|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||293.00 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||162-278 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||90-001 to 94-201|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 42|
|License plate :||Tbsp|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||E 67 Tallinn - Prague|
|E 75 Helsinki - Athens|
|Rail route :||Warsaw - Krakow|
|Next international airport :||Łódź-Lublinek|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||2330 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||1061011|
|Administration (as of 2014)|
|City President :||Hanna Zdanowska|
ul.Piotrkowska 104 90-926 Łódź
Łódź ( [ 'wut͡ɕ ] ) ( German Lodz , also Lodsch , 1940–1945 Litzmannstadt ), located in the center of Poland around 130 km southwest of Warsaw , is the third largest city in the country with over 695,000 inhabitants after Warsaw and Krakow .
The capital of the Łódź Voivodeship is the seat of the University of Łódź and the State University of Film, Television and Theater . For the economy of the country, the resident companies of the textile industry as well as the entertainment and electronics branch form a focus.
The city is located at an altitude of 162 m (near the Nertal) and rises slightly from southwest to northeast. The highest point is at 278 m npm near the former village of Stare Moskule .
18 rivers and streams flow through Łódź: Ner , Łódka and their tributaries Bałutka , Dobrzynka, Gadka, Jasień and their tributaries Karolewka , Olechówka and their tributaries Augustówka , Jasieniec, Bzura, Łagiewnicązanka, Sokołówka, Zimłna Wka and their tributaries Brzoza , Anziołca Woda and Miazga . The bodies of water are all not large and generally flow underground through canal systems in the city center. A total of 1.29 km² of the city area is covered by water.
Łódź consists of five districts; Bałuty (with eight neighborhoods), Górna (with eight neighborhoods), Polesie (with eight neighborhoods), Śródmieście (with two neighborhoods) and Widzew (with ten neighborhoods). The 36 districts are the smallest administrative units; each is represented by a district council (rada osiedla) and a district council (zarząd osiedla) (election every three years). The city council and the city president are responsible for the supervision of the district representatives.
Łódź is located in the temperate climate zone , in the transition zone from the maritime climate influenced by the Atlantic Ocean to the continental climate . The coldest months are January and February with average temperatures of −3 ° C to −12 ° C, the warmest month is generally July with average temperatures of 17.5 ° C to 21 ° C. The average annual temperature between 1970 and 2000 was 8.0 ° C, and between 2001 and 2005 8.5 ° C. The annual rainfall is between 550 and 600 mm.
Middle Ages and early modern times
Łódź had its origins as a small settlement on a river named after the city Łódka . This river runs below the city. The place was first mentioned in 1332 as Łodzia . In 1423 Władysław II Jagiełło granted city rights under Magdeburg law . In the 17th century, the development of the place experienced a certain stagnation, which was further intensified by a fire in 1661 and the outbreak of the plague . With the construction of the Catholic St. Joseph Church in 1665, the city received its first sacred building.
Period of division until the end of the First World War
With the second partition of Poland in 1793, the city became part of Prussia . Around 1800 only 190 people lived here. After the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, the place became part of the Duchy of Warsaw and in 1815 it was integrated into Congress Poland , so that the city was under the Russian Tsar. This and the subsequent changes laid the foundation for Łódź's economic boom.
Building areas were created in the south of the village. The first German cloth makers settled there in 1823, mostly recruited in western Germany as well as in Saxony, Bohemia and Silesia and later also from the Prussian province of Posen . The German weavers, spinners and dyers, who soon formed the majority of the population, traditionally practiced their craft at home at the beginning.
In the course of industrialization , Łódź became the most important location for the textile industry in Congress Poland. The city was generally considered to be the Manchester of Poland . The population rose from less than 1,000 to several hundred thousand. The first textile factory was completed by Christian Friedrich Wendisch in 1826. The cloth makers' guild was founded in 1825 as the city's first guild . The upswing in Łódź was slowed down by the November uprising of 1830/31. After the fighting, however, the upswing continued and so Louis Geyer (also Ludwik Geyer ) built a textile factory in 1836, the so-called White Factory .
In 1848 Jews were first allowed to settle in the newly built factory town. In 1854 Carl Scheibler started up his first machine factory and one year later he set up a modern spinning mill here. During a weaver revolt on April 20, 1861, some factories were damaged. In 1865 the city received the economically important connection to the rail network. The Łódź Volunteer Fire Brigade was formed in 1876. Construction of the first synagogue in Łódź began in 1882. Two years later, the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was inaugurated.
