Johann T'Serclaes of Tilly

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Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly, engraving by Pieter de Jode the Elder. Ä. after Anthony van Dyck .

Tilly's signature:Signature Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly.PNG

Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly , also Johannes T'Serclaes von Tilly and Jean T'Serclaes von Tilly (* February 1559 at Tilly Castle in the Duchy of Brabant , † April 30, 1632 in Ingolstadt ) was a count who died during the Thirty Years War acted as supreme military leader of both the Catholic League and, from 1630, the Imperial Army .

Origin and family

Bronze statue in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich

Johann T'Serclaes Tilly was born in February 1559 at Tilly Castle , municipality of Villers-la-Ville in Brabant, 30 km southeast of Brussels in what is now Belgium, which had been part of the Spanish Netherlands since 1522 . His father was Martin T'Serclaes on Montigny and Balatre († 1597), Seneschal of the County of Namur , general and imperial court war council. His mother Dorothea von Schierstedt was the daughter of Meinhard the Elder von Schierstedt, a royal Hungarian court marshal, and Dorothea von Gersdorff . His parents had married on October 12, 1552 in Görzke .

The T'Serclaes de Tilly family was an old Dutch noble family from the ancestral home Tilly in the Duchy of Brabant , which began an uninterrupted line of tribe with Johann the Elder T'Serclaes on Tilly († 1473). John's paternal grandfather was Jakob T'Serclaes on Montigny († 1555), heir-seneschal of the county of Namur, husband of Maria de Bossime (Bossimel) on Balatre, daughter of Sieur de Bossimel, an heir-seneschal of the county of Namur and the Mabille de Creeping.

Johann had three siblings: Margareta († 1634), first married to Jobst Heinrich von Witzleben , Vicomte d'Upigny; second marriage to Edmund Freiherr von Schwarzenberg on beer set. Another sister, Maria, died in 1642.

His older brother was Jakob T'Serclaes de Tilly (* Tilly Castle, around 1555; † before 1626), Hereditary Seneschal of the County of Namur, who was raised to the rank of imperial count with Johann on September 13, 1622 .

Jacob was married to Dorothea Countess of East Friesland, daughter of Maximilian Graf von Ostfriesland, whose father, Count John I of East Frisia and his mother a daughter Dorothea Emperor I. Maximilian was. The wife of Maximilian Graf von Ostfriesland was Barbara de Lalaing, Countess von Hochstraden. Jacob's son and Johann's nephew, Werner T'Serclaes Count von Tilly zu Breitenegg (* around 1595 - † January 30, 1651), received his property in Bavaria and the Bohemian incolate after the death of Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly . Their descendants were:

  • Ernst Emmerich T'Serclaes Count von Tilly († April 22, 1675), first marriage to Klara Katharina Countess von Lamberg , second marriage to Maria Anna Theresia Freiin von Hasslang.
  • The son from his first marriage, Anton Ferdinand Johann T'Serclaes Graf von Tilly, died illegitimately in 1663 on a trip to Venice .
  • Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver T'Serclaes Graf von Tilly died unmarried on January 30, 1724 as the last known male name bearer .
  • His sister, the last of the Bavarian line of those von Tilly, Maria Anna Katharina von Tilly-Montfort, who married Count Anton von Montfort (* 1635; † 1706) in 1692 , died on July 21, 1744 at Tilly Castle in Breitenbrunn (Upper Palatinate) .
  • Elisabeth Appolonia Countess of Tilly (* before 1629; † Prague, parish Maria Schein on August 14, 1653); first marriage to Christoph Ferdinand Popel Freiherr von Lobkowitz , on Bilin, governor of the Glogau fortress, president of the Silesian Chamber, then chief steward and governor in the Kingdom of Bohemia , second marriage in 1661 to Wilhelm Albrecht Graf von Kolowrat -Krakowsky, on Teinitzl, Oberstburggraf in Prague .

The sons of another nephew of Johann T'Serclaes of Tilly, namely of Johann Werner, Lord of Montigny etc., Seneschal of Namur († 1669), were Field Marshal Albert Octave t'Serclaes de Tilly , who was appointed Prince, and Lieutenant Field Marshal Claude Frédéric t'Serclaes van Tilly .

