Tribal Duchy of Saxony
The tribal duchy of Saxony , also called Old Saxony , was a medieval duchy between the Lower Rhine and the Lower Elbe and the Eider . It emerged from the settlement area of the Saxons , which was conquered by Charlemagne in stages between 772 and 804 and incorporated into the Franconian Empire . The tribal duchy of Saxony had no territorial and only indirect historical reference to the existing Free State of Saxony ; but it has one to today's state of Lower Saxony .
Expansion and division
The core area of the duchy comprised, to the left of the Elbe and Saale, the existing Lower Saxony (excluding East Frisia ), Bremen , the parts of Westphalia (excluding Siegerland and Wittgensteiner Land ) and Lippe of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the western part of Saxony-Anhalt . It divided (from west to east) into Westphalia (Westfalia), Engern (Angaria) and Ostfalen (Ostfalia). To the right of the Elbe, it comprised northern Albingia ( Dithmarschen , Holstein and Stormarn ) in the north, and parts of present-day Mecklenburg were briefly added to the northeast under Heinrich the Lion .
After the fall of Henry the Lion, the eastern part of the country came - along with the title "dux Saxoniae" - on April 13, 1180 with the Gelnhäuser certificate of Bernard of Saxony , the youngest son of Albert the Bear of the sex of the Askanier . At the Reichstag in Erfurt in November 1181, Bernhard received the official title Duke of Saxony in addition to the territory .
The duchies of Saxony-Lauenburg and Saxony-Wittenberg were established in 1296 after dividing the inheritance . 1356 Wittenberger Askanier were the Golden Bull Charles IV. With the electorship encumbered and thus elector of axes . After the male line of Ascanians died out in 1422, the duchy and electoral dignity were transferred to the Meissnian Wettins and their territories upstream of the Elbe ( Upper Saxony ).
In recent research, the view is increasingly gaining ground that the tribal duchy of Saxony represents, instead of a uniform tribal area of domination, merely an "unclear territorial terminology", constructed on the basis of secular notions of order from the 19th century. This view is based on the assumption that there was probably never a Duke of Saxony, only dukes in Saxony.
According to a legend of origin of the Saxons written down by Widukind von Corvey in the middle of the 10th century , they had come from Britain and first landed in Hadeln in the northern tip of the Elbe-Weser triangle, recruited by the Franks as allies against the Thuringians . From there the Saxon people spread south to Westphalia. Presumably traditions were mixed here and included a possible return migration of the Saxons, who presumably had settled in Britain since the 5th century. Based on the results of place name research, it has recently been questioned that the Saxon tribe spread south from Hadeln. However, there are no concrete studies of place name research for the Elbe-Weser triangle, according to legend the cradle of the tribe.
According to another tradition, in particular, by urn findings supported, conquered in the 5th century Saxony, also from the Elbe-Weser triangle, under the leadership of the legendary pair of brothers Hengest and Horsa , Britain , the Romans as a result of the disintegration of their empire no longer could hold. These are the first Saxon leaders whose names have been passed down. It is noteworthy that in the Elbe-Weser triangle near Stade there is the town of Harsefeld , which was also called "Rosenfeld" in the Middle Ages. This does not mean “ roses ”, but “ horses ”, so that the place has the same name meaning as Horsa ( English “horse”: “horse”). According to the monastery chronicle, there was previously a pagan sanctuary in Harsefeld, which was the grave of the Udones as a monastery and monastery from around 1000 onwards , probably a horse grove , from the wood of which the first church was built.
It is questionable whether there before the conquest and Christianization by Charlemagne already a tribal duchy was in Saxony with a person or even a family, in whose hands was permanently guiding the whole Saxony tribe. According to Widukind von Corvey, a duke ("herizogo") was initially what the name implies in Old High German : "He who pulls before the army in times of war" (dux belli) .
In 743 leading Frankish house Meier Karl man from the sex of the Carolingian an army to Saxony, captured the Hoohseoburg and made the Saxons Theodoric tribute . In the following year Karlmann and his brother Pippin the Younger subjugated the "Theodericus Saxo" again. Her brother Grifo , with whom they fought for rule in the Franconian Empire, fled with his retinue to the Saxons in 747 and gathered a Saxon army. In this context, the names of places and rivers were first mentioned in writing, for example " Orheim " (today Ohrum) and " Scahaningi " (today Schöningen) along with the local rivers " Obacra " (today Oker) and "Missaha" (today Missaue) . From there, Grifo 748 temporarily conquered the Duchy of Bavaria .