In 1892 there were violent clashes between the residents and the Russian military, with 164 people dying on June 23. The largest Jewish cemetery in Europe was established in the same year on an area donated by Izrael Poznański . Doły Cemetery , established in 1896, is the largest municipal cemetery. In 1897 there were 314,000 people in Łódź, 40% of whom were Germans. Poland's first cinema, the Iluzjon, opened here in 1899 . In 1904 there were 546 factories in the city employing 70,000 workers, mostly in the textile industry .
Workers' misery was widespread in Łódź. Child and infant mortality was at times at 70%, partly because there was no sewer system in the city for a long time. Around 1900, 80% of Łódź's population was still illiterate.
During the First World War , the city of Łódź became a battle zone. The battle for Łódź ended in a draw, but the Russian armies had to surrender the city to the Germans on December 6, 1914. The war was a severe economic blow for the city. On the one hand, the important Russian market collapsed; on the other hand, the occupiers dismantled large parts of the factories without regard to the predominantly German owners.
In the Second Polish Republic , which was newly founded after the end of the World War in 1918, the laborious reconstruction of industry began in Łódź. In 1931 around nine percent of Łódź residents were German-speaking. The relationship between Jews and Germans was favored by the linguistic proximity. In 1930 there was even a German-Jewish electoral bloc. Nonetheless, anti-Semitism was widespread in Łódź among Germans and Poles alike.
Second World War
The outbreak of World War II hit the city at its post-war economic high. On September 9, 1939, the Wehrmacht marched in without a fight. After the attack on Poland in September 1939, the new Reichsgau Posen, later Wartheland , was created within the Association of the German Reich . The industrial area around Łódź was incorporated into this on November 9, 1939. The city itself formed a German urban district in the Kalisch administrative district . Always written Lodz by the Germans of the city , it was officially called Lodz after the region was annexed to the German Empire .
The German district president in Kalisch moved his seat to Lodsch on April 1, 1940. At the same time, extensive incorporations came into force. The town of Ruda Pabianicka and the surrounding rural communities Brus (German: Bruss ), Chojny and Radogoszcz (German: Radegast ), which had been under the administration of the Lord Mayor in Lodsch since January 1, 1940, were formally incorporated into Lodsch.
On February 8, 1940, the Łódź ghetto , one of the largest in the “Third Reich” , was established. The Jews imprisoned there had to do forced labor and were later mostly deported and murdered in concentration camps . Only about 900 people were found alive when the Red Army marched in. A youth concentration camp existed next to the ghetto from 1942 onwards , in which children were locked up from the age of two. At least 500 children died here. In 1940 there were 692 murders of sick patients in the Kochanowka institution as part of the German euthanasia policy.
On April 11, 1940 Lodz was founded by the German occupation authorities in honor of the German General Karl Litzmann (1850-1936), the 3rd Guards Infantry Division in the Battle of Łódź , had fought victorious end of 1914 in Lodz renamed. On February 15, 1941, the name of the administrative district Kalisch changed to Litzmannstadt.
Post-war and People's Republic of Poland
On January 19, 1945, Soviet troops reached the city. Since the city's economic structure remained relatively intact, but Warsaw was destroyed, Łódź became one of the most important cities in post-war Poland. Until 1948 it served as the seat of government; a temporary permanent relocation of the capital here was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of Warsaw.
Many strikes took place in 1945/1946 and the workers felt they had been betrayed. The fact that Jews were disproportionately represented in leadership positions intensified the existing anti-Semitism enormously. This was felt by the Jews as a pogrom atmosphere and prompted many of them to emigrate (see also: History of the Jews in Poland ).
In 1948 the later famous Łódź Film School was founded, producing graduates such as Roman Polański and Andrzej Wajda . Jan Moll performed the first heart transplant in Poland in 1969 in the city's hospital.
The official propaganda of the Polish United Workers' Party (PVAP) praised Łódź as a model city of the labor movement. In reality, the working conditions, especially in the textile factories, were miserable, the machines were barely modernized, and serious accidents at work kept occurring. When Wajda made his film The Promised Land , set among the textile barons of the 19th century, in 1974 , no elaborate sets had to be made: some of the machines from that time were still in operation. Again and again there were work stoppages in the textile factories. A strike in February 1971 forced the new PVAP leadership under Edward Gierek to make concessions; it was the first successful strike in the history of the People's Republic of Poland .
