|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|Height :||374 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||133.37 km 2|
|Residents:||137,392 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1030 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0841, 08450, 08424 , 08458, 08459|
|License plate :||IN|
|Community key :||09 1 61 000|
|LOCODE :||DE ING|
|City structure:||12 city districts with 61 sub-districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Christian Scharpf ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Ingolstadt in Bavaria|
Ingolstadt is an independent city on the Danube in Upper Bavaria with around 137,000 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). Around half a million people live in the greater area. Ingolstadt to Munich 's second largest city of Upper Bavaria and Munich, Nuremberg , Augsburg and Regensburg , the fifth largest city in Bavaria. The city passed the 100,000 mark in 1989 and has been one of the major cities in Germany ever since . Ingolstadt is the second largest German city on the Danube after Regensburg and one of the fastest growing cities in Germany .
It was first mentioned in 806. In the late Middle Ages , the city was, along with Munich, Landshut and Straubing, one of the capitals of the Bavarian sub-duchies , which is reflected in the architecture. Ingolstadt then became the seat of the first university in Bavaria on March 13, 1472 , which later distinguished itself as the center of the Counter Reformation . Here was founded in 1776 and the free thinker ical Illuminati . For a good 400 years, the city was also a Bavarian state fortress . The historic old town has largely been preserved.
There are two universities in the city . The place is one of the three regional centers in Bavaria. The city is predominantly characterized by the manufacturing industry, such as automotive and mechanical engineering. The unemployment rate was 4.3% in July 2020.
Extension and location
The urban area extends over 133.35 km². This makes Ingolstadt the fourth largest city in Bavaria after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. The largest extension in east-west direction is about 18 km, in north-south direction about 15 km. The city limits have a length of 70 km.
Ingolstadt is located at 48 ° 45 ′ 49 ″ north latitude and 11 ° 25 ′ 34 ″ east longitude . The city limits are about 14 km from the geographical center of Bavaria near Kipfenberg . The highest point is 410.87 m high in the Pettenhofen district, the old town is 374 m above sea level. The lowest point is the debris confluence with the Danube at . In Ingolstadt, as in all of Germany, Central European Time applies , with the mean local time lagging behind by 14 minutes.
The urban area spreads out on the north and south banks of the Danube in a wide flat basin . The Ingolstadt Basin is bounded by the Jura foothills in the north and by the Tertiary hill country in the south . The Donaumoos begins in the southwest , while the alluvial forests of the Danube extend into the urban area in the east . It is the second largest hardwood floodplain on the Danube. The south of the city is crossed by the Sandrach , the former main southern arm of the Danube, which in parts forms the city limits. In the north, the Schutter flows through Ingolstadt from the west and flows into the Danube near the old town.
The urban area lies south of the Danube on the low terrace from the Würm glacial period and north of the river on the high terrace from the Riss glacial period . The ground in Ingolstadt mainly consists of gravel and sand, the so-called Danube alluvial land . In the north and south, where the urban area extends into the tertiary hill country, there is freshwater molasse in the deeper layers . Due to the deposits of loess , the clay content of which has risen sharply over time, the soils in Ingolstadt are very loamy, especially where there is additional alluvial clay .
The climate is sub-oceanic with predominantly warm, humid summers and cool winters. With an average annual rainfall of around 650 millimeters, the climate in Ingolstadt is significantly drier than in the rainy foothills of the Alps , although the alpine foehn still reaches Ingolstadt. In contrast, fog and high fog often persist , especially in autumn, but also in winter, and these do not dissipate during the day. The wind comes mainly from the west and south-west, in autumn more often from the north-east.
The average annual temperature is 8.2 ° C, with July and August being the warmest months with 18 and 17 ° C and January and February being the coldest months with an average of −1 to −2 ° C.
The wettest month is July with an average of 101 millimeters, while the lowest rainfall is recorded in March with an average of 35 millimeters.
The Danube flows through the city area from west to east over a length of 14.2 kilometers from river kilometers 2466.9 to 2452.7 according to international census, the Ingolstadt gauge is at Danube kilometer 129.7 according to Bavarian census. The water level at low tide is 96 centimeters, while the long-term mean water level is 218 centimeters. During the Whitsun flood in 1999 , the level was 748 centimeters. In the area of the city of Ingolstadt, the Danube is between 80 and 100 meters wide. Ingolstadt is located in the city area. To the east of this, the Danube is influenced by the barrage in Vohburg. In the Ingolstadt barrage, which was built in 1971, the Danube can be dammed up to a maximum width of 500 meters in a reservoir. With the exception of the districts of Haunwöhr and Gerolfing , which are endangered by a high groundwater level during floods , Ingolstadt has been spared flood disasters in recent decades. The city is striving to reconnect the Danube more closely to urban life. For this purpose, bank reinforcements and terraces were built on the north side of the Danube in 2007. On the opposite south side is the floating stage designed by Toni Amler.
Today the Schutter flows over a fortress ditch into the Danube, the original course of which in the urban area is today largely built over. Also Mailinger Bach and Sandrach flow through the urban area, on which also are several lakes. The largest of these bears the official name " Dreigroschensee ", but is generally only called "Baggersee" and is located immediately north of the Danube river bank. The second largest is the Auwaldsee and is located in the south-east district near the motorway and the industrial area.
The place is surrounded by three districts , which, like Ingolstadt, belong to the administrative district of Upper Bavaria . These are the Eichstätt district in the north of the city, the Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm district in the southeast and the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district in the southwest . Together, these four regional authorities form the Ingolstadt planning region (Region 10). The following markets and communities in the above-mentioned districts are directly adjacent to the city limits of Ingolstadt: (they are named in a clockwise direction, starting in the northwest):
- District of Eichstätt : Egweil , Nassenfels , Buxheim , Gaimersheim , Wettstetten , Lenting , Kösching and Großmehring
- District of Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm : Manching
- District of Neuburg-Schrobenhausen : Karlskron , Weichering and Bergheim
Dünzlau , Dünzlauermühle, Einbogen, Etting, Feldkirchen, Friedrichshofen , Gerolfing , Hagau, Haunwöhr , Heindlmühle, Hennenbühl, Herrenschwaige, Hundszell, Ingolstadt, Irgertsheim , Knoglersfreude, Kothau, Mailing, Moosmühle, Pettenhofen, Oberfeld, Oberbrunnenreuth, Mühlhausen, Ochsenbrunnenreuth Ringsee, Rothenthurm, Samhof, Samholz , Schaumühle, Schmalzbuckel, Schmidtmühle, Seehof, Sun Bridge, Spitalhof, Spitzlmühle, Stockermühle, Unsernherrn , Unterbrunnenreuth, Unterhaunstadt, Winden and Zuchering.
The urban area is divided into twelve municipal districts and 61 sub-districts. Each district has a district committee that has between 13 and 17 members. These bodies are redefined by the city council after each local election . The district committees are to be heard on important matters affecting the municipality. However, the final decision on a measure rests with the city council. The district committees have existed since 1967, and the city of Ingolstadt is the only town in Bavaria that has voluntarily introduced district committees.
In addition to this political urban structure, there is another one that results from urban development and is not least influenced by Ingolstadt's two green belts . A distinction is made between the old town , which is essentially made up of the four old town districts and the Brückenkopf sub-district and is enclosed by the glacis , the inner green belt, and the core city . This consists of the districts northeast, northwest, southwest, southeast and the western sub-districts of the Mitte district, i.e. those parts of the city that are mostly located within the outer green belt with a closed settlement area. The village districts are separated from this, especially the districts south, west, Mailing and Etting as well as the districts Rothenturm, Niederfeld and Unterhaunstadt.
Another, coarser city structure results from the location of the city districts towards the Danube. A distinction is made between the south, the part south of the Danube and the north of Ingolstadt north of the river.
December 31, 2018
inhabitants / hectare
|XII Munchener Strasse||13,735||510.3||27|
- List of nature reserves in Ingolstadt
- List of landscape protection areas in Ingolstadt
- List of FFH areas in Ingolstadt
Prehistory and early history
The oldest finds of human activity in today's urban area of Ingolstadt are hand axes of Homo steinheimensis , which were discovered in Irgertsheim. The times of the Paleolithic and the Mesolithic can only be proven through individual finds, for example in Etting or Gerolfing . The finds of settlement traces in the Ingolstadt area were only concentrated in the Neolithic Age .
While this early archaeological evidence was found in the suburbs of Ingolstadt, there is for the first time evidence of a settlement in the area of the later old town for the Bronze Age . There are several graves near the duke's box . The importance of the area on the Danube at that time is shown by the discovery of the most extensive burial site of the urn field culture in southern Germany near Zuchering, which is one of the largest in Europe. This consists of about 600 graves from the period between the 13th and 10th centuries BC. Another evidence of this era is the amber necklace , consisting of almost 3000 parts , which was found in 1996 during excavations on the Audi AG site. This highly developed culture found its end in the Ingolstadt area with the spread of iron processing.
For the subsequent Hallstatt period , the early Iron Age , the archaeological findings show, for example, the existence of a manor house with a settlement for the Zuchering area. Similar traces were found in Etting and Dünzlau. With the oppidum of Manching, 1.5 km from today's city limits, one of the largest Celtic settlements dates from the Latène period . In the urban area itself there are some smaller Celtic settlements, which continued the settlement history of the settlements that already existed in Hallstatt.
