been commemorating 700 Soviet prisoners of war who were victims of brutal forced labor and inhuman living conditions in World War II . The victims of the Colosseum satellite camp are commemorated with a memorial . The memorial stone is in Stadtamhof. The inscription generally mentions Stadtamhof as the location of the satellite camp, but not specifically the building of the former “Colosseum” inn.
Remembering crimes in the final stages of World War II
The murders of cathedral preacher Johann Maier , warehouse worker Josef Zirkl and police inspector Michael Lottner on April 23, 1945 are commemorated in several places in the city. They tried to convey the demand of the “Regensburg Women's Demonstration” for the city to be handed over to the US troops without a fight and were then shot or hanged in public by Gestapo officials . A memorial plaque in the cathedral since 1946, two other plaques since 1950 at the place of their execution on Dachauplatz and since 1975 a memorial in a green area on Dachauplatz have been commemorating this.
Memorial against violence against women and girls
The memorial is in a prominent place on the corner of Furtmayrstrasse and Galgenbergstrasse in the form of the telephone number of NOTRUF e. V. Regensburg (emergency number for raped and molested women and girls) since International Women's Day on March 8, 2000.
Regensburg has a rich musical life. The Regensburger Domspatzen are internationally known . In addition, successful ensembles such as Singer Pur or Cantabile Regensburg established themselves . The Early Music is every year in the festival " old days of music maintained". They combine historical performance practice with concerts in the historical rooms of Regensburg. Classical music is presented in series of concerts at a high international level in Regensburg. In particular, the Odeon Concerts in the University's Audimax bring international orchestras to the cathedral city. The Regensburg Palace Festival has been taking place in the courtyard of Thurn und Taxis Palace in July since 2003 . They are also attracting more and more attention in southern Germany.
Modern styles of music, especially jazz , are cultivated every summer during the Bavarian jazz weekend . On a long weekend in July, over a hundred different bands, combos and soloists perform at several venues in the old town. The jury of the Bavarian Jazz Institute ensures a high musical level.
The Regensburg Music College , a private vocational school for pop, rock and jazz , has existed since 1996 .
There are six cinemas in Regensburg with a total of 15 screens. There are also two open-air cinemas. The first is organized by a movie theater and a restaurant on the banks of the Danube in the old town, in which current films, but also classics and audience favorites from past years are shown over several weeks. The second open-air cinema is located in the Armin-Wolf-Arena in summer . Current film highlights will also be shown there.
There are 1346 architectural monuments in the city area.
The stone bridge with the bridge tower was built from 1135 to 1146. It is one of the most important bridge structures of the Middle Ages and was among other things a model for the Charles Bridge in Prague . The old town hall with the Reichssaal was the seat of the Perpetual Reichstag . The Herzogshof with Roman tower at today's Alter Kornmarkt was the former ducal palace of the Agilolfingian dukes.
From the Roman period are the bishop , the Porta Praetoria , a city gate, and at the Adolph Kolping street, in the parking garage at the D.-Martin-Luther-Straße and at the Ernst-Reuter-Platz received remains of the Roman fort walls.
The Gothic Ostentor , built around 1300, was the entrance gate to the city from the east. The historic Wurstkuchl on the Danube is considered to be the oldest sausage roastery in the world. At the location of the former port, the Salzstadel can be found below the Stone Bridge and the Amberger Stadel above . The cityscape is also shaped by the so-called patrician castles and family towers . Among the patrician castles include the house at the Heuport and the Golden Cross on Haidplatz , the emperor as hostel for Charles V served. Other large patrician castles are the Goliathhaus , the Runtingerhaus and the Zandthaus. The Golden Tower in Wahlenstrasse, built in 1260, is probably the best-known of the Regensburg family towers , with which the patrician families displayed their wealth and influence. The Baumburger Tower is also worth seeing .
Regensburg was a trading city of European importance in the Middle Ages and up to modern times. The patrician castles are just the traditional powerful display of this outstanding position. Of greater practical importance were the numerous public and private warehouses in which the goods were stored. Very few of the barns have survived in an externally pristine condition, which documents the original function of these important utility buildings in a trading town: In addition to the public storage buildings "Salzstadel", "Amberger Stadel" and "Leerer Beutel", the one built around 1580 and formerly is here Large private barn in Westnerwacht, Weintingergasse 4, serving as a spice store .
