|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Muenster|
|Height :||85 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||66.5 km 2|
|Residents:||111,397 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1675 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||02361|
|License plate :||RE, CAS, GLA|
|Community key :||05 5 62 032|
|LOCODE :||DE REC|
|City structure:||18 districts (including city center)|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Christoph Tesche ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Recklinghausen in the Recklinghausen district|
The district town of Recklinghausen (in Westphalian Riäkelhusen ) is located in the Ruhr area , in the northwest of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia . It is the only large city and also the seat of Germany's most populous county , the district of Recklinghausen in the administrative district of Münster . Recklinghausen is designated as a medium-sized center in the regional planning , part of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region and known nationwide for the annual Ruhr Festival .
About 800 originated from a Carolingian royal court and first mentioned in 1017 under " Ricoldinchuson ", the city (city rights 1236) had been the seat and political, cultural and economic center of the Recklinghausen Fortress since 1180 , from which the Prussian Recklinghausen district emerged in 1815 . The greatest growth came from 1869 onwards from mining. Today Recklinghausen is primarily a service, shopping and administrative city and has a catchment area with around 600,000 people. The name Recklinghausen is stressed on the third syllable. The residents of Recklinghausen are called "Recklinghäuser", the adjective is the same (example: Recklinghausen town hall). The city describes itself as the Ruhr Festival City of Recklinghausen.
The city of Recklinghausen is located in the northern Ruhr area, in the east of the natural spatial main unit Emscherland . The somewhat larger northern part around the city center, which is roughly separated by the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn , lies on the Recklinghauser Loess Ridge , the eastern part of the Vestische Höhenrücken , the ridge of which gives the city center in the form of a semi-circle open to the south. More southern districts are in the Emschertal along with edge plates.
The highest natural elevation is the Fritzberg ( Herten . The highest artificial elevation is the Mollbeckberg ( ) in the north-west, the lowest point of the urban area is on Karlstrasse in the south-east of Hochlarmark at .) in the east, to the west-north-west of the city center it is at the city limits of
The largest expansion of the urban area is 9.5 km in west-east direction and 10.9 km in north-south direction. The circumference of the urban area is 43 km.
Recklinghausen is divided into 18 parts of the city, which also represent statistical districts.
The following table corresponds to the population as of December 31, 2018
in the city
|Downtown||101||0.355||1,692||4766||northwest of the center|
|Speckhorn / Bockholt||103||10.961||1,394||127||extreme northwest|
|East quarter||104||5.018||11,604||2312||East to northeast|
|Paulusviertel||107||2,447||7,654||3128||west of the center|
|Hillerheide||109||4,835||7,263||1502||south of the center|
|Berghausen||111||1.672||434||260||east of the center|
|Grullbad||212||2.635||6.352||2411||more westerly south|
|south||213||2.902||13,235||4561||more westerly south|
|Suderwich||417||10.152||11,725||1155||extreme (south) east|
Around 50,000 people live in the expanded core city from the inner city, the four named districts, Hillen and Hochlar. 30,000 people live in the southern part of Grullbad, Süd and König Ludwig, and together with Hochlarmark there are even 40,000.
In the 19th century, the actual urban area of Recklinghausen consisted of the inner city, the village district of Hillen and agricultural areas, which roughly corresponded to today's areas of the Paulus, West, North and East quarters of Hillen. However, the east only went as far as the Ostcharweg , ie today's Lohweg settlement is largely in the old Esseler or Suderwicher area. The Nordcharweg , to which the motorway feeder to Oer runs directly north today as the northern boundary of the core city, was also a historical border route, although the Recklinghausen district went beyond it in the 19th century; It is continued to the south-west by the Zeppelinstraße, which is directly parallel to the feeder, and the Westring , which is still a border road today. This extended urban area was surrounded by a ringland weir that included Hochlar since the late Middle Ages.
In addition to the core area also included heathland today district Hillerheide and the south followed, with Bruchwald overgrown break just north of the Emscher to the city. The area around the Hohenhorst stadium ( Auf der Herne ) belonged to Stuckenbusch from what is now the Hillerheide district , while the western border of the city reached to today's Friedrich-Ebert-Straße to the south . The former Bruch district largely corresponds to today's districts of Grullbad, Süd and König Ludwig, but today's König Ludwig goes beyond the old border road to the old Röllinghausen area.
It was not until 1926, with the incorporation of the municipality of Suderwich and the division of the municipality of Recklinghausen-Land into the present-day cities of Herten, Marl, Recklinghausen and Oer-Erkenschwick, that the city got its current size.
Today Hochlar, Hillerheide, Hochlarmark and the three districts of the core-Südstadt are typical districts of a larger city; only Stuckenbusch has retained a certain village character from the southern and western parts of the city.
In the southeast, Röllinghausen has grown up to the Südstadt or King Ludwig and the newly created south of Suderwich south of the railway line has also assumed an urban character. The outlying areas of Suderwich and Röllinghausen, Berghausen, Essel and the entire north, today's Speckhorn / Bockholt district, have remained peasant. The core towns of Essel and Speckhorn have a very rural character, while Berghausen and Bockholt and the Speckhorn residential areas Beising and Börste are rather scattered.
The city center with the old town, town hall (1908), Petruskirche (1247 ff), Castel Sant'Angelo (1701 ff) and the Petrinum Gymnasium (mentioned as early as 1421), which is delimited by the Wallring, is joined by the Paulusviertel in the south and in the west , north and East Quarter . The older district of Hillen also extends directly to the city center in the southeast.
Paulus, West and North quarters
The General Blumenthal colliery stood in the southeast of the Paulusviertel , named after the Pauluskirche (1906) , until the 1990s . In addition, the Protestant Gustav Adolf Church (1847), various secondary schools (including the Hittorf Gymnasium ) and the Prosper Hospital are located in the quarter . The district's main street is Hohenzollernstraße, which runs east-west in the direction of Herten . To the south, Herner Strasse and Mühlenstrasse lead to Herne and Wanne-Eickel .
To the northwest, beyond Hertener Strasse, the Westviertel adjoins, in which the Christ Church (1911) and the Saalbau are located in the immediate vicinity of the city center, as well as the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium , the Knappschaftskrankenhaus and the city garden with Ruhrfestspielhaus and public observatory further to the west . Traffic arteries are the Westerholter Weg in the direction of Herten-Westerholt and especially the Dorstener Straße in the direction of Marl and Dorsten .
Immediately northeast of the Cäcilienhöhe , which also delimits the city garden, joins the north quarter with the main station , the memorial at Lohtor and the Marie-Curie-Gymnasium near the city center and the north cemetery in the far north. The central Halterner Strasse connects the city center with the north.
Ostviertel and Hillen
The eastern part of the core city with the eastern quarter and Hillen is separated from the northern quarter, inner city and Paulusviertel by the railway line of the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg line .
The Ostviertel , whose main artery traditionally represented the Dortmunder Straße in the western part of the street in the direction of Erkenschwick , merges to the northwest beyond Oerweg and in the east to the north of Dortmunder Straße in rural areas. The residential areas of Kuniberg , Hinsberg and Lohwegsiedlung stretch from the city center to the east to the northeast, while the Lange Wanne is located in the northwest of the district . In the far east is the small, z. T. near-natural beech grove Loh .
To the southeast, the August-Schmidt-Ring , today the western part of the state road RE-Erkenschwick, and the Fritzberg ( water tower form the border to Hillen, with the telecommunication and water tower already on Hillen boundary.) with the old
Up until the 19th century, Hillen was the only district outside the city center. On Hillener area are close to the border to east, from downtown to the Fritz Berg in the northeast, the district office , the neo-Gothic Church of Our Lady (early 20th century). The local departments of the Aachen University and the Academy of Justice of North Rhine-Westphalia . In the west lies the old town center Alt-Hillen , east of it the new development area Quellberg and northeast of it, on Fritzberg-Südhang, the east cemetery . The core town of Hillens is bypassed southwest and southeast by Castroper Straße as the most important traffic artery in the direction of Suderwich and Castrop-Rauxel .
