Maximilian I (Bavaria)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Maximilian I (1598)
Signature Maximilian I. (Bavaria) .PNG

Maximilian I (born April 17, 1573 in Munich , † September 27, 1651 in Ingolstadt ) was Duke of Bavaria from 1597 and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 .

Through various reforms, he financially rehabilitated the country and made it economically efficient. By eliminating the corporate rights of participation , he became the actual founder of the absolutist rule in Bavaria. At the same time he was a formative person of the Counter Reformation and the Catholic Reform . Its internal consolidation policy increased the country's foreign policy leeway.

Alongside the emperor, he was the leading figure among the Catholic princes in the Holy Roman Empire and the actual founder of the Catholic League . As such, he made a decisive contribution to asserting the dominance of the Catholic side in the Thirty Years' War until 1630. Already at the beginning of the war Maximilian succeeded in conquering the Upper Palatinate and by the end of the war the Electoral Palatinate as well as the assumption of the Palatinate electoral dignity. In the further course of the war he played an important role and tried to pursue an independent policy, partly against the emperor in alliance with France. In the Peace of Westphalia his electoral dignity and ownership of the Upper Palatinate were confirmed.

Early years and family

Maximilian was the son of Duke Wilhelm V of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine . Brothers were Philip of Bavaria , Bishop of Regensburg and Cardinal, Ferdinand of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne , Bishop of Munster , Liège and Paderborn , and Albrecht of Bavaria , Landgrave of Leuchtenberg . The sister Maria Anna was married to Emperor Ferdinand II . Magdalena married Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg.

His training, which was to prepare him for his later task, was thorough. She followed his father's instructions, which strictly regulated the daily routine. The lawyer Wenzeslaus Peträus played a key role in his training. In addition to a broad religious education, this also included learning foreign languages ​​such as Latin, Greek and Czech.

At the Jesuit-dominated University of Ingolstadt , he studied from 1587, along with his younger by five years cousin, Archduke Ferdinand of Styria (of a decade to become his brother-in later, two decades later, when Emperor Ferdinand II. His kingdom chief, political partner in Thirty Years' War, but also a competitor and - many decades later - even his father-in-law). Maximilian was superior to Ferdinand in intelligence, diligence and political skill, but the size of their hereditary lands meant that he was mostly inferior to him in terms of power politics. Both were deeply religious, which united them for life. But there was always friction, even in Ingolstadt: when the seventeen-year-old Bavarian heir to the throne took first place in the church, but the twelve-year-old Archduke Ferdinand stood in front of him, which led to a lengthy, sharp correspondence between the parents of the two princes . His studies were organized by the lawyer Johann Baptist Fickler . The Jesuit Gregory of Valencia was his confessor and advisor on religious matters. In particular, he studied law, military affairs, Italian and French with private teachers, but also took part in public lectures and took part in legal disputations. He gained political experience by attending meetings of the city council.

Then from February 1594 he traveled in the manner of a cavalier tour to the imperial court in Prague , to Rome to the court of the Pope, to various Italian courts and to Nancy to court his wife Elisabeth. Because of the Huguenot Wars, he was unable to travel to Paris.

Duke Maximilian married Princess Elisabeth (1574–1635), daughter of Duke Charles III in Nancy on February 6, 1595 . von Lorraine and his wife Claudia of France , daughter of King Henry II. The marriage remained childless. His wife shared his religiosity.

In his second marriage on July 15, 1635 in Vienna, he married his niece, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665) , daughter of his sister Maria Anna of Bavaria and her husband Emperor Ferdinand II. The marriage had two children:

The patch of it for the heirs of Ferdinand Maria of "The Great Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria guide to statecraft" was Johann Christoph von Aretino ( Würzburg 1822) Latin and German out.

Working in Bavaria

Absolutist reform policy

Maximilian I as ruler (depiction by Wenceslas Hollar around 1649)

His father was unable to cope with the country's immense debts and gradually began to transfer power to Maximilian. In 1594 he was appointed chairman of the secret council and a year later co-regent.

