|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|Height :||519 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||310.7 km 2|
|Resident:||1,488,202 (Dec 31, 2020)|
|Population density :||4790 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||80331-81929, 85540|
|Area code :||089|
|License plate :||M.|
|Community key :|
|LOCODE :||DE MUC|
|City structure:||25 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Dieter Reiter ( SPD )|
|Location of the state capital Munich in the Free State of Bavaria and in the administrative region of Upper Bavaria|
Munich ( High German [ ˈmʏnçn̩ ] or [ ˈmʏnçən ]; Bavarian [ ˈmɪŋ (ː) ɐ ]) is the capital of the Free State of Bavaria . With 1,488,202 inhabitants (December 31, 2020) it is the most populous city in Bavaria, the third largest municipality in Germany and with 4790 inhabitants per square kilometer the most densely populated municipality in Germany. The city forms the center of the Munich metropolitan region (around 6.12 million inhabitants) and the Munich planning region (2.93 million inhabitants).
Munich is counted among the world's cities and is considered a center of culture, politics, science and the media. It is the seat of numerous corporations, including six DAX companies ( Allianz , BMW , Munich Re , Siemens , MTU and Siemens Energy ). The only stock exchange in Bavaria is located here . In the city ranking of the consulting company Mercer , Munich took third place out of 231 large cities worldwide in terms of quality of life in 2018 . According to Monocle magazine , it was the most livable city in the world in 2018. On the other hand, the residents' quality of life is increasingly restricted by agglomeration disadvantages such as traffic and environmental pollution . Also, due to the very high home ownership prices and real estate rents, the living space per inhabitant in some districts is far below the national average. With 6,469 criminal offenses per 100,000 inhabitants in 2019, Munich is the safest municipality among German cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in terms of the crime rate of all criminal offenses.
Munich was first mentioned in a document in 1158 . The city became the Bavarian ducal seat in 1255 and was a royal residence from 1314 and an imperial residence from 1328 to 1347 . In 1506 Munich became the sole capital of Bavaria. Munich is the seat of numerous national and international authorities as well as important universities and colleges , important museums and theaters . With a large number of buildings worth seeing, including protected monuments and ensembles , international sporting events, trade fairs and congresses, as well as the world-famous Oktoberfest , the city is a magnet for international tourism . Under administrative law , Munich is an independent city . The city is the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament , the Bavarian State Government , the administrative seat of the district of Munich surrounding the city with its district office as well as the Bavarian district of Upper Bavaria and the administrative district of Upper Bavaria. In addition, Munich is the seat of several state authorities and some federal authorities and courts .
The name Munich is usually interpreted as "with the monks". The name is first mentioned as forum apud Munichen in the Augsburger Schied of June 14, 1158 by Emperor Friedrich I. Munichen is the dative plural of Old High German munih or Middle High German mün (e) ch, the forerunner of New High German Mönch .
Before the city was founded, there should have been a settlement of monks here. Archaeological finds have so far not been able to confirm that it was, as many have claimed, on the Petersbergl. According to another hypothesis, the eponymous monastic settlement (Schäftlarn monastery courtyard) was located on the site of today's Michael’s Church . A previously assumed connection to the Tegernsee monastery has been disproved for some time.
It is not certain whether a monk settlement existed when Munich was founded. It is also possible that munichen was already a fixed place name at that time, which in turn went back to an earlier, no longer existing monk settlement. Occasionally it was also doubted that the name munichen even refers to a monk settlement.
The city's Middle Latin name is Monacum, adjective monacensis; also Monachia or Monachium are attested.
Munich has different names in other languages: The city is called Munich in French and English (each with different pronunciations), Múnich in Spanish , Munique in Portuguese , Monaco (di Baviera) in Italian ("di Baviera" to distinguish it from Monaco in the same name) Principality ), Mnichov in Czech and Monachium in Polish .
The Alpine foothills between the Limestone Alps and the Danube , in which Munich is also located, lies on a deep subsidence basin that has been filled in mainly from erosion from the Alps for millions of years . In the Tertiary , mainly sand and debris were deposited there by rivers from the Alps. During the subsequent ice ages , the last of which ended around 10,000 years ago, large glacier and meltwater flows formed in the alpine area, which left moraine hills and gravel plains in the foothills of the Alps . 55 km wide Munich gravel plain , which starts at the end moraines of the Isar foothills glacier is an inclined plane with a height difference of 300 meters between wooden churches in the South and Moosburg in the north, the surface of which forms primarily through the würmeiszeitlichen be formed gravel. In the south of the plain, the rivers, especially the Isar , are deeply cut. On these gravel soils, as in the south of Munich, there are more forests, such as the Perlacher Forst and Forstenrieder Park , also because the water table is relatively low here. In the north of the city, on the other hand, where the water table is close to the surface, there are large fens, such as the Dachauer Moos in the northwest and the Erdinger Moos in the northeast. See also: Munich Green Belt .
The lowest point is near the extreme northern outskirts of the district Feldmoching on the east of conservation and forest Schwarzhölzl nearby Olympia Rowing Course , which is around is located. This results in a height difference of around 100 meters in the urban area.
The Isar flows through the urban area over a length of 13.7 km from southwest to northeast, while the Isar-Werkkanal runs parallel to Sendling . In the Isar are the Museum Island with the Deutsches Museum and in the immediate vicinity, downstream, the Prater Island . In the southern parts of the city, the Isar is deeply cut into the gravel plain, with steep edges on both sides. The lower-lying district of Thalkirchen is where the left-hand step is away from the Isar. The step can be seen even more clearly in Sendling and on the west side of the Theresienwiese. On the right bank of the Isar, the zoo and the Au district lie below the step in the terrain that approaches the river again near the city center (Gasteig = gacher [steep] climb; prominent urban ramps at the Maximilianeum and the Friedensengel), before the difference in altitude gradually increases in the northern Oberföhring district loses.
Other rivers are the Würm , which flows from the Starnberger See through the west of Munich, the Hachinger Bach , which enters the city in the southeast near Perlach and continues underground north of Neuperlach , as well as several city streams branching off the Isar such as the Eisbach and the Auer Mühlbach .
Lakes in the Munich urban area include the Kleinhesseloher See in the English Garden , the Badenburger See and the Pagodenburger See in the Nymphenburger Park , the Olympiasee , the Nadisee , the Schwabinger See , the Dreiseenplatte with Lerchenauer, Fasanerie and Feldmochinger See in the north and west the Langwieder See and Lußsee, which belong to the Langwieder Lake District . In the south, near the left bank of the Isar, is the Hinterbrühler See . In the course of the Federal Horticultural Show 2005 , the Riemer See was created in the east .
The total area of Munich is 310.7191 square kilometers. Of this, 44.6 percent is accounted for by buildings and associated open spaces, 17.0 percent for traffic areas, 14.7 percent for agricultural areas, 15.7 percent for recreational areas, 4.4 percent for forest areas and 1.5 percent for water areas. In addition to the areas allocated to buildings, the proportion of recreational areas, forest and water areas has also increased since 2007, while the proportion of traffic and agricultural areas has decreased. The changes over this period were less than one percent, the largest absolute change (0.8 percent of the urban area) concerned agriculture. The relative increase in water areas of around 14 percent, on the other hand, was the greatest (as of December 31, 2019). The city limits are 118.9 kilometers. The largest expansion of the urban area is 20.7 kilometers from north to south and 26.9 kilometers from east to west.
Enlargement through incorporations
Like other large cities, Munich has repeatedly expanded through the incorporation of surrounding, previously independent, smaller cities and communities. In Munich these incorporations took place in several phases between 1853 and 1942. The few enlargements of the urban area before 1854 did not take place through incorporation, but through real expansion of the urban area at the expense of the generally unpopulated surrounding area. After the Second World War , no actual incorporations took place, but there were three enlargements of the urban area at the expense of neighboring communities without their abolition (1954, 1962, 1967). Conversely, in 1951 a part that had only been incorporated into the city in 1942 was spun off from the urban area.
The urban area is not divided into districts in the sense of municipal law, but - exclusively - into urban districts. Their number had risen to 41 by the Second World War and was reduced to the current number of 25 during a reorganization in 1992 and 1996. In everyday use, the people of Munich tend to refer to the historically grown districts and quarters.
The 25 city districts are subdivided into a total of 105 city district parts for statistical purposes. Below the subdivision level of the city district parts there are the 475 city district quarters. These are divided into building blocks on the lowest level . A building block is a spatially contiguous area of land that is delimited and not intersected on all sides by streets, paths, railroad lines, watercourses or other prominent topographical lines. The building blocks have no names, and only half of the boroughs (237 out of 475) have names.
As of January 1, 2011, the suburbs and suburbs were redistributed .
(inh / km²)
|7th||Sendling West Park||7.81||60,498||7,742||29.5|
|14th||Berg am Laim||6.31||47,000||7,443||32.7|
|17th||Obergiesing pheasant garden||5.72||54,498||9,527||31.3|
|State capital Munich||310.71||1,560,042||5,021||28.5|
The city of Munich lies in the transition area between the humid Atlantic maritime climate and the dry continental climate , there is a cool , moderate climate (border Cfb / Dfb ). Winters are comparatively cold, but temperatures below −20 degrees Celsius are rare. In contrast, the summers are comparatively warm with temperatures of 20 to 35 degrees Celsius, which makes Munich, apart from the regions in the Rheingraben, one of the warmest German regions in summer. Other essential weather-determining factors are the Alps as a Central European and the Danube as a regional weather divide . Due to this constellation, the weather is relatively changeable. The foehn prevails on an average of ten days a year , a warm, dry fall wind from the main Alpine ridge, which provides such good visibility that the Bavarian Alps can be clearly seen from the urban area . So-called “blow-dry effects” occur more frequently, which are noticeable in a weaker form through blow-dry effects.
The highest temperature so far officially measured by the German Meteorological Service in the official DWD weather station in Munich City was 37.5 degrees Celsius on July 27, 1983. The cold record is −31.6 degrees Celsius, measured in the Botanical Garden on February 12 1929. The annual mean temperatures in the reference period 1961–1990 were between 7.8 ° C in Riem and 9.1 ° C in the city center; they rose at the city station up to 9.7 ° C in the climate period 1981-2010. Due to its location within Upper Bavaria, which is one of the regions with the most thunderstorms in the Free State as well as all of Germany, Munich has often been hit by violent storms. Particularly noteworthy is the hail storm on July 12, 1984 , which caused damage of 3 billion DM. Due to its proximity to the Alps, Munich is the snowiest city in Germany.
An evaluation of the weather statistics has shown that the southern part of the city is the sunniest. Fog is relatively common in the northern part. The west half has less rainfall than the east of the city. This is basically also a consequence of the differences in altitude within the city, which generate a corresponding microclimate, favored by the separation of the city into east and west by the Isar .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Munich
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020; wetterkontor.de, data: mainly 1961–1990
In Munich, the general trend of temperature rise of around one degree Celsius of the mean annual temperature in Germany over the past 120 years can also be observed. In November 2016, the general assembly of the city council decided that an increase in the average temperature, an increase in heat extremes, an increase in the number of hot days and nights with a temperature of over 20 degrees Celsius ( tropical nights ), a change in precipitation patterns and an increase in Local heavy rain events are among the expected climate changes. Against this background, the city administration has initiated a study through the Department for Health and Environment (RGU) in cooperation with the German Weather Service (DWD), which is intended to determine local weather data in this context . The data should flow into the design of a concept of measures for adaptation to climate change in the state capital Munich and the Integrated Action Program Climate Protection in Munich (IHKM), which among other things, decisions on questions of settlement structure and density , building and greening or a well-functioning To control air exchange in the big city.
In December 2019, the Munich city council decided on the climate emergency for Munich and at the same time commissioned the city administration to develop an action plan on how the goal of climate neutrality for the city of Munich by 2035 can be achieved. Contrary to the climate emergency in Munich, the members of the Social Committee, who are members of the Board of Trustees of the Heiliggeistspital Foundation, voted for further deforestation in the forest box on May 20, 2021 . In May 2021, people protested for the Forst Kasten. A vigil and tree houses were erected several times and cleared by the police.
Munich has a number of nature and landscape protection areas spread across the city as well as adjacent. There is also the Aubinger Lohe geotope (no. 162R001).
There are four nature reserves in Munich :
- Allacher Lohe (NSG-00573.01)
- Panzerwiese and hardwood (NSG-00611.01)
- Schwarzhölzl (NSG-00460.01)
- Southern Fröttmaninger Heide (NSG-00100.134)
Landscape protection areas
There are 20 landscape protection areas in Munich , for example:
- Langwieder Autobahnsee (LSG-00120.01)
- Aubinger Lohe and Moosschwaige (LSG-00120.02)
- Allacher Forest (LSG-00120.06)
- Kapuzinerhölzl (LSG-00120.07)
- Isar floodplain (LSG-00120.09)
- Forest cemetery and Fürstenried Palace and Park (LSG-00120.15)
- Hirschgarten (LSG-00120.16)
- Nymphenburg with canal and remains of the park in the northwest (LSG-00588.01)
- Forstenrieder Park (The current district Forstenried was incorporated in 1912 (district 19). The forest is outside the city limits in a community-free area)
- Forest box (LSG-00114.01)
- Perlacher and Grünwalder Forest (LSG-00534.01)
The legally permitted limit of 40 μg / m³ for air pollution from harmful nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is clearly exceeded in Munich. The main causes of nitrogen dioxide pollution are motor vehicles, and of these, diesel vehicles in particular. The Bavarian Administrative Court legally obliged the Free State of Bavaria to revise the clean air plan in October 2012.Since 2011, the value has been reduced from 85 μg / m³ to 78 μg / m³ in 2017. This means that the value remains at a high level. In 2017, Munich became the city with the highest nitrogen dioxide pollution in Germany for the first time. In 2018, Munich was still the city with the third highest nitrogen dioxide pollution in Germany.
The flora and fauna of Munich belong to the Holarctic region . The area of the city would by nature mainly be covered by forests, with beech-dominated mixed forests predominating. Around a quarter of the historically documented native plant species has already died out. Currently, the Flora Munich Group recorded 1631 species, of which, however, around 25 percent are new citizens and originally did not occur in the urban area. The Nymphenburg Park is particularly well documented and rich in species, with 662 species, the highest number of species per grid field to date. A total of 2034 plant species have been documented in the city of Munich, 1182 of which are indigenous. In the meantime, however, the number is on the increase again. Climate change is also changing the city's flora.
In Munich, a tree protection ordinance protects trees with a trunk circumference of 80 cm and more (measured at 1 m above the ground). In contrast, a landscape protection ordinance protects all woody plants in landscape protection areas.
The Bavarian dwarf snail is only found in Munich. The species was discovered in the 1980s.
The so-called city pigeons divide urban society through the pollution they cause. The state capital of Munich is trying to contribute to reconciliation with a comprehensive concept of public relations, advice and the establishment of pigeon houses.
According to the municipal department for health and the environment, rats and mice are widespread throughout the city as human cultural followers . The rodents prefer to settle where people live and where food can be found, for example in the leisure and recreational areas of the city center.
The number of dogs registered in Munich is increasing and amounted to 36,347 animals as of December 31, 2017, of which 35,948 were taxed as pets.
Climate change also brought newcomers to the city's fauna, who usually only feel at home in tropical temperatures in the Mediterranean region. Other animal species, on the other hand, suffer from milder winters and persistent drought.