To the west of Paulus- and Westviertel, beyond Westring or A 43 , lies the district of Hochlar, which flows over to the west to Herten (-Disteln). The place has a long tradition in Vest back and found for the first time in the 9th century documentary mention as Huch Larhe (deforested hills). At the time of the Inquisition , burnings of witches and heretics took place on the Segensberg in Hochlar . Akkoallee ( B 225 ) passes Hochlar to the southwest , and Rottstrasse leads to the northwest , which further north becomes Bockholter Strasse .
Speckhorn / Bockholt
In the north of Recklinghausen, on the city limits of Herten , Marl and Oer-Erkenschwick , the very rural district of Speckhorn / Bockholt is separated from the actual urban area by the motorway feeder from the A 43 in the direction of Oer. The settlements of Bockholt , Beising , Speckhorn and Börste spread from west to east , of which only Speckhorn reaches village size.
The Loemühle airfield is located in the north of Bockholt . Centrally between Beising and Speckhorn and south of it are the Mollbeck leisure facilities with an outdoor pool and ponds, south of which is the Mollbeckberg artificial toboggan hill ( ). The Halterner road towards Marl Sinsen and Haltern am See , once part of the B 51 , divides the district in the center of the south-north direction.
Stuckenbusch and Hillerheide
Stuckenbusch and Hillerheide , the links between the core city and the southern part of the city, are very different districts in terms of character. The railway line of the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn separates it from the city center, that of the A 2 from Südstadt (or Stuckenbusch from Hochlarmark). Both districts are in turn sharply separated from each other by the A 43 .
In the old village of Stuckenbusch in the smaller western segment there was a Franciscan monastery for a long time . To the east, the core village, which has now been expanded to include new development areas, is touched by Friedrich-Ebert-Straße .
East of the A43 joins the west of Hillerheide the Hohenhorster Heide with the stadium Hohenhorst on, the last remaining moorland that already in the Prussian Uraufnahme to 1840 as Hillerheide was located. To the east of the Wanne-Eickel-Hamburg railway line , in the north, are the Vestlandhalle, the exhibition grounds and the municipal indoor swimming pool . Hillerheide was the east of the known Herner Straße preferred Trabrennbahn Recklinghausen , which was closed due to a lack of financial and bankruptcy of the operator in of 2006. The last race took place in 2010.
Hochlarmark, Grullbad, Süd and König Ludwig
The actual Südstadt lies south of the A 2 . Hochlarmark in the western segment, separated from the A 43, has its own history as a peasantry, while the flowing into one another to the east, Grullbad , Süd and König Ludwig did not emerge until the second half of the 19th century.
Since 1884 coal has been mined on shaft I of the Recklinghausen II colliery in Hochlarmark . In 1901 the opening of the second shaft was in prospect. Today only the winding tower and the old machine house on the site of the Recklinghausen II colliery as well as the triangular settlement (1901 ff) west of the Westfalenstrasse, which passes centrally in a north-south direction, bear witness to the coal boom. Immediately to the west, the Hoheward dump rises up to in the Herten area up. Hochlarmark, which has a district and skate park and the Fritz-Husemann-Haus event center, is connected to the neighboring districts to the east and the A 2 via Theodor-Körner-Straße .
The Grullbad district in the west of the southern part of the city in the narrower sense was once a health resort with its own brine spring. However, this dried up in 1867 due to subsidence and the Kurhaus partially burned down. Today there is a nursing home there. In the southwest, in the former administration building of the Recklinghausen I colliery, there is now a textile discounter, to the north of which is the Südbahnhof . The Reitwinkel settlement in the north east is a listed building.
To the east, separated by the Hellbach , is bordered by the southern core of the city , on which there was no house apart from the fulling mill in 1830 . Until 1904 the district was still called Bruch . In the south of the district, which was formerly characterized by a high proportion of Polish residents , is the Recklinghausen city harbor , in the middle on both sides of central Bochumer Strasse the shopping area and in the west a comprehensive school, Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium and community center south . Marienstraße with the Marienkirche (1893) leads to the district of König Ludwig in the east , which in its western section was formerly the most important shopping street of Bruch .
The eastern border from the south to the district of König Ludwig runs in the south across the Südfriedhof , in the middle immediately west of Südbad and Südpark and further north a little west of Schimmelsheider Park . The district was named after the former König Ludwig colliery in the east, of which several more than 100 year old colliery buildings have been preserved. Many old colliery settlements still exist in King Ludwig , around 2000 residents alone live in the ECA settlement . The Haus König Ludwig event venue is centrally located . The eastern border to Röllinghausen runs over the former colliery railway immediately to the east of the colliery site.
The village Suderwich was mentioned as Suderwick as early as 1066 and was not incorporated into Recklinghausen until 1926. For centuries it had been administered from Horneburg (today: City of Datteln ), while the jurisdiction had originated from Recklinghausen. Originally characterized by farming, the village underwent a change around 1900 with the establishment of the now long-closed König Ludwig colliery (shaft IV / V) in the west of the village.
The construction of the colliery had led to a second secondary village - the Suderwich mining colony - south-southeast of the Altdorf and beyond the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn . The integration of many newcomers into the village of Suderwich was only gradual. Along with industrialization, the population also rose from 652 (1818) to just under 6,000 (1910) to almost 12,000 today.
Today Suderwich is mainly a residential suburb. The old church square in the center of the village is still the venue for numerous traditional festivals, but has lost its importance.
Since 1904, the neo-Gothic St. John's Church has been the - still Catholic - center of the suburb. It comes from the same master builder as the almost identical Church of Our Lady in the Hillen district, but its facade is a bit more ornate. The main traffic artery of the district is the Henrichenburger Straße in west-east direction between Recklinghausen and Henrichenburg , from the north the Esseler Straße comes from the direction of Oer-Erkenschwick .
The route of the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn, which runs in a west-south-west-east-northeast direction, divides Suderwich into the old village in the north and the roughly equal, younger miners' section in the south. The south of the Suderwicher district, separated even further south by the south of the A 2, is uninhabited. The Brandheide forest is located here . The parish of Suderwich used to include the farmers Essel and Röllinghausen; Berghausen, at that time an enclave of the Recklinghausen-Land community, formed a market cooperative (Allmende) with the above-mentioned farmers, consisting of the Suderwicher Mark and the Lohwald .
Essel, Berghausen and Röllinghausen
The villages of Essel to the north-west and Berghausen to the west of Suderwich each have less than 500 inhabitants and are still dominated by agriculture today. Essel has a clearer village structure and is also set apart from the surrounding districts, while Berghausen, which is still scattered by farmers, merges directly into Hillen (W), Röllinghausen (SO) and Suderwich (O).
The Essel Church of the Holy Spirit has been a branch of St. Johannes in Suderwich since its foundation; the clergy there alternated in loose order in both churches; meanwhile both belong to the parish of the Church of Our Lady . The community is also responsible for the east of the Lohweg settlement in the east quarter. The Esseler elementary school is even responsible for the entire Lohweg settlement from the junction of the Lohweg from the Ostcharweg as well as for the former Essel-Nord , today part of Groß-Erkenschwick, and has thus retained its catchment area from before the regional reform in 1926. This is remarkable in that the school is 1.6 kilometers as the crow flies from the start of the Lohweg, but only 400 meters from the Canisius School .
The current district of Berghausen basically represents the area of the old main residential areas of both the Berghausen and Röllinghausen farmers, whose fields stretched south to what is now the Röllinghausen district. The core farming community of Berghausen lies immediately north of the knee of Castroper Strasse , which is renamed Suderwichstrasse to the east and which takes up the Alte Grenzstrasse from the south . The residential area Röllinghausen is just under a kilometer northeast of it , immediately northwest of the intersection of Bergstrasse and Brelohstrasse . This living space is already on the Prussian initial reception 1: visible 25,000, Sheet 4309 Recklinghausen of 1842, on the new recording of 1849 he is with Röllinghausen labeled, while the southern part, today's Röllinghausen as peasantry Röllinghausen, ie with italics, is characterized . At least until 1959, the regularly updated map series retained this label.