Military career

After completing his training at a Jesuit school , Tilly chose a career as a soldier. As a native subject of the Spanish crown, he first entered their military service, where he learned the craft of war under Alessandro Farnese (1545–1592). Later he moved under the Lorraine flag, in 1598 for the imperial army . In 1600 he fought as a lieutenant colonel in Hungary under General Giorgio Basta against insurgents and in the Turkish wars against the Ottomans ; In 1601 he was promoted to general field sergeant and became a colonel of a Walloon regiment . In 1604 he was appointed Feldzeugmeister , and the following year he was appointed Field Marshal . In 1610, when he was appointed lieutenant general , Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria entrusted him with the leadership of the league (i.e. belonging to the Catholic League) army contingents and the reorganization of the Bavarian army.

In November 1630, in addition to his command as military leader of the Catholic League, Tilly was appointed lieutenant general of the imperial troops. He thus succeeded Wallenstein , who had been deposed as Imperial Colonel General Field Captain in August . Despite the increased power, Tilly never had the military freedom of choice of a generalissimo as Wallenstein had held (and which it held again after Tilly's death in 1632); Tilly always remained subject to the instructions of the war councils in Vienna and Munich.

In the Thirty Years War

Tilly in contemporary armor

Fight until 1630

When the Thirty Years' War broke out (1618–1648), Tilly began a steep career as a general of the Catholic League . He fought on November 8, 1620 in the Battle of White Mountain together with the Imperial Field Marshal Charles Bonaventure de Longueval and subjugated western Bohemia with the conquest of Pilsen in March 1621. Then he turned with a mercenary army against Count Peter Ernst II von Mansfeld , who defended the Protestant Palatinate ancestral lands (initially the Upper Palatinate ) against the imperial-Bavarian-Catholic counter-attack. After Tilly had been held up by Mansfeld near Waidhaus in the Upper Palatinate Forest for months in the summer of 1621 , he followed his opponent to the Rhine Palatinate in the autumn of 1621. On April 27, 1622 Tilly was defeated in the Battle of Mingolsheim by Peter Ernst II von Mansfeld, but then defeated the Margrave Georg Friedrich von Baden-Durlach on May 6 in the Battle of Wimpfen .

On June 20, he triumphed in the battle of Höchst over Duke Christian von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and conquered Heidelberg , Mannheim and Frankenthal (Palatinate) . This was followed by another victory over the "great Halberstädter" on August 6, 1623 in the battle of Stadtlohn . Thereupon Bavaria's ruler, Maximilian I (elector since February 1623) gave Tilly, who had not owned until then, the Upper Palatinate lordship over Preitenegg with the market Breitenbrunn as a fief (from 1635 imperial county Breitenegg ).

Initially, Tilly stayed with his army in Lower Saxony , where he initiated the violent restitution ( recatholicization ) of the Evangelical Lutheran dioceses and monasteries to the Catholic Church and the Jesuits and forced the Lower Saxony Empire to fight. He besieged and conquered several cities during this time. On May 30th, Jul. / June 9, 1626 greg. Tilly's starving mercenaries seized and murdered the city of Münden . Shortly afterwards he had Göttingen besieged and shot at to extort a ransom. He forced Harz miners to divert the line and tried to block all water supplies. At the beginning of August 1626 the siege was successfully completed and Tilly was able to move in as the victor.

On August 27, 1626 he defeated the army of the Danish king Christian IV in the battle of Lutter am Barenberge . After the imperial general Wallenstein had already occupied the Danish mainland territories, Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland , in 1627 , Tilly and Wallenstein finally forced the Danish king on May 12th in July. / May 22, 1629 greg. at the conclusion of the Peace of Lübeck .

In his dual role as a league and imperial military commander in chief since 1630, he enforced the implementation of the Edict of Restitution in Northern Germany. In 1631 the capture of Neubrandenburg took place amid cruel slaughter. Since his troops were not powerful enough to proceed safely, Tilly united most of his army with the troops of Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim , who besieged, conquered and destroyed the city ​​of Magdeburg , which was allied with the Swedes . Then Tilly crossed the Elbe at the Westerhüsen ferry and moved into the Freihof in the village of Westerhüsen . But he did not succeed in preventing the advance of the Swedish King Gustav II Adolf from the province of Pomerania to the west.