In 1597, the father completely abdicated in favor of Maximilian. This turned out to be an energetic regent with a great job performance. He was supported by capable employees. He started with profound reforms in the country. Its focus was in the period before the Thirty Years War. The main task was to restore the heavily indebted country to its capacity to act. His father's very expensive prestige project, the Jesuit college with the college church of St. Michael in Munich, was also completed in the year he took office . The reform policy encompassed both the state, which was about strengthening the ducal power in the sense of early absolutism , as well as the economy and society. In the field of economics, he was guided by early mercantilist models.

Control over the state employees and over the accounting system were strengthened (rent master instruction 1613). There were visitations at the higher level via the subordinate authorities. As in Ingolstadt, control over the cities was partially withdrawn from the tax offices and exercised directly by the central government.

The expenses were reduced. The income from the state domains and regalia could be increased. Income was generated from the allocation of monopolies. For example, a wheat beer monopoly was set up. Salt production, customs duties and excise taxes also generated considerable income. There was also overall support for trade and commerce. Within a few years he managed to put the country on a firmer financial basis. This gave him scope for wide-ranging foreign policy.

An effective administration was established and the legal system was further developed in 1616 with a new land law, police, court and maleficent system . With regard to the persecution of witches , he basically stood for a tough approach. However, he was open to criticism in cases of particularly keen persecutors. Together with the emperor, he finally tried a more moderate line.

The co-determination rights of the estates had already been watered down by its predecessors . Maximilian continued on this path and largely switched off the stands. After the diets of 1605 and 1612 there were no more general diets. Instead there was only one committee for tax approval ( Landscape Ordinance ). In the cities, too, citizens' rights were curtailed in favor of the state.

Religiousness and Church Politics

Mary statue on the Marian column in Munich

Maximilian was permeated by a personal religiosity and his lifestyle was also strongly influenced by religion, which he had in common with Ferdinand II. Numerous religious foundations made this clear. His personal devotion to Mary led to a corresponding promotion of Marian piety in the country. In 1616 he had the larger than life bronze figure " Patrona Bavariae " by Hans Krumpper attached to the west facade of the Munich Residence and in 1638 erected the Marian column with the statue of the Virgin by Hubert Gerhard on Munich's Schrannenplatz, today's Marienplatz .

Maximilian did not shy away from trying, in an absolutist sense, to influence the church. With the advice of Jesuits, he set up the church police regiment . He took an active part in the bishopric elections in Bavaria and in the neighborhood. In 1611, for example, he forced the archbishop of Salzburg Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau to resign from office after he had occupied the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden .

He could allow himself to intervene in internal church affairs because he was at the same time a leading figure in the Counter Reformation and the re-Catholicization . Associated with this was the promotion of Catholic reform in his sphere of influence. He promoted the reform orders such as the Jesuits, Capuchins and others. Maximilian's environment was strongly influenced by Jesuits, who exerted a considerable spiritual influence on him. His confessors Johann Buslidius , Adam Contzen and Johannes Vervaux also carried out diplomatic missions for him.

It is true that in 1601 he initiated the Regensburg religious conversation between Catholic and Protestant scholars. However, this was unsuccessful against the background of the advanced confessionalization . Like his predecessors, Maximilian tried to fill dioceses with relatives. This applies to dioceses in the Bavarian environment, but also in north-west Germany. So it was possible to get Ferdinand of Bavaria the Archdiocese of Cologne.

Art policy and patronage

Imperial court of the Munich residence from 1612–1616

The expansion of the Munich Residenz in two major construction phases, 1600 to around 1605 and 1612 to 1616, served the princely self-portrayal. At that time, among other things, the still preserved imperial court with the (now heavily restored and reconstructed) state rooms as well as the court chapel and the rich chapel were built. In 1617 he had the old palace built in Schleissheim based on the model of an Italian villa. Maximilian also donated the Josephspital in Munich in 1626 .

The promotion of arts and crafts was both an expression of an early aroused personal interest in the arts, as well as of religiosity and the princely will to represent. He had a keen sense of the taste in art of the Habsburg courts in Vienna and Prague or the papal curia in Rome. He has given little support to music. It was different with tapestries , painting, bronze work or goldsmithing.