The royal villa on the eastern edge of the old town was built between 1854 and 56 on behalf of King Maximilian II in the English neo-Gothic style . The princely castle of St. Emmeram is the largest inhabited castle in Germany with 500 rooms. One of the last eight mushroom kiosks still standing is located near the main train station , which is called "milk mushrooms " here.
Churches and monasteries
In Regensburg there are a large number of historical churches and several, some of them former monasteries. The Cathedral of St. Peter is the head of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. After several previous buildings, the Gothic cathedral was probably started soon after 1260. A preliminary conclusion is to be set for the year 1520. From 1859 to 1872 only the spiers and the transept gable were expanded. The last major interior renovation took place from 1985 to 1988.
The collegiate church and minor basilica of Our Lady of the Old Chapel ( Stift Our Lady of the Old Chapel ) was built around 875. It was refurbished around the middle of the 18th century and has since been one of the most magnificent Rococo churches in Bavaria.
The originally Romanesque, later heavily Baroque-style church and today's parish church of St. Emmeram was formerly part of the prince abbey of the same name, which was secularized in 1803 , whose monastery buildings were integrated into the newly built St. Emmeram Castle from 1812 . It has the status of a papal minor basilica . Also noteworthy is the side church and former parish church of St. Rupert .
The Church of St. Jacob, also known as the Schottenkirche, a Romanesque basilica from the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of the Irish Benedictines ( Scots ) to which it belonged. The main entrance, the Schottenportal , is world famous for its unique stone carvings.
The early Gothic church of St. Ulrich houses the diocese museum of the diocese of Regensburg.
The St. Matthias monastery church was part of the St. Klara monastery complex in Ostengasse.
The Protestant Neupfarrkirche is located on Neupfarrplatz . One of the first new Evangelical Lutheran church buildings in Bavaria is the Dreieinigkeitskirche , planned by the city and completed in 1631 , a pillarless hall church with galleries that offers 1000 seats. The interior with the wooden stalls is still in its original state. Its north tower is accessible and offers a panoramic view over the roof landscape of the city of Regensburg to the Walhalla .
Regensburg has a green belt almost completely surrounding the old town, in which the road construction measures of the 19th and 20th centuries have torn some gaps. The green belt adjoins the Danube in the east at Herzogspark and in the west at Villapark and was created in 1779–1782 at the suggestion and expense of Karl Anselm von Thurn und Taxis . It therefore bears the name Fürst-Anselm-Allee and was initially built as a two-row tree-lined avenue on the site in front of the ailing fortifications of the city (city wall, city moat, kennel with the wall), which were only demolished in the 19th century. An area in the south that was created after demolition measures in front of the Peterstor , which had been used as a botanical garden with a garden palace until 1809 by the vice-president of the regional directorate Kaspar Maria von Sternberg , was bought by Karl Alexander von Thurn und Taxis in 1813 . In the course of the following years, under the influence of Princess Therese von Thurn und Taxis, the palace gardens of the Princes of Thurn und Taxis were built on this site .
Notable parks in the catchment area of the old town are the Herzogspark, the Villapark, the Dörnbergpark and the Stadtpark . The Inselpark is located at Oberen Wöhrd . The largest green area, the Danube Park with the Schillerwiesen , is located in the west on the Danube near the Westheimsiedlung . The Westbad and the Westbadweiher are also located there . Other parks south of the Danube are the Königswiesener Park , the Georg-Hegenauer-Park , the Karl-Freitag-Park , the green areas of the university and the Ostpark on Landshuter Straße, a former parade ground; north of the Danube are the Hans-Herrmann-Park , the Aberdeen-Park and the Tempe-Park .
The peculiar Max Buchhauser Garden with its grotesque sculptures is located on Frankenstrasse . Popular walking areas are the Winzerer Heights with a good view of the city and the possibility of continuing to hike to the beer garden in Adlersberg . Other popular excursion areas in the city are the hikes from Keilberg, the Burgweintinger Forest and the Max-Schultze-Steig on the western bank of the Danube.
In the urban area there are four nature reserves , a landscape protection area , three FFH areas and at least ten geotopes designated by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (as of August 2016).
- Nature reserves
The Regensburg section of the German Alpine Club maintains the DAV climbing center Regensburg as well as some alpine huts . It is the largest sports club in the city of Regensburg, the tenth largest DAV section and one of the largest sports clubs in Germany in 33rd place.
