|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||160 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||113.04 km 2|
|Residents:||9569 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||85 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||37586|
|Primaries :||05562, 05564|
|License plate :||NOM, EIN, GAN|
|Community key :||03 1 55 003|
|LOCODE :||DE DSL|
|City structure:||17 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Gerhard Melching ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Dassel in the Northeim district|
The place, which was already mentioned in documents in the early Middle Ages, was named after a dynasty of counts around 1100, which Rainald von Dassel made famous throughout Europe, and in 1315 received city rights. Today Dassel is classified as a basic center , which performs the tasks of a middle center in the sub-area of school education.
Five mountain ranges are in or near the city. This is accompanied by one of the most diverse landscapes in Lower Saxony.
Dassel is located west of Einbeck on the northeastern edge of the Solling , south of the Amtsberge and west of the Ellenser Forest . Thus, Dassel borders on the Solling-Vogler , one of around 100 designated nature parks in Germany. The up to 528 m high wooded red sandstone dome of the Solling runs flat on the outskirts of Dassel. Gentle pasture valleys and small plots of rape , beet or grain fields are combined by clear streams to form a picturesque landscape. The city is traversed by the Bremkebach and the Spüligbach, which flows into the Ilme a few hundred meters southeast of Dassel .
The city forms the settlement center of the Dassel basin . The loess subsoil is covered by parabrown earth . On the west side of the city is the red sandstone vault of the Solling, to the north and south-east are lime elevations of the Amtsberge and the Ellenser Forest. The eastern districts of the city are located in the Einbeck-Markoldendorfer basin , where solid rock formed from red sandstone with the Elfas and Ahlsburg ridges forms the northern and southern framework.
Almost 62% of the municipal area is used for agriculture. Around 26% of the total area is covered with forest. The traffic area has a share of around five percent and is therefore similar in size to the settlement area consisting of buildings and green spaces.
The city of Dassel is made up of 17 districts . The administrative seat is Dassel.
|Locality||Telephone code||comment||church||coat of arms|
|Amelsen||05562||St. Servatii (18th century)|
|The same||05564||city||St. Laurentius (15th century); St. Michael (19th century)|
|Eilensen||05562||St. Anna (chapel: 14th century)|
|Hilwartshausen||05564||St. Cyriacus (around 15th century)|
|Hoppensen||05562||Manor Church (17th century)|
|Lauenberg||05562||with Seelzerthurm||St. Peter (18th century)|
|Lüthorst||05562||St. Magnus (18th century; tower 10th century)|
|Markoldendorf||05562||St. Marien (chapel: 18th century); St. Martin (19th century); Holy Spirit (20th century)|
|Relliehausen||05564||St. Marien (chapel: 20th century)|
|Sievershausen||05564||with Abbecke||Trinity (18th century)|
Due to the city's location in the temperate climate zone , the long-term average temperatures are a minimum of hardly below 0 ° C and a maximum of hardly more than 20 ° C. In a series of measurements between 1961 and 1990, the German Weather Service determined an annual rainfall of 879 mm, which is slightly above the German average. The winds are predominantly from western directions .
The first farming settlement gained in importance with the establishment of the St. Laurentius Church at the end of the 10th century. This Romanesque building was built to the right of the Spüligbach stream. In 1022, Emperor Heinrich II removed this church from the Archdiocese of Mainz and assigned it to the Diocese of Hildesheim .
With the appearance of the Counts of Dassel from 1113, Dassel became their core town and benefited for around two centuries from their political and economic success story. While the counts shifted their center of power to the south, Dassel developed into a rural church, trade, craft and market place. The rapid decline in power of the counts in the last decades of the 13th century led to the result that the larger surrounding towns such as Einbeck and Uslar fell to the Guelphs , while Dassel and the nearby villages were sold to the diocese of Hildesheim. Since then, important trade and traffic flows past Dassel and the development of the place came to a standstill.
The area around Dassel, acquired by the Hildesheim bishop in 1310, was an exposed exclave of the Hildesheim diocese and required additional military security, which the old Hunnesrück Castle could only partially perceive by itself. For this reason, Dassel was granted city charter according to Alfeld law as early as 1315 and thus the right to build a fortification with moats, walls and towers. The Romanesque church building was destroyed in a city fire in 1392. In 1447 the new St. Laurentius Church was consecrated . In another city fire in 1519 it was damaged, but was repaired.
The bishops of Hildesheim appointed bailiffs to administer their exclave at Hunnesrück Castle. In 1521, during the Hildesheim collegiate feud, the dukes Erich I von Calenberg and Heinrich the Younger von Wolfenbüttel shot at it with artillery and captured it.