With the campaign of Drusus in 15 BC BC and the establishment of the province of Raetia , the area around Ingolstadt became part of the Roman Empire . About 50 years after the campaign , a Roman fort was built near Oberstimm , right on today's city limits, to secure the Limes 20 km to the north (see Oberstimm fort ). The high density of Roman roads indicates the economic and military importance of the region . Remnants of the network of paths were found in Hagau, Dünzlau, Etting and Feldkirchen, where the Danube crossing was. The remains of several country houses or country estates ( villae rusticae ) in Etting, Feldkirchen and Unterhaunstadt indicate settlements . The Roman military also left its mark on the Zuchering-Seehof district. The aerial archaeologist Otto Braasch discovered there between 1978 and 1982 around 2.5 kilometers west of Oberstimm Fort, along with traces of the Donausüdstrasse, three early imperial troop camps (see Ingolstadt-Zuchering camps I and Ingolstadt-Zuchering camps II and III ). In addition, a late antique Burgus was identified in the area (see Burgus Zuchering-Seehof).
First mention and city elevation (806–1392)
Ingolstadt is first mentioned in writing in Charlemagne's certificate of division of the empire , the Divisio Regnorum of February 6, 806, as villa Ingoldesstat , the site of Ingold , cf. Ingold , which should have developed in the time of the Agilolfinger . Ingolstadt is particularly emphasized in this document , which is tantamount to a will of Charlemagne, together with Lauterhofen as the royal court : Both courts were to be given to the future emperor, Karl's son of the same name . The exact location of this royal court Ingoldesstat has not yet been proven archaeologically. A location in today's old town is considered likely, although archeology does not exclude the Feldkirchen district. In 841 the Carolingian chamber property in Ingolstadt was transferred from Ludwig the German , the successor to Charlemagne on the Frankish royal throne, to his chancellor Gozbald, the abbot of the Niederaltaich monastery . In the deed of donation, the size of the place is mentioned for the first time. In addition to the Fronhof , it comprised a total of 34 Hufen (Huben), including twelve courtyards for royal messengers (Sintmannen) and two own churches . Ten years later the abbot transferred his possessions to the monastery.
It cannot be ruled out that the original Ingoldesstat chamber property was larger. In the High Middle Ages before Ingolstadt became a town, there were extensive ducal possessions in addition to the Lower Altaich monastery property. It is conceivable that this property represented the part of the Carolingian royal estate that was not handed over to Niederaltaich; that the Bavarian duke, perhaps Arnulf the Evil one, has alienated property from the monastery can also be assumed.
A relocation of the Schutter is already being discussed by archaeologists for this early period . From a geological point of view, the original Schutter estuary into the Danube is likely a few kilometers above the current estuary. For a settlement like the Carolingian chamber property and the Lower Altaich monastery property Ingoldesstat, not only a safe and strategically favorable location was required, but also a mill river. An extension of the Schutter to today's Ingolstadt would have guaranteed both and would have been within the scope of the technical possibilities at the time.
There is no documentary evidence for Ingolstadt for the period between the late 9th and the beginning of the 13th century. It is assumed that the settlement was destroyed during the Hungarian invasions in the 10th century or a large fire that destroyed large parts of Ingolstadt and thus gave the impetus for the thorough reconstruction and the granting of town charter, which began around 1200 at the latest.
Ingolstadt can not have been insignificant after the Lords von Bogen took over the bailiff over Niederaltaich . After the Counts of Bogen died out in 1242, the Wittelsbach dukes inherited the property. Therefore, the founding of a town by the Wittelsbach family before the Count of Bogen died out in 1242 is out of the question. With the Wittelsbachers, a renewed rise of the place seems possible, as there was an important ducal customs post with a bridge that guarded the road to Nuremberg. Since the bridge from Neuburg was in the hands of the marshals von Pappenheim until 1247 , the Ingolstadt bridge was the only one in a wide area that was under the control of the Wittelsbach dukes.
In 1234 the Moritzkirche was rebuilt. It remains unclear whether the planned town of Ingolstadt already existed at this time, or whether it was only Duke Otto II who took the step of merging various predecessor settlements into one town in the 1250s. In any case, it is certain that there were various settlements in the area of the city, which was confirmed by Emperor Ludwig IV in 1312 , which also go back to the Carolingian royal estate and Niederaltaich monastery property. A first city wall can be identified around 1280 . This enclosed a rectangle with streets laid out like a chessboard and a central main crossing at the Schliffelmarkt as well as a castle in the southeast corner of the city area, today's Herzogskasten. The town center was obviously habitable as early as 1258, as the first ducal document issued in Ingolstadt dates from this year. Ingolstadt was granted city rights around 1250 and later the right to mint . In 1254 the first citizen of Ingolstadt, named Heinrich Trost, was mentioned in a document.
Around 1300 Ingolstadt became capital of the newly formed part of the Duchy of Upper Bavaria under Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian - albeit only for about three years - since Ludwig was the guardian of Otto III's sons . von Niederbayern had reversed the division of Bavaria.
When the first city wall was completed, a considerable part of the development was outside the fortifications, which, with the exception of the four towers and gates, did not consist of masonry. City expansion began in the 1350s. An important preparatory work was the approach of the main arm of the Danube to the city, which was completed around 1360 (see: Sandrach ). The city expansion with the construction of a walled city fortification was officially permitted in 1362 under Duke Meinhard . Construction began in the middle of the 1360s on the east bank of the Danube and the wall ring on the Danube in the west was closed at the end of the 14th century. Work on the banks of the Danube dragged on until around 1430. Since 1407 the city was divided into two parishes - lower and upper .
Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt (1392–1447)
While the expansion of Ingolstadt was still being worked on, Bavaria was divided into the duchies of Bavaria-Munich (under Johann II ), Bavaria-Landshut (under Friedrich the Wise ) and Bavaria-Ingolstadt in 1392 . Ingolstadt thus became the capital and residence of a sovereign duchy under Stephan III. (Stephan the Kneißel).
Stephen III's son, Ludwig VII (the Bearded), brought the expansion of the city to a conclusion with 87 towers, which gave the city the nickname “the hundred-towered one”. He began to build the Liebfrauenmünster as a second parish church and burial place and planned to move his residence to the place of the later New Palace . Stephen's daughter Isabeau married the King of France . The young Louis VII had received his training at the court of Paris. The time of sovereign Ingolstadt was mainly characterized by the conflicts with the partial duchy of Bavaria-Landshut. In 1447 Bavaria-Ingolstadt finally fell to the Bayern-Landshut line. Louis VIII (the hunchback), the son of Louis VII, had rebelled against his father and passed him on to his cousin Heinrich XVI. delivered, in whose dungeon Ludwig VII died on May 2, 1447 at Burghausen Castle. Louis VIII had died two years earlier without any legitimate male descendants.
"The city with a hundred towers"
From the 14th to the 18th century, Ingolstadt's medieval city walls were a huge structure made up of moats, walls and towers. In the 15th century the city expansion with 87 towers was completed; this brought the city the nickname “the hundred-towered city” (lat. ad centum turres). This shows that this wall was, if not a unique selling point, then at least a trademark of the city. Its semicircular towers, which withstood attacks better, made the city wall one of the most innovative in Bavaria. It became a model for many city walls, including those of Donauwörth, Aichach and Pappenheim. The semicircular towers were equipped with representative battlements and some were individually designed with architectural decorations. The parapet walk, which rested on arches and stepped consoles, was also elaborately designed. With the leveling of the modern fortifications in Napoleonic times, it permanently lost a large part of its dominant appearance due to the filling of the ditch and the covering of the wall. Below today's street level, however, this moat system has largely been preserved.
University town and state fortress (1472–1800)
The end of the sovereign duchy did not mean a loss of importance or economic decline for Ingolstadt. In 1472, Duke Ludwig IX founded (the rich) of Lower Bavaria with papal privilege the first Bavarian university. The establishment of the University of Ingolstadt meant the influx of around 600 university members and thus a not inconsiderable strengthening of the economy. To train the students, the Pedagogy was founded in 1520 and the Jesuit College in Ingolstadt in 1549 . That was the basis for Ingolstadt's importance as the capital of the Counter Reformation . Numerous Jesuits and theologians, including above all Professor Johannes Eck from Ingolstadt, were among Martin Luther's fiercest opponents . In 1520, Eck's De primatu Petri adversus Ludderum , a defense of the papal primacy , appeared in Ingolstadt . But the University of Ingolstadt was not only famous for its theological faculty. In particular, the astronomical and geographical research by Christoph Scheiner and Peter and Philipp Apian deserve special mention. With the work Annales ducum Boiariae by Johannes Aventinus , Bavarian historiography had its origin at the University of Ingolstadt. Johann Adam von Ickstatt , professor and from 1746 also director at the university, founded the Bavarian secondary school system together with Ludwig Fronhofer .
The dukes also expanded the New Palace, begun by Ludwig the Bearded, and from 1479 built the new palace there, a state-of-the-art residential architecture.
In addition to the university, Ingolstadt had already become an important trading center for salt in the 14th century . But the wine market also played an important role, but this decreased in favor of beer in the 15th century . Beer sales rose from 15,000 hectoliters in the 15th century to more than 34,000 in 1546.