The Buchbinder legionaries have been playing in the baseball league since 1993 . In the years 2008 and 2010 to 2013 the legionaries became German champions . Your venue is the Armin Wolf Arena , the largest baseball stadium in Germany. In Regensburg, games of the 2009 World Baseball Championship , the 2013 World Baseball Classic Qualification and the 2014 European Baseball Championship were played.
The Eisbären Regensburg play in the third-class Oberliga Süd . Until bankruptcy in 2009, the team played in the 2nd ice hockey Bundesliga . At EV Regensburg - from which the Eisbären Regensburg were outsourced - the junior teams, the amateur team of the EVR and hobby teams are located in the ice hockey department. The EVR used to have a women's ice hockey team. The EHC Regensburg plays - with an interruption in participation in league games between 2012 and 2015 - in the District League East . Both teams play in the Danube Arena , which was newly built in 1998 in the east of the city and replaced the old ice rink on the Nibelungen Bridge.
In the 2019/20 season , SSV Jahn Regensburg will play in the 2nd Bundesliga ; The venue is the Jahnstadion Regensburg . Jahn Regensburg's second team currently plays in the fifth-class Bayernliga . The women's team of the SC Regensburg played in the seasons 2006/07 and 2007/08 in the 2. Bundesliga . They are currently playing in the third- tier Regionalliga Süd .
The women of ESV 1927 Regensburg have been playing in the third highest German division, currently in the 3rd division, South Season, without interruption since they were promoted to the Regionalliga in 2008 . The men of SG Regensburg play in the regional league .
The LG Telis financial Regensburg is one of the most successful athletics clubs in Germany.
In addition to the Velo Club Ratisbona, considered one of the largest cycling clubs of the famous Bavarian host Arber Cycle Marathon is taking care of, among others, the RSC88 Regensburg since 1988 to mountain bikers and cyclists in Regensburg. In 2007 Regensburg was the second stage destination of the Deutschland Tour , the most important international cycling race on German soil, after 1950 . Since 2009 there is another cycling club, the Biketeam Regensburg e. V., which also has almost 600 members. The bike team is also responsible for the Welt-Kult-Tour , a popular sporting event that can always be found in the cycling calendar on the last weekend of the Bavarian summer holidays. There is also a particularly active group of young mountain bikers who are planning their own mountain bike race as part of the Jura MTB Cup from 2021.
The Rugby Club Regensburg 2000 rose to the 2nd Bundesliga rugby league in 2015 . The association organizes tournaments with international participation every year. The women's team of the RCR 2000 competes in the 7-a-side rugby discipline . In 2008/09 the club became Bavarian champions for the first time.
The women's team of the TC Rot-Blau Regensburg has played as the Eckert tennis team in the 1st Bundesliga since 2015 . In 2016 she became German team champion for the first time and was able to defend the title in both 2017 and 2018. Currently, among other top players include Julia Goerges , karolína plíšková or Angelique Kerber (September 2016-July 2017 world number one ) in the squad.
- The oldest sports club in Regensburg is the Regensburger Turnerschaft, which emerged in 1928 from the merger of the gymnastics club founded in 1861, the Jahn gymnastics association and the men's gymnastics club.
- The Billardclub Regensburg plays in the discipline three cushion in the 2nd Bundesliga.
- The chess department of SG Post / Süd Regensburg is represented in the Oberliga Bayern.
- The Ratisbonne Boule Club, located in the city park, plays with its first team in the Bavarian Pétanque League.
- The wrestling club 1. AC Regensburg fights in the district league Niederbayern / Oberpfalz.
- The Regensburg Gymnastics Association and the Blau-Gold Regensburg dance club are represented with their Latin and Standard pairs up to the highest national classes (A / S).
- The OLG (Orientierungslaufgemeinschaft) Regensburg is one of the three largest orienteering (OL) clubs in Germany and has a large number of Bavarian champions, as well as some podium places throughout Germany.
- The roller derby team Rolling Rat Pack in ESV 1927 was promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga after the 2019 season.