In addition to his newly furnished living rooms in the east of the grotto courtyard, he set up a private chamber gallery for a qualitative selection of his paintings, including z. B. Altdorfer's famous Battle of Alexander . He emerged as a collector of Albrecht Dürer 's works and thus formed the basis for his paintings in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. To complete his art collection, he had his own agent, who got him a number of important works by Augsburg masters as well as works by contemporary painters such as Adam Elsheimer , Joachim von Sandrart , Carlo Saraceni and Peter Paul Rubens . He was not squeamish about this: In 1627, by applying gentle pressure to the Nuremberg city fathers, he received the work The Four Apostles , which the painter had given to his hometown. The elector let the city know that he would like to have the work and would take a negative decision as "a high despect". Various artists such as Peter Candid , Hubert Gerhard , Hans Krumpper , Christof Angermair , Adrian de Vries and Georg Petel work for his court .

His support for regional historiography, which served, for example, to make Ludwig the Bavarian appear in a positive light, served to legitimize his rule historically.

Foreign Policy and the Thirty Years War

Several phases can be identified in foreign politics. In the first time up to 1619 he was not very active and waited, after which he rose to the height of his influence in 1630, there were crisis years until 1634/35 and finally a difficult time of self-assertion until 1648.

Before the war

The foundation of the Catholic League (1609 in Munich), historical painting by Carl Theodor von Piloty from 1870

At the beginning of his rule he concentrated entirely on internal politics and even dissolved the Landsberger Bund established by his grandfather . 1607 he took of Emperor Rudolf II. On the imperial city Donauwörth pronounced imperial ban . After conquering the city, Maximilian kept it in his possession , despite all objections from the Protestant estates. The German Protestants then allied themselves in 1608 to form the Protestant Union . As a reaction to this, Maximilian was the initiator for the establishment of the Catholic League in 1609 . As a federal colonel, he held the military leadership and appointed Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly as general of the league .

The Habsburg house he wanted from the league that he intended to lead, know excluded and resisted even the intervention of the league in the Jülich-Cleves succession dispute and in the confessional turmoil in the Austrian hereditary lands . But in 1610 he allowed Archduke Ferdinand to be admitted and in August 1619 supported his election as emperor as successor to Matthias . Maximilian made the league more and more an instrument of Bavarian politics, which aroused the distrust of the Habsburgs. In 1616 he was forced to largely dissolve the league and continue to run it only as a southern German special association.

High point of success

Against the background of the conflict with Habsburg, after the beginning of the Bohemian Uprising ( second lintel in Prague ), he was only willing to reorganize the league if it remained independent of the emperor and if he was adequately compensated for his efforts. On this basis, he signed a contract with Ferdinand II on October 8, 1619 in Munich on behalf of the League and raised an army of 30,000 men to support the emperor. These troops, however, remained under the control of the League and thus Maximilians. In return, Ferdinand promised to reimburse the war costs, promised the initially pledged surrender of conquered territories and finally granted Maximilian the transfer of the Palatinate electoral dignity to Bavaria and the incorporation of the Upper Palatinate into his domain. Not only self-interest, but also Maximilian's will to maintain the status quo in the empire, moved Maximilian to support the emperor in the following years.

The troops of the league conquered Austria above the Enns , whose Protestant nobility had joined the Bohemian rebels. An army of the league and imperial troops, but in fact under Bavarian leadership, defeated the Bohemian Protestants under Friedrich V. Maximilian on November 8, 1620 on the White Mountain near Prague , then took the Upper Palatinate with little effort. With Spanish help, he then conquered the Palatinate. Maximilian left the Heidelberg Bibliotheca Palatina to Pope Gregory XV. in thanks for his support.

As agreed, he received the electoral dignity for life for his help at the Regensburg Princely Congress in 1623. He held the Upper Palatinate and Upper Austria as pledges. Between 1623 and 1629 the army of the league under Tilly and the imperial army under Wallenstein were on the advance and occupied almost all of northern Germany. Maximilian, who initially saw Wallenstein's self-recruited imperial army as a subordinate support of the league he led, was soon worried by its immense growth and felt pushed aside by the Bohemian upstart, who subjugated northern Germany to the Danish and Polish borders .

Equestrian statue of Maximilian I on Wittelsbacherplatz in Munich; Base design by Leo von Klenze ; Equestrian figure by Bertel Thorvaldsen ; Bronze casting by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier 1836/37; Client King Ludwig I ; Construction period: 1830–1839; Unveiled 1839

Maximilian had the largely Protestant Upper Palatinate re-Catholicize. In 1628, Catholicism was declared the sole denomination. As in the Habsburg territories, the Jesuits were the bearers of recatholization. The procedure was also similar to that in the Habsburg areas. Resistance was broken by billeting soldiers. The process of re-Catholicization was then largely ended by 1675. Maximilian acted in a similar way in the Rhineland Palatinate until the end of the war.