Łódź experienced economic decline in the first ten years after 1989. There was high unemployment and some of the former magnificent buildings were left to decay. An administrative reform in 1999 reduced the number of voivodeships to 16 and enlarged the Łódź voivodeship to 18,219 km². In 2002, the Galeria Łódzka opened a modern shopping center not far from the previous Central . The city has recently changed significantly: factory buildings have been converted into event venues, museums and shopping centers, and the Parada Wolności (comparable to the Love Parade ) takes place annually on Piotrkowska Street , the longest boulevard in Europe. According to official information, it is said to have the highest density of bars and clubs in Europe, which are often hidden in small backyards. The city administration and many small organizations are also trying to revive the special flair of the once multicultural city. In order to commemorate the once peaceful coexistence of Jews, Russians , Poles and Germans , the Festival of the Four Cultures takes place every year . The former Poznański textile factory was opened in 2006 as “ Manufaktura ”, the largest shopping and entertainment center in Poland. The old factory halls were extensively restored and a new wing was added.
Origin of name
Łódź means "boat". The origin of the name is controversial. The assumption that the name of the city comes from the small river Łódka ("[small] boat") is not certain. The name may be derived from the Slavic first name Włodzisław or from the old Polish term Łozina for willow tree .
coat of arms
The coat of arms shows a gold-colored wooden boat with an oar on a red background. From a heraldic point of view, it is a talking coat of arms because it depicts the city name; whereby the underlying interpretation - as with other speaking coats of arms - does not have to agree with the actual origin of the name . The first documented representation of a boat in the coat of arms is preserved on a city seal from 1535. This is likely to have been in use since the middle of the 15th century. The coat of arms was continued almost unchanged until 1817.
Later there were numerous modifications, among other things to adapt the coat of arms to the Soviet pattern. Of the numerous proposals to include the textile industry, which is important for the city, in the coat of arms, none was implemented.
In 1790 190 people lived in Łódź. 50 years later there were 20,150 and about another 50 years later, in 1894, there were 168,513. At the beginning of the Second World War the city had 672,000 inhabitants, in 1945 after the end of the war it had 302,000. The largest population was reached in 1988 with 854,300 inhabitants.
On December 31, 2004, the city had 774,000 inhabitants. Of these, 421,000 were women and 353,000 men. The population is decreasing by 0.58% annually; by immigration reducing the population is attenuated to 0.15%. In 2007 the population was 753,200 and in 2008 it was 747,200.
The city forms an urban district. The executive is formed by a city president ( Prezydent Miasta ), from 2002 to 2014 Jerzy Kropiwnicki , who is supported by four vice-presidents. The legislature lies with the City Council (Rada Miasta) , which consisted of 43 members from 2002 to 2006 and has since comprised 40 members. Local elections take place every four years, most recently in 2018. In a referendum on January 17, 2010, Jerzy Kropiwnicki was dismissed prematurely as mayor. Hanna Zdanowska has been the city's president since December 2010 .
The current election as mayor in 2018 led to the following result:
- Hanna Zdanowska ( Platforma Obywatelska ) 70.2% of the vote
- Waldemar Buda ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 23.7% of the vote
- Remaining 6.1% of the vote
Zdanowska was thus confirmed in office with a clear majority in the first ballot.
The simultaneous election to the city council brought the following result:
- Election Committee Hanna Zdanowska 62.1% of the vote, 32 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 24.5% of the vote, 8 seats
- Kukiz'15 4.4% of the vote, no seat
- Election Committee YES! 2.6% of the vote, no seat
- Election Committee Freedom for Muremzałdzie 2.1% of the vote, no seat
- Remaining 4.3% of the vote, no seat
Łódź is twinned with the following cities:
|Cheng you||People's Republic of China||2015|
|Guangzhou||People's Republic of China||2014|
|Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza||Mexico||1997|
|Tianjin||People's Republic of China||1994|
The city has also had friendly relations with Los Angeles , USA, since 2010 .
Culture and sights
Łódź has a diverse cultural landscape. In addition to the various theaters, cinemas, museums and galleries, the film school is one of the most important factors influencing the city's cultural life.
Most of Poland's films are produced in the city, which is why it is occasionally called HollyŁódź (pronounced Hollywudsch). The Łódź feature film production company, which has since filed for bankruptcy, produced most of Poland's feature films in the second half of the 20th century . The educational film production company produces documentary and school films . The film Usłyszcie mój krzyk , which was produced there by Maciej Drygas , received the 1991 European Film Award for Documentary of the Year. The Se-ma-for studio is known for animation films and produces the children's series Miś Uszatek , Colargol , Zaczarowany ołówek and Kot Filemon , among others . Two productions have won an Oscar so far : Zbigniew Rybczyński's short film Tango in 1982 and the British / Polish co-production Peter and the Wolf in 2008 .