In 1852 the population exceeded 100,000, making Munich a major city . After that, the population rose sharply due to population growth and the incorporation of previously independent settlements, so that in 1883 there were already 250,000 people in Munich. By 1901 the population doubled to around 500,000. This made Munich the third largest city in the German Empire after Berlin and Hamburg. In 1933 the population rose to 840,000 and in 1957 to over a million. The first peak in the number of inhabitants came in the Olympic year with 1,338,924 on December 31, 1972.
From 1973 the population rose and fell continuously. The low point was reached in 1998 with a reported population of 1,188,897. However, from around 2000 onwards, a stable upward trend has established itself. In May 2015, according to our own estimate, which deviates from that of the Bavarian State Statistical Office, the 1.5 million mark was exceeded for the first time. A child born on May 8th was subsequently determined by lot to be the one and a half millionth Munich resident. On September 30, 2016, according to our own estimates, 1,537,987 residents had their main residence in Munich.
With 4790 inhabitants per square kilometer on December 31, 2020, Munich today has the highest population density of all German municipalities.
In the planning region Munich on December 31, 2019 lived about 2.93 million people in the metropolitan region of Munich (d. H. Upper Bavaria and parts of the administrative districts of Lower Bavaria and Swabia) 6.12 million inhabitants.
Munich is one of the few German cities in which the number of newborns exceeds the number of dead. In recent years the number of newborns has grown rapidly. In 2009, more children were born in Munich than since 1969. In addition, there is a high level of immigration from Germany and abroad.
In 2013, 125,346 new registrations from newcomers were recorded in the Munich district administration department. In 2016, 18,107 newborns were born in Munich. That is almost 1000 more than the year before and a new record.
Between 1988 and 2018, the independent city grew from 1,211,617 to 1,471,508 by 259,891 inhabitants or 21.5 percent.
In May 2015, Munich recorded a proportion of foreigners (registered residents without German citizenship ) of 26.8 percent. In May 2014 the share was 25.8 percent and in 2012 it was 24.6 percent.
The largest groups of foreigners legally registered in Munich (as of December 31, 2018) come from Croatia (38,137), Turkey (37,876), Italy (27,821), Greece (26,560), Austria (21,046), Bosnia and Herzegovina (19,692) , Poland (19,101) and Romania (17,980).
According to the 2011 census , the proportion of the population with a migration background (registered residents with German citizenship and also of foreign origin) was 34.3 percent (comparison: Berlin 28 percent and Hamburg 31 percent), one of the highest values among German cities.
The purchasing power study for 2017 by the market research institute GfK shows that residents in the greater Munich area have Germany's highest purchasing power . All in all, all Munich residents can spend together 43.708 billion euros annually. The urban district of Munich is just ahead of Hamburg, although the Hanseatic city has almost 340,000 more inhabitants. Only Berlin, with around two million more inhabitants than Munich, has a higher total purchasing power as a single regional authority .
In Munich around 1000 people are homeless and live on the streets.
The Munich dialect belongs to the Middle Bavarian dialect . Due to the strong influx from other areas of Germany and because it is no longer passed on to their own children by dialect speakers, it is now threatened with extinction. As the Bavarian Ministry of Culture announced in the state parliament in January 2001, the dialect of the state capital was alien to residents under 20 years of age.
In the dialect the city is called Minga ; however, this form has become uncommon in the town dialect, where it has been replaced by the standard German equivalent, and is practically only used in the surrounding area.
Munich has been the seat of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising since 1817 , which was founded that year as the successor to the Principality of Freising, which was secularized in 1803. The oldest Protestant churches include St. Matthew and St. Markus . Munich has a Jewish community of around 9,700 members, most of whom are of Eastern European origin ( Ukraine and Russia ) today, as well as a smaller liberal Jewish community .
In 2011 a total of 3.6 percent were members of a Christian Orthodox church and a further 4.4 percent belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Bavaria (in addition to the large official churches ).
The church of Maria Schutz and St. Andreas in the Untergiesing district , consecrated in 1976, is the cathedral of the Apostolic Exarchy for Catholic Ukrainians of the Byzantine Rite in Germany and Scandinavia, which has existed since 1959 . The Munich seat of the Exarchy goes back to the large number of Ukrainian forced laborers who were brought to Bavaria during the Second World War and who initially stayed there as displaced persons , later in some cases permanently. In June 1945 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of St. Maria Schutz was founded. Since the congregation initially had more than 5,000 members, a second congregation dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul was founded in the Ludwigsfeld district , and it still exists today.
The parish center of Munich's Greek Orthodox community and the All Saints Church are located at Ungererstraße 131 in Schwabing-Freimann . The second Ecumenical Church Congress took place in Munich from May 12th to 16th, 2010 .
It is assumed that there are around 100,000 to 120,000 Muslims living in Munich , which corresponds to seven to eight percent of the population. The first mosque in Bavaria, which was inaugurated in 1973, is located in the Freimann district . In 2005 the controversy over a new building project for a mosque in Sendling became known nationwide under the catchphrase "Sendlinger Mosque Dispute" . Under the leadership of Imam Benjamin Idriz , a large mosque with a cultural center and training center for imams was to be built in Munich, initially under the name “Center for Islam in Europe - Munich” (Ziem). The project now operates under the name “Munich Forum for Islam” (MIF).
The Jehovah's Witnesses are represented with 59 congregations in Munich, which operate 16 Kingdom Halls and hall centers in the city area. In the Riesstrasse in Moosach there is also a congress hall of Jehovah's Witnesses, in which national meetings take place regularly.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is represented in Munich with four congregations in two meetinghouses.
The Mandaean Association in Germany, based in Munich, takes care of establishing a functioning Mandaean community.
The Krishna temple on Wachenheimer Strasse in Munich-Giesing, which has existed for several decades, has developed into an important place of worship for around 15,000 Hindus living in Munich. Meditation and Hindu festivals such as the Diwali Festival of Lights are celebrated there.
The first patron saint of the city was St. Onuphrios , a Syrian-Egyptian hermit of the 3rd century, whose relic in the form of a skull was allegedly brought to Munich by Heinrich the Lion (1129–1195) from a crusade against the Wends .
Since 1580 St. Benno , who was Bishop of Meissen from 1066 to 1106, has been venerated in the Roman Catholic Church as the patron of Bavaria and the city of Munich.
On December 31, 2020, 29.1 percent of the 1,562,096 inhabitants were Roman Catholic , 10.4 percent Protestant and 60.5 percent (945,047) belonged to other religions or were non-denominational . At the end of 2018, 30.9 percent of the population were Roman Catholic, 11.1 percent Protestant (including the Protestant free churches ), 0.3 percent Jewish , while 57.7 percent either belonged to other denominations or religions or were non-denominational. The number of Protestants and Catholics has therefore decreased in the observed period, while the proportion of non-denominational increased. Until the year 2000, the Catholics were the largest group of the population. Although the group of non-denominational groups is significantly larger than that of Catholics, Munich is one of the Bavarian cities and municipalities in which the Assumption of Mary (August 15) is a public holiday .
Sons and daughters of the city are people born in Munich , regardless of whether or not they later had their sphere of activity in Munich. There are also personalities who were born outside of Munich and who lived and worked in the city.
Monuments were erected to some personalities, such as the fountain monuments on Viktualienmarkt for well-known folk actors and singers. Popular fictional personalities from film and television who help shape the image of the city from abroad have also been monuments, such as Helmut Dietl's Munich original Monaco Franze or Ellis Kaut's Kobold Pumuckl .
Munich was first mentioned in a document in 1158 as forum apud Munichen in Augsburg , after the Duke of Bavaria and Saxony Heinrich the Lion built a crossing over the Salzstrasse over the Isar around the site of today's Ludwigsbrücke and established a market near the crossing.
The city of Munich was not founded with the Augsburg arbitration ; As a result, the already existing settlement was only granted market, coin and customs rights by Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa . However, the Freising bishops received a third of the resulting income.
It is not known when the city of “Munich”, which came into the light of history from 1158, was actually founded and what name the settlement bore when it was founded. The oldest and at that time still the only parish church in the city is the Peterskirche .
Middle Ages: ducal seat and imperial residence
When Heinrich the Lion was ostracized by the Emperor in 1180, Bavaria fell to the Wittelsbach family and Munich to the Bishop of Freising . In 1240 Munich also came into Wittelsbacher possession and became the ducal residence in 1255 after the first division of the country .
Duke Ludwig IV had been German king since 1314, and Roman-German emperor since 1328, and Munich was considerably expanded as his residence with a new wall ring . At that time, Munich adopted the colors of the old empire , black and gold, as the city colors.
Since the end of the 14th century there were repeated uprisings of the citizens against the dukes, who then moved their seat of government from the old court to the new residence on the outskirts. Because of the threat from the Hussites , the existing city fortifications were reinforced by a second, outer wall ring in 1429.
In 1442 the Jewish citizens were expelled from the city. As a result, no Jews lived in Munich until the second half of the 18th century (see: History of the Jews in Munich ).
In 1468 the foundation stone was laid for the late Gothic new building of the Marienkirche , the " Frauenkirche ", whose construction took only twenty years despite its size. Gothic Munich did not differ much in architecture and size around 1500 from the other ducal cities of Bavaria such as Ingolstadt , Straubing or Landshut and with just over 13,000 inhabitants was still far behind Nuremberg and Augsburg , which at that time were among the five largest cities in the empire belonged.
Capital of the united duchy
After the city experienced a new cultural heyday in the late Gothic period, Munich became the capital of the Duchy of Bavaria at the beginning of the modern era through the reunification of the duchies under Albrecht IV (1465–1508) . In the period that followed, the influence of the citizenry continued to decline and the Wittelsbachers determined the development of the city from then on.
Under the rule of Wilhelm IV (1508–1550) and Albrecht V (1550–1579), Munich became a center of the Renaissance and the Counter-Reformation . In 1589 the Hofbräuhaus was founded by Wilhelm V (1579–1597). The Michael Church and the Jesuit College were created for the Jesuits . Two early city views are shown by Georg Braun , Franz Hogenberg : "Civitates orbis terrarum" from 1572. Jacob Sandtner's city model was also made from linden wood around 1570 , which, together with those for the four subordinate government towns of Straubing, Landshut, Ingolstadt and Burghausen, is one of the oldest in the world.
Electoral residence city
Under Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria (1597-1651), Bavaria regained the Upper Palatinate and electoral dignity , and in 1628 Munich became the capital of the Electorate of Bavaria , which now again comprised almost all of Old Bavaria , but then had to be occupied by Swedish in 1632 during the Thirty Years' War Suffer troops. Munich had to pay a large ransom and hostage to avoid its destruction. A little later the plague broke out and killed a third of the population. After the end of the war in 1648, however, the city recovered and opened up to the Italian Baroque under Elector Ferdinand Maria (1651–1679) . This is how Nymphenburg Palace and the Theatine Church, as well as the first opera house, came into being . However, the effects of the war were an important prerequisite for the establishment of the Elector's absolutism .
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession , Munich came under Habsburg occupation for several years , as Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel (1679–1726) had allied himself with France. An uprising by the citizens and peasants came to a bloody end on the Sendlinger Murder Christmas . After the elector's return from exile , the French late baroque prevailed at the court and the Bavarian rococo developed as a result .
After Elector Karl Albrecht (1726–1745) was crowned Emperor , Habsburg troops occupied the city again twice for a longer period from 1742 onwards. Maximilian III Joseph (1745–1777) then gave up the great power politics of his two predecessors and devoted himself to internal reforms, so the Bavarian Academy of Sciences was founded in Munich in 1759. In 1789, on the orders of Elector Karl Theodors (1777–1799), the English Garden was laid out in the Isar floodplains and a little later the medieval city fortifications were razed. Under Karl Theodor, Munich was the royal seat of the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria , the third largest country complex of the Old Kingdom .
Royal capital and residence city
Although Munich became the imperial residence city as early as 1328, the rise to a major city did not begin until 450 years later. Towards the end of the 18th century, Munich grew rapidly, drawing level with Augsburg as early as 1750 and overtaking Nuremberg. From 1806 this development was accelerated when Napoleon elevated Bavaria to the Kingdom of Bavaria and Munich became the capital of a country twice as large, which included large parts of Franconia, Swabia and the Rhine-Palatinate. Now Protestants could also acquire Munich citizenship. Under King Max I Joseph (1799–1825) the National Theater was built and the planned expansion of the city began. In 1818 Munich received self-government with two mayors and two councils.
While Munich had just 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the number of inhabitants soon doubled every roughly thirty years, so that 170,000 people lived in Munich in 1871 and 840,000 in 1933. Until the beginning of the 19th century, however, Munich was still a "static structure until then", surrounded by a wreath of villages that are significantly older than the center. The growth into a big city was possible because around 60 villages with their agricultural areas were incorporated. The city has grown particularly dynamically since 1870.
With the reign of King Ludwig I (1825–1848), Munich became a well-known city of art. The classicists Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner designed Ludwigstrasse , Königsplatz and the extension of the Munich Residence . In 1826 the king had the Ludwig Maximilians University relocated from Landshut to Munich.
Ludwig's son Max II (1848–1864) promoted the humanities in particular and gathered a group of writers (“ The Crocodiles ”). Like his father, Max II emerged as the builder. The buildings on Maximilianstrasse , today one of the most exclusive and expensive shopping streets on the continent , were built in the new " Maximilian style", reminiscent of the English Gothic .
Under King Ludwig II (1864–1886), musical life experienced a new heyday with Richard Wagner's several stays . In the 19th century, when Munich was repeatedly plagued by the epidemic, Max von Pettenkofer introduced the sewage system . As a result, Munich was already one of the cleanest cities in Europe at the end of the 19th century.
During the time of Prince Regent Luitpold (1886–1912), Munich experienced a tremendous economic and cultural boom. Among other things, the Prinzregentenstrasse and the Prinzregententheater were created . At the turn of the century, Schwabing flourished as an artists' quarter in which numerous important writers and painters of the time frequented. In 1896 the Munich cultural magazine Jugend was published for the first time, which gave the Jugendstil its name ; In the same year the number 1 of the political-satirical magazine Simplicissimus was published by Albert Langen. In 1911 the artists' association Der Blaue Reiter was founded. In the first sentence of his story Gladius Dei , Thomas Mann coined the winged word Munich shone for this epoch .
In 1916, during the First World War , Munich was hit by bombs during a French air raid, which did not cause much damage. The deteriorating supply situation, on the other hand, posed a major problem for the population. Strikes and arrests took place and an increasingly revolutionary mood arose.
Revolution, Weimar Republic and National Socialism
After the end of the war, revolutionary unrest broke out in Munich in 1919. While the November Revolution of 1918 was peaceful and ended with the abolition of the monarchy, the Munich Soviet Republic , an uprising by communist and socialist groups, was violently suppressed by the Reichswehr and Freikorps in the spring of 1919 . In the years that followed, Munich increasingly developed into the nucleus of National Socialist activities, for example the Adolf Hitler raid troop was founded. In 1923 Hitler's march to the Feldherrnhalle failed . However, Munich always remained the seat of the National Socialist German Workers' Party , except from November 1923 to February 1925 when the party was banned across the Reich.
After the seizure of power in 1933, the city was to be extensively rebuilt; the architect responsible was Hermann Giesler . "Although the bombastic plans for the conversion of Munich into a Führerstadt were never realized, the Nazis put their unmistakable architectural stamp on the city thanks to numerous pompous building projects."