Regensburg's cultural life offers some outstanding, regular events: twice a year - at the beginning of May and at the end of August - the people of Regensburg meet for their folk festival, the Regensburg Dult . The citizens' festival in the entire old town takes place every two years on a long weekend in summer and attracts well over 100,000 visitors. The nine-day Danube Exhibition (DONA) with many special exhibitions can also be seen every two years at the end of March and beginning of April. Every second weekend in July, knights, jugglers and minstrels meet at the Regensburg Spectaculum, a medieval market under the arches of the stone bridge on Jahninsel. The Upper Palatinate MundArt Festival takes place in Stadtamhof every June. The Christmas markets follow in December, such as the Christmas market on Neupfarrplatz around the Neupfarrkirche or the Christmas market at Thurn und Taxis Castle . The Jahninselfest has been held on the Jahninsel every summer since 1987 - a youth culture festival with live music, cabaret and a children's program that is now well-known throughout the Upper Palatinate.
The largest sporting event in Regensburg is the Regensburg Marathon on the Sunday after Ascension Day . With over 1000 marathon and over 3000 half marathon finishers, it is one of the 20 largest city marathons in Germany. On the second Sunday in August, the Regensburg Triathlon follows over short and everyone-distance. The “ Ironman Regensburg ” triathlon has also been taking place over the long distance since 2010 in August . The Arber bike marathon leads on the last Sunday in July, more than 6,000 participants differently demanding routes of up to 250 kilometers length of Regensburg in the Bavarian Forest and back.
The Regensburg Uni Salsa Camp takes place once a year. Every year international greats from the salsa scene as well as participants from all over Germany arrive there.
The Traumfabrik is a show theater from Regensburg that puts on stage shows every year in the Audimax of the University of Regensburg , offers individual show concepts for companies and institutions and has been offering an annual workshop festival in the field of art, culture and movement in Regensburg since 1983.
The donumenta has been held annually since 2003 .
Regensburg belongs to the Bavarian-Austrian language area, which includes most of Bavaria (also known as Old Bavaria ), Austria and South Tyrol . More precisely, the Regensburg variant is part of the Middle Bavarian . In a report published in 2019, it is estimated that half of Bavaria's 12 million inhabitants speak Bavarian dialects . Regensburg can look back on a rich history with regard to dialects and still has a high linguistic culture today. The world's oldest dictionary dedicated to a dialect could be that of Johann Ludwig Prasch . His Glossarium Bavaricum , published in Regensburg in 1689, consists of around 500 words in the dialect of Regensburg Bavarian. The Bauerntheater has been staging Bavarian theater plays for over 90 years. Directed by Joseph Berlinger , the play Mei Fähr Lady, which is about three pupils attending a Bavarian crash course, has already seen over 300 performances in the Regensburg Tower Theater . The role of the dialect professor is played by the honorary professor for Bavarian dialectology at the University of Regensburg Ludwig Zehetner .
Manfred Rohm, whose pseudonym Sepp Grantelhauer comes from the Bavarian verb grumble (complain), writes a weekly satirical column in Bavarian for the Regensburger Rundschau .
Economy and Infrastructure
The economic upturn in Regensburg after the Second World War began relatively late. The technical college and the establishment of the university in 1967 formed the basis for a very dynamic economic development, strengthened by the settlement of a number of large companies . The unemployment rate in January 2008 was 5.0% below the Bavarian national average. Regensburg now has the second highest job density of all major cities in Germany after Frankfurt am Main with 760 per 1000 inhabitants. The high number of 105,142 (as of 2012) employees with social insurance in relation to the main residences results from the strong commuter flows from the surrounding area and leads to a high gross domestic product in the city. The gross domestic product per inhabitant was 71,576 euros in 2013, which means fifth place in Germany. In the Prognos Future Atlas 2007, which compares 439 districts and independent cities in Germany according to their strength and dynamism, Regensburg ranks fifth among the eight “top regions with future opportunities”. In the future atlas of 2013, the city was ranked 7th and rated as the “most dynamic city” in Germany, with the best development of the past ten years. In the Future Atlas 2016 , the city took 11th place.
Since 1903, small amounts of lignite have been mined in open-cast mining.
2005 worked 75 of employees in agriculture and forestry , 30,387 in commercial manufacturing , 2,458 in construction , 11,365 in trade , 4607 for transport and communications , 3,220 in credit and insurance industry , 32,844 in the sector services and 6,147 in the administrations of the resident Local authorities . 1,192 people work in other areas. The manufacturing industry focuses on automobile construction and supply , in electrical engineering , in microelectronics and in mechanical engineering .