After the Landshut War of Succession and the reunification of the Bavarian partial duchies, the previously different Bavarian land rights had to be harmonized. The new state order was finally enacted on April 23, 1516 by the Bavarian dukes Wilhelm IV and Ludwig X in Ingolstadt. What is best known today is a text passage from this state code, which in beer advertising is usually referred to as the “Bavarian Purity Law ”.
In 1537 Ingolstadt was expanded to become the Bavarian state fortress of Ingolstadt , which remained there for 400 years with a brief interruption. This gave the city the name Schanz and many Ingolstadt people still call themselves Schanzer today . Under Count Solms , the lord of Münzberg, a renaissance fortress with bulwarks was built , whereby the medieval city wall was preserved. The construction phase lasted until around 1565. Even before the work was finished, the troops of the Schmalkaldic League and the imperial troops of Charles V faced each other in front of the city gates for two weeks in the Schmalkaldic War in 1546 . With the departure of the Schmalkalden residents, the fortress had passed its first practical test.
In the witch trials from 1588 to 1704, eleven women were victims of the witch hunts . The so-called child witch trials in 1618 and 1624, which ended after a long process with the acquittal of all those involved, became particularly well known. The 24-year-old Barbara Dietrich was the last woman to be executed in Ingolstadt in 1704 for witchcraft.
In April 1632 Gustav II Adolf of Sweden besieged the city in the Thirty Years' War , but broke off the siege, which was heavy with losses, after a few days. His horse was literally shot "under the bum" during an exploratory ride and can be seen today in the city museum , as it was brought to the city and groomed after the Swedes withdrew. The “ Swedish mold ” is considered to be the oldest preserved specimen in Europe. On April 30, 1632, the military leader of the Catholic League, Johann T'Serclaes, Count of Tilly , died within the walls of the city of a wound sustained in the battle of Rain . The fact that the Ingolstadt fortress could not be conquered by the Swedes was an important contribution to the rapid military recovery of Bavaria, despite the conquest of Munich, Regensburg and other Bavarian cities. The demolition of the siege was Gustav Adolf's first failure in his campaign and at the same time the occasion for the further expansion of the fortress after the end of the war between 1654 and 1662. During the War of the Spanish Succession, troops of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden besieged the expanded fortress , however, the siege was lifted after the victory at Höchstädt , as the troops were needed for the occupation of Ulm .
At the beginning and middle of the 18th century, the medical faculty in particular was built up at the University of Ingolstadt and gained importance throughout Europe. The Order of Illuminati was founded by Adam Weishaupt on May 1, 1776 in the vicinity of the university .
In 1773, after the dissolution of the Jesuit order, the Jesuit college in Ingolstadt was closed. With the entry of the French Revolutionary Army in July 1799, the city with the fortress and the university lost its two most important institutions. At the end of 1799 the fortress was razed by the French and one year later the university was relocated to Landshut . From there it finally came to Munich in 1826 and is now the Ludwig Maximilians University . → see also: Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
Fortress town (1806–1938)
The impact of this development on the city was enormous. The population almost halved and most of the professors and officers who were important for the economic life of the city left Ingolstadt. Although Ingolstadt in 1803 received a police commissioner and thus directly to the government shelter - a preform the independent city - joined Ingolstadt the circle memberships and belonged first to the Upper Danube Circle , later regenkreis the old circles and on the resolution eventually Upper Bavaria.
Just a few years after the fortress of Ingolstadt was razed, there were considerations regarding a new construction. The decision was made in 1806, but work did not begin until 1828, when the state finances, which were burdened by the Napoleonic wars, allowed it. The construction of the Royal Bavarian Main State Fortress was the largest and most expensive construction project under King Ludwig I and employed a good 5,000 construction workers until 1848. The fortress of the Bavarian Army consisted of five fronts and six cavaliers . As a result, for example, in 1861 7,193 civilians faced 12,750 uniformed men. The military had a correspondingly high say in urban development. Any development in the fortress rayon had to be approved by him, which hampered economic development. However, the fortress construction also brought about an improvement in the infrastructure . Ingolstadt was connected to the railroad in 1867 and hesitant industrialization began , primarily through armaments companies such as the Royal Bavarian Gun Foundry.
During the First World War , Ingolstadt was temporarily occupied by over 40,000 soldiers, the fortifications were used as prisoner-of-war camps and three hospitals were set up in the city. The most famous prisoners of war of the world war were the future French President Charles de Gaulle and the later Soviet Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky . From 1916 there was a great shortage of food. In November 1918 a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed. A soviet republic was proclaimed at short notice from the balcony of the town hall . The Versailles Peace Treaty resulted in a large reduction in the German army, and the Ingolstadt armaments companies were forced to switch production. The manufacture of spinning machines by Deutsche Spinnereimaschinenbau AG Ingolstadt (Despag) seemed particularly promising . Because of the Great Depression of 1929, 60% of the workers were laid off, 500 remained.
National Socialism and World War II (1933–1945)
The takeover of the National Socialists took place on 27 April 1933, when the newly formed City Council two NSDAP members as Second and Third Mayor chose. Mayor Josef Listl, who had been in office since 1930, remained in office until 1945. The city council members of the SPD and BVP resigned their mandates by the end of June . In the first few months, National Socialist attacks were directed primarily against politicians and members of the KPD , who mostly lived in the workers' settlements in the east of the city. The union building was devastated. More than 50 people were in the concentration camp Dachau deported . During the November pogrom of 1938 , when SA men destroyed the synagogue in the Stegmeier house , 46 Jewish residents were still living in Ingolstadt. Half of the originally around 100 Jews in Ingolstadt had already left the city because of constant reprisals and boycotts since the beginning of National Socialist rule . On the morning of November 10, 1938, the last Jews in Ingolstadt had to leave the city within an hour.
Ingolstadt's status as a fortress, which was meanwhile insignificant, was revoked in 1937. In the last year of the Second World War , Fort VIII near Manching was the branch of the destroyed Wehrmacht prison in Munich. In 1944/45, 76 members of the Wehrmacht were executed there for degrading military strength or desertion . They were later relocated to the honor grove of the Westfriedhof.
With the end of the fortress, the city was able to expand in the 1930s, and numerous new settlements emerged between the fortress belts, especially in the south and east of Ingolstadt. In 1938, the motorway near Ingolstadt was also completed. Although the city was the location of a garrison and numerous armaments factories, Ingolstadt was spared from bombing raids until the end of the Second World War. It was not until January 1945 that Ingolstadt was repeatedly targeted by Allied air raids . The southern and eastern inner city as well as the area of the main train station were particularly badly affected. Well over 600 deaths were to be mourned. In addition to many residential buildings, the bombs hit the city theater, the Salzstadel, the Sankt-Anton-Kirche and the government building . The most important cultural and historical loss was probably the baroque Augustinian Church by Johann Michael Fischer , whose destruction over 100 people died. Although city commander Paul Weinzierl said he wanted to surrender the city without a fight, there were battles with the advancing 86th US infantry division in and around Ingolstadt on April 26 and 27, 1945. During the fighting, the three Danube bridges were blown up by German troops. On April 27, 1945, the city was finally handed over to the Americans by Colonel Marschall from Eichstätt.
Economic city (since 1945)
The arrival of around 5,000 refugees and displaced persons also made living space scarce. Fortifications were only a temporary solution as emergency shelters. After Würzburg and Regensburg, Ingolstadt had the densest living space occupancy in post-war Bavaria. A real new beginning was only made possible by social housing, especially through the "non-profit housing association".
Numerous companies found replacement for destroyed production facilities in vacant barracks and fortress areas. To ensure the supply of spare parts for the Auto Union vehicles still in existence in the later Trizone , the “Central Depot for Auto Union Spare Parts” was established in Ingolstadt in early December 1945, from which the new car was created in early September 1949 with credit from the Bavarian State Government and Marshall Plan help Union GmbH was created. Auto Union AG, which was actually based in Chemnitz, was deleted from the commercial register in August 1948, so that the trademark rights to Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer could be transferred to the newly founded company in Ingolstadt. Nevertheless, the production of vehicles under this brand name was continued in Saxony, so that in 1949 the first DKW motorcycle from Ingolstadt was called DKW RT 125 W (for west ) to differentiate it from the IFA-DKW RT 125 from Zschopau . Both vehicles were based on the pre-war model of the RT 125, which had been produced from 1939 onwards . Production of a DKW Schnellaster also began in Ingolstadt in 1949 . In 1950, Schubert & Salzer Maschinenfabrik AG , also from Chemnitz, followed , which had already become the majority owner of Despag in 1938.
In the 1950s and 1960s, numerous buildings were built in the city center, including the New Town Hall , the design of which took no account of the historic old town. Attitudes towards urban construction changed in the 1970s. The new building in the Ingolstadt Clinic in the Friedrichshofen district was groundbreaking . Houses in the central Ludwigstrasse were renovated as well as numerous other historical buildings. During the district reform of 1972, the Ingolstadt district fell away. The city itself remained independent and enlarged its area considerably through incorporations. In 1989 Ingolstadt became a university again and, with over 100,000 inhabitants, also a major city .
In 1992 the state horticultural show took place here, which led to the creation of the Klenzepark and the renovation of the fortifications at the bridgehead. In 2006 Ingolstadt celebrated the city's 1200th anniversary. The city has been the seat of the Bavarian transit center Manching-Ingolstadt since 2017 . The Ingolstadt 2020 State Horticultural Show planned for 2020 in Ingolstadt has been postponed to 2021.