After Pippin 750 the last Merovingian king Childerich III. Forced into a monastery and had himself elected king, in 753 he again led an army to Saxony, although neither the occasion nor the Saxon military leader are known. In 758, King Pippin made the Saxon people (probably only part of the tribes in Westphalia) subject to tribute. His sons Charlemagne and Karlmann I shared the father's empire among themselves.
Conquest of Saxony
After the death of his brother Karlmann in 771, Charlemagne began to conquer Saxony in 772. The process was repeated for decades: if Charlemagne was victorious, the Saxons submitted, promised peace and tribute, and held hostages in return. Presumably other clans, who were not involved in the agreement, made raids into Franconian areas the next year and rekindled the disputes. Sometimes the hostages were deliberately sacrificed.
Widukind von Corvey reports that the Saxon tribe was divided into three large sub-tribes, namely the East Saxons and Ostfalen, the Engern and the Westphalia. This tripartite division is confirmed by the fact that after the Reichsannals, the sub-tribes made separate agreements under their respective military leaders. In 775 the East Saxons under the leadership of Hassio submitted to the Oker and took hostages. In the same year, the Engern and their leader Bruno took hostages in the Bückeburg area after a defeat by Charlemagne. Another Frankish army had been attacked by the Westphalia at Lübbecke on the Weser , presumably under the leadership of Widukind. When Charlemagne attacked with the main army, he also forced the Westphalians to submit and to take hostages.
The next year the Saxons sacrificed their hostages and dragged the Eresburg , in which Charlemagne had left a Frankish garrison. Here too, Charlemagne's retaliation was successful in 776. He forced the defeated Westphalia to be baptized at the source of the Lippe . In 777, Charlemagne set up a Reichstag in Saxony for the first time , namely in Paderborn, to which he also summoned the tributary Saxons. Widukind did not appear, but had fled with his entourage to the Nordmanns. It is not entirely certain whether the three Saxon districts in northern Albingia or neighboring Denmark were meant. Perhaps Widukind's mother or wife was a Danish princess. In 778, Widukind persuaded the Saxons to revolt again, which led them to the gates of Cologne, but ultimately failed again. In 779 Charlemagne rolled over Westphalia and took hostages from the Engern again. In 780 he led his army from Westphalia to the Elbe and forced the residents of the Bardengau and Saxony north of the Elbe to be baptized. In 782, Charlemagne had received reports of an invasion by the Slavs into Saxon and Thuringian areas. He sent his chamberlain, his marshal and a count palatine to raise an East Frankish-Saxon army against the Slavs . When his legates learned that Widukind had led the Saxons to revolt again, they led their East Franconian troops against him and suffered a crushing defeat that cost the lives of two of the legates and four counts under their command. Charlemagne avenged her death in the same year with the bloodbath at Verden an der Aller , in which 4500 rebellious Saxons are said to have been judged. Widukind fled to the Northmen again. In 783, Charlemagne won disputes in Detmold, Paderborn and an der Hase . He crossed the Weser and advanced again to the Elbe. In 784, Charlemagne fought the Ostfalen and his son of the same name the Westphalia. Even an additional winter campaign was necessary this year. In 785 the resistance of the Saxons was broken to such an extent that Charlemagne was able to hold an imperial assembly in Paderborn and advance to Bardengau without any disputes. There he began negotiations with Widukind and his brother-in-law Abbi, who submitted and were baptized. Both seem to have promised and received counties.
At the latest with Widukind's baptism, the Saxons now belonged to the Frankish empire and command. There is no direct news about the leaders of the Saxon departments. Charlemagne, however, pursued a lively marriage policy. As counts in the Saxon districts, he appointed Saxon nobles who had received Franconian women - presumably at least in part former hostages. Franks, whose wives came from noble clans of the Saxons, received the supreme command. Saxon contingents are attested in 787, 788, 789 and 791. In 793, Saxons in Rüstringen (left bank of the Lower Weser) wiped out a department under the command of a kings relative, Count Theodoric. In 794 Charlemagne and his son Karl again led two armies in pincer grip against the Saxons, which then surrendered. In 795 the Saxons killed the Abodritic King Witzan on the Elbe near Bardowieck , who was a close ally of Charlemagne, which the Frankish king successfully avenged. In 796 he broke off a campaign to Saxony without result, in order to conquer the Elbe-Weser triangle the next year. In 798 the northern Albingians began the uprising, which Charlemagne had suppressed by the Abodritic military leader Drasco and the Frankish legate Eburis in the battle on the Sventana field . The next year, Charlemagne held court in Paderborn and sent his son Karl on with half of the army to further stabilize the situation in Bardengau. In 802 he sent a Saxon army against the northern Albingians, who continued to rebel. In summer 804 he finally ended the Saxon Wars by defeating the rebels in the Elbe-Weser triangle and north of the Elbe and deporting the survivors with their wives and children to the Franconian Empire. He left northern Albingia to the Abodrites, allied with him, as further advance across the Elbe seemed too dangerous to him. The Danish king Göttrik had concentrated his squad and his fleet near Schleswig.