Today's Röllinghausen , which is largely located south of the A 2 , is a little less rural . Even more than with Suderwich, the former village has grown together with the industrialist King Ludwig , which is only separated by the route of a former colliery railway and connects to the southwest.
At the interface between the districts of Suderwich, Berghausen and Röllinghausen, there is now a commercial and industrial area north of the A 2 and to a large extent on the area of the former König Ludwig colliery (shaft IV / V) and adjacent to it.
Bordering the city of Recklinghausen ( clockwise , starting in the west): Herten , Marl , Oer-Erkenschwick , Datteln and Castrop-Rauxel (all in the Recklinghausen district ) as well as the independent city of Herne in the south .
Origin (9th / 10th century), Archdiocese of Cologne (from 1180), city rights (1236), battle between Cologne and Grafschaft Mark
The settlement may have existed since the beginning of the 9th century, in the form of a fortified courtyard south of the Vestic ridge, as well as the original parish of St. Peter. Archaeological evidence is still pending. What is certain is that Recklinghausen and its surroundings belonged to the mission area of the Cologne diocese, which extended to the Lippe in the north .
Recklinghausen is first mentioned as Ricoldinchuson in 1017 . A manor should be located in the document, which Emperor Heinrich II. Transferred to the Bishop's Church in Paderborn. However, the document is only available as a copy from the middle of the 15th century.
From 1150 onwards, the city became the center of a judicial and administrative district called Vest Recklinghausen , the district of which encompassed the entire surrounding area. Vest Recklinghausen belonged to the Electorate of Cologne until 1802 . To the south and west of the Petruskirche, a merchant and market settlement developed as a central location for the jurisdiction and for regional trade. Since a campaign on Kirchplatz in 2013, this core area has been excavated. From 1180, with the establishment of the Duchy of Westphalia as the political territorial rule of the Archbishops of Cologne, Recklinghausen belonged to the Archbishopric of Cologne until 1802/03. The legal basis formed its high jurisdiction between Emscher and Lippe. The territorial designation Vest Recklinghausen, which is still common today, has been handed down since the first third of the 14th century. It referred to a district of jurisdiction that stretched between the said rivers and between Bottrop in the west and Waltrop in the east. The etymology of the term vest is unclear.
In 1236 Recklinghausen received full city rights. In 1256 the city already had its own town hall on the market. In terms of economic geography, Recklinghausen was nevertheless away from important long-distance trade routes. A lack of south-north connections and difficult river crossings made the connection to the prosperous Hellweg zone difficult, where trading cities such as Dortmund or Soest developed into leading economic centers. The elevation of the oppidum to the city in the legal sense is shown in 1236 in a double original document about the tax privileges granted by Archbishop Heinrich von Müllenark . Sealing and minting rights were soon added. The first city walling dates from the late 13th century.
In 1295/96, Count Eberhard II managed to conquer the city of Recklinghausen with an army of knights. He had the city wall torn down and the trenches filled in, so that the city was defenseless for many decades and could not serve as a fortress for the Archbishop of Cologne. The Archbishop of Cologne later brought Recklinghausen back into his possession and had a new city wall built between 1344 and 1363, remains of which are still preserved. On June 30, 1371, the city of Recklinghausen swore allegiance to the new Archbishop of Cologne, Friedrich von Saar Werden.
Early modern times: Counter Reformation, witch hunt, small territory
As everywhere in the empire, there were violent tremors in the course of the denominational struggles. After the plague, then bad harvests and a subsequent grain shortage in 1580, a conflict arose in the course of the Cologne War (1583–1588) between the Archbishop of Cologne Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg and the new Archbishop Ernst von Bayern , after Gebhard's conversion in 1582 from Waldburg to Protestantism. In 1584, Recklinghausen was recaptured by Ernst von Bavaria.
Between 1514 and 1706, 127 witch trials are on record, 104 alone involved women. The high point of the witch hunts were the years from 1580 to 1581, when 45 indictments were made, and from 1588 to 1589, when 41 people were involved. Trine Plumpe resisted torture in a witch trial in 1650. The last woman convicted as a witch was Anna Spiekermann . After 16 months of imprisonment and torture, she was executed by the sword in 1706.
From the 17th century the economically sunk Vest Recklinghausen was considered a small territory consolidated by the Counter-Reformation , whereby the Franciscan order, active there since the second half of the century, played a prominent role in the implementation of Catholic pastoral care, education and higher education. From the beginning of the 18th century, Recklinghausen was the official residence of electoral Cologne judges and governors. They resided in the Castel Sant'Angelo .
Dissolution of the electorate (1803), Prussia (from 1814), industrialization
After the electoral dynasty of Cologne was abolished, Vest Recklinghausen came to the Duchy of Arenberg as compensation lands for lost territories west of the Rhine through the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss . Recklinghausen with a little more than 3500 inhabitants became a (secondary) residence, which went hand in hand with a legal modernization of trade and commerce as well as administration and judiciary originating in France. In 1811 Recklinghausen came to the Grand Duchy of Berg ( Arrondissement Essen within the Ruhr Department ), a vassal state of Napoleon . Manufacturers such as canvas weaving mills, spinning mills, mills, brickworks, printing works, paper mills, breweries and distilleries were economically influential. There were also traders and tradespeople with an agricultural sideline ( arable citizen ).
With the end of Napoleonic rule in 1814, the region became part of the Prussian civil government between the Weser and Rhine ("Province of Westphalia"). In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna , the vest was finally incorporated into Prussia and the province of Westphalia . Recklinghausen formed a mayor's office consisting of several communities and became the seat of a district. In 1819 Herten and in 1821 Erkenschwick became part of the mayor's office in Recklinghausen. In 1836 the mayor's office was divided into the city of Recklinghausen and the rural mayor's office (from 1844 office ) Recklinghausen. As a result, the Prussian Revised Town Code of 1831 was introduced for the city of Recklinghausen on July 14, 1837 . The old town and the districts of Hillen and Bruch belonged to the city. The urban area also included the areas of the four urban districts around the city center and Hillerheide that were not yet developed as settlements; the quarry , which was then covered by quarry forest , roughly took up the area of the districts of Grullbad , Süd and König Ludwig .
Now Protestantism, supported by a new class of civil servants, established itself with its own organizations and churches; the Gustav Adolf Church , built in 1846, is considered the oldest Protestant church in the vestibule. The infrastructural policy that began helped the municipality to overcome the disadvantageous peripheral location. From the mid-1830s, a new grammar school developed into a resource for the regional educated middle class. In 1842, as part of the construction of the Chaussee, a country road was built from Bochum via Recklinghausen to Münster, creating a north-south connection with bridges over the Emscher and Lippe.
From 1864 to 1869 the first colliery in the city was built on the Emscher. In 1873 the “General Blumenthal” mine also began producing coal, followed by mines in Hochlarmark in 1882 and the “König Ludwig” mine from 1872 to 1889. Important companies for mechanical mining and coal refining settled in the city. Kreis- und Stadtsparkasse provided loans from 1855 and 1871 respectively. The Wanne-Münster-Bremen railway was opened in 1871, followed by the east-west connection between Hamm and Osterfeld in 1905. So the connection for bulk goods and passenger traffic to the Ruhr area and the coal export ports on the North Sea, but also to the growing waterway network. A port facility on the Rhine-Herne Canal was built in 1914. Local passenger transport was changed from 1898 onwards by trams in the direction of Herne or Wanne-Eickel, and the extensive sewerage and gas supply that began in 1895, followed by the electrification of private households from 1905, changed the lifestyle.
