|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||143 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||90.48 km 2|
|Residents:||9623 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||106 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||37581|
|Area code :||05382|
|License plate :||NOM, EIN, GAN|
|Community key :||03 1 55 001|
|LOCODE :||DE BGM|
City administration address :
37581 Bad Gandersheim
|Mayoress :||Franziska Schwarz ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Bad Gandersheim in the Northeim district|
Bad Gandersheim is a spa town in the district of Northeim , Lower Saxony (Germany). The city, whose name Bad refers to its saltwater spa , lies west of the Harz Mountains . The city is also called "Roswithastadt" after the poet Roswitha von Gandersheim .
The town of Bad Gandersheim lies between the Leinebergland , Weserbergland and Harz foreland in the valley of the Gande river , into which the Eterna flows in the urban area. In the north lies the Heber ridge . The urban area is predominantly mountainous. The Harz begins about ten kilometers east of the city , five kilometers west is the Leinetal .
In addition to the core city, Bad Gandersheim consists of the following districts:
The Gandersheim Abbey was founded in 852 by Duke of Saxony Liudolf, who gave the Liudolfinger its name . It was a women's monastery that had been directly imperial since 877 . In earlier times there was already a merchant settlement (the Wiek ) on the site of today's Georgskirche . The city experienced a heyday under the Liudolfingers in the 10th century. The poet Roswitha von Gandersheim also lived at this time . Market, coin and customs law was granted to her in 990 by the Empress Theophanu in the name of her (underage) son Otto III. awarded.
Around 1300 the ducal-Braunschweig castle of Gandersheim was built as a counterpoint to the monastery. In 1329 the citizens of the city finally bought themselves free from their dependence on the monastery (Magna Charta Gandershemensis). The three power centers of the pen, town and castle were decisive for Gandersheim in the future.
In 1568, at the instigation of Duke Julius of Braunschweig, the Reformation was also carried out for the monastery. The monastery flourished again in the Baroque period under the Abbess Elisabeth von Sachsen-Meiningen (Abbess from 1713 to 1766). With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the monastery lost its independence in 1803 and was completely dissolved in 1810 after the death of the last abbess. The fortune went to the Kingdom of Westphalia . The monastery initially existed as a Protestant women's monastery, the territories fell to the Duke of Braunschweig .
City fires occurred in 1580, when the then city church of St. Mauritius was destroyed, and in 1833. In addition, there was considerable devastation during the Thirty Years War , so that only remnants of the original city fortifications remain.
In 1833 the district of Gandersheim was founded and in 1977 it was essentially divided between the districts of Goslar and Northeim . In 1878 the first brine bath was founded in Gandersheim and the spa business started slowly. After the First World War , professional tourism advertising began and from 1932 the town was allowed to call itself “Bad” Gandersheim. For the development of the postal system in Gandersheim, see: Braunschweig-Göttingen postal route
In 1944, the Bad Gandersheim concentration camp was built in the former Brunshausen monastery near Gandersheim as a satellite camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp , in which hundreds of prisoners had to live under inhumane conditions. They had to do forced labor in the aircraft factory belonging to the Heinkel factory and in a nearby quarry. The French writer Robert Antelme , who was interned there, vividly describes life and death in the Gandersheim camp in his work Das Menschengeschlecht . In addition, there was the Gandersheimer Flachsröste GmbH company in Bad Gandersheim, which was founded in 1935 as a branch of Deutsche Flachsbau GmbH Berlin. The branch soon developed into the largest flax roaster in the German Empire. With the processing of raw materials into yarns and fabrics that were to be used for parachutes, among other things, the facility in the Nazi war economy was one of the war-important companies that had to be emphatically supported in terms of labor. The Gandersheimer Flachsröste had its own warehouse for slave labor on Karl-Dinklage-Strasse in the Gandersheim city area. By May 1940 at the latest, 40 Polish women, who had meanwhile lived in the Meierhof camp, were deployed to the Flachsröste, and later 20 Russian women and 15 Ukrainian women. They lived in the local dairy, as the forced labor camp had not yet been set up at that time or was occupied by the accommodation of prisoners of war. Registration cards for the period between 1940 and 1945 testify to at least 51 Eastern European "civilian workers" who were employed in the flax roasting.
After the Second World War , numerous expellees , mainly from Silesia, were settled in the urban area. Therefore, in the 1950s, a new Catholic church was built in the city center. The adjoining former domain courtyard of the monastery was completely rebuilt and developed into a central bus station. On its southern side, the Martin Luther House was built for the Protestant collegiate community on the site of the former cloister of the monastery as the modern center of the church community.