In 1935 Hitler awarded Munich the honorary city title of the Nazi era : Capital of the Movement . In 1938 the Munich Agreement was signed , which established the annexation of the Sudetenland to the German Reich.
On December 1, 1937, the Lebensborn race organization moved into Thomas Mann's house , which was at the corner of what was then Föhringer Allee (since 1955: Thomas-Mann-Allee) and Poschingerstrasse. The headquarters of the SS organization remained in the building until December 31, 1939.
In September 1939 began World War II , shortly after the failed Bürgerbräukeller - attack and 1942-1943 which made White Rose resistance. Like all large German cities, Munich was badly hit by Allied air raids in World War II ( air raids on Munich ). By the end of the war, ninety percent of the historic old town and fifty percent of the city as a whole had been destroyed. It is estimated that about 6,000 people were killed and about 15,000 were injured.
Two days before the Allied occupation of Munich, the resistance organization Freedom Action Bavaria , which consisted of military and civilian people, called on local broadcasting stations to rise up against National Socialist rule. The uprising of the freedom campaign was ended on the same day by an SS unit. On April 30, 1945, the US Army occupied the city of Munich without much resistance. Elsewhere in Germany the war continued until the beginning of May. It finally ended on May 8th with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .
Numerous memorials commemorate the victims of National Socialism.
post war period
After the reconstruction, largely based on the historical cityscape, Munich developed into a high-tech location after the Second World War, and numerous companies from the service industry settled here, for example media, insurance companies and banks. In the first post-war decades, Munich also benefited indirectly from the division of Germany , as numerous companies from the Soviet occupation zone or German Democratic Republic and Berlin relocated to the south. One of the most famous among them is Siemens .
Radio Free Europe was based in Munich during the Cold War .
In 1972 Munich hosted the XX. Olympic Games overshadowed by the kidnapping and murder of Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists. All eleven hostages, one police officer and five terrorists were killed. As a consequence, the GSG 9 of the Federal Police was founded in Germany . For the Games, the Oberwiesenfeld area was redesigned into an Olympic Park and local public transport with underground and suburban trains , some of which extend far into the surrounding area, was massively expanded. Parts of the city center were converted into pedestrian zones during this time.
Since the end of the Second World War, the Glockenbachviertel has developed into a center of the gay movement , with numerous artists such as Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Freddy Mercury living there. In 1988 the Munich Biennale was brought into being by Hans Werner Henze .
The new Munich Airport "Franz Josef Strauss", about 30 km away , was opened in May 1992, while the old Munich-Riem Airport was closed at the same time . The Messestadt Riem with the Riemer Park , which was opened as part of the Federal Horticultural Show in 2005 , was later built on its site .
2002, the opening of which took place Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich Art Quarter , which in the wake of the new buildings for the Museum Brandhorst and the Egyptian National Museum Art , the Jewish Museum Munich , the Museum of Urban and Contemporary Art as well as the extension to the Lenbachhaus expanded became.
From 2000 to 2011, the river landscape of the Isar in the eight kilometer long section in the area between Großhesseloher Brücke and the Deutsches Museum was designed with great effort under the motto " New Life for the Isar ". In 2002 the Panzerwiese and the adjacent hardwood were designated a nature reserve and fauna and flora area.
Especially after the turn of the millennium, numerous high-rise buildings were also built in Munich, for example the 146 m high- rise Uptown and the twin towers Highlight Towers , the SV high-rise completed in 2008 or the Skyline Tower (see also the list of high-rise buildings in Munich ). Since a referendum in 2004, in which the majority of the participating Munich voters spoke out against the construction of buildings with a height of more than 100 meters, no skyscraper has been built in the Bavarian capital that has the two almost 99-meter-high towers of the Towering over the Frauenkirche .
In 2017, the BMW Group began expanding its FIZ research and innovation center in the north of Munich. The development center is expected to grow by around 50 percent by 2050 and then offer 41,000 jobs.
Politics and Political Institutions
Traditionally, the center-left parties dominate, especially in local politics, and to a lesser extent in state and federal politics in Munich , which is rather rare in Bavaria. The CSU , the Free Voters and the AfD are traditionally weaker on the Isar than in the rest of the Free State, while the SPD , Greens , FDP and Left are stronger. Numerous institutions exercising state power have their headquarters in Munich.
European politics and federal politics
Munich is the seat of several federal courts and authorities (see below ), such as the Federal Fiscal Court , the Federal Patent Court , the Troop Service Court South and the German Patent and Trademark Office .
The main location of the European Patent Office is also located in Munich .
European Patent Office , main building in Munich
Service building of the German Patent and Trademark Office in Zweibrückenstrasse
Fleischerschlösschen, seat of the Federal Fiscal Court
Headquarters of the Troops Court South
Four of the Bundestag constituencies in Bavaria are in Munich: Munich-East , Munich-North , Munich-South and Munich-West / Center . The only direct mandate won by the SPD in Bavaria was the electoral district of Munich-North in the federal elections in 2002 and 2005. In 2009 Johannes Singhammer was able to win back the mandate for the CSU. In the 2017 federal election , all four direct mandates in Munich went to the CSU. In Munich, the Greens were even ahead of all other parties in the 2019 European elections .
State capital and state administration
As the state capital , Munich is the seat of the Bavarian state parliament and the Bavarian state government as well as many state authorities in Bavaria (see below ). The government of Upper Bavaria , which, like Bavaria, is also administered from Munich, is also located in Munich as the state funds authority.
In the Bavarian state elections, Munich is currently represented by nine electoral districts .
At the local level Munich is also the seat of the district Upper Bavaria , the largest district of Bavaria, as the third local level above the circles (second level) and communities (first level) furnished municipal authority . Since the district of Munich is administered from Munich, although the city itself is independent, the district office of Munich is also located here . The district office serves both as a local self-government authority and a lower state administrative authority.
District Office on Mariahilfplatz, seat of the District Office in Munich
Mayor and City Councilor
The mayor of Munich is every six years directly elected and is in personal union and the head of agency of the city government . Since May 2014, Munich has been ruled by Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter (SPD), the successor to Lord Mayor Christian Ude (SPD), who had previously been in office for twenty years . Second mayor is Katrin Habenschaden (Greens), third mayor Verena Dietl (SPD).
The Munich City Council consists of eighty city councilors and the Lord Mayor and is also elected every six years. From 1996 to 2014 the Munich city council was led by a coalition of the SPD, Greens and Pink List , and from 2014 to 2020 it was replaced by a grand coalition of the SPD and CSU. In the local elections in Munich in 2020 , however, the Greens were the strongest party in the city council for the first time, ahead of the CSU and SPD, both of which suffered heavy losses. The new alliance for the city government is therefore called Green-Red. The Pink List and Volt have also been involved in the alliance since the end of April 2020 .
Urban skyscraper , seat of the Department for Urban Planning and Building Regulations
The city administration of Munich is the municipal self-government of the city of Munich. It is the largest city administration in Germany (in Berlin and Hamburg as city-states , state and municipal activities are not separated). She's in several presentations divided.
The urban districts of Munich represent an administrative division of the urban area of the Bavarian state capital Munich. The citizens of the city district directly elect their honorary representatives for the respective district committee.
According to the city council resolution of November 27, 2002, the state capital of Munich has a small and a large city coat of arms as its emblem .
Only the small city coat of arms is used for official purposes. It essentially corresponds to the city coat of arms, which was established by the city council in 1957.
|Blazon : "a silver shield base on Monk with black, goldumränderter cowl red, Eidbuch and shoes, flesh-colored face and hands."|
It is a talking coat of arms , as the monk shown in the coat of arms refers to Munich by name. The monk was already depicted on Munich's first known city seal, initially in 1268 as a head with a hood, from 1304 as a full figure. Over time, the Münchner Kindl developed from the monk in the coat of arms .
The so-called large coat of arms is no longer used in official traffic, but only serves representative purposes.
|Blazon : “In silver, an open red city gate between two red tin towers with roofs that are zigzagged in multiple layers of black and gold; above a growing, golden crowned and armored golden lion; in the gate of the monk of the little coat of arms. "|
The colors of the city of Munich have been the colors of the Old Kingdom since the time of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria : black and gold. The Munich city flag shows these two colors striped lengthways. In analogy to the state flag of Bavaria , a diamond version is also used. Occasionally the small city coat of arms is depicted in the center of the flag.
Location of the twin cities
The following city partnerships exist:
- since 1954: Edinburgh , United Kingdom
- since 1960: Verona , Italy
- since 1964: Bordeaux , France
- since 1972: Sapporo , Japan
- since 1989: Cincinnati , United States
- since 1989: Kiev , Ukraine
- since 1996: Harare , Zimbabwe
- since 2021: Be'er Scheva , Israel
On August 17, 1952, the sponsorship for the expelled Sudeten Germans from the city and the district of Ústí nad Labem was taken over.
Organic city of Munich
Munich is one of the founding members of the network organic cities in Germany. As early as 2006, Munich began the Biostadt Munich project, which is anchored in the Department for Health and Environment. In this context, the City of Munich works with various partners from the fields of agriculture , trade , environmental protection and sustainable nutrition .
see also: Development of the Munich cityscape
The Marienplatz is the hub of Munich and is surrounded by the New and the Old Town Hall , in the center of the old town . In the southeast of Marienplatz is the Angerviertel, in the southwest the Hackenviertel, in the northwest the Kreuzviertel and in the northeast the Graggenauer Viertel and further towards Isar das Lehel (St. Anna-Vorstadt). This is where old Munich is located, the city only expanded rapidly from the beginning of the 19th century and soon included the Isarvorstadt in the south, Ludwigsvorstadt in the west and, with the construction of the boulevards of the kings, also the Maxvorstadt in the north and east across the Isar Haidhausen and the Au . Most of the buildings worth seeing are concentrated here in the center of the city. In addition, other buildings in the northwest of the old town, i.e. in Schwabing and Nymphenburg, are architecturally significant . In addition, many of the old town centers have been partially preserved in the districts, especially the village churches.
Romanesque and Gothic
A few steps south of Marienplatz is the Peterskirche , the oldest church in the old town, the first building of which dates back to the Romanesque . Today there is a new Gothic building, the interior of which was changed to Baroque style in the subsequent period. Since the demolition of St. Jacob's Church in 1955 there has been no Romanesque building in the city center, but several essentially Romanesque churches in the former suburbs have been preserved, for example St. Cross in Fröttmaning with his fresco, St. Johann Baptist in Johanneskirchen, St. Martin in Moosach and St. Nikolaus in Englschalking. Even St. Sylvester in Schwabing , which emerged like many other modern neighborhoods long before Munich in historical documents, is still Romanesque elements. Also noteworthy is one of the rare Romanesque crucifixes in the Heilig Kreuz church in the Forstenried district .
On the other hand, in addition to St. Peter's Church, many buildings have survived from the Gothic period . Many are made of brick, in an area where quarries that could have supplied other building materials were rare. The rich Gothic ornamentation elsewhere is also almost completely absent on the external facades. In the 14th century under Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian, the first, great heyday of art began in Munich. Was completed by the former city fortifications from this period when the Second ring of walls, originate in the East the Isartor , west on routes to the Karlstor and to the south the Sendlinger Tor and the Löwenturm the cattle market . The most important secular buildings in the Graggenau quarter are the Alte Hof , the first residence of the Wittelsbach family, and the Zerwirkgewölbe . After the fire in Munich in 1327, the Peterskirche was also renewed. A Gothic hall church is the Heiliggeistkirche on Viktualienmarkt , which was redesigned in the baroque period . The former Augustinian Church in Kaufingerstraße between Marienplatz and Stachus now serves as the German Hunting and Fishing Museum, while the Lorenz Chapel of the Old Court and the Franciscan Church no longer exist.
The high point of the Gothic in Munich, however, are the works of the 15th century from the late Gothic period. Jörg von Halsbach was the leading builder. At that time the old town hall with its dance hall and the armory in the Angerviertel, which is now part of the city museum , were built. The late Gothic Frauenkirche near Marienplatz with its two distinctive towers with the characteristic Renaissance domes is a landmark of Munich. In 1468 the foundation stone was laid after the demolition of the Marienkirche and after only twenty years one of the most monumental brick churches in Europe was essentially completed. It has served as a cathedral since the archbishopric was established. The late Gothic cemetery churches of the Frauenkirche and St. Peter, the Salvatorkirche in the Kreuzviertel and the Heiligkreuzkirche in the Hackenviertel have also survived to this day .
Several Gothic churches have also been preserved in the districts, some of which were changed in the Baroque period, such as the pilgrimage church of St. Maria Ramersdorf or St. Georg in Bogenhausen . The castle chapel of Blutenburg Castle and the St. Wolfgang branch church in Pipping , on the other hand, have retained their original Gothic state and are now considered to be the best examples of late Gothic architecture in Munich. The Grünwald Castle is the only medieval castle , which remained in the vicinity of Munich. The Veste Planegg, on the other hand, was completely rebuilt in the following period.
Renaissance and Mannerism
While the architecture of the late medieval city was primarily shaped by bourgeois art, with the reunification of Bavaria in 1504 the court increasingly determined the architectural development of the city.
Important buildings of the Renaissance were built in the 16th century for the Jesuits in the age of the Counter Reformation, for example the Michaelskirche in the Kreuzviertel between Marienplatz and Stachus , the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps and the adjoining Old Academy . Shortly before, the oldest parts of the residence that still existed were erected for the courtyard, including the courtyard of the Alte Münze , the former stables. The Antiquarium of residence represents one of the most important Sammlungsbauten received this era, and is also the largest Renaissance hall north of the Alps. The grotto courtyard of the residence with the grotto hall is a major work of Mannerism in Germany. Of the Maxburg , a Renaissance city palace in the Kreuzviertel, only the tower has survived.
The Weinstadl near the Alter Hof, which was rebuilt in the Renaissance period, survived all times as one of the oldest still existing town houses. The later so-called Eilleshof near the residence, built around 1560, is one of the last originally preserved Laubenhöfe in Altmünchner. The Hofbräuhaus, founded in 1589, is now in a neo-renaissance building from the 19th century on Platzl .
The old Schleissheim Palace in the north and Laufzorn Palace in the south of the city, which were built as Wittelsbach residences at the beginning of the 17th century in the late Renaissance, are both influenced by Italian villa buildings of that time.
Baroque and Rococo
At the beginning of the 17th century, during the transition to the Baroque era , the residence was generously expanded with the construction of the so-called Maximilian Residence. In 1638 the Marian column was erected on Marienplatz. The earliest still existing baroque church in the city center is the now secularized Carmelite Church in the Kreuzviertel, which, like St. Stephan in the Isarvorstadt, was built in the tradition of local construction workers . With the mighty dome of the Theatinerkirche (St. Kajetan) on Odeonsplatz opposite the Residenz, the Italian Baroque moved into Munich in 1663, which, with its main representatives Enrico Zuccalli and Giovanni Antonio Viscardi , became decisive for several decades until the French-trained architects Joseph Effner and François de Cuvilliés were court builders.