With the peace treaty of 1523, the Diocese of Hildesheim Dassel lost to the Calenberg line of the House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. A few kilometers to the northeast, Erich I had the Erichsburg built in a swampy valley in 1527–1530 . Erich I made it the administrative center for Dassel. In 1539 he combined Dassel with Lauenberg, Lüthorst and other villages to form the Erichsburg office .
During the Thirty Years War , Dassel was destroyed by Tilly's troops in 1625 . As a result of the war, the Diocese of Hildesheim received the borders again in 1643, which had applied until 1523. Thus Dassel fell back to the bishops and was again an exclave.
As in the time before 1523, Hunnesrück became the administrative seat again. However, since only the wall remains of Hunnesrück Castle, administrative buildings with associated farm buildings were built.
Bishop von Brabeck founded an ironworks privately in 1688 . During the Seven Years' War , Dassel had to accommodate troops passing through and deliver them unpaid. In 1786 the manor house of the von Brabeck an der Ilme was built.
19th and 20th centuries
Dassel was occupied by troops of the Prussian army in 1802 . Soon thereafter, Dassel became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia for a few years through the Peace of Tilsit . After the liberation from French rule by the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , Dassel was assigned to the Kingdom of Hanover by regional consolidation, as it had been part of the Hildesheim Monastery.
In the years 1811, 1848 and 1850 large parts of the city were destroyed in city fires. Although people tried to overcome their poverty by processing and selling linen , many were forced to emigrate . They also tried to improve their living conditions by draining the meadows near the Ilme, described as swampy and sour. The administrative seat at this time was the combined office of Erichsburg-Hunnesrück, which was incorporated into the office of Einbeck in 1859 .
The Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866 . At the beginning of the 20th century Dassel had 1,462 inhabitants. Around 1920 the population was 1601. The two world wars did not result in any building damage in Dassel, but there were numerous dead and missing persons to complain about, and war memorials were erected to commemorate them. In 1930 the city was given self-government. Due to the influx of many expellees from Silesia and evacuees from Cologne-Mülheim and Cologne-Riehl after 1945, numerous people had to live in barracks for years . Therefore, a brisk new building activity with large land consumption started in Dassel . In the 21st century, land consumption has shifted from residential areas to commercial areas as the number of inhabitants declined. With the territorial reform in 1974, the current expansion of the city was established. Until the end of 2010, Dassel was a state-approved resort .
Affiliation of Dassel:
Dassel was written Dassila or Dassele in the Middle Ages . Etymologists recognize here evidence of the damp location of the place on a river.
Since the Counts of Dassel died out in the male line in 1325, today's family name Dassel can be traced back to the Lords of Dassel .
In 2010 the idea arose to rename the city of Dassel to “Grafschaft Dassel”. The motivation was the desire to upgrade the city and the surrounding area for tourism. Historically, it has been argued that the boundaries of the town of Dassel largely coincided with the boundaries of the old County of Dassel . Even the coat of arms of Dassel is identical to the coat of arms of the former county. In 2011, the Lower Saxony Ministry of the Interior rejected the application on the grounds that the special historical significance of the county for the city of Dassel was missing and that the county had also not shaped the city of Dassel.
On March 1, 1974, the communities of Amelsen, Deitersen, Eilensen, Ellensen, Hilwartshausen, Hoppensen, Hunnesrück, Krimmensen, Lauenberg, Lüthorst, Mackensen (with part of the community-free area of Solling (district of Einbeck) , which was dissolved on February 1, 1972 ), Markoldendorf (Flecken), Portenhagen, Sievershausen (with the rest of the community-free area Solling (district of Einbeck) , which was dissolved on February 1, 1972 ) and Wellersen. Relliehausen was incorporated as early as 1928.
|choice||SPD||CDU||UBW||GREEN||CitizenForum||Citizens' Forum / Greens||LEFT||AfD||total|
In addition to the city council, which is responsible for the entire city area, Dassel also has a local council as a district of the same name. This consists of eleven councilors and councilors.
The current local mayor is Heike Hoffmann.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Dassel shows silver antlers of an eight-end stag and twelve balls on a blue background. The city adopted it in 1646. At the same time, the city introduced this motif for its seal after having used a Laurentius seal since it was granted city rights.
The motif goes back to the coat of arms of the Counts von Dassel. In the 12th and 13th centuries they used it to mark objects such as shields and chests , and in the early 13th century also their coins. For example, a bracteate of Count Adolf von Dassel with the deer antler coat of arms was found in Corvey Monastery .