The mayor's office included:
- the parish of Herten in the southwest
- the farmers (clockwise, starting in the northwest) Lenkerbeck, Löntrop (with Hüls and Korthausen), Speckhorn (with Börste and Beising), Bockholt, Scherlebeck, Langenbochum, Ebbelich, Disteln (with Backum), Hochlar, Stuckenbusch and Hochlarmark to the west as well as ( clockwise, starting in the northeast) Erkenschwick, Essel, Röllinghausen and Berghausen east of the district town
- the parish of Oer with Alt-Oer and the farmers Sinsen and Siepen in the northeast
- the parish of Suderwich in the southeast
In 1857, Herten resigned from the Recklinghausen office and formed an office of its own. On April 1, 1901, Recklinghausen left the district and became an independent city , but remained the seat of the district.
Mining and population explosion, urban district (1901–1975), Ruhrkampf, Ruhr occupation
Within four decades, from 1870 to 1910, the population rose from 5,000 to 50,000. In 1914, three out of ten residents came from Poland. The last decade of the 19th century was characterized by the most rapid growth. While the city still had 14,000 inhabitants in 1890, this number rose to 34,000 within a further ten years. From 1880, the planned urban district of Bruch was built (since 1904: "South"), which represented a densely populated outer center with connections to the mine sites. After reaching the 30,000-inhabitant limit, the establishment of a separate district of Recklinghausen followed in 1901, which lasted until 1975.
The Wallring, built from 1900 onwards, which runs along the city fortifications that was almost completely demolished in the middle of the 19th century, was seen as a symbol of the modernization of Recklinghausen; the city expansion followed plans by Hermann Joseph Stübben . The new Wilhelmine-historicist town hall built in 1908 in the Weser Renaissance style had a dominant effect . The Christ Church, built in 1911, also served the self-image of Protestantism in Recklinghausen.
The city was affected by the war in the Ruhr in 1920 as well as by the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgians and French from 1923 to 1925. In 1926, with the dissolution of the rural community of Recklinghausen, which had existed since 1837, a number of neighboring settlements came to Recklinghausen, namely Hochlarmark, Suderwich, Röllinghausen. With the opening of the Vestisches Museum in 1922, Recklinghausen took an important step in the still underdeveloped cultural landscape of the Ruhr area. On April 1, 1926, the Recklinghausen office was canceled. The municipality of Suderwich and the rural communities of Röllinghausen, Berghausen, Hochlarmark, Stuckenbusch, Hochlar , Bockholt, Speckhorn, Börste and Essel Süd of the dissolved municipality of Recklinghausen-Land (also the rural municipality of Recklinghausen) were incorporated into Recklinghausen.
Great Depression, National Socialism, World War II, destruction of the Jewish community
The global economic crisis caused economic output to collapse, and numerous people were without work or income. In 1933 the Nazis came to power in Recklinghausen, which was not very spectacular. In the first half of 1933 the parties and trade unions were smashed, called for a boycott against Jewish business owners, and a book burn was staged in Recklinghausen-Süd. Hitler and Hindenburg were solemnly issued a certificate of honorary citizenship. But it was not until the end of 1939 that Emil Irrgang, a lord mayor with an NSDAP party book, was lifted into office by the Westphalia-North Gauleitung. The synagogue was destroyed in the pogrom of 1938. At the end of January 1942 the deportation to Riga and the subsequent murder of the Recklinghausen Jews in the extermination camps took place.
In early April 1945 Americans occupied and liberated Recklinghausen and the surrounding area after an attack on the main train station in late March 1945 had destroyed large parts of the northern part of the city. In mid-June, the Americans were replaced by British units, as North Rhine-Westphalia was part of the British zone of occupation. The British ran an internment camp on Hillerheide for several years, in which Nazi perpetrators sat waiting to be convicted or were "denazified".
Compared to the neighboring cities, the destruction in Recklinghausen was low: 448 houses were destroyed or badly damaged, 517 were 15–50% (that is: moderately) damaged, and 3120 houses were damaged up to 15% (that is: slightly). The provost church was badly hit in 1944, while the town hall, guest church and Castel Sant'Angelo were only slightly affected. Pauluskirche was narrowly missed by two air mines, which tore several meters deep craters into the streets surrounding them on both sides, but left only roof and window damage on the building itself. The northern quarter was mainly affected by the air raids . More than 300 people were killed in the bombings on Recklinghausen, most of them on March 23, 1945. On Easter Sunday, April 1, 1945, Recklinghausen was taken by US troops. In preparation for the attack, Recklinghausen had been covered with 4,000 artillery rounds the night before. As almost everywhere in Germany, students in Recklinghausen were also deployed as air force helpers with the flak.
New cultural and economic bloom
After the Second World War, which left comparatively little damage in the urban area, the city began to develop into a cultural metropolis and the Ruhr coal mining industry began to flourish. With a population of 100,000, Recklinghausen formally became a major city in 1949/50, to which the influx of expellees and later southern European workers contributed. The city reached its highest population in 1960 with 132,000 inhabitants.
The city has been the venue for the Ruhr Festival since 1947 . Since it opened in 1948, the Städtische Kunsthalle has dedicated itself to the new beginning of modern art in West Germany. In 1956, with the establishment of the Icon Museum, another cultural institute with a unique selling point followed. Since 1995 Recklinghausen has been a location of the Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences, which was founded in 1992 .
At the invitation of Konrad Adenauer , Ludwig Erhard presented his concept of the social market economy as the basis for the development of a free society for the first time on August 28, 1948 at the party congress of the CDU in the party's British zone .
On January 1, 1975, Recklinghausen was incorporated into the enlarged Recklinghausen district as part of the second reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia without any further area expansion .
In 1949, the city of Recklinghausen exceeded the limit of 100,000 inhabitants, making it a major city. In 1962 the population reached its historical high of 131,569. At the end of 2015, 114,330 people were still living in Recklinghausen with their main residence, according to an update by the State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (formerly the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia) . Recklinghausen was 68th among the 79 major cities in Germany .
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Until 1833 it is mostly an estimate, then census results (¹) or official updates by the respective statistical offices or city administration. From 1843 the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the place of the main residence”. Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey methods.
¹ census result
According to the 2011 census , 27.5% of the population were Protestant , 40.7% were mostly Roman Catholic and 31.8% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then and with almost 42%, the people who do not belong to either of these two legally or corporately constituted religious communities are a majority of the population. At the end of 2019, Recklinghausen had 120,024 inhabitants, of whom 42,051 (35.0%) were Catholics, 27,969 (23.3%) Protestants and 41.7% either had a different religion or no religion at all.
Catholic: Recklinghausen has belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne since the High Middle Ages and was subordinate to the Archdeaconate of Dortmund with the entire vest. The associated political affiliation with the Electorate of Cologne is the reason why the Reformation was unable to gain a foothold. Therefore Recklinghausen remained a Catholic city for centuries . After the archdeaconate in Dortmund was dissolved in 1612, the Vest formed a special spiritual commissioner within the Archdiocese of Cologne. The Church of St. Peter in Recklinghausen became the mother church for the entire area. After the transition to Prussia (1815), the church structures were also reorganized. So Recklinghausen came to the diocese of Münster in 1821 and became the seat of a deanery , which was later divided into the deaneries Recklinghausen-Nord and Recklinghausen-Süd. Today there is the Recklinghausen district dean's office, which consists of several dean's offices. This also includes the Recklinghausen dean's office with its 20 parishes. Are currently grouped in seven parishes.
Evangelical: Protestants also moved to Recklinghausen in the 19th century . They founded their own parish in the middle of the century and built the first Protestant church in Vest in Recklinghausen in 1847, the Gustav Adolf Church . Until 1873 the parish of Recklinghausen and its neighboring parish of Dorsten belonged to the parish of Bochum, then to the newly formed parish of Münster. After the Protestant congregations grew strongly at the end of the 19th century and new congregations emerged, it became necessary to divide the Münster church district. In 1906 the Recklinghausen parish was established in the Westphalian Provincial Church of the Evangelical Church in Prussia, later the Evangelical Church of Westphalia . It includes the seven parishes of the city (Recklinghausen-Altstadt - Andreaskirche, Bruch, Recklinghausen-Hillerheide, Hochlarmark, Johannes-Kirchengemeinde, Philipp-Nicolai-Kirchengemeinde and Suderwich), which have come together to form the "Evangelical Community Association Recklinghausen". In addition, the Recklinghausen parish includes the parishes in Herten , Marl , Datteln , Oer-Erkenschwick , Waltrop and Haltern am See .