In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s in particular, the spa business in the city of Bad Gandersheim was significantly expanded. Numerous new spa facilities with brine drinking pavilion, water treading pool, music pavilion, small golf course and natural hiking trails have been created. In addition, a new health resort and half a dozen health clinics were built on the edge of the park. The health resort became the most important economic factor in the city and the surrounding area.
In the 1990s, the entire city center was redesigned: Since then, there has been a small pedestrian zone on the market and next to the collegiate church. In addition, Moritzstrasse - the city's main shopping street - was traffic-calmed; a number of buildings in the historic town center were renovated. There were also two nature trails in the north of Bad Gandersheim, the mountain spa park on a steep hillside, and a path through a wetland with a wooden observation tower.
The inner-city park Plangarten has recently been redesigned with a spacious playground, among other things.
On March 1, 1974, the communities of Ackenhausen, Altgandersheim, Clus, Dankelsheim, Dannhausen, Ellierode, Gehrenrode, Gremsheim, Hachenhausen, Harriehausen (previously in the district of Osterode am Harz ), Heckenbeck, Helmscherode, Seboldshausen, Wolperode and Wrescherode were incorporated.
In 1953, the new Catholic Church of the Assumption of Mary was built in the immediate vicinity of the collegiate church, to which 1,800 parishioners belong today (including the surrounding villages).
There is also a Free Evangelical Congregation (FeG) and the Agape Congregation , which is part of the Federation of Free Church Pentecostal Congregations .
Since 1987 , the Bad Gandersheim faith center has been located on the Osterberg in the barracks building of the former customs school Bad Gandersheim, which was used from 1936 to 1945 as the motorsport school of the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) . It describes itself as a cross-denominational work of faith and can be assigned to the charismatic-evangelical direction.
The New Apostolic Church at Neuen Straße 32 was closed in 2007.
The Bad Gandersheim Council consists of 20 members. After the local elections on September 11, 2016 , the seats are divided among the individual parties and lists as follows:
|9 seats||7 seats||2 seats||1 seat||1 seat|
The current incumbent mayor has been Franziska Schwarz (SPD) since 2014.
- 1851–1855: Karl Stegemann (1803–1887)
- 19 ??: Friedrich von Ernst (1850–1928)
- 1946–1948: Wilhelm Rohmeyer (1893–1964)
- 1960s: Rudolf Cahn von Seelen (1904–1992)
- 1960s: Hermann Cramme (1907–1983)
- 1968–1970: Hans-Dieter Gottschalk (1933–2005)
- 1974–1986: Heinz Köhler (* 1919)
- 1986–1991: Uwe Schwarz (SPD)
- 1991–1996: Rudolf Hermes (CDU)
- 1996–2001: Uwe Schwarz (SPD)
- 2001–2014: Heinz-Gerhard Ehmen (independent)
- since 2014: Franziska Schwarz (SPD)
Former City Directors
- –1970: Rudolf Cahn von Seelen
- 1970–1993 Hans-Dieter Gottschalk (1933–2005)
- 1993–2001 Heinz-Gerhard Ehmen
coat of arms
Blazon : “In gold a blue helmet with hanging black ribbons, on this two black horns covered with green peacock feathers; below a heraldic lily. ”Shortly after 1300, the first city seal, which can be traced back to 1335, was created. Since 1906, the coat of arms has again corresponded to the image in the shield of the first city seal. Later seals leave out the lily, which was considered a symbol of the prince monastery. The helmets and crests refer to the dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . In the town seals of the 18th century, a stinging helmet with individual peacock feathers and toothed sickles can be seen. Furthermore, a crowned "G" was used in the seals of the city during this time as well as in the 19th century.
City partnerships with:
Culture and sights
- Romanesque church of St. Anastasius and St. Innocentius of the Gandersheim Monastery (first consecration 881), often incorrectly referred to as Gandersheim Cathedral . The west portal serves as the backdrop for the Gandersheim Cathedral Festival .
- Georgskirche (oldest parish church in the city)
- Historic old town with half-timbered house Bracken from 1473
- Historic town hall - new building after the town fire in 1580, including the destroyed Moritzkirche in the Renaissance style (dated 1583, 1589), Ratskeller, former Ratswaage, open staircase, two neck irons and two lascivious stones, city coat of arms (see above), leopard coat of arms of the dukes of Braunschweig as Bailiff, fool mask ; Participation of Johann von Mehle (Edeler), under whose direction the town hall of Alfeld was built in 1584/86 .