The city of Dassel maintains a partnership with the Saxony-Anhalt city of Möckern . The town twinning with the Danish Egedal municipality , which had existed since July 1, 1990, was terminated by the Danish partner in October 2011. The reason for the termination was the additional costs that resulted from the 2007 municipal reform and the lack of interest on the part of the citizens.
Economy and Infrastructure
Up until the 19th century, Dessel's houses were almost exclusively half-timbered . Only the churches and the town mill on the market square were stone buildings. All roofs were covered with Weser sandstone slabs, which, with a few exceptions , were replaced by roof tiles in the wake of the economic miracle .
The Merten-Spieß house from the 16th century in Relliehausen combined the half-timbered building with the sandstone building of the Solling . It had to be demolished in the 20th century due to damage and was rebuilt as a new building in Relliehausen, this time without half-timbering, but preserving the sandstone facade elements.
Today, the stock of half-timbered buildings still dominates the center of all districts of Dassel. In the 1970s, a town hall in the functionalism style was built in the center of Dassel . In connection with this, the historic bathhouse in front of the city walls was demolished and replaced by a lawn. The quarter to the west of the old town has post-war modern buildings , while the buildings on the Bierberg mainly consist of single-family houses from the late 20th century. In 2018, a new town hall in the style of minimalism was built as a barrier-free building in the city center .
- Schools : The city has two primary schools and the Rainald von Dassel School as a high school . Through the Paul-Gerhardt-Schule grammar school , Dassel has the function of a middle school center for the region.
- The Evangelical Boarding School Dassel is located on the premises of the Paul Gerhardt School and cooperates with the grammar school and the local Rainald von Dassel School.
- The Harz-Weser-Werke provide vocational training opportunities especially for people with disabilities at the local site.
- Adult Education Center : Branch of the Northeim District Adult Education Center
- Library: City Library
- The youth work is carried out by five kindergartens, three day-care centers, the city youth care ring, the children's choir and the youth fire brigade .
The Dassel volunteer fire brigade provides around 600 emergency services from the two base fire brigades and 14 local fire brigades for fire protection and general help. The majority of the up to 150 missions per year are carried out by the two base fire departments in Dassel and Markoldendorf.
Between 1883 and 2003 the Ilmebahn , a 13.1 km long, single-track railway line, connected Dassel and Einbeck. It was closed on May 31, 1975 for passenger traffic and on December 20, 2002 for goods traffic. The station building at the beginning of Bahnhofstrasse not far east of the old town was converted into a residential building, but its original purpose can still easily be recognized today.
Today, the Dassel urban area is connected to the Mittelzentrum Einbeck and Stadtoldendorf by several regional bus routes operated by Ilmebahn GmbH . The state road L 580 leads from Dassel to Stadtoldendorf, the L 549 to Höxter, the L 548 to Uslar and the L 580 to Bundesstraße 3 and to Einbeck.
Up until the 20th century, agriculture, with arable farming and cattle breeding, dominated Dassel's economy for more than a millennium (although methodically changed). In the 13th century handicrafts such as charcoal burner , blacksmith and carpenter including forestry were added, which have since played a significant role in Dassel’s economic life. The metal processing plays an important role in Dassel since the 12th century. The paper production was established in the 16th century as Relliehäusische paper mill and has remained significant. The textile processing can be found in Dassel since the 18th century.
All historical economic sectors still exist in Dassel today. Metal processing became dominant in the 20th and 21st centuries. With the closure of the former ironworks after it was taken over by Kongsberg , however, many jobs were lost. New ones were created in the packaging and logistics sectors, as well as a Pearl.tv location. In addition to the industrial sectors, the service sector takes up a little more space.
Culture and leisure
The Sollingbad has a 50-meter pool with six lanes and a three-meter diving platform, a non-swimmer pool and a paddling pool as well as large, partly shaded lawns.
There are riding facilities in several parts of the city for equestrian sports.
- Gospel choir
- Hunting horn
- church choir
- marching band
One of the well-known regular events is the International Solling Run, organized every spring by the Dasseler Sportclub .
- St. Laurentius Church : The construction of this late Gothic hall church was completed in 1447. In the 18th century the gable roof of the tower burned down and was replaced by a Welsche hood . The walls in the main nave and south aisle are decorated with unique Protestant Renaissance paintings.
- The Catholic St. Michael Church on Sievershäuser Strasse was built in 1847 in the classicism style. A roof turret in the middle crowns the sandstone roof. Inside are u. a. the baroque altar and the baptismal font from 1700 are remarkable.
