deportation

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Deportation (from the Latin deportare “to take away”, “to take away”) means the deportation, deportation , banishment of criminals, political opponents or entire ethnic groups by state violence to distant areas for long or lifelong forced residence.

The term “ forced migration ” (cf. migration ), which also includes displacement , caught on in the 1980s because it was applicable to different types of population shifts in the 20th century and included massive violence as the main cause, without the differences to blur between the different categories of forced population movements.

Deportations are associated with partial or total loss of legal rights and the immobile and mobile property of the deportee.

In contrast to the term deportation, there is the definition of forced exile , which is mostly based on restrictions on the free development of the individual at the original place of residence. At the newly chosen destination, there will be no circumcision or sanctions of personal freedom by the state responsible for the exile.

The UN Charter of Human Rights (Articles 9 and 12) provides legal protection against deportations in times of peace and Article 49 of the Geneva Convention of August 12, 1949 in times of war . If the deportation involves forced labor , it violates Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights ( ECHR).

Deportations are prosecuted as crimes against humanity (in peacetime) or as war crimes by the International Criminal Court in The Hague.

In contrast to deportation, deportation on a legal basis is a legally compulsory state measure.

Deportation of individuals

Deportations of prisoners

Map of the Gulag system

The deportation of prisoners to penal colonies , where they could move more or less freely, has a long history. In modern times it has been used to a greater extent by the following states:

Great Britain to Australia , Russia to Siberia , Soviet Union with penal camps ( GULAG ) throughout the country, France to French Guiana and from Northern Italy to Basilicata .

Deportation of unwanted people

This includes the deportation of people who have not committed any criminal offenses, but whose whereabouts are not desired. Such deportations were carried out to varying degrees by practically all dictatorships.

Deportation of groups of people

Deportations based on agreements

Trail of Tears National Historic Trail

The expulsion and deportation of North American Native Americans ("Indians") was based on the Indian Removal Act (Indian Resettlement Act) of 1830 and the agreements concluded to implement it on land assignments between the United States of America and individual Indian tribes. In particular, the forced relocation of the Cherokee from the fertile south-eastern woodlands of the United States in the rather barren Indian Territory in what is now the state of Oklahoma is called Trail of Tears ( Engl. Trail of Tears ), respectively.

Another example is the population exchange between Greece and Turkey based on the Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923.

In June 1939 the German-Italian agreement for the resettlement of the South Tyroleans between Germany and Italy was concluded. South Tyroleans who did not opt ​​for the resettlement option by December 31, 1939 , lost their protection as ethnic Germans. The interests of the South Tyroleans were sacrificed by Hitler in favor of his plans of conquest in order to consolidate the steel pact .

In the amendment of September 28, 1939 to the German-Soviet border and friendship treaty , the exchange of minorities between Germany and the Soviet Union was agreed after the partition of Poland. Affected were u. a. the ethnic German groups: Baltic Germans , Bessarabian Germans and Bukowina Germans and Ukrainians and Belarusians living on the Soviet side in Germany and German-occupied Poland . As part of the General Plan East , the local plan defined the procedure for settling these ethnic Germans in former Poland. The Umwandererzentralstelle ("Office for the Resettlement of Poles and Jews") was responsible for the expulsion of the original inhabitants, the Main Trustee East or the "Treuhandstelle für den Generalgouvernement " for the utilization of the property left behind, and for the resettlement of ethnic Germans under the propaganda term " Heim ins Reich “the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle .

Overcrowded refugee train after the partition of India, Punjab 1947

The largest resettlement in the state consensus with around 20 million people affected was the partition of India . As part of the independence negotiations, it was agreed that resettlements should be carried out on a religious basis. Muslims should relocate to the newly emerging Pakistan and Hindus to the state of India . Inadequate preparation, insufficient support and the injustices associated with the resettlement led to assaults, riots, violent evictions and flight, in the course of which it was estimated that up to a million people died.

Deportations for economic reasons

An example of deportation for economic reasons is the Highland Clearances in Scotland in the 18th and 19th centuries. Tenants were driven from their farms on a large scale to make way for more lucrative sheep farms. This relocation was legal but was felt to be unjust. Although the press supported the victims, there was little political or even violent resistance.

Moving groups of people to forced labor

“Eastern worker” in Germany, spring 1945.

Deportations also affected those people in all countries occupied by National Socialist Germany during World War II who were deported to Germany for forced labor (“ Eastern workers ”).

From December 1944 onwards, hundreds of thousands of German civilians , mostly women, were deported to camps ( gulag ) of the Soviet Union for forced labor by the Soviet secret service NKVD . The German minorities in the Balkans, the so-called ethnic Germans, were affected first. When the Reich territory was reached, the deportations were continued in today's Polish territory and only stopped at the future Oder-Neisse border. These civilian deportations were legitimized by the Allies at the Yalta Conference as so-called reparations in kind . About a third of these deportees died as a result of the prison conditions of hunger, illness and cold or even during the transports in cattle wagons .