The Hochlarer Nativity Play is organized annually by the Transport and Beautification Association.
There are now several mosques in Recklinghausen. Three mosques are operated by the Association of Islamic Cultural Centers (VIKZ), two more by Diyanet Turkish-Islamic Association and one by Milli Görüs. There are also other Islamic prayer rooms, cultural associations and community centers.
In 1829 the foundation stone for today's municipality was laid with the entry in the register of associations. The first synagogue was opened in August 1880. After the community had grown to over 500 members, a new synagogue was inaugurated on Limperstrasse in 1906. She was on 9/10. Destroyed in the night of the pogrom in November 1938 and then demolished. In 1955 the Jewish parish hall (from 1930) was expanded to include a prayer room for the then Bochum-Herne-Recklinghausen community. In 1997, the new building of today's synagogue for the Jewish community in the Recklinghausen district was opened next door. Two years later, the community broke away from the Bochum-Herne-Recklinghausen network and has been independent again since then. The Jewish community maintains a meeting center in the old Jewish school (today Rabbi- Selig-Auerbach -Haus ) . In the basement there is a mikveh , a ritual Jewish immersion bath.
At the head of Recklinghausen there was a council that consisted of the twelve lay judges since the 13th century , but the term aldermen disappeared in the 14th century in favor of the councilors. From 1378 there was the mayor and the councilors, who were elected every year on St. Stephen's Day. The annual election was not abolished until 1781. After that there were four mayors and four councilors. Recklinghausen was a member of the Vestische Landtag, which was convened by the city of Recklinghausen until 1808.
From 1808 there were two mayors elected for five years, assisted by a secretary and an inspector. In 1811 the municipal constitution was introduced based on the French model. In 1837 the Prussian city order came into force. Thereafter, a mayor was at the head of the city, who received the title of mayor after obtaining district freedom .
During the time of National Socialism , the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP . After the Second World War , the military government of the British Zone of Occupation appointed a new Lord Mayor. In 1946 she introduced the local constitution based on the British model. After that there was a “City Council” elected by the citizens, whose members are called “City Councilors”. The council elected the honorary mayor from among its members as chairman and representative of the city. Furthermore, the council elected a full-time senior city director as head of the city administration. Because of the reintegration of the city into the Recklinghausen district, after the retirement of the incumbent city director in 1984, the city leaders bore the title of "mayor" or "city director". In 1999 the dual leadership in the city administration was given up and for the first time a full-time mayor was elected directly by the population , who is chairman of the council, head of the city administration and representative of the city.
Results of the local elections from 1975
The list only shows the proportion of votes of the parties and constituencies that received at least 1.95 percent of the votes in the respective election.
1 Greens: 1979: GWG, 1984 and 1989: Greens, from 1994: B'90 / Greens
After the local elections on May 25, 2014 the council was composed as follows:
|20 seats||19 seats||5 seats||3 seats||2 seats||3 seats||52 seats|
Lord Mayor and Mayor
- 1809–1833: Alois Joseph Wulff
- 1833–1839: Peter Banniza
- 1840–1842: Karl Boelmann
- 1843–1850: Franz Bracht
- 1854–1890: Friedrich Hagemann
- 1890–1899: Alexander Rensing
- Lord Mayor
- 1899–1904: Albert von Bruchhausen (First Mayor, from 1901 Lord Mayor)
- 1904–1919: Peter Heuser
- 1919–1931: Sulpiz Hamm , center
- 1932–1939: Fritz Niemeyer , until 1933: center
- 1939–1945: Fritz Emil Irrgang , NSDAP
- 1945–1946: Josef Hellermann , CDU
- 1946–1948: Wilhelm Bitter , CDU
- 1948–1952: Joseph Dünnebacke , CDU
- 1952–1972: Heinrich Auge , SPD
- 1972–1984: Erich Wolfram , SPD
- 1984–1987: Erich Wolfram, SPD
- 1987–1998: Jochen Welt , SPD
- Full-time mayor
- 1998–1999: Peter Borggraefe , SPD
- 1999–2014: Wolfgang Pantförder , CDU
- since 2014: Christoph Tesche , CDU
City directors and city directors
- Senior City Directors
- 1946–1950: Josef Hellermann
- 1950–1962: Wilhelm Michaelis
- 1962–1974: Josef Legeland
- 1974–1984: Lorenz Amely
- City Director
- 1984–1998: Peter Borggraefe
City coat of arms and flag
The coat of arms of the city of Recklinghausen shows under a wall crown in front of a green background a golden city wall with an open gate, inside an upright golden key with a beard on top, which surrounds a golden church building with a pointed main tower above the facade gable and side towers with onions. As in the coat of arms of the district, the key is the symbol of St. Peter , city patron and patron of the Archdiocese of Cologne, to which Vest and the city of Recklinghausen belonged until the electorate of Cologne was dissolved. The city colors are green and gold. The coat of arms was given to the city in 1908 by Kaiser Wilhelm II in his capacity as King of Prussia on the occasion of the inauguration of the new town hall.
Recklinghausen has twinning partnerships with the following cities :
- Preston , since 1956
- Douai , since 1965
- Dordrecht , since 1974
- Acre , since 1978
- Schmalkalden , Thuringia , since 1989
- Bytom , since 2000
There is also a sponsorship:
- El Progreso , since 1966
The following public institutions are based in Recklinghausen:
- District Court , Reitzensteinstrasse
- Federal Employment Agency, Görresstrasse
- Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office Münsterland-Emscher-Lippe, Kurt-Schumacher-Allee
- Fire station, Dordrechtring
- Justice Academy of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia , August-Schmidt-Ring
- District building , Kurt-Schumacher-Allee
- State Office for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection North Rhine-Westphalia , Leibnizstrasse
- Police headquarters, Westerholter Weg
Economy and Infrastructure
The unemployment rate in Recklinghausen was 8.5% in November 2018.
Companies based in Recklinghausen include: a .:
- Hella KGaA Hueck & Co
- Boente Grain Distillery
- Möller fruit juice press
- Runners Point Warenhandelsgesellschaft mbH
- Sparkasse Vest Recklinghausen
- Westphalian Security Guard (WWS)
Recklinghausen is considered the shopping city of the Vests. The widespread and largely pedestrianized city center with around 85,000 m 2 of retail space offers significantly more space for retail than the surrounding cities and roughly as much as the larger Gelsenkirchen. The city's position was recently strengthened by the construction of the “ Palais Vest ” shopping center on the Löhrhof and the nationwide advertising campaign “Old Town Recklinghausen - Ruhr-Comfortable Shopping”.
The main shopping areas are the market, the wood market, the Große Geldstrasse and the upper Breite Strasse. The city's central shopping mile remains Kunibertistraße with around 2,500 passers-by per hour. In a nationwide comparison, Recklinghausen is on par with Ingolstadt and Potsdam and ranks 33rd among the smaller cities.
The Recklinghäuser retail is from both large department and fashion stores, such as B. Hettlage and P&C, as well as owner-operated specialist shops. In addition, there are many other (inter-) nationally active retail and fashion chains, including the “Reserved” chain, which opened its first Western European branch in Recklinghausen. The comparatively strong position of the retail trade in the city also illustrates the centrality of the retail trade. While the purchasing power index per inhabitant was slightly below average in 2014 at 95, the centrality index was above average at 118. This means that Recklinghausen can have a high level of trade centrality due to a deduction of purchasing power from the surrounding area.
The city has access to air traffic via the Marl-Loemühle airfield located on the city limits of Marl . The nearest airports with international air traffic are Dortmund , Düsseldorf and Münster / Osnabrück .
Recklinghausen has been connected to the rail network since January 1870. The railway line Wanne-Eickel-Hamburg and the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn intersect in the urban area , on which, however, only freight trains have been running since the cessation of passenger traffic in 1983 . A resumption in the GE-Buer Nord - Recklinghausen section is planned for summer 2020.