The Magdeburg massacre in 1631

On May 20, 1631, Tilly conquered Magdeburg. A fire turned the city into a heap of rubble. The devastation went so far that Magdeburg went down in the history of the Thirty Years' War as a symbol of destruction and cruelty with the term "Magdeburgize". During the storming of Magdeburg, the subsequent excesses of violence and fires, 20,000 (according to some sources 30,000) citizens lost their lives, with the troops of Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim particularly raging. After the disaster, 449 of the once 35,000 inhabitants were counted. This massacre, known as the Magdeburg Wedding , is considered to be the largest and worst of the Thirty Years War and at the same time marked a turning point in warfare. The events triggered an unprecedented escalation of violence in the further course of the war.

Failures, death, consequences

Tilly could not hold his ground against the attacks of the King of Sweden on the Lower Elbe , invaded the Electorate of Saxony and had Leipzig and the surrounding area plundered and devastated by his mercenaries. As a result, the Saxon Elector Johann Georg I, as the initiator of the Leipzig Convention, was induced to mobilize the newly established Saxon army under Arnim and driven into the alliance with the Swedish King Gustav Adolf. Tilly suffered a devastating defeat against the united Swedish-Saxon army on September 17, 1631 in the Battle of Breitenfeld , which resulted in the loss of all artillery and the almost complete loss of his army. The defeat ushered in a new phase of the war and thus became not only an upheaval in the struggle of denominations, but also an upheaval in the course of the war and in Tilly's life. The most successful general of the war for many years had become one of the big losers in the history of the Thirty Years' War with this defeat.

Tilly was wounded towards the end of the battle and was able to escape to Halberstadt . The remnants of the army saved by Pappenheim in the tough battle of retreat also gathered in Halberstadt, where Tilly succeeded in securing further reinforcements. At the end of September 1631 a new army with 25,000 men was ready for action. With the new army, Tilly set out for Bavaria , which was threatened after the continued successful advance of the Swedish army south.

Tilly monument in Rain's main street

On March 9, 1632, the new League Army defeated Swedish units under his command near Bamberg under the command of General Gustaf Graf Horn . On April 15, 1632, the League Army suffered another heavy defeat against Gustav Adolf in the battle of Rain am Lech while trying to prevent the Swedish army from crossing the Lech . Tilly was brought to Ingolstadt seriously wounded at the beginning of the battle. Tilly died there a few days later, allegedly with the name of the city of Regensburg on his lips, which he assumed to be the Swedes' next target. Before Tilly died, he had received news of Wallenstein's renewed appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army. Tilly was big enough to write a letter of congratulations to the man who, as the commander of the imperial army in central and northern Germany, had always severely neglected and hindered his league army in the fighting. Tilly left 60,000 thalers behind the old regiments of his league army.

Cause of death

Medal on the death of Tilly with inscription on the reverse: "The Church Sword and Shield - Ingolstadt 1632" ( HGM )
Tilly's sarcophagus in the Tilly crypt of the Altötting collegiate church

Tilly's right thigh had been shattered by a 90 gram ball from a hook box (also called arquebus or double hook ) (and not by a falcon , i.e. a falcon cannonball , as a contemporary chronicler erroneously claimed). The wound healed poorly and caused inflammation of the bone marrow (osteomyelitis). Tilly died on April 30, 1632 in Ingolstadt in the Tillyhaus that is now named after him . His body was first buried in the Ingolstadt Jesuit Church. In 1652 the remains were transferred to Altötting , where they are visible in a windowed coffin in the Tilly crypt, which is attached to the cloister of the collegiate church in Altötting . His heart was buried separately and is in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting .


There are many reports about his person in publications without really exploring his essence. Tilly was of medium stature, gaunt, and lived in monastic seclusion. He is said to have had sharp features and large bushy gray eyebrows. He is said to have refused effort and external honors, paying attention to strict discipline and adherence to the hierarchy in his environment. It is not known whether he was affected by the suffering of his fellow human beings during the atrocities and redeployment of property during the Thirty Years' War.


His work is highly controversial. Especially on the Evangelical Lutheran side, he is charged with the serious war crimes committed by his troops . Later Catholic writers tried to exonerate him. The Catholic author Albert Heising also exonerated him from the charge that Tilly wanted Magdeburg to be destroyed. After decades of researching the sources, the Protestant historian Karl Wittich came to the conclusion that, with all historically achievable probability, Dietrich von Falkenberg was the organizer of the city fire that thwarted Tilly and Pappenheim's goals.