Due to the strong population increase of 57% between 1945 and 1960, almost the entire area of the city of Ingolstadt was built up in the early 1960s and there was hardly any space left for expansion. Due to the spin-off of the Audörfer south of the Danube in 1813, the urban area was considerably too small. In 1962, to enable further growth, the first step was to incorporate the Unsernherrn community from the Ingolstadt district . The greatest increase in the area came after the dissolution of the Ingolstadt district on July 1, 1972 as part of the regional reform in Bavaria .
|date||places||Increase in ha|
|January 1, 1962||Our lord with the communities Einbogen, Haunwöhr , Hennenbühl, Hundszell , Kothau, Niederfeld, Ringsee, Rothenturm and Schmalzbuckel (these places belonged to Ingolstadt until 1813)||1,090|
|1st January 1968||Section of the community mailing||75|
|1st July 1969||Friedrichshofen||81|
|July 1, 1972||Brunnenreuth with the districts of Oberbrunnenreuth,
Unterbrunnenreuth and Spitalhof
|July 1, 1972||Dünzlau||481|
|July 1, 1972||Etting||870|
|July 1, 1972||Gerolfing||2,387|
|July 1, 1972||Hagau||492|
|July 1, 1972||Irgertsheim||600|
|July 1, 1972||Mailing with Feldkirchen||812|
|July 1, 1972||Mulhouse||249|
|July 1, 1972||Oberhaunstadt with Unterhaunstadt||553|
|July 1, 1972||Pettenhofen||379|
|July 1, 1972||Zuchering with the municipal parts of Winden and Seehof||1,293|
Since the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the modern era , there has been only slow population growth in Ingolstadt, which has been repeatedly interrupted by the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. Population increases resulted mainly after the city's expansion in the 14th century and the establishment of the University of Ingolstadt . The decline in the number of inhabitants between 1762 and 1803 from 8,000 to 4,800 people is due to the dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773, the relocation of the university to Landshut in 1800 and the razing of the fortress and Audörfer by the Napoleonic troops during the occupation of the city in 1800/01.
With the onset of industrialization in the course of the 19th century, population growth slowly accelerated. But the expansion of Ingolstadt into a royal Bavarian main fortress , which initially brought with it strong growth, later had an inhibiting effect, as any construction activity in the vicinity of the city had to be approved by the military. Only after the fortress status was lifted in 1938 and the urban area expanded after 1962, the city was able to develop unhindered.
In 1914 Ingolstadt had 25,000 inhabitants, by 1959 this number had doubled to 50,000. The city passed the limit of 100,000 inhabitants in 1989, making it Bavaria's youngest major city . As of December 31, 2019, 138,716 residents are listed according to the official population register.
The population is the youngest in comparison with the other major Bavarian cities. With 18.1% it has the highest proportion of under 18-year-olds and at the same time with 18.0% after Munich (17.4%) and Fürth (17.9%) the third lowest proportion of over 65-year-olds. In addition, slightly more women than men live in Ingolstadt . The proportion of the female population is 50.6%, while that of the male population is 49.4%. For a good 20 years (with the exception of 2005) the natural population movement has shown a positive trend. This means that the number of deaths is lower than that of births. This fact partly explains the strong population growth in Ingolstadt. In addition, Ingolstadt has recorded a migration surplus of around 1,000 people per year over the past seven years. Of the immigrants, 18 to 25 year-olds make up the largest proportion with a good 40%, followed by 25 to 30-year-olds with around 20%. There is also a surplus of women among immigrants in recent years.
The proportion of foreigners in Ingolstadt's population was 12.7% in 2005, of which 26.6% come from EU member states . The proportion of people with a migration background is around 38.9% (as of 2013). The largest group of foreign residents are the Turks with 4,906 people, followed by 1,205 Serbs , 1,012 Romanians , 792 Croats and 719 Italians . There are large differences in the proportion of the foreign population between the city districts. For example, less than 5% of foreign citizens live in the south and west districts, while it is over 20% in the north-east and north-west districts.
According to the 2011 census , 49.6% of the population were Roman Catholic , 18.0% Protestant and 32.4% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and above all that of Catholics has fallen since then and with almost 46% the people who do not belong to any legally or corporately constituted religious community are a majority of the population. At the end of 2019, Ingolstadt had 138,715 inhabitants, of which 39.7% were Catholic, 14.5% Protestant and 45.8% had no religious affiliation or were members of other religions and denominations. A year earlier, 40.8% of the population were Catholic and 14.9% Protestant. In 2017, 42.1% of the 136,454 inhabitants were Catholic, 15.4% Protestant and 42.6% were non-denominational or belonged to other religions and denominations.
Ingolstadt belonged from the beginning to the diocese of Eichstätt , which was established in 741 and belonged to the archbishopric of Mainz . Politically, the city belonged to the Duchy of Bavaria , which remained Catholic over the centuries . The oldest church still preserved today is the Moritzkirche , built in 1234 , which was built on the site of an older church.
In the age of religious schism , Ingolstadt became a stronghold of Catholicism with the arrival of the Jesuits . As part of political changes at the beginning of the 19th century, the Eichstätt diocese was assigned to the new church province of Bamberg in 1817/21 , to which it still belongs to this day. The city's parishes are part of the Ingolstadt deanery , the southernmost deanery of the Eichstätt diocese. Only Zuchering with the parish branches in Hagau and Winden belongs to the dean's office of Pfaffenhofen of the diocese of Augsburg , which can be explained by the old diocesan border on the Sandrach (formerly the southern main course of the Danube).
The number of Catholics has been falling since 1994. At that time there were a good 69,000 Catholics in Ingolstadt, in 2016 there were 58,000. At the turn of the millennium, the Evangelical Lutheran Church had a high of a good 23,000 members, in 2016 there are around 21,400. As a percentage of the total population, which has increased at the same time, they are Declines, especially among Catholics, were even more pronounced. The Catholics in Ingolstadt are spread over 18 parishes. The two Franciscan monasteries " Gnadenthalkloster " and " Kloster Ingolstadt " have also been in the city since the 13th century .
The first Protestants moved to the city at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1824 the congregation received its first Protestant pastor and established with “St. Matthew “their first church. The new congregation belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria . In 1935, Ingolstadt became the seat of a deanery within this regional church, to which all seven Protestant parishes in the city now belong. The Ingolstadt deanery is part of the Regensburg church district .
The Mennonite community of Ingolstadt came into being in the last decade of the 19th century when families from the Palatinate moved in . After meeting members' farms for over 90 years, and then in a rented hall since the turn of the century, a youth and community center was opened in 1982 on Eigenheimstrasse. The community, whose official name is Evangelical Free Church Mennonite Community Ingolstadt , belongs to the regional southern German association of German Mennonite communities and is a member of the nationwide working group of Mennonite communities in Germany.
On October 14, 1945, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church Community of Ingolstadt was founded, which still exists today in the historic building "Pulverhaus 25" (formerly the Patronenhaus) and regularly holds church services.
The Ingolstadt Evangelical Free Church Community ( Baptists ) was founded in 1948. The nucleus of the community were refugees from the formerly German eastern regions. A first church building was erected on Nürnberger Strasse in 1962 and expanded in 1973. In December 1994, the Baptists moved to a newly built community center. It is located in the Hollerstauden district. The Onckenweg, on which the new church is located, was named after Johann Gerhard Oncken , the founding father of the German Baptists. The Ingolstadt Baptist Congregation is part of the Bavarian State Association of the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches.
In addition, a number of other free churches operate in the city , including a Free Evangelical Congregation , a Free Christian Congregation , the Seventh-day Adventists (STA) and the Christ Congregation Ingolstadt , which belongs to the Hensoltshöher Community Association (a work belonging to the Evangelical Gnadauer Community Association ).
The Jehovah's Witnesses are represented with eight municipalities and foreign groups.
There was a Jewish community in Ingolstadt in the Middle Ages , which is mentioned in writing as early as the second half of the 13th century. The Jewish residential area with synagogue was in the south of the old town in the area of today's Schutterstrasse and Spitalstrasse. There were persecutions of Jews in Ingolstadt in the years 1348 and 1450, with several Jewish families again settling in the city between the expulsions. After the expulsion of 1450, Jews did not regain the right to settle in Ingolstadt until 1861, and in 1871 they were granted full citizenship in Ingolstadt. By 1933 the number of parishioners rose to 100 and another synagogue was built in a back yard on Theresienstraße. As a result of the reprisals during the Nazi era and in particular the November pogrom in 1938 , all members of the Jewish community left the city or were deported .
Few of Ingolstadt's Jewish residents returned after 1945, and the reopened synagogue had to be closed in 1952. In 1968 there were 16 Jewish people living in Ingolstadt. The historian Theodor Straub researched the repressed history of Ingolstadt's Jews and made it public in his publications. The blue steles set up in the city and especially in Luitpoldpark commemorate the Jewish victims of National Socialism .
According to an estimate by the city planning office, around 9,000 Muslims lived in Ingolstadt at the end of 2009 (1987 census: 4566), mainly of Turkish origin. The various Islamic communities maintain prayer rooms and mosques , including the Kocatepe Mosque , Bavaria's largest mosque and Ingolstadt's youngest church, which opened on May 18, 2008 in the Northwest District . There is also a Muslim cemetery in a section of the southern cemetery.
An Alevi congregation has also existed since 1988 and has had its own church in the Augustin district since 2001.