On the Elector's Day in Mühlhausen, the overwhelming power of the emperor and the league led by Maximilian became evident, as the Protestant electors recognized the Bavarian electoral dignity. In 1628 he was formally granted hereditary electoral dignity by Ferdinand II, which had previously been revoked from his Palatinate-Wittelsbach Protestant cousin Friedrich , the Bohemian "Winter King". In addition, he received the territories of Upper Palatinate and the Lower Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine that had been taken from Friedrich, as well as Upper Austria of the Habsburgs to settle the war costs as hereditary property. He renounced Upper Austria after the experience of the peasant uprising of 1626 . The safeguarding of the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity essentially determined his policy in the following.

This also influenced his policy towards Spain and France. His relationship with the Spaniards was difficult because of their position on the Palatinate question and his refusal to use the league in the war in the Netherlands . In contrast, he hoped for support from France in the question of the health resort and promised not to support the Spaniards in the fight against France. Richelieu tried to dissuade Maximilian from his politics close to the emperor. Maximilian, for his part, endeavored to end Richelieu's policy against the emperor and empire and to include him in an anti-Protestant coalition.

The success of the Catholic party became clear in the Treaty of Lübeck on May 22, 1629. The fact that this success did not lead to a lasting peace had to do with the fact that Ferdinand II issued the edict of restitution on March 6, 1629 . This was aimed at the return of all church property - since the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 - taken over by Protestants, including the monasteries, imperial donors and principal dioceses to the Catholic Church, for the purpose of strengthening Catholicism in Germany, the economic weakening of the Protestant imperial estates and last but not least to supply the later-born Catholic princes with sinecures . Maximilian was complicit in the continuation of the war because he expressly welcomed the edict and in 1630 strictly rejected the withdrawal as a compromise formula discussed at the Regensburg Electoral Congress, which subsequently led to the solidarity of the Protestant estates and ultimately to the intervention of the Swedes.

But when Ferdinand II, in addition to the overthrow of Protestantism, also sought the establishment of an absolute empire with the help of Wallenstein's army and thus threatened the rights of the imperial princes, furthermore, together with the Spanish Habsburgs, instigated the Mantuan War of Succession against France and also deployed imperial troops In order to support the Spanish Netherlands against the Dutch Republic , Maximilian resisted and brought about the reduction of the imperial army and Wallenstein's deposition on the Regensburg Electoral Day in 1630 - although the latter had not endorsed either the Italian or the Dutch campaigns. He also forced the return of Mecklenburg to its expelled dukes, as he saw the enfeoffment of Wallenstein as a bad precedent for the ousting of long-established imperial princes by Habsburg soldier princes, as Pappenheim had for a short time sought with the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. The temporarily contemplated plan to give Maximilian the supreme command failed - as a compromise, this was initially given to Tilly, who thereby also became imperial from the Bavarian general of the league, with unclear channels of command.

Neutrality policy and defeat

contemporary depiction of the battle near Rain am Lech

Various factors, such as the French promise to recognize Maximilian's electoral dignity and his possession of the Upper Palatinate, led to the Treaty of Fontainebleau in May 1631 , in which Maximilian concluded a neutrality and assistance pact with France. His duties to the emperor and empire remained unaffected. With the aim of isolating Ferdinand II politically, Richelieu also tried to ensure that the Catholic League should declare itself neutral towards Gustav Adolf of Sweden . Because the Swedes demanded a separation of the league from the emperor, Maximilian did not respond.

A new situation arose with the triumph of Gustav Adolf. After Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on September 17, 1631, Catholic dominance over northern Germany collapsed. Maximilian accepted a French mediation offer. Reluctantly, he was ready to part with the emperor in order to be considered neutral. However, this failed because Gustav Adolf set unacceptable conditions for him. For Richelieu the alliance with Sweden was more important; he dropped Maximilian and accepted the breach of the Fontainebleau Treaty.