After the Saxon Wars - certainly already during them - there were Franconian counts in Saxony who were given special powers by the king or emperor depending on the situation. With the decree of the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae , a legal text probably passed by Charlemagne in 782, the appointment of Saxon counts took place for the first time. However, their powers were limited compared to Franconian counts. Immediately subordinate to the emperor, they held an office for him, could be removed and were subject to instructions. A few of these Saxon counts are known, such as the brothers Richart and Richolf mentioned in 798. Their reputation among the Saxons was low. Belonging to Christianity made them a target of displacement and murder.
As far as we know today, there was no comprehensive establishment of counties in the defeated Saxony. Older views that even assumed a “county constitution”, that is, an administrative penetration of the Sachsenland by Franconian or even exclusively Saxon counts, are now considered refuted. Instead, the subject Saxon areas were first incorporated into the Franconian Empire from 777 onwards through the establishment of dioceses, which were predominantly headed by Franconian bishops.
As part of the dispute with the Danes, a Count Ekbert had been given command by the Kaiser in 809 over the Saxon counts for an advance across the Elbe to northern Albingia, which had the Franconian castle Esesfeld (Itzehoe) built. In 811 a Count Ekbert was one of the counts who swore peace with Count Wala for the Frankish side. It is assumed that this is Count Ekbert , who, according to tradition, came from Saxony, married the later saint Ida von Herzfeld and was allegedly made Duke of the Saxons between the Rhine and Weser by Charlemagne. Whether Dux Ekbert was Sachse or Franke is controversial. The politics of Charlemagne speaks more for the tradition of his Saxon origins. Since his descendants boasted of Carolingian origins, his wife Ida is likely to have been related to Charlemagne. In a tradition from 860/877 Ekbert is referred to as Count and Duke. It can be assumed that Count Ekbert only achieved a duke-like position between the Rhine and Weser after the death of Charlemagne, when Count Wala and his brothers were forced to become a monk by Emperor Ludwig the Pious in 814 .
Count Ekbert's son Cobbo I is referred to twice as Duke in a West Franconian source, while Saxon sources only emphasize his outstanding position as Count. In 845 he led the Saxon contingent against the Normans who had previously conquered the Hammaburg on behalf of Ludwig the Pious . 838 in Le Mans a Count Banzleib is referred to as the Saxon margrave and partisan of Ludwig the Pious, who seems to have lost his office in the Stellinga uprising and with Ludwig's death.
Younger tribal duchy
According to Widukund von Corvey, Saxony consisted of the parts Engern , Westphalia and Ostfalen even before the Frankish conquest . It is unclear whether Northern Albingia originally belonged to Engern or formed an independent part. At least the tripartite division is confirmed by the fact that leaders of the sub-tribes emerged during the Saxon Wars. Even in Carolingian times it is unclear to what extent the powers of the respective dux went.
In 852 Liudolf , ancestor of the Ottonians , founded the Gandersheim monastery . It is assumed that he was a son or grandson of Ekbert who, according to tradition, held the ducat between the Rhine and the Weser. But that is not guaranteed. Liudolf is only referred to as Graf at the time. Only when his descendants have attained the royal dignity is he dubbed Duke of Eastern Saxony, i.e. of Ostfalen, occasionally but without this restriction. He was married to the daughter of a Frankish Prince Billing, which fits the pattern of Carolingian officials in Saxony. He died in 866.