At the beginning of the city stood the "council", which is first attested for the year 1309. This city council consisted of two chambers, the "Inner Council", the actual municipal administration and the "Outer Council", which acted as an advisory and controlling body and was elected by the city's citizens. For the first time since 1407 there is evidence of a mayor who came from the ranks of the Inner Council.
The office of mayor changed every six months, later every quarter. After 1447, a lordly civil servant ran the city as a caretaker . From 1803 the magistrate's constitution was gradually introduced in Ingolstadt , with the magistrate being elected by the municipal representatives from 1818 onwards. At the head of the magistrate was a mayor. Some of the mayors were given the title of Lord Mayor . After the Second World War , almost all mayors carried this title.
The mayor and the city council are for a legislature chosen by six years. The Lord Mayor from May 1, 2014 to April 30, 2020 was Christian Lösel ( CSU ). Second mayor was Albert Wittmann (since 2002, CSU), third mayor Sepp Misslbeck (since 2008 FW , since 2017 Independent Democrats of Ingolstadt )
The city council consists of 50 elected members and the mayor. In addition, two local spokesmen for the districts, Hagau and Irgertsheim, support him in an advisory capacity. After the last local election on March 15, 2020 , the following moved into the city council:
- the Christian Social Union ( CSU ) with 13 seats,
- the Social Democratic Party of Germany ( SPD ) with nine seats,
- Alliance 90 / The Greens ( GREEN ) with eight seats,
- the free voters ( FW ) with four seats,
- the alternative for Germany (AfD) with four seats,
- the Ingolstadt community with two seats,
- the Independent Democrats of Ingolstadt (UDI) with two seats,
- The left with two seats
- the Ecological Democratic Party ( ÖDP ) with two seats,
- the Free Democratic Party ( FDP ) with two seats,
- the Junge Union with two seats.
Federal and state politics
Ingolstadt belongs to the constituency of Ingolstadt ( Bundestag election 2005 : No. 218, 2009 : 217), which also includes the Eichstätt district and the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district without the Aresing community. Reinhard Brandl , who was born in Ingolstadt, has been a directly elected member of the Bundestag for the CSU since 2009 . Horst Seehofer , also a native of Ingolstadt, held the direct mandate there until he became Prime Minister of the Free State of Bavaria in 2008. He has been Federal Minister of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs since 2018 .
badges and flags
Blazon : "In silver a red armored blue panther ."
The city flag : "Three times split (banner) or divided (flag) of silver and blue, covered with the city coat of arms."
Foundation of the coat of arms: The first seal of the city showed Saint Mauritius as the patron saint of the Moritzkirche, the main church of the city. The choice of the patron saint goes back to the connection between Ingolstadt and the Niederaltaich monastery , a Benedictine monastery consecrated to Saint Moritz, which has existed since the 9th century . From 1314 the patron saint leaned on a shield with a mythical creature , which is known in heraldry as a pantier or panther and which stands for "strong and unbeatable Christianity". From around 1340 the shield with the panther was used as the sole seal and can also be found on coins and on the “ Kreuztor ”. The origin of the being cannot be proven with certainty. It is mostly assumed that the panther is derived from the Spanish Count Palatine von Kraiburg - Ortenburg , who had been the Wittelsbach's subsidiary coat of arms since 1260 and which is also found in the Bavarian state coat of arms , but is gold- reinforced there. Another, more legendary possibility is the award of the coat of arms by Ludwig the Bavarian in 1313, with which he wanted to honor the bravery of the Ingolstadt people in the battle of Gammelsdorf .
The city flag of Ingolstadt has four horizontal stripes of equal width in the colors white-blue-white-blue and an aspect ratio of 3: 5. In the center it shows the city arms on a white background. In the banner flag, the four stripes are vertical and the aspect ratio is 5: 2.
|Carrara ( Italy ), since June 2, 1962|
|Kirkcaldy ( Scotland ), since September 3, 1962|
|Grasse ( France ), since May 7, 1963|
|Murska Sobota ( Slovenia ), since March 30, 1979|
|Moscow ( Central District ) ( Russia ), since November 8, 1995|
|Manisa ( Turkey ), since November 30, 1998|
|Kragujevac ( Serbia ), since July 3, 2003|
|Opole ( Poland ), since November 4, 2005|
|Győr ( Hungary ), since November 8, 2008|
|Foshan ( People's Republic of China ), since January 22, 2014|
The history of the Ingolstadt town twinning began after the Second World War, when the British Consulate General in Munich approached Bavarian cities with the desire to establish a friendly relationship with a British city. After several partnerships between Bavarian and Scottish cities had already been concluded, the city partnership between Ingolstadt and Kirkcaldy in County Fife, concluded in 1962, was the tenth of its kind between the two regions. Today, among other things, a stele in Klenzepark commemorates the partnership ; it is maintained through numerous student exchanges.
In the same year the partnership between Ingolstadt and the city of Carrara in northern Tuscany was established . In honor of the twin town , the square between the riding school and the Herzogskasten was renamed Carraraplatz ; numerous sculptures made of Carrara marble can be found in the urban area.
In the course of the Franco-German friendship treaty of 1963, a partnership agreement was signed with Grasse in southern France in the same year , which concluded the first phase of town twinning. The relationship in Ingolstadt is visible, among other things, through the Provence house built in 1992 in Klenzepark .
16 years later the connection to the then Yugoslav and now Slovenian city of Murska Sobota was established ; then it took another 16 years until 1995 the partnership with the Central Administrative District of Moscow was closed. In 1998 there was a connection with the Turkish city of Manisa , whose mayor, an architect , participated in the design of the Ingolstadt mosque.
Ingolstadt's most recent city partnerships were concluded between 2003 and 2008 with the cities of Kragujevac , Opole and Győr . With the connection with Opole in Upper Silesia , a network of cities was created from the cities of Carrara, Grasse, Ingolstadt and Opole, each of which is twin. The connection to the Hungarian city of Győr was mainly due to the fact that Audi AG has been operating an engine plant there since 1994.
On June 27, 2013, the two twin cities Ingolstadt and Grasse signed a project partnership agreement with the Legmoin municipality in Burkina Faso, the aim of which is to carry out development projects in the structurally weak area of the African partner municipality.
- In 1953 the sponsorship for the German Bohemia was taken over from the town of Niemes in the Deutsch Gabel district .
- In 1973 the city of Ingolstadt took over the sponsorship for the German Bohemians from the city and the district of Prachatitz in the Bohemian Forest, which had already been concluded in May 1967 by the district of Ingolstadt . The reason for the sponsorship was that many Prachatitzers settled in and around Ingolstadt. As part of the sponsorship for both Sudeten German cities, the Niemes-Prachatitz local history museum was created in the former pedell house of the high school.
- Since 1987 there has also been a sponsorship for the Banat Swabians in Bavaria.
Ingolstadt as namesake
The name Ingolstadt was given to the following Lufthansa aircraft :
- 1985 to 1996: Boeing 737-200 ( D-ABMB )
- 1997 to 2005: Airbus A319-114 ( D-AILI , temporarily leased under a different name)
- since 2008: Airbus A330-300 ( D-AIKL )
Culture and sights
After the old city theater in Ingolstadt was destroyed in World War II, it took until 1966 before a new theater was built. The new city theater in Ingolstadt was designed by the architect Hardt-Waltherr Hämer and offers 663 seats. In addition to this large house, the Ingolstadt theater has four other smaller venues. The small house at the Baur tower , the open-air stage in the Baur tower, the studio in the Herzogskasten and the workshop stage, which is also located in the Hämer building. A total of around 500 performances take place in Ingolstadt each year. The city also has a large number of other stages run by theater groups with different sponsors. The theater has been refurbished since 2007 at great expense, a general refurbishment is planned from 2015/2016.
Ingolstadt has 13 museums from different providers.
The largest and oldest museum in the city is the Bavarian Army Museum with a collection of weapons, equipment, uniforms, flags, standards, paintings and medals with a focus on the Bavarian Army and the Bavarian Army Library . The museum is housed in the New Palace and in the Reduit Tilly and covers military history up to and including the First World War.
The German Medical History Museum , which was opened in 1973 and is housed in the “Old Anatomy”, shows the development of medicine since the time of Ancient Egypt and is the only museum of its kind in Germany. In addition to surgical items , the museum has a botanical garden with an abundance of medicinal plants .
In the Ingolstadt City Museum , numerous exhibits are shown that show the development of the city and the region from the early days to the present day. In addition to the amber necklace and a copy of the city model by Jakob Sandtner , the mold of the Swedish king Gustav Adolf is also on display in the Kavalier Hepp . The toy museum has also been set up in the Kavalier Hepp since 1998. The farm equipment museum in the Hundszell district also belongs to the city museum .
Of the privately owned museums, the Audi museum mobile of Audi AG in the Audi Forum deserves special mention. It shows the company's history, for example, in the form of over 50 cars and more than 30 bicycles and motorcycles.
Smaller museums and documentation centers are the Niemes-Prachatiz local history museum, which shows the home collection of the town of Niemes and the Prachatitz district in Bohemia, the Marieluise Fleißer documentation center , which is housed in Fleißer's parents' house, the Heinrich-Stiefel school museum on the Brückenkopf and the European Danube Museum in Ingolstadt with an exhibition room in the city museum and the old measuring level house on the bridgehead.