Equestrian statue on the Kapellplatz in Altötting

The person Tilly already received early attention in the historical work of Friedrich Schiller , who in his work History of the Thirty Years' War was about emphasizing the human being as an object of history. There it says about the condition of Tilly after the catastrophically lost battle of Breitenfeld, looking back on Tilly's successful time as a victorious general in the first years of the war:

“But more terrible than death and wounds was the pain of surviving his fame and losing the work of a long life in a single day. All of his past victories were now nothing, since he missed the only one who would first crown them all. There was nothing left of his brilliant war deeds but the curses of humanity that accompanied them. From that day on, Tilly did not regain his cheerfulness, and happiness never returned to him. "

The memory of Tilly and his life has not faded and still preoccupies people today. In 1843 a Tilly statue was erected in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich. Another memorial has stood since 1914 on the town hall square in Rain, the city in whose immediate vicinity he suffered his fatal wound. The now dissolved Bundeswehr barracks in the municipality of Oberhausen near Neuburg an der Donau (1959–1994; now used as a civilian settlement "Kreut") was called Tilly barracks . In Freistadt , Upper Austria , there is still a Tilly barracks that houses a company of an armored staff battalion. In 2005 an equestrian statue of Tilly was erected on Kapellplatz in Altötting. The place Tillysburg with Tillysburg Castle near St. Florian in Upper Austria should also be mentioned. In Germany there is a small border crossing called Tillyschanze in the Upper Palatinate , there you can visit a former field fortification.

In the mountain and university town of Clausthal-Zellerfeld in the Upper Harz there is a street called Tillyschanze. In the Harz city of Seesen , during the largest historical festival in Northern Germany, the Sehusa Festival, battle scenes from the Thirty Years' War and the entry of Tilly's troops through the city gate are re-enacted every year.

Until January 2009 a mass for Tilly was read every day at seven o'clock in the collegiate church of Altötting . A clergyman who was specially appointed for this purpose did this at the request of Tilly, who in 1632 donated 6,300 guilders for this benefit so that the mass should be read “for all eternity” for his soul's salvation. After 380 years, the Tilly Benefice was abolished by Passau's Bishop Wilhelm Schraml , as the foundation assets donated by Tilly had long been used up despite interest income.

The terms Tillyhügel and Tillysee for a hill and lake south of Oldenburg go back to Tilly's former army camp there.

To the east of the city wall of Neubrandenburg is Tilly-Schanzen-Straße. There, or at least nearby, Tilly had his cannons brought into position in March 1631, secured by entrenchments. From there, the bombing of the New Gate and the areas of the city wall adjoining it to the north took place, which led to success after three days.

View from Hann. Münden up to the Tillyschanze

In Hann. Münden in Lower Saxony there is a Tillyschanze as an observation tower from 1885. In a small museum annex there is a relief by the sculptor Gustav Eberlein from Münden , which shows the defense of the city of Münden during the Thirty Years War. A bust of Tilly was placed in the Hall of Fame in Munich.

The Reduit Tilly , originally Tillyveste , is part of the classicist bridgehead of the Ingolstadt fortress and today houses the First World War department of the Bavarian Army Museum . A neighboring underground car park also bears Tilly's name.

A Tillyfest takes place once a year in Breitenbrunn (Upper Palatinate) . Since 1989, the place has been commemorating the general who received the rule of Breitenbrunn for his services from Elector Maximilian I (Bavaria) . There, on April 21, 1744, Maria Theresa Countess of Tilly, the last name bearer of the family of the T'Serclaes of Tilly, died.

In the Staßfurter Salzlandtheater there is the "Tilly-Saal", built in 1550. In the "Tilly-Saal" the mayor of Staßfurt prevented on May 25, 1631, shortly after the destruction of Magdeburg by Tilly's troops, through clever negotiations with Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly, that his city also fell victim to the destruction.

Museum reception

Count Tilly in the Feldherrenhalle of the Army History Museum, Vienna

Through the imperial resolution of Franz Joseph I on February 28, 1863, Tilly was added to the list of the “most famous warlords and generals of Austria worthy of perpetual emulation”, in whose honor and memory a life-size statue was also erected in the commanders' hall of the then newly erected kk Hofwaffenmuseums (today: Army History Museum Vienna) was built. The statue was created in 1866 by the sculptor Josef Gröbmer (1812–1882) from Carrara marble and was dedicated by Emperor Franz Joseph himself.