The position of the Liudolfinger in Saxony strengthened when Liudolf's daughter Liutgard married the Carolingian Ludwig the Younger , a son of the East Franconian King Ludwig the German , probably in 869 . When Ludwig the German died in 876, the Saxon Liutgard became the new queen of the East Franconian Empire. Probably Brun , Liudolf's eldest son, owed it to his royal sister that he led the Saxon contingent against the Vikings as dux , which, however, cost him his life in 880. According to tradition, Duke Brun is considered the progenitor of the Brunons . It is not known whether he only commanded the Ostfalen or whether his powers extended.
The task that Duke Brun had failed to do was initially taken over by neither a descendant nor his brother Otto. King Ludwig the Younger had already appointed Count Heinrich Babenberg as his princeps militae as heir to the throne in 866 . Like Count Cobbo I, he seems to have held a position similar to a duke in Westphalia and also in Engern. When Ludwig the Younger died without heirs in 882, his brother Emperor Karl the Fat took over the East Franconian Empire. Charlemagne relied on his brother's tried and tested general and appointed him Duke of the Eastern Empire ( Austria ). In 884 he led the Saxons against the Normans, in 885 he freed Friesland from Danish influence. In 886, however, Duke Heinrich fell against the Normans before Paris when his horse fell into a pitfall. With the loss of his most capable vassal, the fate of the emperor was sealed. In 887 he was forced to abdicate due to inability.
Now Brun's younger brother Otto the Illustrious became the new Duke . He was most likely the son-in-law of Duke Heinrich, whose daughter Hathui (Hedwig) he had married. Since he probably combined the position of his own father Liudolf in Ostfalen and that of his father-in-law in the other areas of Saxony, the younger duchy of the Saxon tribe developed under Duke Otto. In the Babenberg feud, the brothers of the Saxon Duchess were defeated in 906 against the Conradines in the fight for supremacy in Franconia. Presumably the remaining Babenbergers fled into the protection of Otto the Illustrious and his wife. In 911, the Franconian Duke Konrad the Younger was elected King of East Franconia ( Konrad I ). The crown is said to have been offered initially to Otto the Illustrious, who renounced it. Duke Otto died in 912.
Since the two older sons of Duke Otto had previously died, he was followed as Duke of Saxony by his son Heinrich, most likely named after his maternal grandfather, Duke Heinrich († 886). When the Konradiner Konrad I died in 919, the Saxon Duke Heinrich was elected as Heinrich I at the Diet of Fritzlar as King of the East Franconian Empire .
According to a later view, Henry I, as king , should not have kept the Duchy of Saxony, which according to the Sachsenspiegel belonged to the Saxon flag feuds . His power base was probably too narrow to give it up. He therefore commissioned close confidants and relatives to perform tasks as legates within Saxony. The most important legacy was Count Siegfried von Merseburg, who was considered second after the king and was entrusted to Saxony in the absence of the king. Count Siegfried was the cousin of Heinrich's first wife and perhaps also his brother-in-law.
Heinrich I had divorced his first wife because of alleged obstacles to marriage and around 910 - still as a count - married his second wife Mathilde from the descendants of the Westphalian dux Widukind. From this marriage, Otto was born as the eldest son in 912. In 929 he was appointed heir to the throne by his father, ousting his older half-brother Thankmar, and occasionally referred to as king. Otto I was elected Roman-German king shortly after his father's death in 936 and anointed in Aachen .
Otto I followed his father's policy for Saxony and did not enfeoff his own duke. In 938 he appointed Hermann Billung as princeps militiae against the Redarians , whose former legate Count Bernhard († 935) was most likely an ancestor of the Billungers , resigning his older brother Wichmann I. and another . Hermann Billung was later dubbed Margrave of the Billunger Mark . According to the sources, he was commissioned to represent the king in Saxony in 953, 961 and 966, although it remains unclear whether his powers extended to the whole of Saxony. The court chancellery avoided the name dux for Hermann Billung , he is only called that in a few contemporary sources. In addition to Hermann Billung, Otto I. appointed legates. One of them was Count Heinrich von Stade , called the Bald; According to the testimony of his grandson Thietmar von Merseburg, a close relative of the king and most likely a relative - probably a brother - of Hermann Billung's wife Oda. Count Heinrich I was initially commissioned to administer Wichmann I's county on both sides of the Lower Elbe for the underage sons of Wichmann I, who died in 944. Count Heinrich the Bald supported his presumed brother-in-law Hermann Billung in the dispute with Count Wichmann II and Ekbert the One-Eyed . They were the sons of Wichmann I and Hermann Billung's nephews on his father's side, and royal relatives on his mother's side. However, when Hermann Billung claimed royal privileges as his deputy in 971 while Otto I was in Rome, Count Heinrich the Bald fled to his relative in Italy, in order to return from there with powers to punish Hermann Billung and his allies.