Ingolstadt is the hometown of several music interpreters and bands, some of whom are well known throughout Germany. These include in particular the hard rock band Bonfire and the dance project Groove Coverage . Other well-known bands are Slut , Hotwire , Blues Lick , The Scandal Rock Band , Vectom and Kevins Campfire .
The Georgian Chamber Orchestra has been based in Ingolstadt as an exile orchestra since 1990 . Numerous choirs are also active in the city , for example the Ingolstädter Nachtigallen, the youth chamber choir Ingolstadt , the chamber choir "incanto corale", the Schanzer Kosaken-Chor and the Motettenchor Ingolstadt e. V.
Ingolstadt is characterized by a largely preserved historic old town with buildings from all epochs of the city's history. According to the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation there are 582 architectural monuments in the city . The Scherbelberg , a historical mountain of rubble from the Napoleonic Wars, and the Pfeifturm , a former watchtower of the city from the 14th century, provide an overview of the old town.
The Moritzkirche (also lower parish ) from the year 1234 and the Herzogskasten , the old ducal castle, have been preserved from the time of the first city walling and development . The earliest holdings of the two Ingolstadt monasteries, the Gnadenthal monastery and the Franciscan monastery with the Franciscan Church also date from the 13th century . Large parts of the city wall and the cross gate - one of the four main gates - have been preserved from the second city wall from the 14th century . The two side gates Taschenturm and Münzbergtor from 1390 are also part of the city wall. The hospital from 1319 and the hospital church Heilig Geist as well as the old town hall also date from the 14th century . This was first rebuilt in the 16th century, the last time in 1882.
The New Palace and the Minster of the Beautiful Our Lady , the “Upper Parish”, date from the time of the sovereign Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt . Both buildings, which were commissioned by Ludwig the Bearded, are impressive examples of the late Gothic . The benefactor's house, founded in 1429, goes back to the Duke of Ingolstadt, the high school in which the university was housed from 1472.
In addition to these representative buildings, there are many town houses worth seeing in Ingolstadt . The oldest is the Birnbaumhäusl from around 1470. Next to it the house of the theologian Johannes Eck, the house where General Tilly died and numerous other houses of Ingolstadt professors. The Kaisheimer Haus and the Ickstatthaus , which impress with the tallest Baroque facade in southern Germany, should be emphasized here .
The old anatomy , a late Baroque splendid building from 1723 in the style of an orangery , which housed the university's medical faculty, also dates from the time as a university town . The Maria de Victoria Church ( Asam Church ) was built between 1732 and 1736 as the oratory of the Marian Student Congregation and, with its monumental ceiling fresco and its furnishings, is considered the highlight of the Asam brothers' work . With the Lepanto monstrance, the Asam Church has one of the most valuable monstrances in the world.
Large parts of the fortress from the 19th century have also been preserved. These include the buildings on the so-called bridgehead, the Reduit Tilly and the Baur and Triva towers, on whose artistic design Leo von Klenze contributed. In addition, four cavaliers , including cavalier Hepp and one of the fronts, as well as several battery positions and flank batteries have been preserved.
With the Ingolstadt Theater, Ingolstadt also has the youngest architectural monument in Bavaria.
Also worth seeing is the steam locomotive 98 507 ( Bayerische D XI ), which was erected as a memorial in front of the main station in 1968. This was built by Krauss-Maffei in 1903 and is the last representative of 147 units in the “98.4–5” series. In 1960 this local train locomotive was taken out of service at the Nürnberg Rbf depot .
Parks and natural spaces
Ingolstadt is a green city with numerous parks, green spaces and forests. Most distinctive is the glacis , the apron of the former fortress belt around the actual city center. Today it is the inner green belt and thus the green lung and buffer area between car traffic and housing developments and schools. It is criss-crossed by extensive footpaths and bike paths with a good view of some of the former fortifications, including a well-preserved section on the Künettegraben . The largest park in Ingolstadt, the Klenzepark , the site of the State Garden Show from 1992 on the former bridgehead of the classical fortress , is also part of the glacis. The transition from the park to the forest becomes clear in the Luitpoldpark , which begins at the bridgehead as part of the glacis and increasingly takes on a forest-like character in the western part.
The largest forest in Ingolstadt is the alluvial forest (Schüttel) on the northern and southern banks of the Danube. It is one of the largest continuously preserved alluvial forest in Germany, mostly located between Neuburg and Ingolstadt with foothills into the city area and beyond. The alluvial forest serves as a nature reserve with in part unique vegetation and animal populations in the region, as well as a green lung and (near-natural) local recreation area. The Zucheringer Forest, the Am Auwaldsee recreation area and the Irgertsheim recreation area with its numerous ponds and lakes are also remnants of the alluvial forest.
The Westfriedhof is another natural area that many birds use as a nesting and feeding place.
Sports life in the city is mainly supported by the 83 registered sports clubs. The largest club is the MTV 1881 Ingolstadt with over 3000 members in 16 departments. The Ingolstadt sports clubs have a total of around 41,000 members. Ingolstadt is particularly known for football and ice hockey .
ERC Ingolstadt , founded in 1964, has played in the DEL since the 2002/2003 season . With the exception of the promotion season and the 2007/2008 season, the team has reached the play-offs every year, including six semi-finals and two play-off finals. The ERC achieved the best preliminary round placement in the 2005/2006 season with second place. In the 2013/2014 season, ERC Ingolstadt became German champion in the 50th year it was founded.
The soccer club FC Ingolstadt 04 was created in 2004 through the merger of the soccer departments of the sports clubs MTV Ingolstadt and ESV Ingolstadt. In the 2007/08 season he rose from what was then the third highest division, the Regionalliga Süd , to the 2nd Bundesliga . After the 2008/2009 season, however, the club rose again as the penultimate. From the 2010/11 season, FC Ingolstadt played again in the 2nd division. In 2014/15 and 2015/16 FC Ingolstadt played in the Bundesliga .
Factory teams and drivers from DKW and Audi achieved numerous successes in motorsport. After the end of the Second World War, a few former factory drivers initially competed privately on DKW prewar machines. Thus Hermann Paul Muller in 1947, 1948 and 1950 German motorcycle champion, where he won the last title again as a factory driver. In 1954 DKW won the European rally championship . At the beginning of the 1980s, the Audi Quattro dominated the rally scene and brought the constructors' world championship title to Ingolstadt in 1982 and 1984 . In 1990 and 1991 Audi won the German Touring Car Championship and in 2004, 2007, 2011, 2014, 2016 and 2017 the title of the successor series DTM .
The Ingolstadt Baboons rugby team, founded in 1999, was promoted to the regional league as a coach in 2009 with ex-national players Felix Martin and Miguel Burgaleta.
With the Panthers Lacrosse team of TSV Ingolstadt Nord there has been a lacrosse team since the end of 2008 . The team is currently being trained by the long-time national player Florian Klaus.
For several years, floorball has also been represented in Ingolstadt by several clubs. The best known and most successful so far is ESV Ingolstadt, which has been playing in the 2nd Bundesliga since the 2007/08 season and immediately made it to the playoffs for promotion to the 1st division.
The most important swimming club in Ingolstadt is the SC Delphin, including the home club of the current European record holder Janine Pietsch (50 meters back) and the German champion Raphaela Piehler (200 meters back). The SC Delphin Ingolstadt water polo team plays in the Oberliga Bayern.
The “Ingolstadt Half Marathon”, which is held annually in May, is the regular sports event in Ingolstadt with the largest number of participants with more than 3,000 participants. The 21.1 kilometer route mainly leads through the old town and the Klenze and Luitpold parks south of the Danube. Since 2010, the Ingolstadt Triathlon has been taking place annually on the Baggersee next to the Danube Reservoir, with 2,500 participants and 15,000 spectators, the fifth largest triathlon in Germany.
The Tour International Danubien (TID) has started in Ingolstadt every year since 1969 at the end of June. At 2,080 km, it is the longest canoeing and rowing trip in the world.
The Saturn Arena , built in 2003, is the largest sports hall in Ingolstadt. It is the venue for the home games of the ERC Ingolstadt and offers space for 4816 spectators. Another ice rink was built in the direct vicinity of the Saturn Arena for training purposes. Until the demolition in spring 2014, the no longer covered ice rink on Jahnstrasse, the so-called panther cage , was also available.
The largest football stadium in Ingolstadt is the Audi-Sportpark , which was opened on July 24, 2010 and offers space for around 15,000 spectators. The Audi Sportpark is replacing the Tuja Stadium (formerly ESV) in the Ringsee district as the venue for the home games of FC Ingolstadt 04. In the old ESV stadium, several preliminary round football games were played during the 1972 Summer Olympics. The stadium was also the venue for the “Ingolstadt Athletics Meeting”, which took place in 2001 for the last time. In addition, there are three other district sports facilities in the districts of Southwest, Northwest and Northeast. A total of six triple and four double sports halls are available in the city for indoor sports.
Ingolstadt has a large number of different event locations for a wide variety of purposes. The largest event space is the Saturn Arena, a multifunctional hall for concerts and smaller trade fairs . For larger trade fairs, the East Exhibition Center was built north of Mailing. The Neue Welt cabaret , the nine and the Westpark event hall are also used as venues for musical events . Other venues for various occasions are the Audi Forum and the Great Ballroom in the Ingolstadt City Theater.
The first major cultural events of the year in Ingolstadt are the Ingolstadt Cabaret Days and the Ingolstadt Literature Days . In April, the pure beer festival follows , the announcement of the beer purity law in Ingolstadt in 1516.