A sword attributed to the general Tilly is also kept in the Army History Museum. In addition, a commemorative medal for Tilly's death and a handwriting from the general are available to the public.

coat of arms

Family arms of the t'Serclaes of Tilly. Revers of a medal for Johann t'Serclaes von Tilly, 1628
Coat of arms of Count Tilly, copper engraving 1714

In red a gold-crowned silver lion topped with a divided heart shield : above in three rows of six fields of silver and black, below gold (Bygaerden). On the crowned helmet with red and silver covers, the neck and head of a gold-armored silver eagle between the open flight of red eagles. On both sides of the gem there is a vertical flag flying outwards on a golden shaft, on the right the herald's shield of the heart shield, on the left a profile of a Turkish head in red, a turban decorated with silver and gold feathers. Alternatively, a crowned golden eagle between two red standards placed at an angle: on the right marked with the silver lion, turned inward, on the left marked with the Turkish head.


  • Anne Dreesbach, Jürgen Wurst, Alexander Langheiter: Johann Tserclaes Graf von Tilly . In: Diess. (Ed.): Monachia. By Carl Theodor von Piloty in the Munich City Hall . Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-88645-156-9 , p. 133.
  • Albert Heising: Magdeburg not destroyed by Tilly. Two historical treatises . 2nd edition Schneider Verlag, Berlin 1854.
  • Antoine C. Hennequin de Villermont: Tilly or the Thirty Years War ("Tilly ou la guerre de trente ans", 1859). Publishing house Hurter, Schaffhausen 1860.
  • Marcus Junkelmann (Ed.): "You who taught my hands war". Tilly, saint or war criminal? Verlag Geiselberger Altötting 2007, ISBN 978-3-87245-036-4 (catalog of the exhibition of the same name, Bavarian Army Museum , May 1 to July 30, 2007).
  • Marcus Junkelmann: Tilly. The Catholic General (= Small Bavarian Biographies). Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3791723549 .
  • Michael Kaiser: Politics and Warfare. Maximilian von Bayern, Tilly and the Catholic League in the Thirty Years War . Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-402-05679-8 .
  • Onno Klopp : Tilly in the Thirty Years War . Cotta, Stuttgart 1861 (2 vol.).
  • Walter Krüssmann: Ernst von Mansfeld (1580–1626); Grafensohn, mercenary leader, war entrepreneur against Habsburg in the Thirty Years War (historical research; vol. 94). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-428-13321-5 (also dissertation, University of Cologne 2007).
  • Wilhelm Lotze : History of the city of Münden and its surroundings. With special emphasis on the events of the Thirty Years 'War and the Seven Years' War . Wenner Verlag, Osnabrück 1975, ISBN 3-87898-086-8 (reprint of the Münden 1878 edition).
  • Bernd Rill : Tilly. General for emperor and empire . Universitas-Verlag, Munich 1984, ISBN 3-8004-1068-0 .
  • Rudolf Saller: Imperial Count Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly. Chronicle of life and career . Geiselberger Verlag, Altötting 2007, ISBN 978-3-87245-035-7 .
  • Guillaume Samsœn de Gérard: The intrepid field marshal. Count Johann t'Serclaes v. Tilly was not the destroyer of Magdeburg . Edition Stolz, Freiburg / B. 1984, ISBN 3-923138-18-0 .
  • Karl Wittich : Magdeburg, Gustav Adolf and Tilly . Duncker publishing house, Berlin 1874 (2 volumes).
  • Karl Wittich:  Tilly, Johann Tserclaes Count of . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 38, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1894, pp. 314-350.