Łódź has a diverse theater landscape with over 20 stages.
The Opera House Teatr Wielki (Great Theater) has space for 1,300 spectators and is one of the largest theaters in Europe. Since the opening on January 19, 1967, around 240 premieres have taken place here, many of them world premieres. Famous singers such as Victoria de los Angeles , Fedora Barbieri , Andrea Bocelli and Nicolai Gedda , conductors such as Henryk Czyż , Antoni Wicherek and Wojciech Michniewski were guests of the house. Internationally known directors such as Adam Hanuszkiewicz and Maciej Prus worked at Teatr Wielki in Łódź.
The Museum of Cinematography in Łódź at Plac Zwycięstwa 1 is located in a former Scheibler palace. In the museum there are various historical cameras, various historical image viewing and projection devices and film posters, mainly from Polish films, some from the 1920s and 1930s. The museum opened in 1986.
The Central Textile Museum (Muzeum Centralne Włókiennictwa) is located in Piotrkowska 282, in the so-called White Factory of Louis Geyer . It contains all aspects of textile production down to the products. The exhibition area covers around 5,000 m². The museum is divided into several departments: for tapestries , industrial textiles, folk textiles, fashion, technology, exhibition organization, library and archive and the education sector. The latter has the task of bringing children and young people closer to the development of the textile industry, especially in Łódź. The museum started in 1952, when Krystyna Kondratiukowa started a collection in the art museum. Due to its rapidly growing size, it was run as an independent "Museum of Textile History" in 1960 and as the Central Textile Museum in 1975 with Kondratiukowa as director.
The Museum of Archeology and Ethnography is located at Plac Wolności 14 and has about 218,000 exhibits. The collection began when Poland regained independence in 1918, but at that time it was still under the roof of an all-encompassing city museum. After constant expansion of the collection, the Museum of Ethnography was founded on January 1, 1931; Jan Manugiewicz became the first director . From 1932 to 1934 the museum published the Wiadomości Ludoznawcze (Folklore News). Exhibits from Africa, Asia and South America enlarged the collection, which comprised 1,460 pieces up to the outbreak of World War II; Furthermore, there were 9,600 other exhibits in different cities due to the collection. After the end of the war, the exhibits were partly housed in the Museum of Ethnography and partly in the Prehistoric Museum. On January 1, 1956, both collections were brought together in a museum.
The City History Museum is located at 15 Ogrodowa Street, the former Poznańskis Palace. It shows the history of the city in various permanent exhibitions, which are supplemented by other temporary exhibitions. Permanent exhibitions show, among other things, the coexistence of the three cultural groups Jews, Poles and Germans, the life of Izrael Poznański and the work of the city's artists. The Museum of Sports and Tourism is a branch of the History Museum and is located at Ks. Skorupka St. 21. The museum opened in 1982 and contains collections of Olympic medals, badges and cups. The museum's permanent exhibition is the history of sports and tourism in Łódź.
The Muzeum Sztuki w Łodzi Art Museum is located at Ulica Więckowskiego 36. It houses collections of modern art, Polish art from the 17th to 19th centuries, and handicrafts. Modern art is the most important and valuable part, which has been collected since 1929 and now consists of over 10,000 exhibits. The first public exhibition took place on February 15, 1931 and consisted of 111 works of art at the time.
The residence Księży Młyn (Pfaffenmühle) is located in the Przędzalniana-72, the former palace Edward Herbst , and belongs to the art museum. The museum consists of the house, a winter garden and smaller buildings in which the life of the former factory owners is shown. You can see ball, dining and guest rooms, the dressing room and the hunting room. The building was erected in 1875 in the neo-renaissance style. The art museum was given the site in 1976, but it could not be opened as a museum until 1990 after renovation. In the same year, the residence was awarded a prize by the Europa-Nostra association for cultural goods.
The Museum of the Tradition of Independence (Muzeum Tradycji Niepodległościowych) is located on Gdańska Street. 13 and in Zgierska-Str. 147, is dedicated to the resistance struggle of the Poles and has around 45,000 exhibits. The history of the Łodzinskaja Tiurma political prison , which opened in 1885 and closed in 1954, is illuminated as a permanent exhibition . The second permanent exhibition shows the resistance struggle of the Poles during the Second World War. Other temporary exhibitions shed light on specific time periods. The museum was opened in 1958.