On the Wanne-Eickel-Hamburg route, Recklinghausen has two passenger train stations, the “ Recklinghausen Süd ” station and the main train station . The south station is located in Hochlarmark and is only served by local trains. The main station, which is close to the city center, is an important hub for regional and regular long-distance traffic. In addition to some heavily frequented local transport connections such as the " Rhein-Haard-Express ", IC and ICE trains in the direction of Hamburg / Emden and Cologne / Stuttgart.
In addition, as part of the modernization and expansion of local public transport in the Ruhr area, it was decided to resume passenger traffic on the Hamm-Osterfelder-Bahn. This would create a new S-Bahn connection on the S9 line between Recklinghausen and Wuppertal . In this context, the creation of a further stopping point on the route is also being discussed, which would be created approximately at the level of the seed quarry area .
All local road transport in Recklinghausen is served by the " Vestischen ", which connects the city and district of Recklinghausen with Bottrop and parts of Herne, Gelsenkirchen and Essen. The intersection of most of the lines in the city is the bus station in front of the main train station at "Europaplatz", where 28 lines meet and which is a central hub for public transport in the greater Recklinghausen area with more than 30,000 passengers every day. However, since this is full or overloaded in its capacity due to the increasing number of passengers, plans to convert and expand the area around Europaplatz have been started. The tariffs of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr or the NRW tariff apply to all local public transport .
In addition, Recklinghausen is also served by long-distance buses , which stop at Große-Perdekamp-Straße north of the main train station. There are direct connections here. a. to Aachen, Bremen, Oberhausen or Rostock.
Recklinghausen is connected to the trunk road network via the A 2 (Oberhausen – Berlin) and A 43 (Wuppertal – Münster) motorways , which intersect in the city. Furthermore, the federal highway 225 begins in the urban area, at junction 11 of the BAB 43. In addition, a motorway-like expressway (L511), which begins west of the junction "Recklinghausen-Nord" (A 43), leads in a semicircle around the north of the city to Oer- Erkenschwick or to Herten and has connection points on Halterner Straße and Oerweg .
The multi-lane Wallring directs traffic around the historic old town of Recklinghausen. With its many junctions, it forms the starting point for important entry and exit roads in the city , which have now largely been dismantled to side roads.
The most important bypass and arterial road in the west-east direction is the Akkoallee , Hertener Strasse , Hohenzollernstrasse , Dordrechtring and August-Schmidt -Ring , which begins at the city limits of Herten in the west and in the east on the former main artery of Dortmunder Strasse near the Fritzberg ends, still clearly in the residential area; a planned continuation to the east has not yet been implemented.
The Recklinghausen / Herten junction of the A 43 is located directly at the transition from Akkoallee to Hertener Strasse. The city's road network currently comprises around 900 streets with a total length of around 460 kilometers.
Since January 1, 2012, Recklinghausen has been part of an environmental zone that encompasses large parts of the Ruhr area. The zone may only be entered by vehicles with a green environmental badge, but motorways in the Ruhr area are exempt from the provisions of the environmental zone.
Waterways and port
Two daily newspapers appear in Recklinghausen - the Recklinghäuser Zeitung from Medienhaus Bauer and a local edition of the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung . The latter reports on the region under the name “Our Vest”, since in 2006 all local editorial offices in the district were closed . Advertising papers are Stadtspiegel , Kurier zum Sonntag and Sonntagsblatt . Radio Vest , which is also part of Medienhaus Bauer, also broadcasts local news from Recklinghausen for the district (except Gladbeck) and takes on the supporting program for Radio NRW . With wm.tv , the city also had a regional television station, whose broadcasting center was in Bocholt. A separate program was produced here for the Recklinghausen district. The format ended in May 2014.
In 2007 the attempt to establish a shopping radio began with the “cityREdio” web radio. The program was discontinued in 2014.
The city is the seat of traditional schools such as the Petrinum grammar school , which dates back to the city's Latin school, first mentioned in 1421 and is still one of the few educational institutions in the region that offers this subject as the first foreign language in addition to English. The Hittorf-Gymnasium, founded in 1904 with a bilingual English branch , continues to exist , since 1924 the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium with French, Latin and Spanish as a second foreign language, the Marie-Curie-Gymnasium, originally a municipal parity Lyceum as a merger of the 1866 founded Higher Catholic School for Daughters and the Private Evangelical Daughter School founded in 1881 , which offers French as the first foreign language in addition to English, and finally, since 1965, the modern-language-scientific Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium in Recklinghausen-Süd. There are also a number of secondary schools, such as the Realschule of the Marist School Brothers , who came to Recklinghausen in 1914. In the comprehensive school sector, the Käthe-Kollwitz-Gesamtschule, the Wolfgang-Borchert-Gesamtschule and the Städtische Gesamtschule Suderwich are located in Recklinghausen.
Since 1995, the city has been home to the Westphalian University of Gelsenkirchen Bocholt Recklinghausen, which was founded in 1992 as the Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences . The Recklinghausen location has 2,305 students (as of winter semester 2016/2017).
The first adult education center was founded in 1919.
With around 500 members, Citybasket Recklinghausen is one of the largest basketball clubs in the Ruhr area. The first men's team plays in the 1st regional league, the first women's team in the second division.
In addition to various football clubs throughout the city and district, Recklinghausen has also had an American football club for more than 25 years . The Recklinghausen Chargers currently (2019) play in the fifth highest league. Your home stadium is the Hohenhorst Stadium .
ETG 12/32 Recklinghausen
The Eisenbahner Turngemeinde ETG was created in 1961 through the merger of the ETV (founded in 1912) and ETuS (founded in 1932). It is now one of the largest sports clubs in Recklinghausen with over 16 departments and over 1200 members. The main disciplines of the athletics department are sprint , middle distance , shot put , javelin , discus , high jump , long jump and the all-around .
The ETG Recklinghausen has been training in the stadium on Maybacher Heide since 2009 .
FC 96 Recklinghausen
FC 96 Recklinghausen currently plays in the district league A (2013/14 season). After he had made it into the league , at that time still under the name 1. FC Recklinghausen , his economic situation deteriorated so much that the club filed for bankruptcy in 1996. This resulted in today's FC 96 Recklinghausen , which worked its way up from the district league to the Westphalia league before falling back into the district league. As with the Chargers , the home stadium is the Hohenhorst stadium.
Culture and sights
The zoo and the Westphalian public observatory with a planetarium are worth mentioning in terms of leisure activities . The extensive Hoheward recreation area - the landscape park - is being built on the outskirts of the city .
With the Ruhr Festival, which has been taking place annually since 1947, Recklinghausen has a cultural event that is known far beyond the city limits. Recklinghausen offers several touring guest performances for theater fans. There is also the theater in the depot. The city is also home to the Neue Philharmonie Westfalen , the largest of the three regional orchestras in North Rhine-Westphalia, which emerged on November 1, 1996 from the Philharmonic Orchestra of the City of Gelsenkirchen (Orchester des Musiktheater im Revier - MiR) and the Westphalian Symphony Orchestra; The sponsors are the cities of Gelsenkirchen and Recklinghausen as well as the district of Unna .
Another cultural meeting point is the socio-cultural center Altstadtschmiede eV It has existed since 1975 and is one of the oldest in Germany. The offer includes jazz and blues concerts, cabaret events and theater for children and young people.
- Fördermaschinenhaus - Museum about the mining history of the city on the site of the former Recklinghausen II colliery
- Icon Museum Recklinghausen - It is the most important museum of Eastern Church art in the western world.
- Postal History Museum Recklinghausen - Friedrich Maurmann shows the history of the Deutsche Bundespost.
- Recklinghausen art gallery
- Museum Jerke - The private museum in Crimea shows exclusively modern Polish art since the 1920s. It is the first museum of its kind in Germany.