Maximilian's policy had also failed. Tilly was fatally wounded in the Battle of Rain am Lech in 1632 and large parts of Bavaria were subsequently occupied by the Swedes. Maximilian had to flee Munich and retired to Braunau am Inn . Due to his weakened position, he could not prevent Wallenstein from being reassigned command of the imperial army. He held back against the various Swedish advances with the support of Bavaria. There were military reasons for this, but it was suspected that Wallenstein was doing this on purpose to harm Maximilian. The Elector's distrust of Wallenstein grew when the Generalissimo remained largely inactive after the successful battle of Lützen the following year. Maximilian took up closer contact with the Spaniards, who were now opponents of Wallenstein. King Philip IV sent a permanent envoy to Bavaria for the first time in 1633. The League's army then supported Spain in bringing relief to the besieged fortress of Breisach . In this unprotected Bavaria Maximilian had to accept the conquest of Regensburg by the Swedes in November 1633 . With that he lost the city, which he had occupied by Bavarian troops in 1632 and expanded into a fortress. Wallenstein had also done nothing about the serious loss of Regensburg .

As a result of this experience, Maximilian endeavored to remove Wallenstein from his post again, and he also asked Ferdinand II to do so. This pressure not least led to his decision to drop the generalissimo. Maximilian, however, was not involved in Wallenstein's murder.

Second half of the war

Maximilian as a warlord
Maria Anna of Austria , the second wife

After the death of Wallenstein and the appointment of Archduke Ferdinand, King of Hungary as the new Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Army, it was the intention of the new Commander-in-Chief to work closely not only with Spain and his cousin, Cardinal Infante Ferdinand of Spain , but also with Bavaria and his uncle and soon-to-be brother-in-law, Elector Maximilian, who commanded the troops of the League. These far-sighted military plans led to the reconquest of Regensburg, which was occupied by the Swedes , in July 1634 and, after merging with a Spanish army in Württemberg, to the victory near Nördlingen in September 1634. As a result, the Swedish position in southern Germany collapsed. However, this also meant that France openly entered the war.

Maximilian welcomed the peace negotiations at the imperial level, which led to the Peace of Prague in 1635 and brought Electoral Saxony back to the emperor's side. He left the negotiations to the imperial side in order not to have to answer for the necessary confessional political concessions. Maximilian's electoral dignity and his possession of the Upper and Lower Palatinate were confirmed. However, the edict of restitution was largely withdrawn and Maximilian had to dissolve the Catholic League. Instead, he was subordinated to part of the new Reich Army, which Maximilian led like a Bavarian army in practice, but which also had to finance it. In 1635 the childless widower in Vienna married his niece, the 37 years younger Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665) , daughter of Ferdinand II. In the following year, she finally gave him the longed-for heir Ferdinand Maria , after his brother Albrecht had always been Had been heir to the throne.

In the period that followed, the Bavarian troops were successful on various occasions. Especially in the last years of the war his troops distinguished themselves in the fight against the French under Generals Mercy and Werth . But Bavaria suffered badly from the devastation of the armies passing through. Maximilian therefore wanted peace for his country without having to give up his acquisitions and the electoral dignity. He also wanted to avoid further concessions on the question of religion. He was prepared to make a considerable contribution to France, for example on the question of rule over Alsace. Against the background of Maximilian's threat to conclude a separate agreement with France, an imperial-French agreement on the territorial question was reached in 1646. France agreed that Bavaria should keep the electoral dignity and the Upper Palatinate. Another cure was to be created for the re-appointed count palatine. Ferdinand III agreed . under pressure from Maximilian.

After a long time, Bavaria became a theater of war again in 1646. The summer campaign of a Swedish-French army under Carl Gustaf Wrangel and Turenne aimed to plunder Bavaria. It was not until the end of November 1646 that the plundering armies left Bavaria on the orders of the ruling minister of France Jules Mazarin , who hoped to speed up the peace negotiations that were already underway . But since the emperor was not prepared to agree to an armistice without Spain, Maximilian concluded the Ulm armistice on March 14, 1647 without consulting the emperor with France and Sweden . The Bavarian equestrian general Johann von Werth then changed his employer and joined the imperial troops. However, since Maximilian received no guarantee from the French that a single Swedish attack would occur, he soon reconciled himself with the Kaiser and concluded the Treaty of Passau with him on September 7th .