When Otto I commissioned Hermann Billung to represent him for the second time in 961, he was preparing for the military expedition against Northern Italy and Rome. As a precaution, he had also crowned his seven-year-old son Otto II as co- king. Arrived victorious in Rome, Otto I was anointed emperor . During the third substitution by Hermann Billung, Otto the Great had his son Otto II raised to co-emperor in 967. Otto II married the Byzantine princess Theophanu in Rome in 972 . The next year, Hermann Billung died in Quedlinburg in March 973 and Otto the Great in his Palatinate Memleben in May 973 , making Otto II formally the sole ruler.
Despite Otto the Great's early efforts to secure rule for his son Otto II, his position was not unchallenged. Often staying in Italy and married to a foreigner, Otto II did not have the support north of the Alps like his father. He could not refuse or curtail Bernhard I , Hermann Billung's eldest son, his position as Duke of the Saxons.
It is unknown whether Duke Bernhard I, who, like his son of the same name, was also called Benno, was enfeoffed by Otto the Great, or whether this only happened through Otto II. The position of the Saxon Duke was further strengthened by the rapid death of the Ottonians. Otto II died in Rome in 983. His son Otto III. followed his father to death in 1002. Heinrich II first had to assure the Saxons of their old rights to the hands of their duke before they elected him king. In 1011 Duke Bernhard I died in the same year as his brother Count Liudger.
As the eldest son of Bernhard I, Bernhard II became Duke of Saxony and remained so until his death in 1059.
He was followed in 1059 by his son Ordulf , also known as Otto, who was first married to Wulfhild, the half-sister of the Danish - Norwegian King Magnus , from 1042 . Ordulf named his eldest son Magnus after him. In the sources, the death of Duke Ordulf is given differently with 1071, 1072 or 1073. According to the current state of research, 1072 should be correct.
When Ordulf died, his successor Magnus was imprisoned by Heinrich IV in the Harzburg , who tried in vain to force him to renounce the Duchy of Saxony. It was not liberated until 1073. In 1075/76 he was captured again. The Saxon uprising was led at this time by the former Bavarian Duke Otto von Northeim , whose wife Richenza was probably also a member of the Wichmann line. Duke Magnus was already considered by his contemporaries to be the most unsuccessful representative of his sex. In 1106 he died without a male heir, ending the Billunger dynasty.
Cognates of the Billunger
With the death of Duke Magnus, his allodes were shared by his two daughters Wulfhild and Eilika . Wulfhild was with the Guelph Duke Heinrich IX. von Bayern and Eilika married the Ascanian Otto von Ballenstedt . However, none of Duke Magnus' sons-in-law received the Duchy of Saxony. This was Lothar von Süpplingenburg invested. In older research it was assumed that a little count was deliberately appointed duke in order to strengthen neither the Guelphs nor the Ascanians. Lothar's wife Richenza von Northeim probably brought extensive genetic material from the Billung Wichmann line into the marriage through her grandmother of the same name, Richenza . In addition, there was the legacy of the Northeimers and the Brunones . Lothar's own family is more difficult to grasp, but provided Bishop Ricbert von Verden (1060-1084).
In 1112, Duke Lothar supported the Udones against the efforts of their Ministerial Friedrich von Stade to prove his free origin before the royal court. They prevented the proceedings by Friedrich's arrest. Heinrich V had the Duchy of Saxony withdrawn from Lothar by means of a prince's verdict and enfeoffed Count Otto von Ballenstedt, one of the two sons-in-law of the former Duke Magnus. After a few months, the Ascanian lost this dignity again because Heinrich V temporarily reconciled with Lothar von Süpplingenburg. In 1115 Duke Lothar defeated the Emperor in the Battle of the Welfesholz , so that his position in Saxony was incontestable.
In 1125 the Duke of Saxony was elected King ( Lothar III ) in Mainz . It is controversial whether the new king enfeoffed his son-in-law Heinrich X the Proud , husband of his heir Gertrud, in addition to Bavaria with Saxony in 1126, since there were no royal documents from Lothar III. in which Heinrich the Proud is also referred to as the Saxon Duke.