Before Easter , the fountain festival has been taking place on Paradeplatz in front of the New Palace since 2000 . In the center is the fountain, decorated with over 3000 Easter eggs , thuja and box branches, with the monument to Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria , around which around 30 stalls are grouped.
The beginnings of the "Whitsun Festival" go back to the award of an eternal free three-week market by Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian, which is supposed to take place every 14 days after Whitsun. The Whitsun festival has had its current form since 1946. Since 1972 it has been moved from the old festival area in front of the pocket tower to the new, approximately 40,000 square meter festival area. The fair now only lasts 10 days and has two beer tents and a goods market.
Since 1985 the big citizens festival has been held every year on the first weekend in July . In 2006, the city council decided to hold this only every second year, alternating with the historical festival , which was held for the first time in 2006 on the occasion of the city's 1200th anniversary . Since 2008, ie Historical hard now Ingolstadt Duke hard .
Other events in summer are the Ingolstadt cultural summer as well as the short film festival 20 min / max and the Carrara wine festival in the twin city Carrara on Paradeplatz , which takes place in June .
There are two major festivals on the calendar of events in September. These are the Septemberdult on Paradeplatz and the “Herbstfest”, the second Ingolstadt folk festival.
On the first weekend in September, the Open Flair Festival takes place in Klenzepark every two years . It has been held since 1978.
In December, the Ingolstadt Christmas market takes place on the square between the city theater and the Herzogskasten. It was granted by Duke Albrecht V as a "Carnival to Nicolai" as early as 1570 , making it one of the oldest Christmas markets in Bavaria. In addition to the over 50 stalls, a historic wooden carousel is part of the Christmas market. Before it was moved to its current location, the Christmas market took place on Rathausplatz.
There are numerous libraries and libraries in Ingolstadt. The main office of the city library, the "Marie-Luise-Fleißer-Bücherei" is the Duke's box. In addition, there is a branch with the Südwest district library and the entire city area is covered with the book bus, which stops at 39 stops. The city offers 180,000 media in its libraries.
The Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt maintains a "branch library of the Faculty of Economics" in Ingolstadt. Other scientific libraries are the library of the Technical University and the "Scientific Library of the City Museum". In addition, the “Bavarian Army Library” offers 130,000 books.
There are also various school libraries, parish libraries, but also the patient library in the Ingolstadt Clinic and the Audi factory library.
The city as a literary backdrop
The echo of the medical experiments at Ingolstadt University was so great that 18 years after their end they still inspired Mary Shelley to write her first novel, Victor Frankenstein or the modern day Prometheus . She lets her tragic hero study and research in Ingolstadt in the 18th century and create his legendary creature here. A horror tour through the old town at night is still a reminder of this.
The hometown of Ingolstadt plays a central role in Marieluise Fleißer's work . She spent over 60 of her 72 years in Ingolstadt, where her most famous plays, her novel and several short stories are set. The province with its people, the petty-bourgeois world of the craftsmen, soldiers, students and maids is the theme and breeding ground for many of their pieces. The power of their language comes from their Bavarian roots. Pioneers in Ingolstadt was developed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder for ZDF filmed .
Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson left some parts of the plot of their novel trilogy Illuminatus! , which founded the genre of fictional conspiracy literature, take place in Ingolstadt. However, the Totenkopfsee near Ingolstadt , on the banks of which the final takes place, is fictional.
Economy and Infrastructure
Economic situation and structure
The city of Ingolstadt is one of the fastest growing regional authorities in Germany. In addition to the generally favorable location in Bavaria, the good transport links contribute to this. This strong position is regularly given to the city in various independent studies, for example in the Future Atlas 2016, where it was ranked 3rd and is therefore one of the places with “top future opportunities ”.
In 2016, Ingolstadt achieved a gross domestic product of € 16.965 billion within the city limits, making it 22nd in the list of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 127,523 (Bavaria: € 44,215, Germany € 38,180). Ingolstadt thus has the second highest gross domestic product per inhabitant of all independent cities in Germany. In 2016 there were around 125,000 employed people in the city.
The unemployment rate peaked at just over 8% in 1997 and has since fallen to 2.7% in September 2010, which is the lowest value for any major German city. In addition, Ingolstadt has a high job density , which is documented by the positive commuter balance of 31,078 commuters.
Ingolstadt is strongly influenced by the manufacturing industry , which is shown by its high share of 59.0% (as of 2004) in gross value added . The service sectors together have a value of 40.8%, while agriculture and forestry are the smallest economic sector with 0.2%. At 1,190, the number of craft businesses is relatively small in relation to the size of the city; However, their sales are above the Bavarian average.
Although the number of overnight stays has doubled since 1994, Ingolstadt lags behind other major Bavarian cities in terms of tourism. In 2006, 42 accommodation establishments (including youth hostels) in Ingolstadt offered 2475 guest beds with 295,674 overnight stays (115,163 of which were from foreign guests). In 2017, there were 513,741 overnight stays, of which 150,412 were foreign guests.
Ingolstadt, an important location for the German automotive industry , is the company headquarters and largest production location of the automobile manufacturer Audi , a subsidiary of Volkswagen. Audi was originally a motor vehicle manufacturer that was founded in Zwickau , West Saxony, in 1909 and has been part of Auto Union AG Chemnitz since 1932 . The joint-stock company, which was formerly owned by the state of Saxony, was dismantled in the Soviet occupation zone by the Russian occupation forces and, according to the will of the victorious powers of the Second World War, expropriated without compensation. In August 1948, the group was deleted from the Chemnitz commercial register. The Group executives of Auto Union, above all Richard Bruhn and Carl Hahn , who had been displaced to the then Trizone , then succeeded in founding Auto Union in Ingolstadt with loans from the Bavarian state government and Marshall Plan assistance. The merger of Auto Union GmbH with NSU Motorenwerke AG in 1969 resulted in Audi NSU Auto Union AG Neckarsulm. In 1985 the company headquarters moved to Ingolstadt when it was renamed Audi AG . Audi employs (as of January 1, 2008) 31,337 people in Ingolstadt , including 19,995 manual workers , 9,903 salaried employees and 1,439 trainees from 72 countries around the world.
As a result of this company settlement , numerous supplier companies, such as EDAG , Samvardhana Motherson Peguform , Semcon , Dräxlmaier or Continental Automotive Systems (previously TEMIC , formerly Telefunken and AEG ) with a location for the development and production of automotive electronics, have settled here. The majority of these operations are based in the Ingolstadt freight center (GVZ-I) in the north-west of Ingolstadt. Together with the suppliers, Audi is of great economic importance for the city and the region.
Ingolstadt and its surroundings are also an important center of the oil industry , which is the second and largest in Bavaria after Burghausen . In the 1960s, the then Bavarian Minister of Economic Affairs, Otto Schedl, advocated Bavaria as the center of oil processing. Three refineries were subsequently built in Ingolstadt and the immediate vicinity . Two more in neighboring Vohburg an der Donau and Neustadt an der Donau . All plants were and will be supplied with raw material exclusively from the pipelines CEL (closed) and TAL (transshipment point near Lenting ).
The development of the oil processing industry, which among other things has led to overcapacities in Europe, is also having an impact on the Ingolstadt refinery. After the Shell (1982) and Bayernoil (2008) refineries were shut down , only one facility remained in the northeast of the city. This was owned by Esso until it was acquired by the Swiss mineral oil company Petroplus in 2007 . After the operating company had to file for bankruptcy in January 2012, the refinery was taken over by the raw materials trader Gunvor in May 2012 . The former Shell refinery in the Ingolstadt neighboring communities of Kösching and Großmehring has now been converted into the Interpark industrial park. The Ingolstadt division of Bayernoil was shut down in 2008. In return, the Vohburg and Neustadt locations east of Ingolstadt were expanded. The Audi Sportpark (football stadium of FC Ingolstadt 04) was opened in 2010 on the vacated site in the southeast of Ingolstadt . An urban planning competition ( Europan ) was carried out in 2011 for the remaining area . The winning design provides for an expansion of the sports park and the creation of commercial space, educational facilities and living space.
The Airbus Group is strongly represented in the neighboring community of Manching with its subsidiary Airbus Defense and Space and several thousand employees. Among other things, the Eurofighter is being built, tested and expanded here.
The clothing industry , which was represented by the companies Rosner and Bäumler, is important for Ingolstadt .
The headquarters of the Metro subsidiary Media-Saturn-Holding as the parent company of the Media-Markt and Saturn electronics retailers is also located in Ingolstadt . In May 2010 the European headquarters of Kaspersky Labs GmbH, a subsidiary of the Russian Kaspersky ZAO , was opened. Even Schubert & Salzer is headquartered in Ingolstadt. The city is still affected by the general department store crisis.
In Ingolstadt, the "City of the Bavarian Purity Law ", six breweries - Nordbräu , Herrnbräu , Westparkbräu 1516 , Yankee & Kraut , Danielbräu and Schwalbenbräu - are also located. The Ingobräu brewery ceased operations in 2007.
Ingolstadt is an important traffic junction in Bavaria and has had an important strategic importance for centuries due to its Danube ford .