The Museum of Art Books (Muzeum Książki Artystycznej) is located on Tymieniecki St. 24. The museum has a permanent exhibition of books by Correspondance des Arts artists . These artists published their first books in 1980 and then opened the museum in Henryk Grohmann's villa on October 1, 1993 . The villa was built in 1892 according to plans by Majewski in the Renaissance style . The museum is currently threatened with closure due to a lack of support from the city and financial problems.
The All-Poland Violin Competition Irena Dubiska was held for the first time in 2003. The founder of the competition was Przemysław Kulikiewicz . Music is played from classical to the present day. The competition took place in 2003 and 2004.
The Academic Cultural Center (Akademicki Ośrodek Kultury) organizes jazz concerts by both professional musicians and students.
The youth cultural center (Centrum Kultury Młodych) offers the opportunity to learn to play instruments. At the same time, great importance is attached to a comprehensive music education, i.e. both historical knowledge and the diction of singing.
The “Karolew” cultural center particularly focuses on music education for children between 6 and 15 years of age.
The Artur Rubinstein Philharmonic ( Filharmonia Łódzka im. Artura Rubinsteina ) was founded in 1915 and was given its current name in 1984. Since December 10, 2004, the Philharmonic has been located in a modern building on Narutowicz Street. In addition to its orchestra, the Philharmonie has had a 60-strong choir since 1969. The orchestra and choir have performed in almost all European countries, the USA and the Far East and are often active in the productions of the Łódź Film School.
- The central Ulica Piotrkowska (Petrikauer Straße) with stars of the famous film school graduates (similar to the Walk of Fame in Hollywood ) is 4900 m long and runs between Plac Wolności (Freedom Square) and Plac Niepodległości (Independence Square). Part of the street is closed to general traffic, which means that pedestrians and numerous cycle rickshaws determine the traffic in the street. In addition to various shops, there are restaurants and pubs here. The honorary consul of the Federal Republic of Germany has its seat at Piotrkowska 111 . Originally the street was the connection from Piotrków Trybunalski to Zgierz and was laid out in 1823 as a street for the planned industrial district. In the period that followed, various houses and factories were built along the street. For example , you can still see the White Factory , various banks and, among others, the villas of Heinzel , Schweikert and Scheibler .
- The Palace of Maksymilian gold nib is located in Piotrkowska 77 , is the seat of the student cultural center and home to a Irish Pub . The building was built from 1889 to 1892 by the city architect Hilary Majewski (1838-1892) in the neo-Renaissance style.
- The bank building at Piotrkowska 74 dates from the 19th century. The building by the architect Hilary Majewski was built on behalf of Richard and Gustav Geyer and later became the headquarters of the L. Geyer corporation .
- The home of Karl Wilhelm Scheibler was built in 1882, designed by Hilary Majewski.
- Robert Biedermann's Palace at 2 Kiliński Street was built in 1878.
- The Grand Hotel is located in the middle of Piotrkowska Street and, like Scheibler's house , was designed by Majewski . Ludwig Meyer's textile factory was previously located here . Extensive renovations were made in 1911. In the 1930s, the garden behind the building was closed.
- The palace of Maurycy Poznański in Więckowski-Straße 36 in 1896 in the style of Neo-Renaissance built.
- The neo-baroque palace of Izrael Poznański, designed by Hilary Majewski in 1898, is located on Ogrodowa and is currently used by the city's Historical Museum. The adjoining area with the historic brick buildings of the Poznańskis textile factory has been the Manufaktura shopping, cultural, gastronomic and entertainment center since the reconstruction from 2002 to 2006 . The building of the Andel Hotel, which opened in 2009 and is located in the area of the Manufaktura complex, was awarded a special prize at the 2010 MIPIM Awards in Cannes.
- The Palace of Karol Poznański was built 1904th The palace at Gdańska 32 , like Maurycy's, is a neo-renaissance building.
- The seat of the city administration in the former Heinzel-Palais was established in 1882. Otto Gehlig , who worked according to plans by Majewski, was in charge of the construction . On the roof of the building there is a figure which symbolizes freedom, trade and industry.
- The wooden church in Łagiewniki was built in 1675 shortly after an epidemic ravaged the then still independent village. According to a legend, the inhabitants worshiped St. Anthony. After a dream in which the saint appeared to the owner of the village, he had a chapel built and the plague was averted. A few years later a larger church was built on the site and the chapel was rebuilt a little further away.