In addition, Regensburg has been the headquarters of the Bavarian Sensor Technology Cluster since 2006 . The Strategic Partnership Sensorik e.V., initiated by the Office for Economic Development of the City of Regensburg. V. is a technology network with over 30 members from the field of sensor technology in the East Bavaria region.
The most important companies in the city today include Bayernwerk , BMW , Continental Automotive , Vitesco Technologies , Siemens , Infineon , Osram Opto Semiconductors , Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen , BSH Hausgeräte , Schneider Electric , SGB-SMIT Holding , Deutsche Telekom and Andritz .
The settlement of future industries is actively promoted by the city. The focus is on the areas of energy technology , biotechnology , IT and sensor technology . Facilities such as the Regensburg Business Park , the Regensburg Energy Park , the TechBase technology center or the BioPark, which now has over 40 biotech companies, are part of an economic restructuring of the city.
During the new economy boom, a number of companies were founded here, such as ABC Telebuch , the forerunner of Amazon.de ; Adori AG, Feedback AG, Offerto.de or SPiN AG , which made Regensburg temporarily one of the centers of the German Internet industry. Some companies have now relocated to more geographically favorable regions in Germany (for example, only part of the customer support from Amazon has remained), while other companies, such as B. Adori or Feedback, went under with the crash of the Neuer Markt .
Large areas for retail were created in the Danube shopping center , which was built in 1967 and expanded several times in the northeast of the city. In 2002, the Regensburg Arcaden was also built in the inner city of the train station .
Of the large number of Regensburg breweries , only the three monastery breweries Kneitinger , Bischofshof and the Spitalbrauerei remain. The local Princely Brewery Thurn und Taxis was taken over by Paulaner in 1996 . In addition to the three monastery breweries, the “Regensburger Weißbräuhaus” and the “Princely Brewery” are brewed for personal use.
In 2017, the city of Regensburg recorded 613,991 arrivals and 1,085,524 overnight stays. Since the mid-1990s, there has been a strong increase in the number of tourists, so that tourism for Regensburg has meanwhile developed into a considerable economic factor.
Real estate market
Due to the strong population increase in recent years, the real estate situation in Regensburg is now characterized by a high level of dynamism. In the recent past, real estate prices have risen most sharply within Germany.
One project that was included in the city's plan to expand transport links from the 1980s was the construction of the east bypass, which was to connect the north of the city with the east of the city. The construction, originally planned for October 2009, could only begin after a referendum in March 2010. The construction project was completed in November 2014 and opened to traffic.
With the reduction in the importance of the railroad , road links were upgraded. Until the 1980s, all federal motorways around Regensburg ended in federal highways . In the period that followed, Regensburg was gradually fully connected to the German federal motorway network.
- : Cologne - Frankfurt am Main - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz - Regensburg - Passau - ( Wels - Linz )
- : ( Dresden - Chemnitz ) - Autobahn triangle Hochfranken - Hof - Weiden - Schwandorf - Regensburg - Wolnzach / Autobahn triangle Holledau ; via the to Munich or via the to Augsburg and Memmingen .
- : Würzburg - Nuremberg - Neumarkt in the Upper Palatinate - Regensburg - Straubing - Passau
- : Hof - Schwandorf - Regensburg - Rosenheim
- : Cham - Roding - Nittenau - Regensburg - Ingolstadt - Füssen
- : (under construction) Regensburg - Landshut - Wasserburg - Rosenheim
In addition to the Stone Bridge, which is now closed to motorized traffic, the Nibelungen Bridge , the Danube Bridge Pfaffenstein and the Danube Bridge Schwabelweis also exist in the urban area as bridges of national importance .
From Regensburg there are railway lines to Passau , Nuremberg , Munich , Hof and Ingolstadt . Long-distance transport the city of is ICEs of the DB (Dortmund -) Frankfurt am Main - on the line Vienna and Euro Night -Nachtzügen the ÖBB approached. Regional trains of DB Regio , the Länderbahn (as Oberpfalzbahn and Alex ) and agilis travel to the city in local transport . Since December 2018, there has been a direct connection to Munich Airport via the Erdinger Ringschluss .
The central railway junction is the main train station . In addition, currently exist in Burgweinting and Prüfening more stops in the city. The Walhallastraße stop is to be rebuilt in the northeast of the city near the Danube Arena by 2017 .