Many other churches from the Baroque period can be found in the city, so in Kreuzviertel the Bürgersaalkirche and the Holy Trinity Church and in Hackenviertel the Damenstiftskirche , further even more palaces near the residence, in particular the Palais Porcia , the Old and the New Preysing Palais and the Palais Holnstein , today's residence of the Catholic Archbishop. For the residence, Cuvilliés created the elegant exterior facade of the Green Gallery. Examples of the few still preserved town houses from this time are the Haus zur Hundskugel in the Hackenviertel and the Gunetzrhainerhaus on Promenadeplatz, which was rebuilt after the Second World War . Near the Sendlinger Tor is the Asamkirche , which was designed in the splendid late baroque interior , with the Asamhaus . The Asam-Schlössl was the home of the baroque artist Cosmas Damian Asam in the Thalkirchen district of Munich. The baroque redesign of the local church of St. Maria in Thalkirchen had already begun .
The main works of the South German Baroque are the Nymphenburg Palace with its park castles in the west of the city, the Lustheim garden palace and the monumental New Schleissheim Palace in the north. The Suresnes castles in Schwabing and Fürstenried in the southwest of the city , which were built at the same time, are much smaller .
With the monastery church of St. Anna im Lehel , the first rococo church in Bavaria was built in 1727. The most important Rococo church outside the city center is St. Michael in Berg am Laim , also by Johann Michael Fischer . Showpieces of the courtly Rococo are particularly the Amalienburg in the Nymphenburg Palace Park and the Cuvilliés Theater in the Residenz. Due to the tight budget situation, no larger buildings were built for the courtyard from the middle of the 18th century, and church building also declined noticeably in the Age of Enlightenment. Of the late Rococo aristocratic palaces, only the Palais Gise and the Palais Seinsheim in the Kreuzviertel have been partially preserved. Shortly thereafter came the estates nor the New Landscape building in Anger district as well as the war-damaged Elisabeth Church in the Ludwigsvorstadt , they already show the transition style from the late rococo to classicism. After that, only a few sober functional buildings were erected, such as the Electoral Gallery at the Hofgarten.
Classicism, Historicism and Art Nouveau
When the Kingdom of Bavaria was founded and the population increased by leaps and bounds, building activity began again at the beginning of the 19th century. With the National Theater by Karl von Fischer on Max-Joseph-Platz in front of the Residenz, a major work of classicism was created from 1811 onwards . The four large boulevards laid out by the Bavarian kings also lead from the residence into the city districts. King Ludwig I in particular intervened in the planning as Crown Prince . His architects Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner built numerous magnificent classical buildings.
To the west towards Nymphenburg, the Brienner Straße , which was marked by the destruction of the Second World War, leads through Maxvorstadt , interrupted by the star-shaped Karolinenplatz with its obelisk and the Königsplatz with the magnificent Doric gate of the Propylaea and the Ionian Glyptothek . Behind the Corinthian building of the antique collections is the Benedictine Abbey of St. Boniface . The Palais Almeida and other palaces on Wittelsbacherplatz have been preserved from the early classical development . A short time later, a little north of the street, the two buildings of the Pinakotheken were built according to designs by Klenze and Gärtner.
To the north in the direction of Schwabing , Ludwigstrasse was laid out between the Feldherrnhalle and the Siegestor . The Odeon and Palais Leuchtenberg were built on Odeonsplatz in the southern section of the street . In the northern part of the street are the Bavarian State Library , the Ludwig Church and the Ludwig Maximilians University . Around the same time, the Bavaria in front of the Doric Hall of Fame was built on Theresienwiese . The residence developed through the extensions designed by Klenze with the Florentine royal building, the ballroom building and the All Saints Court Church to one of the largest city palaces.
South of the Residenz, in front of the opera, begins Maximilianstrasse, which was designed as Paradestrasse in the middle of the 19th century . It leads from the old town to the east over the Isar in the direction of the Maximilianeum , the seat of the Bavarian state parliament. The Munich theater , which was later redesigned in Art Nouveau style , the building of the government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Five Continents are also located here . Today Maximilianstrasse is a luxurious shopping mile.
Finally, on the north side of the residence, the Prinzregentenstrasse , which leads east from the early classicist Prinz-Carl-Palais am Hofgarten and on which the National Museum and the Schackgalerie are located, was built. The Angel of Peace stands where the road on the orographically right bank of the Isar in Haidhausen reaches the height of the river terrace . The Villa Stuck and the Prinzregententheater are also located in the Haidhauser part of the street .
Of the constructions made of glass and iron, which were considered technical masterpieces when they were built in the mid-19th century, the Schrannenhalle on Viktualienmarkt has been partially preserved, while the Glass Palace burned down in 1931; only the ornamental fountain survived and is now located in the middle of Weißenburger Platz in the Haidhausen district.
Towards the end of the 19th century many splendid historicist buildings were erected, such as the State Theater on Gärtnerplatz in Isarvorstadt , the neo-Gothic New Town Hall on Marienplatz by Georg von Hauberrisser , the neo-Baroque Palace of Justice on Stachus and the neighboring New Justice Building , both by Friedrich von Thiersch , as well as the Army Museum at the Hofgarten (today the Bavarian State Chancellery is located here ) and the new renaissance style Academy of Fine Arts on Akademiestrasse near the Siegestor.
Beginning with the Mariahilfkirche in der Au, three large neo-Gothic churches were built near the eastern bank of the Isar, St. Johann Baptist in Haidhausen and the Holy Cross Church in Giesing, to which St. Paul an der Theresienwiese was later added as the fourth mighty neo-Gothic building . After the Frauenkirche, these churches have the tallest spiers in the city with the Peterskirche, they are all more than ninety meters high. On the western bank of the Isar, on the other hand, churches inspired by the Romanesque dominate the cityscape, St. Lukas and the parish church of St. Anna im Lehel as well as St. Maximilian and St. Anton in the Isarvorstadt and further west still St. Benno in the Maxvorstadt. The two large neo-baroque churches of St. Joseph in Maxvorstadt and St. Margaret in Sendling, as well as St. Ursula in Schwabing, the only large church of historicism in Munich that was influenced by the Renaissance, also formed the city. With the Erlöserkirche in Schwabing, local architecture was used without imitating a specific style and elements of Art Nouveau.
Above all in Schwabing there are still numerous art nouveau houses. Not far from the 1909-built Deutsches Museum and Gasteig is located in Au , which opened after four years of construction in 1901 and built in the Art Nouveau Müller Volksbad the oldest public swimming pool in Munich. Many buildings from the 19th century can still be found in Pasing , which, like Schwabing, was recently its own town.
There are around 1,200 fountains in Munich, around 700 of which are urban ones . Striking fountains are in particular the Wittelsbacher Brunnen on Lenbachplatz and the Vater-Rhein-Brunnen on Museum Island , both works by Adolf von Hildebrand .
Modern and post-modern
Munich's architecture since the beginning of the 20th century has been largely determined by urban planners and architects such as Theodor Fischer , Carl Hocheder , German Bestelmeyer and Otho Orlando Kurz , who erected numerous buildings in the city. The Borstei is a listed housing estate in the Moosach district that was built between 1924 and 1929. The Neuhausen settlement was established in 1928 . The Post Building School was an important manifestation of the New Building between 1920 and 1934. The initiators of this school are Robert Poeverlein and, above all, Robert Vorhoelzer with the Munich Post Buildings on Tegernseer Platz , Harras and Goetheplatz and the Postpalast .
Of the buildings from the time of National Socialism , the House of Art and the former Luftgaukommando in Prinzregentenstrasse as well as the party buildings on the eastern edge of Königsplatz have been preserved. On the other hand, important buildings such as the Matthäuskirche , the main synagogue and the Herzog-Max-Palais were torn down or demolished like the Elvira studio .
During the Second World War, most of Munich's buildings were badly damaged or even destroyed in 66 air raids. Only 2.5% of the buildings remained intact and almost half of the building mass was destroyed. The station area, the old town and Schwabing were particularly hard hit. Many of the historical buildings that characterize Munich's cityscape today were rebuilt after the war, reconstructed according to old plans or partially rebuilt in the style of the old town. However, some architecturally very important buildings have been lost, such as the Palais Piosasque de Non , historically important buildings such as the Wittelsbacher Palais , as well as structures that once helped shape the silhouette of the city, such as the large dome of the Ministry of Transport . The old town ring, which was only broken through the city center after the war , also influences the current appearance of all four royal boulevards.
In the decades after the Second World War, significant examples of modern architecture emerged, some of which were demolished, such as the spectacular state supply office of the Luckhardt brothers in 1989. The futuristic Schwabylon only existed for six years until 1979. Among the more important works of the 1950s Years belonged to the Kaufhof am Stachus by Theo Pabst , the first new department store in Munich after the end of the war , the new Maxburg judicial building he built together with Sep Ruf , and the new building of the Matthäuskirche by Gustav Gsaenger . Significant examples of modern architecture in Munich are above all the sports facilities (see below ), especially in the Olympic Park . From 1965 the huge, now listed parcel post hall was built . The large cultural buildings of the 1970s and 1980s such as the new building of the Neue Pinakothek or the Kulturzentrum am Gasteig are still very controversial today, and renovations are planned for both. Since the 1990s, however, the city had a second period of founding that produced increasingly sophisticated architecture. The Sacred Heart Church is considered to be the most successful sacred building .
The relatively few high-rise buildings in Munich are located outside the city center, with the exception of the Old Technical Town Hall from the 1920s and the Central Tower Munich . Also in 2004, in a referendum, the height of future high-rise buildings was limited to 100 meters. Most noteworthy architecturally are the BMW four-cylinder at the Olympiapark , next to which the futuristic BMW World was opened in October 2007 , as well as the Hypo-Haus in Arabellapark and the Highlight Towers in the north of Schwabing . At 146 meters, the city's tallest skyscraper is Uptown Munich . The tallest structure in the city is the 291 meter high Olympic Tower (see below ).
On November 9, 2006, the new Jewish Center was opened on St.-Jakobs-Platz in the city center - an ensemble consisting of the new Ohel Jakob main synagogue, the community center of the Munich Jewish Community and the municipal Jewish Museum (opened on March 22, 2007). It is the largest Jewish center in Europe. The ensemble was designed by the architects Wandel, Hoefer and Lorch , who had already rebuilt the Dresden synagogue. The most striking feature of the ensemble are the variously processed outer walls made of light-colored travertine stone, which are intended to be a reminder of the Western Wall in Jerusalem, especially at the main synagogue.
The building of the Brandhorst Museum , which was built according to plans by the architects Sauerbruch Hutton in the Munich art area and opened in 2009, attracted a lot of attention . It is located in the immediate vicinity of the Pinakothek der Moderne , which was designed by the architect Stephan Braunfels and opened its doors in 2002.
- Jakob Sandtner , plastic city model on a scale of 1: 616, around 1570, location Bavarian National Museum , a double-scale copy is in the city museum
- Johann Baptist Seitz , Anselm Sickinger and others: plastic city model, around 1850, pear tree, scale 1: 700, location Bavarian National Museum: relief of the capital and residence city of Munich
- Anton Hoermann, Friedrich Hoermann: 1915 (scale 1: 700)
- Deutsche Hochbildgesellschaft 1930 (scale 1: 2000)
- 1938/39 (scale 1: 1000)
- since the 1970s and continued continuously (scale 1: 500), department for urban planning, location Munich City Museum
Parks and zoos
The oldest garden is the courtyard garden from the Renaissance period with the Diana temple . However, during the Renaissance there were hundreds of small gardens in the old town. The people of Munich even grew vegetables and kept cattle there. To the northeast of the Hofgarten are the Finanzgarten and the Englischer Garten , designed since 1789, which runs through Munich from the center to the northern city limits, and with an area of 4.17 square kilometers exceeds Central Park in New York . The Rumford House and the Chinese Tower have been located here since the time it was built, and the Monopteros was added later. The Maximiliansanlagen are located on the opposite side of the Isar . To the west of the old town at Stachus is the Old Botanical Garden , where the Glass Palace stood until it was destroyed by fire. The classical entrance gate of Herigoyen has been preserved with an inscription specially written by Johann Wolfgang Goethe .
The Nymphenburg Palace Park was built in the west of Nymphenburg Palace in the French style. In the 19th century it was transformed into an English landscape park with the exception of the “Grand Parterre”. To the north is the New Botanical Garden . The former electoral deer garden is located southeast of Nymphenburg . There are no fewer than three baroque castles on the northern city limits in the park of Schleißheim Palace ; besides Herrenhausen and Schwetzingen, it is the only remaining large baroque garden in Germany.
Also important is the Olympic Park , which offers several lakes and an excellent view of the city from the Olympic Hill. The Sea Life Munich aquarium is also located here . There are also numerous other parks and green spaces, such as the Bavariapark , the Luitpoldpark with the Bamberger Haus , the Westpark with the East Asia ensemble, where the first Federal Garden Show - at the same time as an International Horticultural Exhibition - took place in Bavaria in 1983 , and the Ostpark . For the Federal Garden Show 2005, another extensive park was created in the Messestadt Riem district in the east of Munich, the Riemer Park . In winter, cross-country skiing is made possible in some parks by specially groomed trails.
The Isar floodplains are a long, narrow park landscape along the mountain river, which was partially renatured on the occasion of the Federal Garden Show 2005 . The city on the Isar can be crossed or cycled on various routes in the countryside without interruption. The actual Isar floodplains between the Deutsches Museum and the Isar island Flaucher are popular places for barbecuing, swimming and moderate nudity . Hellabrunn Zoo is south of Flaucher .
Thanks to the above-mentioned parks, Munich, which is densely built up overall, has a share of public green spaces and recreational areas in the urban area of around 11.7 percent. The proportion of all green spaces in the urban area is 49.9 percent and only ranks 74th among the 79 major German cities. In fact, Munich is the city in Germany with the highest proportion of sealed surfaces; around 47 percent of the city area is built on, concreted or paved.
A special kind of green space is the abandoned Old Southern Cemetery with numerous celebrity graves near the Sendlinger Tor and the also abandoned Old Northern Cemetery in Maxvorstadt. The city’s existing cemeteries are also the green lungs of the city, with the West , North and East cemeteries each having magnificent funeral halls designed by Hans Grässel . The largest cemetery in Munich is the forest cemetery . The Bogenhausen cemetery is also a cemetery with the graves of many celebrities . The Scholl siblings are buried among other well-known personalities in the cemetery at Perlacher Forst .
Art museums and galleries
Munich is internationally known for its collections of ancient and classical art, which are presented in state, municipal and private museums such as galleries.
For example, the Alte and Neue Pinakothek as well as the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Lenbachhaus, which was greatly expanded in 2014, are among the world's most important galleries. Together with the Glyptothek , the Staatliche Antikensammlungen and the Brandhorst Museum , these collections form the Munich art area . The State Museum of Egyptian Art also received a new building in the art area . The State Graphic Collection of Munich is also located there on Katharina-von-Bora-Straße.
Another museum landscape in addition to the art area is the Lehel with the House of Art , the Bavarian National Museum , the State Archaeological Collection , the Schackgalerie , the Gallery of Artists and the Museum of Five Continents , the former ethnological museum. Further east of the Isar on Prinzregentenstrasse is the unique Art Nouveau building Villa Stuck with a permanent collection of Franz von Stuck's works as well as top-class temporary exhibitions.