- Retro Station - As the successor to the Vestisches Museum , the permanent exhibition on Hohenzollernstrasse shows the history of Recklinghausen from the Middle Ages through the heyday of Wilhelminism to contemporary history. The multimedia focus is on mining and the Nazi era.
- Recklinghausen substation ("Museum Strom und Leben") - In Germany's largest electricity museum, which is housed in a listed building of an old substation, the history of electricity is presented.
- City library - non-fiction books, novels, current films, music, audio books and other things are available in the main office of the city library on Augustinessenstrasse and in the branch in the south district (Sauerbruchstrasse 4). The library also offers media especially for children. There are currently around 60,000 media in stock. Through interlibrary loan and the Digibib digital library , material for specialist work, presentations, etc. can be obtained from other sources. The city library is Recklinghausen's public library under the authority of the city. Since August 2008, the public library has an internet branch for downloading of e-books and other e-media. In 2019, the city library moved into the newly opened Vest Quartier, which is located in the old C&A building, while the old location, the Willy-Brandt-Haus, now houses the adult education center alone.
- Trivia: As part of “Recklinghausen lights” in October and November 2019, fairy tales and legends by Recklinghäuser were read continuously for around 458 hours in the city library. On November 3, 2019, Recklinghausen finally won the official Guinness world record in continuous reading.
Cityscape in general
In terms of architecture, Recklinghausen offers very different appearances. While the old town in particular has a high density of monuments and buildings from the last few centuries, post-war buildings, some of them in a post-modern style, shape the cityscape outside the inner city. Since Recklinghausen was lucky enough to have only been slightly to moderately damaged by Allied air raids during the Second World War , the city, unlike many other cities in the Rhine-Ruhr region , was able to save part of its old development and its medieval city plan in the inner city area and up to recieved today. In addition to individual buildings of exceptional (historical) importance, functional buildings in the residential or business sector predominate in the urban area.
In the vicinity of former collieries - typical for the Ruhr area - colonies can be found (e.g. Hiberniastraße, Dreiecksiedlung), which differ in their appearance and construction. Moreover, could at some mine sites head frames and administrative buildings before demolition be preserved so that they the city can still be seen today as witnesses of the mining era, as the two head frames preserved as industrial monuments, namely a steel box struts framework of the coal mine Recklinghausen II and a rare scaffolding tower of coal mine General Blumenthal near the A 43.
In Recklinghausen, especially concentrated in the almost circular old town, a comparatively large number of historical buildings, some of them from the Middle Ages , have been preserved without major damage.
- The old town market in its center was the location of the first three town halls since 1256.
- Old town houses with restored decorative facades from the 18th and 19th centuries line the north and west sides . The oldest of them is the "Haus Albers", which was built around 1776 and was given a new facade in 1883.
- On the other sides are multi-storey department stores from the Wilhelmine era , including the former Althoff department store from 1910 (now Karstadt ), which was then the largest and most modern department store in the west of the Reich.
- Stand on the church square north of the old town market
- The two oldest houses in the city are on Kunibertistraße:
- the agricultural citizen and half-timbered house "Gravemanns Hof" from 1522. On its right eaves wall remains of a two-storey neighboring house with storey beams have been preserved. The building was built on the so-called Kampgraben, which was part of a much older courtyard.
- the "Verstege department store" from 1558, which was later changed in the gable area.
- Other restored half-timbered buildings can be found above all on Münsterstrasse as well as on Holzmarkt and Paulsört - all of them in the Crimea , the northernmost old town quarter.
- In the Broad Street south of the market, the "Old Pharmacy", a plastered half-timbered building is the late Baroque with front gable and gambrel roof , which was probably written before 1800's.
- On the Herzogswall, the northwestern edge of the old town, are grouped:
- a 200 meter long section of the city fortifications from 1347, consisting of the city wall and two watchtowers.
- the Castel Sant'Angelo , a horseshoe-shaped residential building from 1701, which was originally built for the judge Münch from the Electorate of Cologne and today houses a renowned 4-star hotel. In addition to the main building, the three-winged building also includes the Stephansturm (southern watchtower). The Castel Sant'Angelo is considered a splendid building in the region and the most important secular building in the city , especially because of the inner courtyard with the angel fountain and the interior design, especially the garden hall with its baroque stucco ceiling .
- the former district building, built in historicism in 1905 , today Willy-Brandt-Haus .
Historic buildings outside the old town
There are also numerous buildings of historical importance outside the ramparts, first and foremost the town hall on Kaiserwall. The building, designed by Otto Müller-Jena and built in 1908 in the German neo-renaissance style, is not only the city's landmark , but was also voted on in an online vote by the North Rhine-Westphalia Home and Local Authorities , which ran from September 2019 to March 2020 , named by the citizens of the state as the "most beautiful town hall in North Rhine-Westphalia" by a large margin.
The mighty, magnificent building consists of a three-storey longitudinal building with a clock tower placed in the middle, loggias and balconies. The town hall building made of Eifel limestone and basalt lava shows in its contemporary decorations in multiple ways German history personified, among others with Hermann the Cheruscan , Boniface and Charlemagne . In reference to the Reichstag building and its architect Paul Wallot , it was sometimes called the "Recklinghäuser Wallot-Bau".
Otto Müller-Jena also designed the so-called “Villa Still” of the entrepreneur Carl Still opposite the town hall: an administrative building built in 1907 and now a listed building with an ornamental facade clad in sandstone . Other buildings worth seeing in the urban area are the former Royal Prussian Mining Directorate on Elper Weg , the recently renovated and restored district court on Reitzensteinstraße , the strictly symmetrical construction of the police headquarters in the style of brick expressionism (1926) and the castle-like building of the former Knappschaft's hospital with a magnificent facade from 1904 (today AOK headquarters; both Westerholter Weg ).
Former Knappschafts Hospital.
Although buildings with historical architecture are characteristic of the cityscape in the inner city area, numerous buildings have been erected in Recklinghausen since the end of the Second World War, which deserve the attribute “modern”. This is also the case in the city center, where in some places the former rather small-scale development has been replaced by new, functional low-rise buildings in the course of renovation and new construction measures, such as on Schaumburgstrasse or Löhrhof . This created the mix of old and new that is typical for the city center today, so that in some streets there are Wilhelminian style decorative facades next to modern glass fronts from the 21st century.
A house of particular importance for the city is the Ruhrfestspielhaus on the "green hill" by the city garden. The building, which dates back to 1965, is part of the Bauhaus architecture and received its characteristic glass porch during a major renovation shortly before the turn of the millennium. Since its opening, it has not only been the main venue for the Ruhr Festival , but also the flagship of the Recklinghausen congress and event centers.
The main train station (1962) on Europaplatz is only a few years older . In addition to the large, almost completely glazed longitudinal front, the outstanding feature of its architecture, which by comparison appears rather sober, is the clock tower. Another typical representative of its time is the district building on August-Schmit-Ring . The administration building, which is usually at right angles and has several inner courtyards, is presented, both inside and outside, entirely in the style of 1970s architecture. The largest construction project since the end of the war in downtown Recklinghausen is the “ Palais Vest ”, a shopping center opened in 2014 on the Löhrhof . The three-story concrete and steel structure is intended to be reminiscent of a palace with its strict and partly cubic architecture. The three school and administration buildings on the Blumenthal campus (2008) on Ludwig-Erhardt-Allee , which today house various vocational colleges , can also be counted among modern steel and glass buildings .
It is also worth mentioning that in Recklinghausen - in contrast to other large cities in the region - hardly any high-rise buildings that characterize the cityscape have been built. In addition to a few high-rise residential buildings in the East Quarter, the eleven-story savings bank tower from the 1960s on Herzogswall is the only remaining high-rise in the city center after the Löhrhofturm was blown up. For this reason, the town hall and the numerous church towers (St. Peter: 73 m, Pauluskirche: 69 m, Liebfrauenkirche: 75 m) continue to characterize the Recklinghausen “ skyline ”.
In Recklinghausen there are numerous sculptures and art objects in public spaces, which is why only the most important are listed below.