- Abbey with imperial hall, Elisabeth fountain and Marienkapelle
- Former castle of the Brunswick dukes (now district court)
- Brunshausen Monastery
- Monastery church Clus
Bad Gandersheim is on the Deutsche Fachwerkstrasse .
- Several spa parks (including Bergkurpark and Seekurpark)
- Lamspringe sculpture trail , bike and hiking trail between Bad Gandersheim and Lamspringe
- Natural monument head beech near Gremsheim , largest southern beech in the world, around 210 years old.
- Rebbel oak near the Clus domain with a chest height circumference of 6.58 m (2015).
- Oak near the Clus domain with a chest height circumference of 6.50 m (2015).
- Portal to history
- City museum in the town hall
- Annual award of the Roswitha Prize
- Cathedral Festival (Lower Saxony's largest open-air theater in summer in front of the collegiate church)
- Theater festival at the beginning of the cathedral festival
- Old Town Festival (held annually on the first weekend in September)
- spring Festival
- Farmers market
- Christmas Market
- Midsummer Run
- Champagne run
- Annual outbreak (end of April / beginning of May) in the Belief Center Bad Gandersheim
Economy and Infrastructure
- The city is connected to the federal highways 64 and 445 . This provides a direct connection to the A 7 .
- The Bad Gandersheim Station is located on the railway line Braunschweig-Kreiensen . The second railway line Hildesheim - Groß Düngen - Bad Gandersheim was shut down in the southern section for passenger traffic in 1975 - today there is a cycling and hiking path between Bad Gandersheim and Lamspringe (see: Sculpture Path ). The station can no longer be connected to the local public transport network, as the required turning space for the buses and the station itself have been sold by the railways and the new owner no longer allows the buses to be turned. The SPD politician Uwe Schwarz asked the state government at the end of 2014 and again in mid-2015. In the declaration from December 2014, Deutsche Bahn announced that a corresponding right of way had been included in the contract when the property was sold. However, Deutsche Bahn also sees the city of Bad Gandersheim as having an obligation.
- There are several intercity bus routes from the city to the surrounding area.
- The European long-distance hiking trail E11 leads through the urban area.
- The airfield Bad Gandersheim is located approximately two kilometers south of the city center on a hill, the radiator. From here you have a good view of the spa town. It is a popular excursion destination and an important part of the infrastructure for economic power in the southern Lower Saxony region and in the Harz Mountains.
The city's largest companies are: Auer-Lighting (formerly: Schott AG ) (special glass products), Loro-X-Rohr (galvanized metal pipes for drainage systems), Baumüller (small motors), Prahmann & Neidhardt (meat and sausage products - "Harzländer" brand) ), part AG (investor and real estate project developer) and AEET Energy Group GmbH (manufacturer of photovoltaic modules and project developer of solar projects).
As a health resort, the city has three health clinics with almost 600 beds ( Paracelsus group ). The Roswitha Klinik specializes in psychosomatics , the Klinik an der Gande on follow-up treatment (AHB) for orthopedic interventions as well as herniated discs and osteoporosis, while the Klinik am See focuses on follow-up treatment on oncological diseases. Furthermore, the city has a hospital primary care ( Heliosklinik ) - including an internal ward, surgical ward, gynecology, obstetrics, intensive care unit with six to seven beds, outpatient clinics, surgery, computed tomography , ambulance base and location of a rescue station , each with a RTW , KTW and NEF . Above all, the departments for orthopedics and obstetrics are known far beyond the city limits.
The Gandersheimer Kreisblatt is published for the city of Bad Gandersheim . This local newspaper , which appears daily (except on Sundays) , also reports on events in the municipalities of Kreiensen (district of Einbeck since 2013 ) and Kalefeld , which are adjacent to the urban area .
- Citizen's Office
- Tax office . Headquarters, responsible for parts of the districts of Northeim and Goslar (expanded in 2004)
- Lower Saxony state authority for road construction and transport , Gandersheim division (formerly: road construction office). Responsible for parts of southern Lower Saxony; u. a. Districts Northeim and Göttingen as well as the A7 motorway between Hildesheim and the state border near Hann. Münden
- Police station
- Bad Gandersheim District Court
- Fire service center, one of three in the Northeim district
- Voluntary fire brigade Bad Gandersheim, organized as a focus fire brigade (150th anniversary 2008)
- Helios Clinic , Bad Gandersheim
- Tourist Information
- Sole forest swimming pool
- City library
- Turner Music Academy V.
Bad Gandersheim has a primary school with two branches in the districts of Dankelsheim and Altgandersheim , the Free School Heckenbeck , a secondary school , a special school with a focus on learning and the Roswitha grammar school . In 1923, the Jewish reform pedagogue Max Bondy and his wife Gertrud Bondy founded the school community in Gandersheim . In 1929 the facility moved to Gut Marienau in the municipality of Dahlem , where it still exists today as the Marienau Rural Education Home .