An estimated 1.7 to 2 million people in Cambodia were deported to death camps for political and ideological reasons during the Khmer Rouge period under the rule of Pol Pot, which was oriented towards the communist Mao regime, and were either killed there or murdered in rice fields after deportation for forced labor.

Deportations as a sanction

The deportation of parts of the subjugated population was already an important element of rule in the Middle Assyrian period, as ration lists show, and was increasingly continued in the Neo-Assyrian period.

Already Shalmaneser I. (inscription from Aššurtempel in Assur ) reported to have 14,400 prisoners from Hanilgabat brought to Assyria and blinded . His successor Tukulti-Ninurta I sat many deportees in the construction of his new capital Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta one, including Subaraeans , suteans and men from the Nairi -countries, people from Katmuḫḫi , Alše , Purulumzi and Amadani. From the ration lists the following can be deduced: 7,300 Kassites , 350 Subaraeans , 200 Suteans and 99 residents of Nairi. Numerous deported prisoners of war from Schubria , Nairi and Katmuhi are known from the reign of Tiglat-pileser I. They were provided with barley rations. Their use was under close supervision. Parpola estimates that a total of around 4.5 million people were deported in New Assyrian times.

The Danish police officers were deported to German concentration camps in 1944 during World War II after the Danish police were disarmed and disbanded ( Operation Möwe ). Police officers arrested in 1960 were first deported to Neuengamme concentration camp and then further to Buchenwald concentration camp .

Deportations of political opponents

Many people who had resisted the National Socialists and the occupation of their country were deported under the Night and Fog Decree of December 7, 1941, unless they were killed on the spot or in their home country. Due to poor transport conditions (e.g. refusal of water, lack of air, etc.), a large proportion of the passengers on some trains died during the transport (this was the typical Nazi term for deportation).

In the GDR in the years 1952 and 1961 in the course of the " Aktion Ungeziefer " and " Aktion Kornblume ", between 11,000 and 12,000 people who were classified as "politically unreliable" by the state organs were forcibly moved from localities on the inner-German border Resettled inland.

Deportations for religious reasons

Deportations for religious reasons also took place in Switzerland until the 18th century. Here it was the Mennonites who were arrested and expelled, especially in the Canton of Bern with the help of state Anabaptist chambers and Anabaptist hunters, with the aim of making their own territory Anabaptist-free. In the 20th century, a large number of Russian-German Mennonites in the USSR were deported to Siberia under Stalin , where many of them had to do forced labor .

Deportations during National Socialism

Map of the labor and extermination camps in Germany-occupied Europe around 1942

After the "forced emigration" and expulsion of Jews from Germany, the systematic deportation and murder of all European Jews in concentration and extermination camps was the goal of the National Socialist war of extermination after the beginning of the German-Soviet War on June 22, 1941 .

For reasons of racial hygiene, the National Socialists abducted both the Jewish Germans and the Jewish residents of the areas occupied and controlled by Germany in World War II in Western and especially Eastern Europe (including Belgium, Denmark, France , Greece , Luxembourg , the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Hungary ).

With the so-called Poland Action at the end of October 1938, at least 17,000 Jews living in the German Reich who had immigrated from Poland were arrested, deported and brought on trains to the Polish border on Heinrich Himmler's instructions . The deportation there was violent and came as a complete surprise for those affected. This was followed by the Nisko Plan , under which around 3,000 people were deported from Vienna and the surrounding area from October 9, 1939. When the camp was dissolved in April 1940, 501 Jews were sent back to Austria, Ostrava or Kattowitz. On October 22, 1940, France's defeat in the so-called Wagner-Bürckel Campaign was followed by the systematic deportation of almost all Jewish residents from the Baden part of the empire to southern France to the French internment camp Camp de Gurs . In 1942, survivors of these transports were deported from there to the Auschwitz extermination camp .

Between October 1941 and March 1943 the so-called evacuation took place in ghettos . B. to Warsaw , Litzmannstadt ( Łódź ), Minsk and Wilna (Vilnius). From there, the people were taken to concentration and extermination camps in separate transports to be murdered there as part of the so-called final solution to the Jewish question .

Likewise were Roma , especially Sinti , in the gypsy camp Auschwitz , a section of the Auschwitz-Birkenau , deported where they said Porajmos fell victim.

“Deportation” as a political term

In a campaign in 1999, the network “ no man is illegal ” took advantage of the English translation for deportation , deportation , and protested under the slogan “deportation-class” against the participation of airlines, especially German Lufthansa , in state deportations. Lufthansa emphasized, however, that deportation was carried out according to the rule of law, and took legal action against being associated with the term "deportation", which also stands for crimes of National Socialism.

History of the deportations

Deportations of groups of people, understood as “forced migrations”, have taken place since ancient times. The Jews were, for example, 734/33 BC. BC and 721 BC Deported by the Assyrians to northern Mesopotamia and scattered in the vastness of the country. Later the Babylonian exile took place from 597 to 539 BC. Chr.