- The old town hall on the market square was built in 1817 in a half-timbered style with an outside staircase. The building is called the Ratskeller and today houses the city library and the city council hall .
- Opposite the old town hall is the town mill, founded in 1588, which was originally the only stone building in town - apart from the St. Laurentius Church. It was in operation until 1969.
- Numerous half-timbered houses have been preserved in Dassel , e. B. on Obere Strasse and Neue Strasse. Some were built directly on the city wall to save building materials. Similar to neighboring Einbeck , they were erected facing the street, but in most cases without much decoration in a relatively simple style.
- The almost circular medieval town center of Dassel, which is bounded by the streets An der Stadtmauer and Ringmauer , is still surrounded in many places by the town wall built in the 14th century, but no town gates have been preserved. The Gretchenturm and Balderturm on city wall 4 are still preserved in the foundation walls. At the height of the new town hall built in the 1970s outside the wall ring of the old town, it is interrupted by a typical Gothic pointed arch that was dismantled by the Ritterhof von Rauschenplat.
- There are two half-timbered houses in the wall of the city wall, both of which are listed. House no. 4 stands on the foundations of the old Balderturm, one of the seven towers of the city wall from 1350. In the house there is still a wall of rubble stones with two loopholes. After the wall was uncovered, traces of smoke were found that can be traced back to the burning down of the Balderturm during the Hildesheim collegiate feud in 1519. The house is now used as a holiday home.
- In the old town area there are three manors, some of which were laid out in the Middle Ages and at times belonged to the legacy of the Garmissen , Hake and Rauschenplat families . They exist at the authentic location with mansions built after the city fires .
- On Sievershäuser Straße , not far southwest of the old town, the former Jewish cemetery is worth seeing. About 20 upright gravestones , some with Hebrew and some with German inscriptions, have been preserved.
- Historic water mill, district of Hunnesrück: After 1643 it served as a mill for the business operations of the episcopal office of Hunnesrück .
- Hunnesrück Castle : Remnants of deposits in the official mountains
- Abbecker Oaks Natural Monument : These oaks were planted when the Abbecke settlement was founded at the end of the 18th century.
- Natural monument Völkerschlachteiche : This oak is located in the center of Dassel, where the L 580 coming from Mackensen merges with the L 548 coming from Relliehausen. It was planted in 1913 to commemorate the liberation from French rule and the beginning of a period of peace.
- There is a cross stone on the city wall, which is an extraordinary work of art from 1325.
- The blank forge Neimke is a historical scythe forge , a museum since 1993.
- The Grafschaft Dassel Museum opened in 2007.
The diversity of the cultural landscape within the urban area results from the existing types of use (field, forest, settlement area) and the mosaic of forest communities (beech, oak, spruce forest), in connection with the relief richly structured by the mountain ranges and is reflected in the more than 1100 field names in the city area.
The Seute Bornwiese whose name from the Low German yields Seute (sweet) words and born (source) and the location of the YMCA - House Solling was, provides a broad clearing in the Solling are you part of the city Dassel, but is about three kilometers west. from that.
- Hans Mirus. He was a geographer, vice-principal, archivist for the city of Dassel and author of the city chronicle of Dassel. Between 1957 and 1959 he carried out the first construction survey of the Hunnesrück castle ruins.
sons and daughters of the town
- Carl Busse (1772–1829) was a pastor in various north German parishes in the first decades of the 19th century and wrote numerous theological treatises during this time.
- Rainald von Dassel (between 1114 and 1120–1167) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and Arch Chancellor of Italy .
- Heinrich Düker (1898–1986), 1946–1947 Lord Mayor of the City of Göttingen , psychologist.
- Rudolf Gerke (1848–1912), geodesist.
- Ludwig Krahmer (1810–1895), physician, born in Hunnesrück in 1810.
- Fritz Krückeberg (1928–2012), mathematician and computer scientist
- Martin Kruse (* 1929), he was born in the Lauenberg district. He is a Protestant theologian and was bishop of the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg.
- Ulrich Lotzmann (* 1956), dentist.
- Friedrich Oehlkers (1890–1971), botanist, was born in 1890 in the Sievershausen district.
- Jordan of Saxony (around 1185 / 1190–1237), master of the order, beatified by the Pope.