Web links

Commons : Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Counts and Princes of Tilly ad H. of the Lords T´Serclaes The "Bavarian" Tillys , PDF archive (Plate 88) of the Historical Association Alt-Tilly eV
  2. Antoine-Charles Hennequin de Villermont: Tilly or the Thirty Years War from 1618 to 1632 Schaffhausen 1860, p. 180. Translation of the French original: Tilly ou la Guerre de Trente Ans Paris / Tournai 1860, p. 213
  3. ^ Procházka novel : Genealogical handbook of extinct Bohemian gentry families, supplementary volume. Published by the board of the Collegium Carolinum (Institute) Research Center for the Bohemian Countries, R. Oldenbourg Verlag Munich 1990, ISBN 3-486-54051-3 , Tilly (in Böhmen), page 136, corrections to the novel by Procházka : Genealogical handbook extinguished bohemian Herrenstandfamilien, Neustadt an der Aisch 1973, ISBN 3-7686-5002-2 , pp. 320 and 321, line of origin: Tilly (in Böhmen) (T'Serclaes de Tilly).
  4. ↑ On this in detail Walter Krüssmann: Ernst von Mansfeld , pp. 277–291, 295–303 and 308–311.
  5. Wilhelm Lotze: History of the City of Münden , p. 68 ff.
  6. Jan N. Lorenzen: The Great Battles - Myths, People, Fates, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / New York, 2006.
  7. Matthias Puhle (Ed.): “… Gantz devastated!” Magdeburg and the Thirty Years War, Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle, 1998.
  8. Hannes Schuler, Anne Roerkohl: The great battles 2/4: 1631 - The massacre of Magdeburg , television documentary, WDR, 2006, accessed on September 30, 2015.
  9. Christian Pantle: The Thirty Years War. When Germany was on fire . Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-549-07443-5 , p. 113 .
  10. CV Wedgewood: The 30 Years War . Cormoran Verlag, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-517-09017-4 , p. 278.
  11. In his work Magnus Tillius Redivivus (1632), the Jesuit father Jakob Balde falsely reports that a "one-pound bullet [...] from a Swedish gun, a so-called falcon" caused the wound. Elector Maximilian I, on the other hand, correctly describes in a letter of April 15, 1632 that Tilly's thigh "was shot in two with a double hag" (Albert Beierlein: The Battle of Rain am Lech, April 14th and 15th, 1632 , p. 43– 50, here p. 50, in: (first name unknown) Reichenau (ed.): Battlefields between the Alps and the Main , Munich 1938). An examination of the skeleton on the occasion of a Tilly exhibition in Altötting in 2007 confirmed the double hook wound. The ultimately fatal bullet weighing 90 grams was probably enclosed with the body, but was lost in World War II. Cf. Marcus Junkelmann, Historischer Verein Alt-Tilly et al .: "Who taught my hands war": Tilly - saint or war criminal? Altötting 2007 (publication accompanying the exhibition of the same name by the historical association Alt-Tilly and the Bavarian Army Museum in Altötting, May 1 to July 30, 2007), p. 38, p. 96 (report by Jesuit father Jakob Balde), p. 173, commentary to Fig. 59 (photo of the bruised skeletal thigh)
  12. Junkelmann: Tilly - saint or war criminal? P. 38
  13. Onno Klopp: Tilly in the Thirty Years War and Antoine C. Hennequin de Villermont: Tilly or the Thirty Years War .
  14. ^ Albert Heising: Magdeburg not destroyed by Tilly .
  15. ^ Karl Wittich: Pappenheim and Falkenberg. A contribution to the characterization of the local patriotic historiography of Magdeburg . Berlin 1894, p. 3
  16. ^ Karl Wittich: Magdeburg, Gustav Adolf and Tilly . Berlin 1874. - Rev .: Dietrich von Falkenberg . Magdeburg 1892.
  17. Christian Pantle: The Thirty Years War. When Germany was on fire . Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-549-07443-5 , p. 194 .
  18. ^ History of the Thirty Years' War (1790), digitized version and full text in the German Text Archive
  19. ^ Website of the Seesener Schützenverein on "Tillys Kanonieren" at the Sehusa festival
  20. ^ Report of the Bavarian Radio from January 18, 2012 ( Memento from July 27, 2012 in the web archive )
  21. Website with the background and history of the Tillyfest in Breitenbrunn (Upper Palatinate)
  22. ^ Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : The Army History Museum Vienna. The museum and its representative rooms . Kiesel Verlag, Salzburg 1981, ISBN 3-7023-0113-5 , p. 31.
  23. ^ Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : Das Heeresgeschichtliche Museum Wien, Vol. 1: Room I - From the beginnings of the standing army to the end of the 17th century , p. 27.
  24. ^ Addresses Tilly's military action against Mansfeld in the Bohemian-Palatinate War since 1620/21.