Until the 1970s, Regensburg was the seat of a railway directorate and the intersection of long-distance trains. Until the opening of the Main-Danube Canal in 1992, the Nuremberg – Passau railway line was the one with the highest volume of goods in Germany. Regensburg experienced a reduction in importance due to the elimination of the interzonal trains and the discontinuation of the interregional trains. Since then, only regional trains have been running on the Regensburg - Landshut - Munich , Regensburg - Weiden - Hof and Regensburg - Ingolstadt - Ulm routes . Regensburg is no longer a long-distance traffic hub.
Between 1903 and 1964 the city operated a tram network with four lines and 12 km. In addition, the Regensburg trolleybus operated from 1953 to 1963 . At the beginning of the 1980s, a project to tunnel under the old town section for city buses failed . After years of discussions, concrete plans for the construction of a light rail network have been underway since 2018 . For this purpose, routes have already been kept free in previous years and structures such as the Nibelungen Bridge and the Iron Bridge have been designed accordingly for the new construction .
The port of Regensburg is a cargo handling in 2013 of a total of 8,002,000 tonnes (Ship: 1,645,000 tons) the largest port in Bavaria. The port lies on the Danube and is an important transshipment point between the North Sea ports and Eastern Europe. The Regensburg European Canal was built to bypass the stone bridge to the north .
Long-distance cycle paths
Regensburg is the crossroads of several long-distance cycling routes : the European Euro Velo -Fernradweg Rivers Route EV 6 connects Regensburg with the Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea, the Danube cycle path leads from the source of the Danube after Budapest , the Waldnaabtal - / Naabtal bike path from Bärnau to Regensburg, the Regental cycle path from Regensburg to Bayerisch Eisenstein , the German Limes cycle path from Bad Hönningen to Regensburg, the Falkenstein / Festspiel / Chambtal cycle path from Regensburg to Falkenstein / Cham / Furth im Wald , and the 5-river cycle path (Donau-Naab-Vils -Pegnitz-Altmühl), a circular route from Regensburg via Amberg, Sulzbach-Rosenberg, Nuremberg, Neumarkt and Kelheim back to Regensburg.
The Regensburg-Oberhub airfield is located 15 kilometers north of Regensburg and three kilometers northwest of Regenstauf . Classified as a commercial airfield, it is mainly used for air sports with powered aircraft, gliders, ultralight aircraft and helicopters.
In 1992 the university hospital was put into operation. It marks the end of the expansion of the University of Regensburg into a full university in which all major scientific courses are offered. The first expansion stage included the dental, oral and jaw clinic since the early 1980s. The clinic is one of the most modern in Europe . It has 3,800 employees, around 1,500 students of human and dental medicine, the highest level of care, four, and a catchment area of 2.2 million inhabitants from the administrative districts of Upper Palatinate and Lower Bavaria. It currently has 833 beds and 12 dialysis places. In 2013, 125,500 outpatient treatments and 31,500 inpatient treatments were carried out with an average length of stay of eight days.
The other hospitals, some of which work together with the University Hospital, are the St. Josef Hospital , the Hospital of the Barmherzigen Brüder , the St. Hedwig Women's and Children's Hospital and the KUNO Children's University Hospital in East Bavaria . The Regensburg District Hospital has been a mental hospital in the city since 1852 .
Several broadcasters report from Regensburg. The Bayerische Rundfunk maintains the Regional Studio East Bavaria and the regional television station TVA sends information about the area Regensburg / Kelheim / Straubing / Cham . The radio stations Gong FM , Absolut Radio , Absolut relax , Radio Galaxy and Radio Charivari Regensburg are also based in Regensburg. The Mittelbayerische Zeitung , the largest daily newspaper in the region, appears in Regensburg. Another Regensburg daily newspaper is the “ Donau-Post ”, an offshoot of the Straubinger Tagblatt . Also worth mentioning is the “Regensburger Soziale Straßenzeitung and monthly Donaustrudl”, which has been published since 1998, with a circulation of around 7,000 copies. Regensburg-digital has been an independent online newspaper in Regensburg since spring 2008 .
science and education
Regensburg has three universities and thus all educational institutions for the first and second educational path. The University of Regensburg , founded in 1962 , was the fourth university in Bavaria to begin teaching in 1967 with all of the main faculties. The Theological College on Aegidienplatz acted as its academic nucleus . The Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg was founded in 1971 as the successor to the Polytechnic, the higher technical schools and other institutions. The University of Catholic Church Music and Music Education in Regensburg received university status in 2001. It emerged from the world's first Catholic church music school, founded in 1874. With a total of around 32,000 students (as of October 2014), Regensburg has one of the highest student densities in Germany (approx. 23%).