There are also numerous art museums in the city center. The Munich City Museum is located in the former armory on Sankt-Jakobs-Platz and houses a number of different collections and museums: the collection for sculptures and applied arts, the Munich film museum , the photo museum, the collection for graphics, posters, paintings, the collection for fashion and textiles, the music collection (musical instrument collection), the collection for puppet theater and showmanship as well as the collections on urban culture and folklore . From the holdings of the various collections, exhibitions are regularly curated that are either collection-specific (for example in the photo museum) or cross-collection (for example the exhibition “Typisch München”). In addition, the city of Munich maintains various galleries such as the Lothringer13 , the Kunstarkaden, the Rathausgalerie, the MaximiliansForum or the Artothek, where works of art can be borrowed. The Museum of Urban and Contemporary Art is located in the Hackenviertel of the city center . The art gallery of the Hypo-Kulturstiftung is located on Theatinerstraße . The Residenz Museum (especially with the Residenz treasury ) is located in the former residence of the Wittelsbach family in Munich's old town and is one of the most important palace museums in Europe. Ballrooms, state rooms or court chapels of Bavarian rulers provide an insight into historical room ensembles from different epochs with important exhibits from the Wittelsbach collections of silver, porcelain, miniatures , paintings, antique sculptures , bronze sculptures, tapestries , furniture, clocks, candlesticks and chandeliers . The State Coin Collection is also housed in the residence .
Natural history museums
The natural history museum Mensch und Natur is also located in Nymphenburg Palace . In addition, there are other museums in the city for the state's natural science collections that have not yet been consolidated , such as the Paleontological Museum , the Museum Empire of Crystals and the Anthropological State Collection , the Geological Museum Munich , the Botanical State Collection and the Zoological State Collection Munich . A crowd puller, also due to its prominent location in the city center, is the German Hunting and Fishing Museum , which also covers aspects of cultural history.
Cultural museums and memorials
In addition to their art history collections, the National Museum and the City Museum also have exhibitions on cultural history. Opposite the Munich City Museum is another city museum: The Jewish Museum , which forms the new Jewish center there with the new synagogue and the Jewish community center . The NS Documentation Center on Brienner Strasse serves to deal with the history and consequences of the NS regime. There are also several memorials for victims of National Socialism in the city . The place of remembrance of the Olympic assassination attempt is in the Olympic village.
The Infopoint Museums and Palaces in Bavaria and the Munich Imperial Castle exhibition are located in the Alter Hof. The smallest museum in the city is the Karl-Valentin-Musäum in one of the two towers of the former city fortifications at the Isartor; it shows exhibits on the life and work of the artist Karl Valentins . The toy museum in the old town hall tower is not much bigger. Not far away are the Beer and Oktoberfest Museum and the Munich Fire Brigade Museum . The German Theater Museum is located in the Hofgarten . Since 1998 there has been a literary museum on the life and work of Michael Ende in Blutenburg Castle , part of which is owned by the local library. The Alpine Museum on the Praterinsel of the Isar is a museum of the German Alpine Association on the history of alpinism.
The German Museum on the Museum Island of the Isar with its worldwide unique technical exhibits is one of the most visited museums in Europe with over a million visitors per year and is the largest technical and scientific museum in the world. Branches are the Flugwerft Schleissheim and the newly opened Transport Museum on Theresienwiese.
The MVG Museum also exists as a municipal transport museum . In addition, the BMW Museum , the BMW Group Classic and the Museum in the SiemensForum Munich have collections on the company history of Munich-based technology groups.
Poster for the VII International Art Exhibition in Munich, by Franz von Stuck 1897
In the late Gothic period there was a first cultural boom in Munich, when Erasmus Grasser and Jan Polack , among others, worked in the city. During the Renaissance, the city became a center for sculptors, which was shaped by Hubert Gerhard and Hans Krumpper . During this time, Barthel Beham , Hans von Aachen and Peter Candid worked as painters in Munich. In the 18th century, the city experienced a golden age of the visual arts, which was determined by personalities such as Cosmas Damian Asam , Egid Quirin Asam , Johann Michael Fischer , François de Cuvilliés , Ignaz Günther , Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Johann Baptist Straub .
From around 1850 to 1914 Munich developed into one of the centers of European painting . In the environment of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts arises Munich school . To this day, this has great art historical significance as a representative of academic painting . Well-known teachers at the academy included Karl von Piloty , Wilhelm von Diez , Arthur von Ramberg and Nikolaus Gysis . The Munich Secession with members such as Max Liebermann , Franz von Stuck , Lovis Corinth , Ernst Oppler and Walter Leistikow emerged from the environment of the Academy (and as a spin-off from the Munich Artists' Cooperative) .
The Blue Rider was launched in 1911 and eventually made Munich a center of modern art. Members were Paul Klee , Wassily Kandinsky , Alexej von Jawlensky , Gabriele Münter , Franz Marc , August Macke and Alfred Kubin .
Heinrich von München wrote his world chronicle in the 14th century . In the 15th century, among others, Hans Schiltberger and Ulrich Fuetrer worked in the city. The town clerk Minervius translated Homer into German for the first time in 1537 , and Martinus Balticus also worked in Munich at the time. At the beginning of the 17th century there was a group of poets in Munich to which Jakob Balde and Jeremias Drexel also belong.
With the Enlightenment , new literary work also began in Munich, the main representative being Lorenz von Westenrieder . Then a literary circle of romanticism around Görres and Schelling emerged in Munich .
The literary life of the city, with its center in Schwabing, took off in the last decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria and was shaped by writers such as Paul Heyse , Lena Christ , Ludwig Thoma , Thomas Mann , Rainer Maria Rilke and Frank Wedekind .
Munich has a very rich theater, ballet and opera culture with five state, three city and over fifty private theaters. The most important venues are the National Theater Munich ( Bavarian State Opera , Bavarian State Ballet ), the Residenztheater ( Bavarian State Theater ), the State Theater on Gärtnerplatz (opera, operetta, dance and musicals), the Prince Regent Theater (including the Bavarian Theater Academy August Everding , state theater, concerts) , the Schauspielhaus ( Münchner Kammerspiele ), the Schauburg (also: SchauBurg), the Munich Volkstheater and the German Theater .
Music theater, opera and ballet
The city's musical life has a long tradition. Important composers such as Orlando di Lasso , Carl Maria von Weber , Gustav Mahler , Richard Strauss and Carl Orff worked here . In Salvator Theater 1775 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's La Finta Giardiniera premiered, in 1781 the world premiere followed in Cuvilliés Theater of his Idomeneo . Several operas by Richard Wagner premiered in the National Theater under Ludwig II . In terms of music theater, the Bavarian State Opera and the State Theater on Gärtnerplatz should be mentioned, each of which has its own ballet company: the Bavarian State Ballet and the ballet of the State Theater on Gärtnerplatz . The Munich Biennale , founded by Hans Werner Henze , is dedicated to modern music theater.
In the spoken theater division, the most important theaters in the city are the Bavarian State Theater , the Münchner Kammerspiele and the Münchner Volkstheater . Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775, many well-known authors have premiered their pieces in Munich, including Christian Friedrich Hebbel , Henrik Ibsen , Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Ingmar Bergman . The Metropoltheater has already received several awards from private theaters and the Munich Summer Theater , an open-air theater in the English Garden , attracts thousands of spectators every year. The comedy in the Bayerischer Hof offers a tabloid theater - mostly with prominent actors in the leading roles.
The city of Munich's Schauburg plays a central role in children's and youth theater . There are also various other private stages for children, such as the Munich Theater for Children or the Munich Marionette Theater . The Little Game Marionette Theater , on the other hand, plays almost exclusively in the evening and for adults.
Cabaret and circus
In the cabaret sector, the Munich Lach- und Schießgesellschaft , the Wirtshaus am Hart , the Fraunhofer Theater, the Lustspielhaus and the Schlachthof are important stages in the city. Among the Munich cabaret artists stand out e.g. B. Karl Valentin , Dieter Hildebrandt , Ottfried Fischer or Gerhard Polt stand out.
Orchestra and choirs
The Munich Philharmonic , the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Bavarian State Orchestra are among the most important German orchestras and work regularly with internationally renowned conductors. In addition, the Munich Symphony Orchestra and the Munich Chamber Orchestra enjoy a very good reputation.
Important choirs include: the Munich Philharmonic Choir , the Bavarian Radio Choir , the Munich Bach Choir , the orpheus chor münchen , MünchenKlang or the Tölzer Knabenchor , whose studio is in Solln and where the majority of boys come from Munich.
The most important venues for orchestras and choirs in Munich are the Philharmonie im Gasteig (2387 seats), the Prinzregententheater (1081 seats) or the Herkulessaal (1270 seats) in the Munich Residence. To this day, however, Munich lacks an optimal sounding concert hall, which often led to debates and finally resulted in a rally for the construction of a new concert hall in spring 2015 , which was initiated by the student choir and orchestra ensemble MünchenKlang . In December 2015, the Free State of Bavaria decided to build the concert hall in the Werksviertel at Ostbahnhof .
Munich has several cinemas. The largest cinema in Munich with 14 halls, which is also used for many film premieres, is the Mathäser Multiplex Cinema located between Stachus and the main train station . In addition to this, there are numerous other cinemas, some of which have specialized in screenings in the original sound or in individual film genres. The CINEMA film theater in Maxvorstadt shows films in the original version and live broadcasts. Open-air cinemas that are open in summer are the Kino, Mond und Sterne in Westpark and the open-air cinema on Lake Olympia . The oldest cinema in Munich still in operation is the Lichtspiele Museum , which opened in 1910 . In 2019 the even older Gabriel Filmtheater closed with an opening date of 1907 . The Neues Maxim , which opened in 1912, and the Sendlinger Tor film theater, which opened in 1913, are also steeped in history . In addition to these, there is also the Munich Film Museum , which also shows films. The first IMAX cinema in Germany was IMAX Munich , which was finally closed in 2010.
Munich also played an important role in the development of electronic music, when Giorgio Moroder , who invented the disco and thus electronic dance music composed on the synthesizer , and the disco singer Donna Summer lived and worked in the city and here world hits like I Feel Love and Love To Love You Baby were produced at Moroders Musicland Studios . In the late 1990s, Electroclash was “significantly co-invented, if not even invented” in Munich , when DJ Hell presented and compiled international pioneers of this music genre through his label International Deejay Gigolos .
Cultural and regular events
At the beginning of the year, there is the dance of the market women during the carnival season , the carnival hustle and bustle at the Viktualienmarkt and on Ash Wednesday the traditional wallet washing at the fish fountain on Marienplatz . In February and March, Ash Wednesday is followed by the “strong beer season”, which is celebrated with various events - for example with the Derblecken on the Nockherberg , which is broadcast annually by the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation .
In March, in addition to Saint Patrick's Day, the Munich Book Show attracts junior visitors, which as a major event focuses on promoting reading in addition to children's and young people's literature. At Easter time there is an Easter march in Munich on Holy Saturday . In April the spring festival takes place on the Theresienwiese - a folk festival that is smaller than the famous Oktoberfest.
The culture and family festival takes place on May 1st at Marienplatz. The first nine-day Auer Dult (Maidult) of the year in Munich's Au district follows on the first weekend in May . An international festival for new music theater has been held every two years since 1988: the Munich Biennale. The Munich Bladenight , Europe's largest night skate event , takes place between May and August . Corso Leopold takes place in May and September .
At the beginning of June, Germany's largest student-organized music and theater festival will take place in the Freimann district of Munich with the StuStaCulum . Every year in mid-June, Munich's city birthday is celebrated on a weekend between Marienplatz and Odeonsplatz . In addition, various festivals take place in June: the Streetlife Festival , the Munich Comic Festival , the Munich International Short Film Festival and, at the end of June / beginning of July, the Munich Film Festival , the second largest film festival in Germany.
Important events in July are Christopher Street Day , the traditional Kocherlball , the Munich Midsummer Night's Dream , the Impark Summer Festival , the Theatron Festival , the Munich Summer Theater , the Japanfest Munich on the third Sunday at the Japanese tea house behind the Haus der Kunst . At the end of July, the second Auer Dult (Jakobidult) and Bell'Arte - Musical Summer in the Brunnenhof of the Munich Residence attracts visitors.
In the first ten days of August, the Tanzwerkstatt Europa , a festival for international contemporary dance, will take place at various venues in Munich . The Summer Festival and the Lilalu & Culture and Family Festival are also held in the Olympic Park in August. Mini-Munich , a simulation game for children, takes place every two years .
The second Streetlife Festival and the Munich Outdoor Sports Festival take place in mid-September and the Oktoberfest begins on the Theresienwiese ( Wiesn ), which lasts until the first Sunday in October.
The third, nine-day Auer Dult (Kirchweihdult) begins in mid-October and the Munich Book Show takes place in the Gasteig in November . The Spielart theater festival takes place every two years in November and December . Shortly before the first Sunday in Advent, the winter tollwood begins on Theresienwiese and lasts until the New Year. In addition, there are Christmas markets in various squares in Munich during Advent (for example Marienplatz, Weißenburger Platz).
The city has awarded the state capital Munich's sponsorship award for dance .
Cultural history trails and cycle routes
The gastronomy in Munich offers numerous specialties of Bavarian cuisine . The white sausage was invented in Munich in 1857 and is probably the city's most famous culinary specialty. Also to be mentioned are, for example, the Leberkäs or the Leberkässemmel , the pretzels , the Auszogne (a round lard pastry), the Prinzregententorte and the Munich beer .
With the gourmet restaurant "Atelier" by Jan Hartwig in the Hotel Bayerischer Hof , Munich has one of ten restaurants in Germany that are currently awarded three Michelin stars . In addition, there are three restaurants in the 2019 Michelin Guide, each with two stars: “ Tantris ” ( Hans Haas ), “Alois” (formerly “ Dallmayr ”, Christoph Kunz ) and “EssZimmer” in the BMW World ( Bobby Bräuer ). In addition, seven Munich restaurants are listed in the 2019 Michelin Guide, each with one star.
The “Aubergine” restaurant on Maximiliansplatz , which closed in 1994, was the first restaurant in Germany to receive the highest rating of three Michelin stars in the 1980 Michelin Guide under Eckart Witzigmann . Witzigmann had previously been the first in Germany to cook one star (Guide Michelin 1974) and two stars (Guide Michelin 1975) in the Munich restaurant “Tantris”, which is still open today. Under Heinz Winkler , "Tantris" became the second German three-star restaurant in the 1982 Michelin Guide. This award lasted until Winkler's departure in 1991.
The nightlife in Munich nowadays mainly takes place in the city center ( Altstadt-Lehel ) and the districts of Maxvorstadt , Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt , Au-Haidhausen , Berg am Laim , Schwabing and Sendling . The so-called Feierbanane is located between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz , an unofficial party zone about 1.3 kilometers long along Sonnenstrasse , which is characterized by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants and became the center of Munich's nightlife in the mid-2000s .
That in the district Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt located Gärtnerplatzviertel and the Glockenbacharea the Müllerstraße are known for many popular bars and are considered the center of Munich's gay culture. The Maxvorstadt is characterized by many smaller bars, which are especially popular with students, while in Schwabing, once known for legendary clubs such as Big Apple , PN hit-house , Domicile , Hot Club , Piper Club , Tiffany , Germany's first large-capacity disco Blow Up and the underwater disco Yellow Submarine , as well as pubs like Schwabinger 7 , in the past decades the nightlife has declined sharply due to gentrification .
The Kunstpark Ost, opened in 1996, and its successor, Kultfabrik , which existed until 2016 , a former industrial site near the Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim , were once Europe's largest entertainment district, were home to more than 30 clubs and were of supraregional importance for nightlife. In the immediate vicinity there were also the Optimol factories and the Georg-Elser-Hallen . Before that, there had already been a collection of internationally known halls and clubs on the grounds of Munich-Riem Airport, which was abandoned in 1992 .