The most important road connection from Ingolstadt is the six-lane federal motorway 9 (A 9). The city is connected to this through the connection points Ingolstadt Süd (formerly called “Auwaldsee”) and Ingolstadt Nord / Ost (formerly signposted “Autobahnkreuz IN-Nord”). In addition, several federal highways run through the urban area of Ingolstadt. The B 16a , which connects Ingolstadt with Vohburg , crosses the A 9 in the area of the Ingolstadt Nord / Ingolstadt Ost motorway junction (formerly signposted: Kreuz Ingolstadt-Nord) and ends in Ingolstadt. In the urban area, this has been expanded to four lanes throughout. Just like the B 16a, the B 16 crosses the city in an east-west direction. It is an important connection road to Donauwörth and Regensburg . The four-lane B 13 runs from north to south, mainly in the urban area , and connects Ingolstadt to the north with Eichstätt and to the south with Pfaffenhofen and Munich . The B 300 Augsburg- Ingolstadt runs further south of Ingolstadt and is an important connecting axis between the two regional centers of Augsburg and Ingolstadt. In terms of traffic, the four bridges over the Danube intended for road traffic are also of importance (see also: List of bridges in Ingolstadt ) . In addition to the motorway bridge, these are the Schiller Bridge , the Konrad-Adenauer Bridge and the Glacis Bridge (list from east to west).
The city's car density is 707 cars per 1000 inhabitants (the national average is 692 cars per 1000 inhabitants). The high value is explained not least by the fact that many Audi factory employees who live in the surrounding districts drive Audi leasing cars that are registered in Ingolstadt. On January 1, 2019, 98,760 cars were registered, an increase of 3,200 compared to the previous year. Around 60 percent of these have a gasoline engine and 37 percent have a diesel engine . The remaining 5 percent came from gas and electric motors and hybrid drives . The car density has decreased slightly to 707 per 1000 inhabitants, whereas the number of cars increased by around 21,000 compared to 2008.
On July 21, 2016, representatives of the Free State of Bavaria , Deutsche Bahn AG , the city of Ingolstadt and Audi AG signed the financing agreement for their own Audi factory station . This went into operation when the timetable changed in December 2019. Non-Audi employees can also use this train station, for example for the 2020 State Garden Show .
In long-distance traffic, Ingolstadt is served by ICE trains on the route Munich - Nuremberg - Berlin - Hamburg and Munich - Nuremberg - Kassel - Hanover - Hamburg / Bremen every two hours via the high-speed line Nuremberg – Ingolstadt – Munich . In the Nuremberg – Ingolstadt – Munich section, these overlap at hourly intervals. In addition, ICE trains on the Munich – Nuremberg – Frankfurt / M line stop during rush hour . - Cologne (- Dortmund ), which together with the other ICE trains run every half hour in the morning and evening.
In regional services run on weekdays hourly regional trains to Munich, Treuchtlingen , Donauwörth / Ulm , Regensburg and Augsburg . On weekends and on public holidays, trains to Regensburg and Donauwörth only run every two hours. In addition, trains of the Munich-Nuremberg Express run every hour and additional trains run between Munich and Ingolstadt during rush hour. The regional train and the Munich-Nuremberg Express run every half hour on the Ingolstadt-Munich line, as well as to the neighboring communities of Pfaffenhofen and Rohrbach an der Ilm .
Local public transport in Ingolstadt goes back to the construction of a horse-drawn tram , which was operated between the main train station and the old town in 1878. This Ingolstadt tram was replaced by omnibuses from March 1921 , although plans for the establishment of a tram network were only discarded in the 1960s. Local public transport has been carried out by the Ingolstädter Verkehrsgesellschaft (INVG) since 1988, which operates 56 bus routes with a total length of 791 km via the municipal bus company Stadtbus Ingolstadt GmbH and other subcontractors.
The Ingolstadt-Manching airfield, which was originally only used by the military, is eight kilometers from the city limits on federal highway 16 . This has been used for civil purposes by the local companies Audi and Airbus Defense and Space in particular for a number of years , as well as by the Private Wings airline , and has also been used for regular scheduled flights since the 2019 summer flight schedule. Nearby airports for international scheduled traffic are Munich Airport near Erding, 70 kilometers away, and Nuremberg Airport .
For many centuries the Danube was a central traffic route for Ingolstadt. With the opening of the Regensburg – Ingolstadt and Ingolstadt – Neuoffingen railway lines along the Danube, however, the importance of shipping for the city declined and in 1874 it led to the complete cessation of Danube steam shipping in Ingolstadt. Nevertheless, there were still excursion ships that docked in Ingolstadt at irregular intervals until the 1950s. The former port facility was located in the area of the city theater. During the Second World War, numerous warships , including six Type II submarines , were transported by heavy haulage over the autobahn to Ingolstadt, launched in the area of today's Schiller Bridge and transferred into the Black Sea . Today the Danube near Ingolstadt is a state waterway and can only be used with motorized vehicles with a special permit.
Long-distance cycle path
Ingolstadt is located on the Danube Cycle Path , which leads from the source of the Danube via Passau , Vienna and Budapest to the mouth of the Black Sea , as well as on the European long-distance cycle route EuroVelo 6, which runs from the Atlantic to the Black Sea along six rivers.
The only local daily newspaper for Ingolstadt is the Donaukurier . The sheet is published by Donaukurier Verlags GmbH & Co. KG and has a circulation of around 90,000 copies. Together with the local newspapers (for example Eichstätter Kurier for the Eichstätt district), which have their own local section in a shared shell , it reaches the entire Ingolstadt planning region every day. In addition, the Augsburger Allgemeine provides daily information about Ingolstadt and the region in its regional edition of the Neuburger Rundschau .
The advertising papers IZ-Regional (a subsidiary of Donaukurier), Blickpunktwoche , Schanzer Zeitung and tip - Das Wochenblatt appear weekly .
The city magazines espresso Magazin , megazin , INVG stop , Wirtschaft10plus from Wettstetten, 60plus (a subsidiary of IZ-Regional) and ERCI-Panther are published monthly . The family magazine Family by megazin is published every two months .
The citizens' forum of bingo-ev, the Bürgernetz Ingolstadt e. V. as well as the web portals megazin , ingolstadt-today , stattzeitung.in , the picture portal kbumm , Schanzer-leben.de , ingolstadt-reporter.de . nra from Vohburg (netradioactive) , bei-uns from Beilngries (partys-bei-uns), bayernmatrix , shootyou , kidnetting , nightlifemagazine from Altmannstein (short form nlm ).
The broadcasting center in Ingolstadt is the local broadcasters in Ingolstadt and the entire region. From there, the station Radio IN is broadcast with the Kulturkanal-Ingolstadt , Radio K1 , a church program and Radio Pegasus , the wave of the University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt. Radio Galaxy also exist . To Radio IN and Radio Galaxy is Donaukurier involved.
At the Bayernwerk near Ingolstadt there is a Deutsche Telekom transmitter ( ), from which Ingolstadt is supplied with radio programs. In addition, Deutschlandradio broadcasts its two radio programs from a station near Stammham ( ).
The first Bavarian State University, the University of Ingolstadt, was founded in Ingolstadt in 1472 , but after the relocation of the university in 1800, Ingolstadt had to wait until 1989 until it became a university town again with the opening of the Ingolstadt Economics Faculty of the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt (KU) . The Faculty of Business and Economics (WFI) offers courses in business administration and auditing . In 1994, with the Ingolstadt University the second university in Ingolstadt founded (since 2013 Technical University of Ingolstadt ). It is known throughout Germany for the business administration and industrial engineering courses. There are currently around 5,000 students studying at the Ingolstadt universities, with the aim of expanding the facilities. The Center for University Didactics in Ingolstadt has been in the high school since 2004 .
Ingolstadt has the Apian-Gymnasium (scientific-technological, linguistic and economic), the Christoph-Scheiner-Gymnasium (scientific-technological and linguistic), the Gnadenthal-Gymnasium (music), the Katharinen-Gymnasium (linguistic, economic and social science) and scientific-technological) and the Reuchlin-Gymnasium (linguistic, humanistic and scientific-technological) over five high schools , which offer all branches possible in Bavaria . Four of the Ingolstadt high schools are located in the city center.
Ingolstadt also has 17 primary schools , twelve secondary schools , three of which are sub- secondary schools , five special schools and three secondary schools . In addition, the city has several vocational schools, including two vocational schools , a business school , the state technical college and vocational college in Ingolstadt with a technical college and vocational college and 14 vocational schools . There are also other educational institutions run by private and public providers. These include, for example, the EURO Ingolstadt as a state-recognized specialist academy for translation and interpreting as well as the David Oistrach Academy, the municipal Simon Mayr Singing and Music School and the private music school in Lukashaus, the vocational training centers of the Chamber of Crafts and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry as well the vocational training centers of the Bavarian economy (bfz) GmbH.
In terms of the number of pupils, the vocational schools lead, followed by grammar schools and elementary schools.
With the Ingolstadt Clinic, Ingolstadt has a third-level care hospital with 1,073 beds. It is the fourth largest municipal hospital in Bavaria and has 55 wards. With Christoph 32 one is rescue helicopter of the ADAC stationed at the hospital. There are also three private clinics, the Dr. Maul and the Dr. Reiser (meanwhile taken over by the Ingolstadt Clinic) with a total of 112 beds and the Danuvius Clinic for Psychiatry with 87 places. 151 specialists , 95 dentists and 64 general practitioners practice in the city . There has been a municipal health department in Ingolstadt since 1996 .
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