Lothar III. In the absence of a son, he wanted his son-in-law Heinrich the Proud to be his successor. As Lothar III. 1137 died, but the Staufer Konrad III sat down . as the new king, who enfeoffed the Ascanian Albrecht the Bear , another grandson of Duke Magnus through his mother Eilika, with Saxony. But he did not succeed in asserting himself against his cousin Heinrich the Proud and the Dowager Empress Richenza, even after Henry X the Proud had died in 1139. In 1141 Albrecht the Bear renounced the Duchy of Saxony. However, his descendants later led to the Ascanian lines of the duchies of Saxony-Lauenburg and Saxony-Wittenberg as well as the Counts of Weimar-Orlamünde , the Princes of Anhalt and the Margraves of Brandenburg .
Richenza and her daughter Gertrud secured the duchies of Bavaria and Saxony for their grandson and son Heinrich the Lion , who in 1142 by Conrad III. was enfeoffed with Saxony. Henry the Lion pursued a particularly intensive policy of expansion and gave the Duchy of Saxony its greatest expansion. He also claimed for himself the right to appoint the Saxon bishops and to set up new counties, which he occupied with his most loyal vassals.
In 1180 Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa withdrew the Duchy of Saxony from his cousin Heinrich the Lion, the most powerful prince at the time, based on the ruling of Saxon princes with the Gelnhausen certificate .
While the title of duke finally fell to the Ascanians with Bernhard I (see Saxony-Wittenberg and Saxony-Lauenburg ), several independent territories emerged on the territory of the former duchy, i.e. H. Counties and dioceses. The duchy itself was reduced to the duchy of Westphalia , which was subordinated to the ducat of the archbishops of Cologne.
Duchy of Brunswick-Lueneburg
In 1235, Friedrich II Heinrich's grandson Otto made the child the first duke in the newly created duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , which comprised only a fraction of the old tribal duchy, but was able to regain many Saxon areas between the Elbe and Weser in the following centuries.
- Caspar Ehlers : The integration of Saxony into the Frankish empire. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-35887-0 .
- Matthias Becher : Rex, Dux and Gens. Investigations into the development of the Saxon duchy in the 9th and 10th centuries (= historical studies. Vol. 444). Matthiesen, Husum 1996, ISBN 3-7868-1444-9 (also: Paderborn, University, habilitation paper, 1994–1995).
- Hans-Werner Goetz: "Dux" and "Ducatus". Conceptual and constitutional studies on the emergence of the so-called “younger” tribal duchy at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. 2nd edition. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1981, ISBN 3-921543-66-5 .
- Walther Lammers (Ed.): The incorporation of the Saxons into the Franconian Empire (= ways of research. Vol. 50). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1970.
- Walther Lammers (ed.): Origin and constitution of the Saxon tribe. Darmstadt 1967.
- Arno Jenkis: The incorporation of "Northern Albingia " into the Franconian Empire . In: Journal of the Society for Schleswig-Holstein History 79 (1955), pp. 81-104.
- Hans-Joachim Freytag: The rule of the Billunger in Saxony. Göttingen 1951 (dissertation, University of Kiel, 1949).
- Caspar Ehlers: Saxony as Saxon bishops . In: Matthias Becher, Alheydis Plassmann (ed.): Dispute at the court in the early Middle Ages . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, p. 102.
- Ernst Schubert : The Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae. In: Dieter Brosius, Christiane van den Heuvel, Ernst Hinrichs, Hajo van Lengen (eds.): History in the region. On the 65th birthday of Heinrich Schmidt , Hannover 1993, p. 3–28, here p. 7 (dating) and p. 9 (establishment of Saxony).
- MGH Epistulae 5, p. 300: Richart et patruelis nomine Richolf, ambo Saxones , on this Klemens Honselmann : The acceptance of Christianity by the Saxons in the light of Saxon sources of the 9th century. in: Westfälische Zeitschrift 1958, pp. 201–219, here p. 207.
- On comparable fates of Hiddi and Amalung Ingrid Rembold: Conquest and Christianization: Saxony and the Carolingian World, 772-888. Cambridge 2017, pp. 71-75.
- Caspar Ehlers : Saxony as Saxon bishops. The church politics of the Carolingian and Ottonian kings in a new light. in: Matthias Becher, Alheydis Plassmann (Hrsg.): Dispute at the court in the early Middle Ages. Göttingen 2011, pp. 95–120, here pp. 96–100.