- The Jewish cemetery with its 0.4 km² is one of the largest in the world and is the largest Jewish cemetery in Europe. It opened in 1882 after Izrael Poznański had acquired the area and made it available for it. There are 160,000 to 180,000 preserved tombs there, the Poznański Mausoleum being the largest. Around 43,000 victims of the Litzmannstadt ghetto are buried in part of the cemetery .
- The Evangelical Cemetery is located on Srebrzyńska and Ogrodowa Streets . Since its inauguration in 1855, personalities such as Louis Geyer , Ludwig Grohmann and Karl Wilhelm Scheibler have been buried there.
- The St. Joseph's Church at ul. Ogrodowej 22, 1765 and 1837 erbauter extended timber, is the oldest surviving church building in Łódź.
- The Stanislaus Kostka Cathedral was built from 1901 to 1912 in the neo-Gothic style and elevated to the status of a cathedral in 1922 with the formation of the Diocese of Łódź .
- The Holy Spirit Church , which was the Protestant St. Trinity Church or Trinity Church until the end of the Second World War , was built from 1826 to 1828 and is located in Piotrkowska 2/4 on Plac Wolności. In 1889 it was rebuilt according to a design by Otto Gehlig in the neo-renaissance style. The organ comes from the company Schlag & Söhne from Schweidnitz .
- The Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross at Henryka Sienkiewicza 38 was built between 1860 and 1875 in the neo-Romanesque style.
- The Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Plac Kościelny was built from 1888 to 1897 in neo-Gothic style
- The garrison church of St. Georg an der sw. Jerzego 9 was built in 1895/1896 as the Orthodox Alexej Church for the Russian military. After the takeover by the Catholic Church after the First World War, the originally existing onion domes were removed,
- The St. Anna Church on the al. Śmigłego-Rydza 24/26 was built in 1904/1905 in the neo-Romanesque style.
- The Church of St. Adalbert (Wojciech) on the corner of Rzgowskiej / sw. Wojciecha was built in the neo-Gothic style from 1902 to 1924.
- The Church of the Immaculate Conception at Maria Sklodowska Curie 22 was built from 1907 to 1909 in neo-Gothic style.
- The Church of St. Casimir on Niciarniana 7 was built from 1925 to 1936 in neoclassical style
- The Jesuit Church at Sienkiewicza 60 was built as a Protestant St. John's Church from 1880 to 1884 in the neo-Romanesque style.
- The Church of the Transfiguration on the corner of Rzgowska and Władysława Broniewskiego was built from 1923 to 1925 in a functional style.
- The Church of Our Lady at Łąkowej 40/42 was built between 1926 and 1938 in the neo-classical style
- The Church of St. Theresa in the Dr. Stefana Kopcińskiego 1/3 was built from 1950 to 1963 in the modernist style.
Old Catholic church buildings
- The Church of St. Francis of Assisi (St. Francis Church) at Franciszkańska 27 was built in 1907 in neo-Gothic style
Protestant church buildings
- The St. Matthew Church (św. Mateusz) of the Evangelical Augsburg Church in Poland at Piotrkowska 283 was built from 1909 to 1928 with construction interruption during the First World War in collaboration between the Łódź architect Johannes Wende and the Berlin architect Franz Schwechten im neo-Romanesque style. It is one of the largest sacred buildings in the city with the largest organ in Poland, built in 1928 by the Rieger Orgelbau company in Jägerndorf . The 26 meter high dome of the church has a diameter of 17 m, the church tower is 80 meters high.
- The church at Stefana Żeromskiego 56, built for the former parish of the Moravian Brothers between 1911 and 1913 in neo-baroque style, has been unused since the beginning of the 1990s after being used by the Catholic Church.
- The Evangelical Reformed Church at Radwańska 37 was built from 1928 to 1932 in neoclassical style.
- The Baptist Church is located at Nawrot 27.
Orthodox church buildings
- The St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral at Jana Kilińskiego 56 not far from the Fabryczna train station was built in 1884 for the Russian population of Łódź in neo-Byzantine style based on a design by the city architect Hilary Majewski . Since 1948 it has been the cathedral of the Polish Orthodox Diocese of Łódź-Poznan.
- St. Olga's Church, consecrated in 1898, is located at Grzegorza Piramowicza 12
- The Reicher Synagogue at Ulica Rewolucji 1905 roku 28 is the only one in Łodz, along with the synagogue in the Jewish Community House at Pomorska 18, which was newly inaugurated in 1998. It was built from 1895 to 1902 and is the last remaining of originally more than 250 synagogues in the city that were destroyed by the German occupiers in 1939/1940, including the Great Synagogue .