- Karl Stegemann, born August 28, 1803; † August 4, 1887, judicial advisor, senior court advocate and notary, mayor from 1851 to 1855
- Karl Stöter, born June 25, 1803; † November 14, 1881, church councilor, general superintendent in Gandersheim
- Otto Orth, born August 22, 1826; † March 6, 1903, chief magistrate in Gandersheim, head of the city council
- Albrecht Wilke , born January 10, 1843; † October 5, 1902, professor, high school director in Gandersheim
- Louis Ballin, born November 3, 1834; † March 22, 1918, banker in Gandersheim, city council
- Friedrich von Ernst, born October 8, 1850; † May 24, 1928, lieutenant colonel ret. D., Mayor of the city of Gandersheim
- Friedrich Meiners, born October 31, 1860; † February 28, 1933, superstructure manager in Bad Gandersheim
- August Jürries, born March 15, 1880; † July 26, 1949, cigar manufacturer in Bad Gandersheim, city councilor, city councilor
- August Warmbold, born February 26, 1874; † March 27, 1960, foreman, head of city council in Bad Gandersheim
- Heinrich Fritzel, born February 20, 1886; † September 6, 1954, factory owner in Bad Gandersheim
- Heinz Gerhardt, born May 12, 1905; † July 21, 1994, General Director of the Old Leipzig Insurance Group in Oberursel
- Albert Rohloff, born December 29, 1896; † March 11, 1961, senior district director in Bad Gandersheim
- Rudolf Schütz, born October 19, 1906; † October 2, 2003, Director of the Alte Leipziger Versicherungsgruppe, Frankfurt am Main
- Johannes Nissen, born September 15, 1881; † May 3, 1972, photographer, museum curator in Bad Gandersheim
- Friedrich August Knost , born September 21, 1899; † August 22, 1982, President of the Lower Saxony administrative district of Braunschweig
- Rudolf Cahn von Seelen, born December 10, 1904; † July 8, 1992, mayor, then city director in Bad Gandersheim
- Kurt Kronenberg , born February 4, 1905; † July 7, 1987, pastor at the collegiate church in Bad Gandersheim, home historian
- Willi Thiele , born October 3, 1915; † February 6, 2000, President of the Lower Saxony administrative district of Braunschweig
- Willi Muhs , born October 22, 1910; † April 19, 1982, District Administrator of the Gandersheim district
- Hermann Cramme, born August 21, 1907; † April 12, 1983, notary, councilor, mayor of Bad Gandersheim
- Hans-Dieter Gottschalk, born May 31, 1932; † February 6, 2005, mayor, then city and spa director from 1968 to 1993
- Heinz Köhler, born November 12, 1919, † June 3, 2010, veterinarian and mayor of Bad Gandersheim from 1974 to 1986
sons and daughters of the town
- Hrotsvit (around 935 – after 973), first German poet
- Heinrich II. (951–995), Duke of Bavaria, nephew of Emperor Otto I.
- Johann Wenth (around 1495 - 1541), Superintendent in Hadersleben, Bishop of Ribe
- Michael Büttner (1599–1677), important Senior of the Gandersheim Monastery
- Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen (1670–1739), theologian of the Pietistic Halle School
- Johann Caspar Käse (1705–1756), sculptor
- Johann Friedrich Ludwig Günther (1773–1854), legal scholar, judge and politician
- Hermann Günther (1811–1886), pedagogue, teacher and headmaster
- August Schütte (1835–1894), member of the Reichstag and Landtag
- Gustav Ahlborn (1837–1918), Prussian lieutenant general
- Rudolph von Koch (1847–1923), bank manager, chairman of the supervisory board of Deutsche Bank
- Wilhelm Kulemann (1851–1926), member of the Reichstag
- Adolf Quensen (1851–1911), church painter of historicism
- Robert Bohlmann (1854–1944), pharmacist and gun collector
- Julius Menadier (1854–1939), numismatist, director of the Berlin Münzkabinett
- Felix Ehrlich (1877–1942), chemist
- Wilhelm Keitel (1882–1946), Field Marshal General
- Otto Röer (1881–1957), governor of Schleswig-Holstein
- Bodewin Keitel (1888–1953), General
- Aenne Heise (1895–1986), photographer
- Herbert Otto Gille (1897–1966), General of the Waffen SS
- Wolfgang Liebe (1911–2005), aircraft engineer, aerodynamicist, inventor of the boundary layer fence
- Hans-Theo Wrege (1934–2019), Protestant theologian
- Helmuth Schneider (* 1946), ancient historian and co-editor of the New Pauly
- Michael Schmitz (* 1949), agricultural economist
- Vera Gäde-Butzlaff (* 1954), manager
- Inge-Susann Römhild (* 1955), chamber musician and university rector
- Matthias Wiebalck (* 1958), actor
- Karin Spelge (* 1961), judge at the Federal Labor Court
- Hanna Schramm-Klein (* 1974), economist and university lecturer
- Reentko Dirks (* 1979), musician and composer
- Bernd-Ulrich Hergemöller: Sources on the constitutional history of the German city in the Middle Ages. Darmstadt 2000, (= Selected Sources on the German History of the Middle Ages, Vol. 34.), Document 12 = Market, Coin and Customs Law (the latter already in 877 with the granting of royal immunity for the Kanonissenstift founded in 852) by Theophanu named König Otto III. on August 4, 990 for the abbess of the imperial monastery
- Gerd Weiss u. a. (Ed.): Handbook of German Art Monuments: Bremen, Lower Saxony. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1992, pp. 149–155.