Overall, Munich's nightlife is changing comparatively quickly due to the high demand for living space and strong gentrification. Places of nightlife that gained international fame were, in addition to the already mentioned trendy bars of the 1960s and 1970s, for example the dance hall megalomania , the Atomic Cafe , the techno clubs Babalu , Ultrasound , KW - Das Heizkraftwerk , Natraj Temple , MMA Club , Die Registratur and Bob Beaman . From 1995 to 2001 Munich was also home to the Union Move, the second largest techno parade in Germany with up to 100,000 participants.
Today Munich has more than 100 nightclubs as well as thousands of bars and restaurants. Famous clubs are the techno clubs Blitz Club , Harry Klein , Red Sun , Signalman Thiel , Cheshire , Pimpernel , Charlie and Palais and the clubs 8 Below , Call me Drella , Cord , Wannda Circus , Tonhalle , Willenlos , Backstage , Pacha , Zenith , P1 and the party ship Alte Utting . Some well-known bars are Schumann's Cocktail Bar , Havana Club , Sehnsucht , Bar Centrale , Ksar , Holy Home , Negroni , Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto .
According to a comparative study by the magazine Wirtschaftswoche , the lobby organization Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft and the company IW Consult, Munich has the second highest economic power of the fifty largest German cities. The latest study by the Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft and the Wirtschaftswoche magazine once again declared Munich to be the most economically successful city in Germany in terms of prognosis . The study evaluates economic and structural indicators such as productivity, gross income, investment, innovation, unemployment rate and the number of highly qualified people.
In 2016, Munich achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of 109.571 billion euros within the city limits and thus took third place in the ranking of German cities according to economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was 75,186 euros (Bavaria: 44,215 euros, Germany 38,180 euros) and thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 3.9 percent. There were around 1,087,300 employed people in the city in 2017. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 3.4 percent and thus above the Bavarian average of 2.7 percent, but below the national average. Munich is the center of the Munich metropolitan region, which has a GDP of around 283 billion euros.
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the independent city of Munich took second place out of 402 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with “top future opportunities”. The first place was taken by the neighboring district of Munich.
As of December 31, 2019, the state capital of Munich's debt level was around 636 million euros, the lowest level since 1982. Since 2006, the city of Munich has been able to finance all investment measures without taking out net new loans. Since the highest debt level of 3.414 billion euros in 2005, by the end of 2019, the city had repaid more than 2.7 billion euros in loans in the sovereign budget.
Accordingly, a per capita debt of around 408 euros is calculated. Compared to the highest debt level at the end of 2005 of 3.414 billion euros, this is a reduction of around 81 percent. No net new debt is planned for 2020.
The state capital of Munich has several own businesses with debts totaling around 1.3 billion euros.
|Waste Management Company Munich (AWM)||75,800,000|
|Market halls Munich||22,000,000|
|Munich city drainage||1,038,500,000|
|Service provider for information and telecommunications technology for the city of Munich||100,100,000|
AWM and Münchner Stadtentwässerung are self-owned companies that fully refinance their debts through income in the form of fees . In doing so, they do not burden the sovereign budget. This is particularly important because Munich city drainage has more than 50 percent of the total debt of the state capital Munich of around two billion euros. Own businesses without debts are z. B. the Stadtwerke München and the non-profit housing welfare AG (GEWOFAG).
Trade fairs and congresses
In addition to Hanover, Frankfurt, Cologne and Düsseldorf, the trade fairs with the largest hall exhibition capacities in Germany are located in Munich. Especially with the New Munich Trade Fair Center operated by Messe München , Munich is an important trade fair location. Messe München has been operating as Messe München Locations together with the ICM and the MOC Veranstaltungscenter München since 2011 .
More than 500 different event locations offer a framework for congresses, symposia and meetings: from the Olympic Stadium to brewery festival halls, this also includes the numerous congress hotels, as well as rooms that can be rented, for example in the Residenz, in Nymphenburg Palace or in the German Museum. The old congress hall and the riding arena are also important venues .
The sights and shopping opportunities in the city as well as its trade fairs and congresses attract numerous tourists and business travelers. In 2008, the expert jury of the National Geographic Traveler put Munich in 30th place in the worldwide ranking of the best 110 historical places.
The number of overnight stays grew to 9.9 million in 2009 (an increase of 0.6 percent). Of these, 4.4 million came from abroad (3 percent decrease compared to 2008). The Americans were the largest foreign travel group with 597,000 overnight stays (minus 2.4 percent), followed by Italians (518,000) and British (341,000). A special feature of Munich in the summer months are the many Arab tourists from the Gulf region (271,000 overnight stays) who not only shop in the city center, but also often seek medical care during their stay in Munich clinics. In 2011, according to the tourism office, 102,000 tourists from the Gulf States were vacationing in Munich. With almost 5.25 million foreign visitors, Munich was the 23rd most-visited city in the world in 2016 and first place in Germany. Tourists brought in the same year revenue of 5.3 billion US dollars . Most of the foreign visitors came from Europe, Asia and the United States. In 2019, the German Press Agency reported revenues of “a good eight billion euros in sales per year”. In 2019, Munich ranked eleventh worldwide in terms of tourist density in relation to the number of inhabitants as the highest German city in the ranking of the official Esta visa application company .
The complete elimination of tourism, which generates an economic value of 8.3 billion euros in Munich annually, meant that the entire tourism added value for the months of March to May was lost without replacement due to the COVID-19 pandemic . The entire area of trade fair and congress tourism is idle due to the fact that events are not taking place, at least until the reopening of Messe München in September 2020. All major events have been canceled for 2020, including the Oktoberfest with sales losses of 1.23 billion euros.
For the hospitality industry, the loss of sales cannot be specified for Munich due to the statistical data available. The Bavarian figures, which apply to Munich at least as much, state a decrease in sales of -76.4% compared to the same month last year and a decrease in employment of -28.4% for April 2020.
The retail trade in Munich is diverse. All categories are covered, from the inexpensive to the luxury segment. With Neuhauser Strasse and Kaufingerstrasse , Munich is represented twice among the five most visited shopping streets in Germany. According to a study by Jones Lang LaSalle , Neuhauser Strasse had the second highest visitor frequency in Germany with 13,515 passers-by per hour, only Schildergasse in Cologne was more frequented with 14,265 passers-by per hour. After the Zeil in Frankfurt am Main (13,035 passers-by), Kaufingerstrasse was in fourth place with 12,975 passers-by per hour. Both shopping streets are in the cheap to medium price category. The Leopold street , together with the Hohenzollernstraße the "Schwabing T" with rents up to 105 euros per square meter. Many international retail companies, especially from the fashion and jewelry industries, can be found on part of Maximilianstrasse , making it a fashionable shopping street. Larger shopping centers are the Euro-Industriepark , the Olympia-shopping center , the pep or the Fünf Höfe .
The retail trade in Munich was affected to varying degrees by the COVID-19 pandemic . On the other hand, while shops for daily needs were open during the exit restrictions and increased sales, the local retail sector suffered massive sales shortfalls. The food retail sector recorded a sales increase of 13.4 percent in April 2020, while the retail trade with textiles, clothing and shoes saw a sales slump of −80.2 percent.
Numerous companies have their headquarters in Munich and the surrounding area. Especially after the Second World War, many companies moved their headquarters from Berlin or East Germany to Munich. Important branches of the economy in Munich are tourism, vehicle and mechanical engineering, electrical engineering as well as software and IT industries. The high density of IT companies has earned Munich the nickname " Isar Valley ". Munich is also an important financial center and the insurance center of Germany. The city is also an important location for biotechnology , which, however, is concentrated in the Martinsried district , which already belongs to the neighboring municipality of Planegg . Logistics companies, for example, are located in the Kirschstrasse industrial estate in Allach , where the Krauss-Maffei industrial company is also located. One of the best known newer companies is Flixmobility .
Among the cities with Global 500 companies , Munich was ranked 8th worldwide in 2009. With Allianz SE , BMW , Münchener Rückversicherung and Siemens, and since September 2019 MTU Aero Engines and March 2021 Siemens Energy , six of the thirty DAX companies have their headquarters in Munich . The city thus occupies the top spot in these statistics. There are other DAX companies in suburban communities , Infineon is based in Neubiberg and despite a company merger in 2018, Linde in Pullach can still be found in the DAX. MAN’s corporate headquarters are also located in Munich-Allach; however, the company has not been included in the DAX since September 2012. Among the medium- sized companies in the MDAX , eleven out of 60 companies are based in Munich. In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Munich took 35th place (as of 2018).
As a media location, the city is of importance throughout Germany. After New York, Munich is home to most of the world's publishing houses . The television and film industries are strongly represented in the city and in the immediate vicinity (television industry in Unterföhring and film industry in Geiselgasteig , zu Grünwald ). With Constantin Film , Bavaria Film and other companies, Munich is also one of the leading film cities.
With around 250 resident publishers, Munich is an important location for print media (e.g. Burda Verlag , Süddeutscher Verlag , IDG ). In addition to New York City , the state capital has a reputation as the leading book publishing city in the world.
The following publishers can be found in Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag , Langenscheidt Verlag , Bonnier , C. H. Beck Verlag , Carl Hanser Verlag , Droemer Knaur , Elsevier , Gräfe and Unzer Verlag , Oldenbourg Verlag , Piper Verlag , Prestel Verlag , Verlagsgruppe Random House , Verlag Antje Kunstmann .
For the history of the book trade in Munich see article Munich book trade 1500–1850 .
In addition to the Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) , which is also important nationwide , the tz , the Münchner Merkur and the Abendzeitung (AZ) should be mentioned. The picture appears with its own local section about Munich.
Television and radio
Munich is the seat of the Bavarian Broadcasting Corporation , the program directorate of the ARD joint program Das Erste and the ZDF State Studio Bavaria. There are also numerous private television and radio broadcasters in and around Munich, such as RTL II , ProSiebenSat.1 Media ( ProSieben , Sat.1 , kabel eins ), Tele München Gruppe , Sport1 , Sky Deutschland , and München TV . Two nationwide private radio stations are based in Munich: Antenne Bayern and egoFM , there are also five local radio stations : Radio Gong 96.3 , Radio Arabella 105.2, Energy Munich , 95.5 Charivari and Radio2day 89.0.
The Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich offers various media-related courses such as media informatics or communication studies. The German School of Journalism in Munich trains journalists for all media. The Munich University of Film and Television trains future filmmakers, many of whom will work for television and radio in the future. In addition, Munich newspaper publishers, television and radio stations are training future media makers in traineeships.
Provision of radio and television channels
In the summer of 2005, digital radio reception via antenna ( DVB-T ) was introduced in the Munich area. The transmitter is mounted on the Olympic Tower, from which some VHF transmitters are also transmitted. In the district of Munich there is the Ismaning transmitter , which transmits the Bavarian radio with the local window Munich. There is also the telecommunications tower of the Munich Oberpostdirektion in Blutenburgstrasse, which transmits, among other things, the EgoFM channels . However, due to its low transmission power, its signal only extends approximately to the city limits, depending on the program.
The Wendelstein transmitter on the mountain of the same name, 65 kilometers away , primarily supplies the southern districts of the city. Three exceptions should be mentioned: the Zugspitze transmitter , the Hochries transmitter near Rosenheim and the Isen transmitter near Ebersberg. They also provide Munich with private radio programs.
Since Munich has a favorable geographical location not far from the Alps, several transmitters on the peaks of the Bavarian and Austrian mountains can also supply the city with radio programs, e.g. B. the transmitter Grünten, the transmitter Hohenpeißenberg etc.
The smooth reception of the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation (ORF) is guaranteed by the station Gaisberg near Salzburg , which can be received relatively well in the entire city area, as well as the station Hohe Salve in Tyrol or the ORF station Zugspitze.
Electricity, water and gas supply
The Stadtwerke München GmbH (SWM) is one of the largest local service provider and one of the largest energy companies in Germany. The sole shareholder is the state capital Munich.
SWM sells electricity to private and business customers under the name “M-Strom”. In the urban area of Munich and the Munich region, SWM is the operator of twelve hydropower plants , several plants that generate electricity from renewable energy and the three heating plants in the south , north and Freimann , which generate around 70 percent of the electricity with combined heat and power . SWM and its associated companies also have a 25 percent stake in the Isar 2 nuclear power plant .
As part of the European network, SWM supplies its customers with natural gas. A dedicated underground storage facility is available for this. SWM operates eight natural gas filling stations in Munich, where renewable biomethane can be refueled.
In its combined heat and power plants and heating plants, SWM generates district heating, which is distributed over 800 kilometers of steam and hot water networks to large buildings and house connections and is used for heating and preparing hot water. By extracting groundwater from an underground structure, district cooling is also made available to industrial customers in an environmentally friendly manner via a pipe network . The slightly heated groundwater is then fed back into the groundwater flow.
The drinking water for Munich comes from the upper Mangfall valley , the Loisach valley near Oberau and the Munich gravel plain and flows from there through supply lines into the Munich water network. Organic farming is promoted in the water catchment areas by the “Eco-Farmers” initiative.
The wastewater management is the responsibility of Münchner Stadtentwässerung , an in-house operation of the City of Munich.
The Munich Waste Management Company (AWM) is a waste disposal company in the Moosach district . As an in-house company, it is responsible for waste disposal and is the largest municipal waste disposal company in Germany.
The Munich cycle path network is more than 1200 kilometers long and corresponds to more than 50 percent of the total length of the Munich road network. 212 one-way streets are open in both directions and cyclists have priority on 55 bicycle streets . There are around 25,000 bicycle racks for cyclists in the city and there are also 50,000 parking spaces for bicycles (“ Radeln-und- Mitfahren”) at public transport stops (as of 2010).
From 1992 to 2010, 32 million euros were invested in the expansion of the bicycle network and new bicycle racks. Since 2007, the signposting system of the Munich cycle path network has been gradually improved by replacing the old signs with new green and white signs, the font is twice as large and contains the destinations and distance information. Signposted cycle routes connect the city's junctions on paths that are well suited for cyclists by minimizing obstacles caused by motorized traffic, pedestrians and traffic lights . Furthermore, the RadlRing Munich runs around the city .
In 2008, bicycle traffic made up 14 percent of traffic in Munich. For reasons of climate protection, among other things, the state capital of Munich intends to increase the proportion of bicycle traffic to 17 percent by 2015. This goal was already achieved in 2011. To this end, the state capital of Munich is using additional financial resources for the infrastructure , public relations and events. For example, the funds to promote cycling have tripled from 2010 to 4.5 million euros. From 2010 to 2018, the City of Munich supported the infrastructure expansion, e.g. B. with the cycling initiative "Radlhauptstadt". In the so-called “Bicycle Climate Test” by the General German Bicycle Club (ADFC) , the city has since dropped from 11th place in 2013 to 13th place in 2017, behind other large cities such as Frankfurt am Main or Bremen . In a study by Greenpeace in 2017, Munich was in last place of the six most populous German cities with annual spending of 2.30 euros per inhabitant.
In 2017, Bavaria's first “bicycle highway” from Munich to Unterschleißheim or Garching was decided with the Munich cycle expressway . Completion was planned for 2019, but the final determination of the course was not made until July 2019. The start of construction is still unclear and should only take place after a further vote.