In the early modern period, the European triangular trade had led to the forced migration of millions of black Africans to the two Americas. In the 17th century, Francis Bacon first formulated negative thoughts about the common practice of deporting convicts to colonies.

The inhabitants of Livonian cities were also forcibly resettled in the 16th century. The deportees, mainly settled in Vladimir , Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow , served as a kind of bargaining chip for the obedience of the conquered areas of Livonia. Since 1700, convicted and unpopular people were banished to Siberia in the Russian Empire , the number of which rose steadily and was eventually practiced systematically ( katorga ).

Nationality conflicts in the age of nationalism exacerbated the problem and gave frequent causes for the deportation of minorities. In the 20th century there were frequent deportations in the USSR . Between 1863 and 1880 there were mass deportations from Poland to Siberia. This was the result of the Polish uprisings, which culminated in the January uprising in 1863 .

Commemoration

literature

  • Christopher R. Browning : The "Final Solution" and the Foreign Office. Section D III of the Germany department. 1940–1943 (= publications by the Ludwigsburg Research Center of the University of Stuttgart. Vol. 16). From the American by Claudia Kotte. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2010, ISBN 978-3-534-22870-6 .
  • Andreas Gestrich , Gerhard Hirschfeld , Holger Sonnabend (eds.): Expulsion and deportation. Forms of forced migration in history (= Stuttgart contributions to historical migration research. Vol. 2). Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-515-06662-4 .
  • Daniela Hendel: The deportations of German women and girls to the Soviet Union in 1944/1945. Association of the Persecuted by Stalinists - Landesverband Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin 2005.
  • Freya Klier : Carried off to the end of the world. Fate of German women in Soviet labor camps. Ullstein, Ullstein u. a. 1996, ISBN 3-550-07094-2 .
  • Birthe Kundrus , Beate Meyer (ed.): The deportation of the Jews from Germany. Plans, practice, reactions 1938–1945 (= contributions to the history of National Socialism . Vol. 20). Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-792-6 .
  • Bustenay Oded: Mass deportations and deportees in the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Wiesbaden, Reichert 1979, ISBN 3-88226-043-2 .
  • Simo Parpola: Assyrian identity in ancient times and today. 2004.
  • Wolfgang Röllig : Deportation and Integration: The Fate of Foreigners in the Assyrian and Babylonian State. In: Meinhard Schuster (ed.): The encounter with the foreign. Valuations and effects in high cultures from ancient times to the present (= Colloquium Rauricum. Vol. 4). Teubner, Stuttgart a. a. 1996, ISBN 3-519-07414-1 , pp. 100-114.
  • Georg Weber, Renate Weber-Schlenther, Armin Nassehi , Oliver Sill, Georg Kneer : The Deportation of Transylvanian Saxons to the Soviet Union 1945–1949. Three volumes. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 1995, ISBN 3-412-06595-1 .
  • Edward J Erickson: A Global History of Relocation in Counterinsurgency Warfare. Bloomsbury Academic, London 2019, ISBN 9781350062580 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Deportation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Notes and individual references

  1. Deportation, die duden.de, accessed on November 21, 2019
  2. ^ National Socialism - Deportation Foundation against Racism and Anti-Semitism , Glossary 2015
  3. ^ Carl Creifelds: Legal dictionary . 21st edition 2014. ISBN 978-3-406-63871-8
  4. Krzysztof Ruchniewicz: Zwangsmigration Online encyclopedia on the culture and history of Germans in Eastern Europe, as of May 22, 2015
  5. May 28, 2010 - 180 years ago: Indian Resettlement Act signed WDR , May 28, 2010
  6. ^ History of South Tyrol up to 1945 . Province of Bolzano; accessed January 24, 2015.
  7. Why Hitler sacrificed the South Tyroleans: This is how the option came about. In: Die Zeit , No. 10/1989.
  8. Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides. 2014.
  9. ^ Barbara D. Metcalf, Thomas R. Metcalf: A Concise History of Modern India. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 2006, ISBN 0-521-86362-7 , pp. 23 and 372.
  10. ^ Daniela Hendel: The Deportations of German Women and Girls to the Soviet Union in 1944/1945. 2005.
  11. Freya Klier : Carried off to the end of the world. 1996.
  12. ^ Simo Parpola: Assyrian identity in ancient times and today. 2004.
  13. Horst Penner : Worldwide brotherhood. A Mennonite history book. 4th edition, revised by Horst Gerlach and Horst Quiring. Mennonite History Association, Weierhof 1984, ISBN 3-921881-04-8 .
  14. On the 300th anniversary of an unsuccessful deportation. Mennonews, accessed January 24, 2015 .
  15. ^ Mennonite colonies in Russia. Anabaptististory.net, archived from the original on September 24, 2015 ; accessed on January 24, 2015 .
  16. Stephan Steiner: Return undesirable. Deportations in the Habsburg Monarchy in the early modern period and their European context. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 2014, p. 52.
  17. Johannes Hund: The Augustana Jubilee of 1830 in the context of church politics, theology and church life, Volume 242 of publications by the Institute for European History Mainz, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016, p. 525.