The sculpture by the Danish artist Per Kirkeby from 1996 in front of the war memorial at Lohtor on the edge of the city center is a 26 m long and 6 m high structure and consists of around 30,000 bricks; with these it forms six large and seven small arches and is integrated into the sidewalk. Heinrich Brockmeier's sculpture “Citizens carry their city” on the town hall square is similarly known. It consists of three figures, which carry the town hall, the church of St. Peter and a winding tower as a symbol of the city. The entire sculpture is part of a fountain and was integrated into the cityscape for the 750th anniversary of Recklinghausen. Further art objects are the “Stadtkuppel” (2013) by Danuta Karsten on Tiefenpfad , a dome construction made of steel profiles that depicts the old town streets as cartography, and the “Hasentempel” (2015) by Leiko Ikemura , a four-meter-high sculpture of a hybrid between Haase and people at Europaplatz.
From a historical point of view, the “Memorial to the Jewish Victims of Fascism in Recklinghausen” (also known as “The Whole and the Parts”) (1990) by Timm Ulrichs on Westerholter Weg is of particular importance . The memorial, consisting of two black granite hemispheres facing each other and in which "Recklinghausen" and " Jerusalem " and their coordinates are carved, is intended to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust and the synagogue that burned down not far away .
The memorial “Germany is indivisible” (1960) by Heinz Ridder consists of two concrete blocks, which are supposed to symbolize the divided Germany and are only occasionally connected to each other by steel struts. It bears city names such as Cologne, Munich and Hamburg (for the western part), Berlin, Dresden and Königsberg (for the eastern part) and “ Germany is indivisible ” as inscriptions . The sculpture stands on the edge of St. Peter's Church Square.
In 1965 - initially controversial among the public - a bronze cast of the sculpture Great Reclining No. 1 was placed in front of the newly built house of the Ruhr Festival . 5 set up by Henry Moore .
There are numerous church buildings in Recklinghausen. Therefore, only the most important churches are listed here:
Propsteikirche St. Peter : The oldest church in town and Vest Recklinghausen is the Church of St. Peter, north of the market in the old town. Like its two predecessor buildings, the church probably stands on the site of a former Carolingian royal court and dates from the 13th century. Originally in the late Romanesque style, it was later expanded in the Gothic style and houses several sights with the late Gothic tabernacle, the Christ corpus, which was destroyed in the war, and the baroque high altar.
Grammar school church : Located on Steinstrasse (old town) and today connected to the Petrinum grammar school , the building was consecrated from around 1658 as an order church of the Virgin Mary. The hall building has been part of the Recklinghausen Franciscan monastery since its completion and was last expanded in the 19th century in a classicist style.
Guest church : The guest church (formerly: Gasthaus zum Heiligen Geist) is one of the three churches within the ramparts and at the same time the smallest Catholic church in the city. The church was built around 1403, arose from a poor house or hospital and is still occasionally called the "Holy Spirit Church" today. The altar blocks from the early 15th century are particularly worth seeing.
Gustav-Adolf-Kirche : The oldest Protestant church in Vest Recklinghausen dates from 1847 and is not far from the cattle gate on the edge of the city center. The building, which was only renovated in 2003, offers space for 200 people and contains impressive choir windows by the renowned glass artist Hans Gottfried von Stockhausen .
Christ Church : The largest Protestant church in Recklinghausen is in the immediate vicinity of the city center and was built between 1909 and 1911 according to a design by Arno Eugen Fritsche as a Protestant counterpart to St. Peter. The listed building, whichresemblesa Greek cross in planand is rarely found in Westphalia in its design, contains elements of country house and Art Nouveau in its architecture.
Others: At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the Catholic church buildings Liebfrauen in Hillen (1902–1903), St. Johannes in Suderwich (1904) and St. Marien in Recklinghausen-Süd (1893) were built in neo -Gothic style . Later, more modern churches were built, e.g. B. St. Markus im Westviertel (1965–1966 based on a design by Hans Schilling ).
Green areas and parks
There are several green spaces and parks in Recklinghausen within the urban area. Probably the best-known among them is the city park on the Cäcilienhöhe in the west quarter, about one kilometer northwest of the old town. The park, which is around 18 hectares in size, attracts many visitors mainly due to its many walking paths, old trees and the integrated zoo. The city's own zoo extends to around 10,000 m 2 and is home to more than 600 animals. It also offers the Reckling houses a large walk-in bird house, 20 animal enclosures and a petting zoo. The Ruhrfestspielhaus on the "green hill" and the public observatory can also be found in / near the city park .
Located directly on the edge of the old town, the Erlbruchpark (but only called Erlbruch by most of them) is right in the center of the city. It is enclosed in the north by the town hall and town hall, in the east by a railway line, in the south by the Dordrechtring and only in the west by residential buildings. Erlbruchpark's characteristics are its duck pond, its centrality and the wide range of leisure and play opportunities for children. It was bought in the area surrounding the town hall as an "English landscape park" to complete the town hall ensemble in the south. The Dr.-Helene-Kuhlmann-Park, which adjoins the Erlbruchpark, a little further to the east suggests a green area due to its name, but is more an inner-city square, not least because of its use as a weekly market.
In the south of the city, in the midst of urban development, are the Schimmelsheider Park and the Südpark, both in the König Ludwig district, with ponds, sports facilities and the Südbad swimming pool.
The Hohenhorster Heide and the area on the Mollbeck are still to be mentioned as green belts. Although the Hohenhorster Heide (Hillerheide district) is surrounded in the west and south by the A 43 and A 2 motorways and in the east by the Wanne-Eickel-Hamburg railway line and is crossed by several streets, it has a park-like character with old trees. The forests around the Mollbeckberg (the name Mollbeck refers to the Mollbeck ponds further north) are located approx. 2.4 km as the crow flies north of the city center (Speckhorn / Bockholt district) outside the dense development. There are opportunities for swimming, mini golf and tobogganing.
Although it was only opened to the public a few years ago, the dump landscape around the Hoheward dump has become a national leisure magnet. The approximately 160 hectare area on the city limits of Herten attracted nationwide attention, primarily due to the horizon observatory built on the heap roof at a height of 110 meters with the distinctive two touching steel arches. The dump landscape offers more than eight kilometers of cycling and hiking trails and a view that extends to Marl in the north and Düsseldorf in the south. Today the dump is part of the Route of Industrial Culture and the Emscher Landscape Park.
The Recklinghausen high ropes course in Suderwich, which is currently used by young people and families, offers further opportunities for leisure activities. There are also several swimming pools in the city, including the indoor pool on Kurt-Oster-Straße , the Südbad on König-Ludwig-Straße and the outdoor pools on Mollbeck and Suderwich. The city harbor on the Rhine-Herne Canal with its (artificial) sandy beach is particularly popular and often visited in summer .
- February / March: Carnival Monday parade
- March / April (until Palm Sunday): "Palm Fair"
- April / May: "Old town is in bloom"
- May / June: Ruhr Festival
- May / June: "Week of Sports", international jumping in the market place, wine festival, Fête de la musique (June 21)
- July: "Vestiwall", music festival in the old town with several stage and street musicians.
- August: “As a guest in Recklinghausen”, culinary week at Rathausplatz
- September: "Old Town Festival Recklinghausen"
- September: (every two years) "Beuthener Heimattreffen"
- September: "Children's Day / Princess Day / Fairy Tale Day"
- October: “Recklinghausen shines”, lighting of individual buildings along a route within the old town and 3-D town hall show, Süd-Allee (RE-Süd), Hochlar farmers' market
- November: Music night, 15 pubs 1 × entry 15 bands
- December: Nikolauszug (December 5th) and Recklinghausen in Advent (November 23rd - end of December)
Film city Recklinghausen
In Recklinghausen u. a. shot the following films:
- Theo against the rest of the world with Marius Müller-Westernhagen (locations include: Hohenhorst rest area and at the trotting track.)
- The Heartbreakers (locations including: exterior shots Vestlandhalle)
The Recklinghausen Church Film Festival has existed since 2010 .
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- 2004 election results ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 7.0 MB)
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