In local public transport , the Munich S-Bahn operates a network of eight S-Bahn lines, with all main lines in the inner city being bundled in a central trunk line tunnel . To relieve this up to the technically feasible busy tunnels, the construction of a parallel is currently the second main line prepared. The second main line is expected to go into operation in 2028. The express S-Bahn will run every half hour and will take 30 minutes from the main train station to the airport, 10 minutes less than before.
The Munich Ringbahn is being discussed as a complementary concept for tangential connections . According to a feasibility study from 2019, S-Bahn shuttle service could be possible on parts of the north ring between Karlsfeld and the Euro-Industriepark by 2026.
The Munich public transport company (MVG), a subsidiary of Stadtwerke München , operates eight metro lines , 13 tram lines and an extensive bus network with 75 lines (as of June 2018). From 1948 to 1966, the Munich trolleybus also ran in the city.
Around 63 percent of the traffic in the bus network is outsourced to private cooperation partners. Munich's underground network is 95 km long and transports 410 million people a year. In total, the MVG transports around 585 million people annually.
All public transport in Munich runs at a uniform tariff within the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (MVV).
Munich holds several records for traffic flow. In the 1960s, the Stachus became the busiest intersection in Europe. Today the Donnersbergerbrücke is considered to be the busiest car bridge in Europe. There are over 5000 streets and squares as well as 1100 traffic lights. Most of the microplastics in Munich is caused by tire wear in road traffic , of which, for example, a considerable proportion is flushed unfiltered into the Isar . Although the state capital of Munich is trying to expand the range of alternatives to motor vehicles with better conditions for cyclists and better local public transport, the motor vehicle registration authority recorded a new high of over 700,000 passenger cars registered in Munich at the end of 2016. At the same time, drivers in Munich spend significantly more time in traffic jams than in any other major German city, in 2017 it was 51 hours. In May 2019, the city council decided to close the parking spaces in Fraunhoferstraße and replace them with cycle paths .
Munich's road network suffered from poor planning due to the urban centrism that had prevailed for a long time. The city feared economic losses if, in particular, the newly emerging tourist traffic to Italy would no longer stop in the city, but would bypass it. For this reason, the Munich motorway ring, which had already been laid out in the prewar period, was not tackled quickly in the 1950s. Reluctantly, the Mittlerer Ring ( Bundesstraße 2 R ) was built in the 1960s to replace it . The highway ring surrounding the city , the federal highway 99 , is not completely closed to this day. In addition, seven federal highways run through Munich, with federal highway 471 running largely parallel to today's motorway ring.
An environmental zone was set up in Munich from October 1, 2008 . It includes the streets within the Middle Ring. The middle ring itself does not belong to the environmental zone in order to avoid disadvantageous shifts in the flow of traffic. The environmental zone may only be entered by vehicles with a fine dust sticker .
Tempo 30 applies on 85 to 90 percent of Munich's road network . The basic speed limit of 50 (occasionally 60) is therefore mainly limited to the middle ring and large entry and exit roads.
The following federal highways run through Munich:
- Border / PL - Berlin - Leipzig - Nuremberg - Augsburg - Munich - Garmisch-Partenkirchen - border / A
- Mittlerer Ring / Munich
- Border / CZ - Landshut - Munich - Kochel am See - Border / A
- Lindau (Bodensee) - Munich (as A 94 / A 96) - Passau - border / CZ
- Würzburg - Ingolstadt - Munich - Bad Tölz
- Dachau - Munich - Freilassing
Motorways that start in or lead to Munich are:
- Karlsruhe - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich - Rosenheim - Salzburg
- Munich - Nuremberg - Leipzig - Berlin; via the one to Regensburg or Hof / Upper Franconia or the one to Dresden
- Munich - Landshut - Deggendorf
- (under construction) Munich - Passau / Vienna
- Munich - Garmisch-Partenkirchen
- Munich - Memmingen - Lindau (Lake Constance)
- Munich motorway ring
- Munich - Junction Munich-South /
355,000 commuters who live outside the city limits travel to Munich for work every day.
Supraregional bus transport
The new building for the central bus station is centrally located at the Hackerbrücke and was opened on September 11, 2009. The central bus station offers through its location directly next to the S-Bahn -Haltepunkt Hackerbrücke an ideal connection to the Munich region and the Munich airport. As with the previous location, Munich Central Station is in the immediate vicinity.
Munich is well connected to the international route network by rail. There are direct connections (sometimes by night train ) to major German and European cities. In addition to the main train station with its two wing stations and the Munich East train station in the highest price class 1, there is another important long-distance train station in the Munich metropolitan area, the Munich-Pasing train station (price class 2). The eight Munich train stations in price class 3 are Laim , Hirschgarten , Donnersbergerbrücke , Hackerbrücke , Karlsplatz , Marienplatz , Rosenheimer Platz and Giesing . There are also numerous train stations in price classes 4 to 5 of DB Station & Service . The rail freight traffic uses the marshalling yard München Nord Rbf . The former Munich South passenger station is also used exclusively for freight traffic, while the Isar Valley station only exists as a building.
- Long-distance connections
The following long-distance traffic connections pass through Munich Central Station or start there:
- TGV : Munich - Augsburg - Stuttgart - Karlsruhe - Strasbourg - Paris
- ICE line 11: Berlin - Frankfurt am Main - Munich - Innsbruck
- ICE line 25: Hamburg - Nuremberg - Munich - Garmisch-Partenkirchen
- ICE line 28: Munich - Augsburg - Nuremberg - Leipzig - Berlin
- ICE line 41: Munich - Ingolstadt - Nuremberg - Würzburg - Frankfurt am Main
- ICE line 42: Munich - Stuttgart - Frankfurt - Cologne - Dortmund - Amsterdam
- ICE line 116: Munich - Salzburg - Linz - Vienna
- RJ 63: Munich - Salzburg - Linz - Vienna - Budapest
- EC line 88: Munich - Lindau (Lake Constance) - Zurich
- EC line 89: Munich - Bolzano - Verona
- Night trains
These night trains offer direct connections with the following cities:
- Bologna - Florence - Rome
- Verona - Venice
- Bremen - Hamburg
- Vienna - Budapest
- Ljubljana - Zagreb / Rijeka
Munich Airport (international airport code: MUC ( IATA airport code ) EDDM ( ICAO code )), located 29 kilometers northeast of the city center in Erdinger Moos , is the second largest airport in Germany and the seventh largest in Europe with around 48 million passengers in 2019. Since Lufthansa's decision to establish Munich as a second hub next to Frankfurt, the airport has become increasingly better connected internationally; over 25 long-haul aircraft are stationed there. Lufthansa's continental network in Munich is more extensive than at any other German airport. The airport can be reached via the A 92 motorway; The S1 and S8 S-Bahn lines , which connect the airport with Munich city center, are primarily available as public transport .
Other airports in the Munich area are the airports in Oberpfaffenhofen and Schleissheim , which can be used for general aviation - in some cases only to a limited extent . Memmingen Airport, 90 kilometers away , is marketed by Ryanair as "Munich West Airport".
On December 31, 2013, the state capital Munich had 47 hospitals ( list of hospitals in Munich ) with a total of 11,566 beds. On the same reference date, 3717 doctors (394 residents per doctor) and 1536 dentists (954 residents per dentist) were active in private practice.
Various offices, courts, corporations and public institutions have their headquarters in Munich, including the government of Upper Bavaria and the European Patent Office . The city administration of Munich is divided into eleven specialist units and has numerous office buildings in the city.
In many areas of the public service (e.g. clinics, police, tax offices) there is a lack of staff, as Munich is too expensive due to the high cost of living for members of the lower to middle salary and salary groups and is therefore an extremely unattractive place of work . As a result, for example, mostly young professionals work for the protection police , as almost every police officer from all over Bavaria has to start his service there before he can be transferred back to his home region. The Munich tax office has outsourced the processing of files to a large extent to processing points in Deggendorf , Dillingen , Eichstätt , Ingolstadt, Passau , Straubing and Zwiesel .
The Munich Police Headquarters, which is responsible for the city and the district of Munich and partly for the district of Starnberg , has its headquarters at Ettstrasse 2-4. In 2019 the city had 5,575 police officers.
Courts and prosecutors
Munich is an important location for courts in Bavaria, such as the Bavarian Constitutional Court , the Bavarian Administrative Court or the Bavarian State Social Court . The Federal Fiscal Court, one of the five highest courts in Germany, and the Federal Patent Court also have their headquarters in Munich. The Palace of Justice at Stachus shapes the cityscape of downtown Munich. Here found z. In 1943, for example, the trials of the members of the White Rose resistance group took place in front of the People's Court, which had come from Berlin especially for this purpose.
Palace of Justice, Regional Court Munich I
New Maxburg District Court and District Court Munich I
Prison Munich- Stadelheim
There is a correctional facility (JVA) in Munich : The Munich- Stadelheim correctional facility is the largest prison authority in Bavaria. The penal system for young people and women takes place in a branch in the immediate vicinity of the main site.
public safety and order
The security authorities in Munich are responsible for maintaining public safety and order , including the district administration department and the Bavarian State Police including security guard (originally the Munich Police Headquarters ). In 2019, 90,229 criminal offenses with a crime scene in Munich were reported.
“In relation to the crime rate of the total number of crimes, Munich is the safest municipality among the major German cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants. In 2013, 7,395 criminal offenses per 100,000 inhabitants were recorded in Munich. In a long-term comparison of the past ten years, the total number of criminal offenses has declined while the population has increased at the same time. The clearance rate was 62.5%. "
Education and Research
There are around 132 state primary schools in Munich, the Free State of Bavaria is responsible for these schools, while the state capital of Munich is responsible for material expenses. There are also 44 state secondary schools (Bayerische Mittelschule), which have been grouped into 13 secondary schools since the 2011/2012 school year. Of the 23 public secondary schools , 20 are run by the city. 14 of the 38 public grammar schools are run by the city. The Wilhelmsgymnasium is the oldest grammar school in Upper Bavaria. Numerous school buildings are in need of renovation. Due to the hesitant implementation of the construction of new schools, since around 2015 lessons have been held to a significant extent in short-term container buildings .
There are also six special educational support centers, one support center with a focus on intellectual development, seven schools for learning support, one school for educational assistance, three schools for language support and a school for the sick, all of which are sponsored by the Free State of Bavaria. The urban school type-independent orientation level and the municipal Willy Brandt comprehensive school complement the state capital's school system.
There are numerous offers for vocational training, including vocational preparation, initial vocational training and continuing vocational training. There are also secondary vocational schools and schools with a second education path . Institutions from the field of vocational training are for example the Languages & Dolmetscher Institut Munich , the Bavarian Academy for Advertising and Marketing (BAW), which was founded in 1949 as a training institute for professions in marketing, communication, PR and media , the Bavarian Academy for Foreign Trade ( BAA), which was founded in 1989 as a training institution for professions in international business and facility management , as well as the Bavarian Administration School (BVS) with the BVS training center in Munich, which offers training in the state and municipal sector in Germany. In addition, the Academy of German Media offers further training within the publishing industry. For craftsmen, the Academy for Design and Design of the Chamber of Crafts for Munich and Upper Bavaria offers advanced training to become a designer in the craft. The Qantm Institute is a private training institute specializing in computer game development that works with Middlesex University of London . The Otto-Falckenberg-Schule is a municipal technical academy founded in 1946, at which the degree courses in acting and directing are offered.
Universities and research institutions
Munich has two large universities: the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU) and the Technical University of Munich (TUM). Since 2007, both have received special funding from the Excellence Initiative as (informally so-called) elite universities .
The LMU was founded in Ingolstadt in 1472, moved to Landshut in 1800 and from there to Munich in 1826. In addition to the university district in Maxvorstadt, there is another focus in Großhadern and Martinsried (medicine, biology, chemistry).
The Munich Polytechnic School was founded in 1868, an agricultural department was added in 1872, and from 1877 it was called the Royal Bavarian Technical University of Munich . In 1930 the Weihenstephan University of Agriculture and Brewery was incorporated. After expanding to include a medical faculty, the Technical University of Munich was given its current name in 1970. Most of the faculties are now located on the Garching research site . The Munich research reactor, which was in operation until 2000, or its successor, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source, is also located there .
The Munich University of Applied Sciences , which was founded in 1971 through the merger of seven engineering schools and higher technical colleges, has a technical orientation as does the TUM . It is the largest university of applied sciences in Bavaria and the second largest in Germany. The Munich School of Politics (HfP) was founded in 1950 and offers an interdisciplinary study of political science, which takes nine semesters to complete the academic degree of Diplomaticus scientiae politicae Universitatis (Dipl. Sc. Pol. Univ. ) leads.
In addition, there is the opportunity in Munich to take artistic courses at various universities. The Munich Academy of Fine Arts was founded in 1808 as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts and merged with the School of Applied Arts and the Academy of Applied Arts in 1946 . It has had its current name since 1953. The Munich University of Music and Theater was founded in 1830 as a singing school and, at Richard Wagner's suggestion, was transferred to the Royal Bavarian Music School in 1867, which was elevated to the State Academy of Music in 1892. In 1924 it was named the Munich University of Music and was reopened in 1946. It has had its current name since 1998. The Bavarian Theater Academy August Everding was only founded in 1993. With three professionally equipped theaters (Prinzregententheater, Akademietheater, Akademiestudio) and nine courses, it is the largest training facility for stage professions in Germany. The University of Television and Film Munich was founded in 1966 as a state institution for the training of editors, directors and screenwriters.
The University of the Federal Armed Forces Munich is not located in the Munich city area, but directly behind the southern city limits in neighboring Neubiberg . It was founded in 1973 to train officers and officer candidates for the German Armed Forces . Therefore, civilian students can only study there as part of industrial sponsorships or university partnerships.
Universities in private and church sponsorship
In the field of economics, the AKAD private university , the Munich Business School (MBS) and the FOM - University of Economics and Management as private, state-recognized universities, train students. In the media sector, the private universities Macromedia University for Media and Communication (MHMK) and Mediadesign Hochschule (MDH) offer courses, in the field of languages the International University SDI Munich .
The University of Philosophy in Munich is ecclesiastical . It was founded in Pullach in 1925 and was recognized as a university for priestly training in the same year . In 1932 she was promoted to the Philosophical Faculty of Canon Law and moved to Munich in 1971. The institution of the university is the Jesuit order . The Catholic Foundation University in Munich was founded in 1971 from four higher technical schools for social work and social education, also under church sponsorship . It is a university of applied sciences sponsored by the Catholic Church, which has another department in Benediktbeuern and is now called the Catholic Foundation University in Munich.
Non-university research institutions
Munich is the seat of the general administration of the Max Planck Society (MPG). In addition, the MPG in Munich maintains the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy , the Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance , the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition , the Max Planck Institute for Physics as well the Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry . The city of Munich is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society. Other MPG institutes are located just beyond the city limits in Martinsried ( Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry , Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology ) and on the outer campus of the Technical University of Munich in Garching ( Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics , Max Planck -Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics , Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics , Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics ).
The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is also headquartered in Munich and maintains the Fraunhofer Institute for Cognitive Systems IKS , which emerged from the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication Systems ESK , and the Fraunhofer Institute for Modular Solid State Technologies EMFT. The Patent Office for German Research (PST) existed until 2007 .
The Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Health and Environment (HMGU) researches the fundamentals of future medicine and care as well as ecosystems that are of major importance for health. The focus is on chronic, degenerative diseases such as lung diseases, allergies, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, which are influenced to a considerable extent by personal risk factors, lifestyle and environmental conditions. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is also present with a location for the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE). The focus of the nationwide work is equally on basic research , clinical studies , population studies and health services research .