Personalities who worked in Dassel
- Herbert Beuerle (1911–1994), hymn poet, church music composer, 1945–1949 cantor in Dassel
- Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), the humorous poet lived from 1846 to 1897 in the Lüthorst district
- Friedrich Gottlieb Crome (1776–1850), was pastor of five churches in today's districts of Dassel in the mid-19th century
- Walter Dietrich (* 1944), 1977–1982 pastor at St. Laurentius
- Ernst Ehlert (1875–1957), horse breeder in the Hunnesrück district
- Rudolf Godbersen (1882–1927), forest scientist, 1918/19 assistant at the head forester's office in Dassel
- Silva Gonzalez (* 1979), entertainer
- Carl Hahne (1850–1895), paper manufacturer
- Bernd Klaus Jerofke , author
- Hermann Manske (1839–1918), industrialist
- Dietlef Niklaus (1928–2016), educator
- Rudolph Petrikat , sculptor
- Michael Schmelich (* 1954), the politician and cultural impressario, grew up in Dassel and in the Sievershausen district. Here he also began his political work ( Junge Union )
- Hans-Jürgen Wegener (1928–2016), forest clerk, 1947–1949 apprenticeship in Dassel
- Hans Mirus: Chronicle of the city of Dassel, from the county to the regional reform in 1974 , Verlag Lax, Hildesheim 1981
- Hubertus Zummach: 'Ruina mundi !, Rainald von Dassel, Arch and Imperial Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Jörg Mitzkat Verlag, Holzminden 2007, ISBN 978-3-940751-00-3
- Johannes Letzner : Dasselische and Einbeckische Chronica , Erfurt 1596 ( full text )
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony , direct link to the page is not possible. Procedure: Click on “Regional database”, without logging in “Next”, as a guest “Next”, select “Area survey” and “Define time and region”, click “Unity / Samtgemeinde”, select Dassel (scroll down to do this), click “ Create and display table ". Retrieved September 16, 2012
- Corveyer Traditions § 428 (Wigand p. 95)
- (wording of the decree of Heinrich II.)
- Erich Plümer: For the 650-year town charter of Dassel. Einbecker Jahrbuch 26, 1964, p. 91 ff.
- Wilhelm Havemann: History of the Lands Braunschweig and Lüneburg. 1837, p. 299
- H.-N. Mittendorf: At home with us. 1990, p. 13
- Hans-Norbert Mittendorf: On the cultural history of today's Dassel urban area in the mirror of old field names. 1991, p. 24
- W. Keil: Neumanns Orts- und Verkehrslexikon. Vol. 1, p. 166. Leipzig 1905.
- Josef Habbel. Habbels Konversationslexikon. Vol. 1, p. 779. Regensburg 1922.
- Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims: "Documents of German War Damage: Evacuates, War Victims, Currency Victims; The Historical and Legal Development, Volume 2, Issue 2", 1960, p. 175
- K. Casemir, F. Menzel and U. Ohainski: The place names of the district of Northeim . Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 2005, p. 86f. ISBN 3-89534-607-1
- The Dasselers are to become counters in the future (Einbecker Morgenpost of April 14, 2011)
- Article in the Einbecker Morgenpost from October 27, 2011
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 206 .
- Erich Plümer: Seal and coat of arms of the city of Dassel. Alt-Hildesheim 27, 1956, pp. 42-45
- Partnership between Dassel and Egedal terminated. October 8, 2011, accessed October 14, 2011 .
- H.-N. Mittendorf: At home with us. 1990, p. 32
- Friends of the Sollingbad , website, accessed on December 24, 2014
- Baller / Regenhardt: Low German idioms in their application. A contribution to a comprehensive collection of colloquial expressions of Low German, mainly from the area of southern Lower Saxony. Verlag Mecke, Duderstadt 2005.
- Erich Plümer: The wall paintings in the church in Dassel. Alt-Hildesheim 23, 1952, pp. 19-23
- G. Ulrich Großmann: Hanover and South Lower Saxony. P. 226. Cologne 1999.
- von Rauschenplat ( Memento from July 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Werner Müller: To the representation of the rivers of paradise on small monuments with special consideration of the Irmingard disk cross stone from 1325 in Dassel. In: Stone Cross Research - Studies on German and International Land Monument Research. Anthology No. 26, 2000, pp. 5-20
- Jürgen Meyerhoff: Biodiversity and its evaluation using the example of ecological forest conversion in the Solling and Lüneburg Heath regions: Final report 2003-2006 on the BMBF research project. 2006, p. 54
- Hans-Norbert Mittendorf: On the cultural history of today's Dassel urban area in the mirror of old field names. 1991, p. 6
- A. Bartels, M. Schnepel: From the Christian rest home to the YMCA house Solling. 2012, p. 18