The city has a forest area of 23.78 km². The oldest parks are Piłsudski, Poniatowski, Źródliska, Mickiewicz and May 3rd Park . The youngest is the Ocalałych Park , which was inaugurated in 2004 on the 60th anniversary of the dissolution of the Litzmannstadt ghetto .
- The zoo has an area of 16.4 hectares. Among other things, bisons , kangaroos , antelopes , lions , tassels , fish and many more can be found here . It was founded in 1938 and at that time had an area of 8.9 hectares. In 1950 the site was expanded to 16.4 hectares. The start of construction of the Orientarium is planned for 2019, which will encompass around half of the zoo area and will accommodate many representatives of the fauna of South and Southeast Asia living in the water and on land.
- The botanical garden in the Polesie district extends over an area of 0.64 km², on which about 3500 plants can be found. Originally, Professor Jan Muszyński laid out a 1.3 hectare garden for medicinal herbs; this then expanded to about six hectares. The garden was later expanded and opened to visitors in its current size on July 20, 1973.
There are a variety of regular events in Łódź for theater, film and music lovers. Regular events include:
- The Camerimage International Film Festival took place in Toruń from 1993 to 1999 and in Łódź from 2000 to 2009. It is the world's largest gathering of cameramen. There are film screenings and seminars and prizes are awarded.
- The International Festival of Photography Fotofestiwal Łódź has been held since 2002. Photographers and those interested can find out about the latest developments in photography here . There are numerous exhibitions and demonstrations, meetings and seminars around photos.
- The Festival of the Dialogue of the Four Cultures stimulates the cultural understanding in the city, which was an important building block in the city's past. The four cultures that built the city are Germans, Poles, Jews, and Russians. The program of the festival is extensive; there are events of pop, folk, jazz, opera, classical, theater and films.
- The International Festival of Nature Films "Włodzimierz Puchalski" is a film festival all about nature films. Projects, concerts, scientific discussions, ecology seminars and exhibitions make up the program.
- The Discovery Festival is a festival for climbers, extreme sports enthusiasts and travelers from all over the world. It has been taking place since 1999.
- The Łódzkie Spotkania Teatralne theater festival is a festival of alternative theater. It has been held annually since 1964, making it the oldest in the city.
- The International Comic Festival has been held since 1991 and is the largest of its kind in Central and Eastern Europe.
233 sports clubs are active in Łódź, in which around 60 sports are played. The soccer clubs Łódzki Klub Sportowy and Widzew Łódź , both of which have already played in the Ekstraklasa , are known. The athletics club Rudzki KS Łódź and the club Społem Łódź , where cycling and archery can be practiced, are known. The latter is one of the most important cycling clubs in Poland. The youth sports club Trójka is successful in youth sports and its members have won various medals in national competitions.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 1997, a special economic zone (Łódzka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna) with a total area of 383.45 hectares was set up in the Łódź Voivodeship , including nine areas in the south of the city of Łódź with 96.01 hectares. Until 2017, investors received special conditions for their investments and can receive subsidies . The largest area in terms of area is the Nowy Józefów-Srebna complex with 41.87 hectares. The airport is located in this area and, among other things, Gillette Poland International is located here. The second largest area is the Centrum complex with 13.1 hectares in the center of the city.
The city of Łódź was rated by Standard & Poor’s on October 28, 2005. The rating BBB- (worth investing) was awarded for long-term foreign currency bonds . The forecast for economic development has been raised from stable to positive . A new rating took place on August 28, 2006 , with the rating raised to BBB with the forecast stable .
At the end of 2009, the average gross monthly salary in companies was 3,002 złoty, lower than in other large cities.
The main products of the city of Łódź are ceramic tiles (70% of Polish production), hosiery products (65%), lignite (60%), building glass (50%), building cardboard (45%), cotton fabrics (40%), electrical energy (20%) and textile products (16%). Due to the rich lignite deposits, power generation could develop well.
In the past, the economy of Łódź was primarily geared towards the textile industry. The largest companies in this branch include Lenora , Wólczanka , WI-MA and the Instytut Włókiennictwa . The Belchatow AG generates the Polish electric energy over 20%. Major investors in the city include corporations such as The Gillette Company , BSH Bosch and Siemens Hausgeräte , Philips , Indesit , Rossmann , Dell , ABB , Coko-Werk and others. Many of the companies are located in the Łódź Special Economic Zone . The creative industries have developed strongly since around 2015.