The Bundeswehr maintains in Munich, the Institute of Microbiology of the Bundeswehr , the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the Bundeswehr and the Institute of Radiobiology of the Bundeswehr .
In addition, the Institute for Social Science Research (ISF), the German Youth Institute (DJI), the State Institute for Early Childhood Education (IFP), the State Institute for School Quality and Educational Research (ISB) and the Bavarian State Institute for University Research and Planning (IHF) are located in Munich . Until its closure in 2020, Munich was the seat of the Institute for Broadcasting Technology (IRT).
The Bavarian Academy of Sciences is a research institution with the legal form of a corporation under public law. It is a member of the Union of German Academies of Sciences . Scientists and scholars are appointed to it who, through their research, have contributed to a significant expansion of the knowledge base in their subject.
The acatech - German Academy of Science and Engineering is a scientific academy whose aim is to develop a neutral, fact- and science-based assessment of questions related to technology and to support society with recommendations. In addition, the transfer of knowledge between science and industry should be facilitated and the next generation of scientists should be promoted.
The Catholic Academy in Bavaria , which was founded in 1957 as a church foundation under public law , has a religious educational mandate . The sponsor is the Freising Bishops' Conference. According to the statutes, the academy should contribute to "clarifying and promoting the relationship between the Church and the world".
The Munich Adult Education Center offers around 14,000 events annually for around 200,000 participants in its own buildings and branches throughout the city. Its target group offers are aimed at people with disabilities, people with a migration background, women, young people, senior citizens and minor refugees. As part of the local working group Work and Life Munich, the cooperation with the DGB Bildungswerk Munich takes place as an adult education institution .
In the denominational area, the Evangelical City Academy, the Evangelical Education Center, the Evangelical Family Education Center “Elly Heuss-Knapp”, the Catholic Munich Education Center , the Catholic Academy in Bavaria , the Kolping Academy and the Jewish Adult Education Center should be mentioned.
In the field of art and culture mediation, the major Munich museums, theaters, orchestras and operas are involved in the form of guided tours or introductory events - often in close cooperation with the Munich Adult Education Center.
Libraries and Archives
The Bavarian State Library is the central state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of the most important European research and universal libraries with an international reputation. Its holdings amount to around 10.49 million volumes (as of 2016), and its old holdings also include one of the most important manuscript collections in the world, the most extensive collection of incunabula in Germany, one of the most extensive and important journal libraries in Europe and numerous other important ones Special collections.
The Munich City Library is the library system of the public libraries of the city administration. This consists of over 30 libraries, making it the largest municipal library system in Germany today. The inventory includes around three million books , magazines and new media . In addition, there is the Monacensia literature and manuscript archive , the music library, the children's and youth library on Gasteig, the special philatelic library and the legal library in the new town hall.
In addition, there are numerous other libraries in the city such as the university libraries, including the university library of the LMU Munich and therein the Shakespeare research library founded by Wolfgang Clemen in 1963 , the library of the University of Film and Television, the library of the Deutsches Museum and the 1949 of Jella Leppmann founded the International Youth Library in Blutenburg Castle . After the Poetry Library in London, the Lyrik Kabinett is the second largest public poetry collection in Europe.
The Bavarian Main State Archive is the largest Bavarian state archive and, due to Bavaria's long state existence, it is also one of the most important archives in Europe. The Munich State Archive is the Bavarian State Archive responsible for the Upper Bavaria administrative region. The Munich City Archive also exists as the municipal archive .
International cultural mediation
The headquarters of the internationally operating Goethe-Institut is in Munich. In addition, various countries are represented with cultural institutes in Munich, such as France with the Institut français de Munich , Italy with the Istituto Italiano di Cultura , Poland with the Polish cultural center , Spain with the Instituto Cervantes , the Czech Republic with the České Centrum (Czech Center) , the United States with the America House and the United Kingdom with the British Council .
The biggest sporting event in Munich was the 1972 Olympic Games . The city had applied for the 2018 Winter Olympics and was defeated by the South Korean city of Pyeongchang , which was elected in the first round of voting. The council's initiative to reapply for the 2022 Winter Games failed in a referendum .
European Championships Munich 2022
The second edition of the European Championships will take place in Munich from August 11 to 21, 2022. The European championships in beach volleyball , canoe racing , climbing , athletics , cycling ( track cycling , road cycling , BMX freestyle , mountain bike cross country ), rowing , table tennis , triathlon and gymnastics are part of the 2022 program. The following locations will serve as competition venues: Olympiastadion , Olympiapark , Messe München , regatta course Oberschleißheim , Rudi-Sedlmayer-Halle and Munich city center ( Königsplatz , Odeonsplatz ).
The European Championships will be the largest multisport event in Munich since the 1972 Olympic Games.
In the north of the city is the Olympic Park built for the 1972 Olympic Games . The ensemble of Olympic Stadium , Olympic Swimming Pool and Olympic Hall is world-famous, especially because of the daring tent roof construction that fits into the hilly landscape of the surrounding park. The Olympic ice rink , which opened in 1967, is also located here . The Olympic sports facilities also include a regatta course on the northern outskirts of Oberschleißheim . Until 2005, the Olympic Stadium was the home ground of FC Bayern Munich and at times also of TSV 1860 Munich.
In May 2005, the Allianz Arena , located at the north end of the city, was opened, where the home games of FC Bayern Munich take place. The arena, with a capacity of 75,000 spectators (69,000 international seats), was the venue for the opening game of the 2006 World Cup as well as other games of the tournament. The most traditional and oldest larger sports facility in Munich is the municipal stadium on Grünwalder Straße . TSV 1860 Munich played its home games there (with several interruptions), and FC Bayern Munich until 1972.
The DAV climbing and bouldering center Munich-South is located in the Munich district of Sendling , the world's largest artificial climbing facility with two climbing and bouldering halls and several outdoor facilities.
Public sports facilities for the population are primarily the district sports facilities set up in the individual districts and districts and the Munich baths . For equestrian sports there is the Daglfing harness racing track and the Riem horse racing track .
Probably the best-known sports club in Munich is the German record champions in men's football, FC Bayern Munich , which has played in the Bundesliga without interruption since 1965. The second major football club is TSV 1860 Munich , which also played in the Bundesliga for several years. The three-time German champion EHC Red Bull Munich represents Munich in ice hockey , Münchner SC in field and indoor hockey and the Munich Cowboys and Munich Rangers in American football . In addition to Frankfurt am Main, Munich was the city where Australian football developed in Germany in the mid-1990s . In addition to the Frankfurt Redbacks, the Munich Kangaroos were one of the founding clubs of the Australian Football League Germany (AFLG).
The TSV Milbertshofen was twice German team champion in table tennis, German champions and cup winners in volleyball, German Cup and European champions in handball. In addition, the basketball department of FC Bayern Munich is represented in the basketball league , after two German championships and a cup victory were won in the 1950s and 1960s. The MRRC Munich as the largest Bavarian Triathlon Club is, each with a male and female team in the Triathlon Bundesliga represented.
The snooker club 1. Münchner SC plays in the 2. Snooker Bundesliga . The Munich Animals are 12-time German champions in Powerchair Hockey and have been playing in the top division without interruption since the Bundesliga was founded .
Regular running events include the Munich Marathon in October, the Half Marathon and the ISPO Munich Night Run in April, the Wings for Life World Run Munich in May, the Munich City Run in June, the Munich Company Run in July and the New Year's Eve Run in Munich on December 31 December as well as the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Cross Run and the fastest time marathon.
Munich is also the world's most famous place for river surfing due to the inner-city standing wave in the Eisbach , which surfers use at all times of the day and all year round. Two other well-known spots for river surfing are along the Isar.
In winter, ice bathers meet at the Eisbach and Isar .
More Munich-based DAV-sections of are Gay Outdoor Club Munich , Section Bergland , Section Highlands , section University Sports Club Munich , Section Turner Alps wreath , Section Mountain Bund Munich , Section mountaineers Munich , section men's gymnastics club Munich , Section Isartal , section Koenigsberg founded ( in Königsberg ), Section Carpathians (founded in Sibiu ), Academic Section Munich , Section Alpine Ski Club Munich , Section Bodenschneid , Section Edelweiss Munich , Section Achensee , Section Firnland .
Another alpine club is the Munich Academic Alpine Club , which is not part of the DAV.
- See also the The small Munich bibliography on the Internet - Monachia sorted by subject area - on the Munich Wiki
- Josef H. Biller, Hans-Peter Rasp: Munich art and culture . 18th edition. Südwest Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-517-06977-7 .
- Stephan Albrecht, Martin Höppl (ed.): Munich. Urban history from the Middle Ages to the present. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0185-3 .
- Carlos Collado Seidel , Naomi Lawrende: Münchner Musikkindl. A musical journey of discovery. Musikkindl books, Munich 2011 ISBN 978-3-00-035065-8 .
- Hubert Ettl, Bernhard Setzwein (Ed.): Munich. Travel reading book. Text-illustrated book. with texts by Herbert Achternbusch , Carl Amery , Bruno Jonas , Hermann Lenz , Gerhard Polt and others and photos by Volker Derlath , Heinz Gebhardt , Regina Schmeken and others. edition lichtung, Viechtach 1999, ISBN 3-929517-28-0 .
- Christina Haberlik: The face of the city - Munich's most beautiful facades. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-937090-31-3 (essays on the “facade” and facade prices 1970–2009).
- Peter Claus Hartmann : Munich's way to the present. From Henry the Lion to a cosmopolitan city. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7954-2009-3 .
- Reinhard Heydenreuter : Small Munich City History. Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2087-6 .
- Joachim Käppner, Wolfgang Görl, Christian Mayer (Hrsg.): Munich - The history of the city. Süddeutsche Zeitung Edition, 2008, ISBN 978-3-86615-622-7 .
- Erich Keyser: Bavarian city book. Volume V 2, sub-volume Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate and Swabia. In: German city book. Urban History Handbook. On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the Association of German Cities and the Association of German Municipalities. Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-17-210181-9 .
- Peter Klimesch: Isarlust - Discoveries in Munich. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-937090-47-4 . (The Munich Isar from the Großhesseloher railway bridge to the St. Emmeram bridge.)
- Rüdiger Liedtke: 111 places in Munich that you have to see. Emons, Cologne 2012, ISBN 978-3-89705-892-7 .
- Rüdiger Liedtke: 111 places in Munich that you have to see. Volume 2, Emons, Cologne 2012, ISBN 978-3-95451-043-6 .
- Martin Morlock, photos: Stefan Moses: Munich: Grant with beers. In: Geo-Magazin. Hamburg 1979, 8, pp. 30-57. (Informative experience report: "There are hardly any other German polities that are so numerous half-truths as there are about Munich. Martin Morlock tried to correct prejudices - or to confirm them wholeheartedly." )
- Hans F. Nöhbauer : Munich. A history of the city and its citizens. Volume 2: From 1854 to the present. W. Ludwig, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-7787-2126-7 .
- Gerd Otto-Rieke: Graves in Munich - people who moved us. Alabasta Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-938778-08-1 .
- Lillian Schacherl, Josef Hugo Biller: Munich. revised edition. Prestel Verleger, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-7913-1272-3 .
- Franz Schiermeier: City Atlas Munich, maps and models from 1570 to today. Published by the Munich City Museum and the Munich City Archives, Franz Schiermeier Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-9809147-0-4 .
- Franz Schiermeier: Munich city models, 1570 city model by Jakob Sandtner, 1863 city model by Johann Baptist Seitz, 2017 Munich city model of the Department for Urban Planning and Building Regulations. Franz Schiermeier Verlag, Munich 2018-, ISBN 978-3-943866-60-5 .
- Helmuth Stahleder (author); Richard Bauer , Munich City Archives (ed.): Chronicle of the City of Munich. 2005, Vol. 1–3 (until 1818; standard scientific work on Munich's history), 1. Vol. Heinrich Hugendubel Verlag, Munich, 1995–2005, ISBN 3-88034-835-9 .
- Lorenz von Westenrieder : Description of the capital and residence city of Munich. Munich 1782. (Reprint of the original edition by Carl Gerber Verlag, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-87249-083-4 .)
- Benedikt Weyerer (Ed .: City of Munich): Munich 1919–1933 - city tours on political history. MünchenVerlag (formerly Buchendorfer Verlag), Munich 1993, ISBN 3-927984-18-3 .
- Benedikt Weyerer (Ed .: City of Munich): Munich 1933–1949 - city tours on political history. 2nd Edition. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-927984-40-X .
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- Official website of the Bavarian capital Munich
- Munich: Official Statistics (PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Open city portal Munich Wiki (as of 2018: over 15,000 articles)
- Link catalog on Munich at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Some houses on Herzogstandstrasse are only accessible from the neighboring community of Haar . Their postcode 85540 is assigned accordingly.
- A list of names for Munich that are used in many different languages is available in the Wiktionary .
- Note on “Munich's highest point” (according to the individual records referenced by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ): The uppermost contour line in the area of Gutshof Warnberg is above sea level; at the estate its height is probably exceeded slightly; About 600 meters south of it, on the city limits, there is an area between the 580 and 582 meter contour lines.
- Staircase from Oberländer Straße to Plinganserstraße, ramp at the western end of Lindwurmstraße .
- For the name see also: History of Munich # city foundation .
- The Irish writer Bram Stoker, who is evidently reminiscent of domestic buildings due to the style of the street, starts his short story Dracula's Daughter , which became his novel Dracula in 1897 , in front of the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten on Maximilianstrasse: “The sun was shining brightly on Munich when we set out on our excursion and the air trembled in the rush of early summer. At the moment of departure, Mr. Delbrück, the maitre d'hotel of the »Four Seasons«, where I stayed, came to the coach… ”(Bram Stoker, Im Haus des Graf Dracula , Munich 1974).
- In the spring of 1954 the Deputy Director of Edinburgh visited his Munich colleague Dr. Anton Fingerle, and they decided to regularly exchange teacher and student groups in the future. The city parliaments approved, and the history of Munich city partnerships began in the same year with the signing of contracts by Lord Mayor Thomas Wimmer and Lord Provost John G. Banks .
- The contacts between Verona and Munich initially arose on an economic level: At that time, the Munich wholesale market hall received a large part of its vegetables and fruit via Verona. Even today, the city partnership is shaped primarily by the Verona Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
- The first contacts between Bordeaux and Munich developed as early as the 1950s. Both cities were very interested in helping to achieve reconciliation between Germany and France and the emergence of a fraternal Europe after the World War by establishing a partnership between cities .
- Sapporo was the venue for the 1972 Winter Olympics , while the Summer Games were held in Munich .
- It was Auguste Kent who campaigned for the long-standing friendly relations between her old and her new hometown to be officially sealed on September 18, 1989 by Mayor Georg Kronawitter and Mayor Charles J. Luken. As early as 1871, the Munich ore foundry Ferdinand von Miller produced the fountain figures for the Tyler-Davidson fountain , which is now in the center of Cincinnati.
- In the course of the relaxation of the East-West conflict at the end of the 1980s, the desire arose in Munich for a triangular partnership between Munich and one city in the United States and one in the Soviet Union, which was still in existence at the time .
- Genesis online database of the Bavarian State Office for Statistics, Table 12411-001 Update of the population: municipalities, reference dates (last 6) (population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
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- Para. 3 Municipal Code for the Free State of Bavaria
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