The research and start-up centers belong to the higher education institutions in the broader sense . In the newly built TechBase technology center, start-ups in information technology have found their first home. Together with the Faculty of Computer Science of the OTH Regensburg, these institutions focus on a. on the focus on IT security . The Biopark is located on the university campus. This facility is available to start-ups in the biotechnology and life sciences sectors . A working group of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (FhG), with a focus on tumor and geriatric diseases, has its seat here. The Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Research , the Institute for Eastern Law and the Hungaricum cooperate under the umbrella of the Science Center East and Southeast Europe Regensburg - Hungarian Institute and the German Research Center in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Regensburg also has numerous general education schools. There are a total of 18 primary schools , six secondary schools , six special schools , five secondary schools and eight grammar schools . In addition, the city has several vocational schools, four vocational schools , two business schools, a technical college and two vocational colleges as well as 14 vocational schools . There are also 13 independent educational institutions run by private and public providers. The largest institutions of this type are the Eckert schools for professional training. There has also been a Swiss International School in Regensburg since 2010.
In the area of adult education is adult education center of the city of Regensburg operates. In Regensburg Library Network have joined forces over 20 facilities of library, archive and documentation system of the city and the region Regensburg.
Courts, authorities and institutions
In Regensburg there is a district court , a regional court , a labor court , an administrative court , a social court and a public prosecutor's office . There is also a correctional facility there . In addition, the Office for Food, Agriculture and Forests Regensburg , the Water Management Office and the state building authority for the city and the district of Regensburg as well as the districts of Cham and Neumarkt in the Upper Palatinate and the professional association for the construction industry are represented with their occupational health and safety services .
Pope emeritus Benedict XVI is one of the city's most famous honorary citizens . , former professor at the University of Regensburg , the former Bavarian Prime Minister Franz Josef Strauss and the former Prime Minister Alfons Goppel born in Regensburg .
sons and daughters of the town
Regensburg is also the birthplace of some famous people of their time. Don Juan de Austria , born in Regensburg , an illegitimate son of Emperor Karl V and the Regensburg township's daughter Barbara Blomberg , was leader of the fleet of the Holy Alliance in the victorious naval battle of the Ottomans at Lepanto (1571).
Personalities working in Regensburg
The important scholar and later canonized Albertus Magnus was Bishop of Regensburg from 1260 to 1262 . The famous chronicler Johannes Aventinus, who died in Regensburg on January 9, 1534, worked there . On November 15, 1630, Johannes Kepler , mathematician and astronomer, died in Regensburg . Between 1945 and 1950, the Sudeten German industrialist Oskar Schindler lived in Regensburg, who saved over 1,200 Jews from the threat of extermination in the National Socialist concentration camps during the Second World War . In 1969 Joseph Ratzinger accepted a position at the University of Regensburg. There he taught dogmatics and the history of dogma and founded the Gustav Siewerth Academy together with Alma von Stockhausen . In 1976 he became vice president of the university before being named archbishop in 1977 . Even after his election as Pope , he remained an honorary professor in Regensburg.
The Danube west of the Stone Bridge
- " Picture Book Germany ". “Regensburg - cultural metropolis on the Danube.” Documentation, 45 min., Book: Norbert Göttler, production: BR
- "Topography: Build and Preserve". “The Regensburg Danube Islands.” 1986, documentary, 45 min., A film by Dieter Wieland
- “When God was sleeping. The Jews of Regensburg. ” Documentation, 15 min., Director: Thomas Euting, production: ZDF
- “ The Bavarian Millennium ”, episode 3: “13. Century: Regensburg “, 2011, documentation, 45 min., With Udo Wachtveitl , production: BR
- “ Kommissarin Lucas ” is a 90-minute crime series with Ulrike Kriener and Anke Engelke , which is filmed annually in Regensburg.
- Regensburg 3D. 2012, documentation in 3D , 42 min., Produced by Daniel Schellhorn
- In the summer and autumn of 2010, Regensburg was used for filming the cinema comedy A Very Hot Number .
- In August and September 2012 parts of the film Paganini - Der Teufelsgeiger with David Garrett were shot in Regensburg .
- The film Zwei zum Fressen gern (2006) with Christian Tramitz in the leading role is also set in Regensburg.
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