- Adolf Mühe: History of the City of Bad Gandersheim . Hertel, Bad Gandersheim 1950.
- Kurt Kronenberg: Chronicle of the city of Bad Gandersheim. Bad Gandersheim 1978.
- Family sheets Gandersheim 1750–1940. Copy of the family cards . Leipzig 1995. 12 volumes, 5500 families, according to the inventory, part IV of the German Central Office for Genealogy , p. 303
- Christof Römer: Gandersheim as a sovereign residence town. In: Harz-Zeitschrift 34 (1982), pp. 1-15.
- Michael Scholz: Free monastery and ducal country town. Gandersheim as a secular and spiritual residence in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period. In: Harz-Zeitschrift 50/51 (1998/1999), pp. 59-81.
- Martin Hoernes, Thomas Labusiak (ed.): Portal to history. Rediscover treasures! Selection catalog. Delmenhorst 2007.
- Miriam Gepp: The collegiate church in Bad Gandersheim. Memorial place of the Ottonians. Munich 2008.
- Birgit Heilmann: Heiltum becomes history. The Gandersheim reliquary in the post-Reformation period. Regensburg 2009. (= studies on the women's monastery Gandersheim and its own monasteries, volume 1.)
- Jan Friedrich Richter: Gothic in Gandersheim. The wood carvings of the 13th to 16th centuries. Regensburg 2010. (= studies on the women's monastery Gandersheim and its own monasteries, volume 2.)
- Christian Popp: The treasure of cannonies. Saints and relics in the women's monastery in Gandersheim. Regensburg 2010. (= studies on the women's monastery Gandersheim and its own monasteries, volume 3.)
- Portal to the history of Bad Gandersheim
- Photos from Bad Gandersheim
- Bad Gandersheim City Museum. In: www.museum-bad-gandersheim.de. Retrieved August 19, 2019 .
- Reconstruction drawing as a historical view of the city and castle
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Bad Gandersheim - Kanonissenstift (Reichsstift)
- Wilhelm Görges : Patriotic Stories and Memories of Prehistory , Vol. 3, 1845, p. 223.
- Marc Czichy: Nazi forced labor in the area of today's Northeim district - an overview of the results of a regional historical study . In: Volker Zimmermann (Ed.): Suffering prevents forgetting. Forced laborers in Göttingen and their medical care in the university clinics . Wallstein-Verlag, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 3-8353-0152-7 , p. 148 f .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 269 .
- 2016 municipal elections. Accessed February 26, 2019 .
- Klemens Stadler: German coat of arms Federal Republic of Germany . The municipal coats of arms of the federal states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. tape 5 . Angelsachsen-Verlag, Bremen 1970, p. 18 .
- town twinning. In: www.bad-gandersheim.de. Retrieved August 19, 2019 .
- Rotselaar. In: www.bad-gandersheim.de. Retrieved August 19, 2019 .
- Twin Town - Bad Gandersheim. In: www.skegness.gov.uk. January 29, 2019, accessed August 19, 2019 .
- Entry in the directory of monumental oaks . Retrieved January 10, 2017
- Entry in the directory of monumental oaks . Retrieved January 10, 2017
- Real madness: No bus stop at Bad Gandersheim train station . In: Extra 3 . December 3, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- http://spd-uwe-schwarz.de/aktuell/nachrichten/2015/468833.php?y=&m=&tid=&page=2 Deutsche Bahn AG is dragging the bus connection to the station