Maximilian announced the armistice. But after initial success it was not possible to prevent the French and Swedes from invading Bavaria again in the spring of 1648. Maximilian urged the emperor to make concessions in the negotiations on the Peace of Westphalia . Under pressure from Maximilian, the emperor agreed to the peace agreement without the participation of the Spaniards. On October 5, 1648, the last major battle of the war took place near Dachau , in which the imperial Bavarian troops were successful. In the Peace of Westphalia he retained the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity, along with the imperial office of truchess . A new, eighth electoral dignity was created for the Electoral Palatinate .

Last years

Maximilian I (1643)

After the war Maximilian began to rebuild his country. In order to have the financial means, the army was released as soon as possible.

Towards the end of his life he devoted himself almost exclusively to religion. Maximilian died on September 27, 1651 on a pilgrimage in Ingolstadt. The body was dissected and then buried separately : the entrails were buried in a specially created mausoleum in the Liebfrauenmünster in Ingolstadt, the heart in the Chapel of Grace in Altötting and the body in St. Michael in Munich.

Maximilian left behind the new Elector Ferdinand Maria not only a state treasure that was once again available and free of war debts, but also the memoirs and exhortations on the practical policy of a “good prince” , which he wrote shortly before his death .

King Ludwig I erected for him a magnificent equestrian statue based on Thorwaldsen's design in 1839 on Wittelsbacher Platz in Munich .

family tree

Wilhelm IV
Duke of Bavaria
Maria Jakobäa of Baden
Ferdinand I.
Roman-German Emperor
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Anton II
Duke of Lorraine
Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier
Christian II.
King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Isabella of Austria
Albrecht V
Duke of Bavaria
Anna of Austria
Francis I
Duke of Lorraine
Christina of Denmark
Wilhelm V
Duke of Bavaria
Renata of Lorraine
Maximilian I.


Coffin of Maximilian I in the Wittelsbach crypt in Munich's Michaelskirche

Web links

Commons : Maximilian I.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files


Commemorative coin for the fortification of Munich in 1640
  1. Golo Mann, Wallenstein , p. 58.
  2. School time in Munich
  3. ^ Student in Ingolstadt
  4. The two wives
  5. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. The great elector on the stage of European politics. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 203.
  6. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria. Munich 2001, p. 204.
  7. ^ Witch trials in Ingolstadt
  8. ^ A b c Dieter Albrecht: Maximilian I. Duke of Bavaria. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie , Vol. 16. Berlin 1990, p. 477.
  9. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, pp. 203f.
  10. ^ Administrative reforms in Bavaria
  11. ^ Salzburg and Jülich-Kleve
  12. a b Dieter Albrecht: Maximilian I. In: NDB, vol. 16, p. 479f.
  13. The Jesuit-influenced environment
  14. ^ Regensburg Colloquium
  15. Secondary education on the Lower Rhine
  16. Maximilian as a patron
  17. ^ A b Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 205.
  18. a b c d Dieter Albrecht: Maximilian I. In: NDB, vol. 16, p. 478.
  19. ^ Arno Herzig : Recatholization in the German territories in the 16th and 17th centuries. In: History and Society. 26, 2000, pp. 89f.
  20. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 206.
  21. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 209.
  22. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 210.
  23. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 211.
  24. ^ Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 211f.
  25. ^ Lothar Höbelt : From Nördlingen to Jankau. Imperial strategy and warfare 1634-1645 . In: Republic of Austria, Federal Minister for National Defense (Hrsg.): Writings of the Army History Museum Vienna . tape 22 . Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-902551-73-3 , p. 18th f .
  26. ^ A b Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 212.
  27. ^ A b Gerhard Immler: Maximilian I. In: The rulers of Bavaria . Munich 2001, p. 216.
  28. a b Dieter Albrecht: Maximilian I. In: NDB, vol. 16, p. 479.
  29. Maximilian's death
  30. ^ Elector Ferdinand Maria (1651-1679) Basic features of a Bavarian Christian and ruler life. Retrieved May 5, 2017 .
predecessor Office successor
Wilhelm V. Duke of Bavaria
Ferdinand Maria
Friedrich V. Elector Palatinate
Karl I. Ludwig
- Electorate of BavariaElectorate of Bavaria Elector of Bavaria
Ferdinand Maria