The most important business fair is the construction trade fair INTERBUD. Also worth mentioning are INTERTELECOM, an international telecommunications trade fair, INTERFLOWER trade fair for landscape architecture, horticulture and floriculture, INTERFLAT, an international trade fair for interior decoration and the construction industry, and the Central European dental trade fair CEDE. The hotel, conference and event industry uses numerous revitalized industrial areas
The two main railway stations are the head station Łódź Fabryczna and the transit station Łódź Kaliska . Trains to Warsaw departed from the Łódź Fabryczna station. It was closed in October 2011 and then expanded into an underground train station by the end of 2016. During the renovation, most of the trains ended up outside the city center at Łódź Widzew station. The tunnel route begins near this station and currently (2019) ends in Fabryczna station. In the final stage, this will become a through station and the tunnel section between Łódź Zabieniec and Łódź Kaliska will again meet the existing railway line on the surface. Trains run from the Łódź Kaliska through station in a north-south direction via Kutno to Bydgoszcz and Poznan , via Częstochowa to Katowice and Krakow and westwards via Kalisz to Wroclaw . There is also a modern freight yard in the southwest of the city. The station has a storage capacity of 53,000 m² and around 2000 wagons can be handled every day.
In passenger transport, there are plans to build a central high-speed line from Warsaw via Łódź, which will fork west of Łódź and lead to Poznan and Wroclaw (Project Y) . With this, Łódź, as the third largest city in Poland with a central location, would also have a central position in the railway network.
The city has a direct connection to the European roads E30 from Berlin to Moscow , E67 from Tallinn to Prague and E75 from Vardø to Athens . To the north of the city is the Łódź-Północ motorway junction , which will connect the north-south A1 motorway from Gdansk via Katowice to the Czech Republic with the east-west A2 motorway from Frankfurt (Oder) via Warsaw to Minsk . In addition, Łódź is to be surrounded by a motorway ring in the next few years so that long-distance traffic remains outside the city area.
Many international scheduled buses reach the city every day. These generally stop at the Dworzec Centralny bus station, right in front of the Fabryczna train station. A second bus station is Dworzec Autobusowy Północny (North Bus Station).
With its transport company MPK (Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne Łódź) the city operates 22 tram lines (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9A, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 15A, 16, 16A, 41, 43, 46) and 66 bus routes. Lines 9, 16, 41, 43 and 46 are interurban tram lines that connect Łódź with neighboring cities. Modern trams of the types Cityrunner and Pesa 122N are increasingly being used, but there are still models of the type Konstal 805Na ; In addition, used Duewag wagons of various series were taken over from Germany.
In addition to the numerous MPK urban bus routes, there are individual free bus routes whose journeys are financed by shopping centers.
The road network covers 9.6% and the rail network 2.4% of the urban area. One of the longest streets in Łódź, Piotrkowska , is a pedestrian zone and the city's largest shopping street. It may only be used by taxis and delivery vehicles. Pedestrians can use cycle rickshaws .
- The public television broadcaster “ TVP ” has a regional studio in the city, where the regional program “TVP Łódź”, which is broadcast on TVP Info in the regional window, is compiled for the voivodship. The private broadcaster “ TVN ” has another regional studio , albeit without operating its own regional broadcaster. The Łódź-based cable network operator " Toya " operates its own television program that can be accessed via its cable network.
- “Radio Łódź” is a station for the city and the voivodeship of Łódź. The station has a regional studio in Kutno and Piotrków Trybunalski . As early as 1930, the city's first radio station broadcast on medium wave . A year later, the previously nationwide program was expanded to include local content, although it was not officially approved until two years later. In 1937 the station moved to ul. Narutowicza 130 , where it is still based. Its program can be received over 99.2 MHz or over the Internet.
- "Radio Pogoda" is a regional radio station that has only existed since April 1, 2005 and is located in Traugutt-Str. 25 has its seat. It broadcasts on 89.6 MHz and broadcasts through its website.
- "Radio ESKA" is a Polish radio station that broadcasts regional programs. The studio in Łódź is located at Piłsudski St. 7 . Radio Eska broadcasts current chart music, which can be received on 99.8 MHz.
- “Radio Parada” plays pop, disco and rock music and offers regional news. The station's studio, located on Piłsudski St. 141 can be reached at 70.1 MHz and 93.5 MHz.
- “Radio Vox FM Łódź” broadcasts its program in Łódź on 100.4 MHz. The station's studio is located at Ks.-Skorupka-Str. 7 .
- "Radio Żak" ( Żak is an old Polish word for student ) is a student radio that broadcast for the first time on May 18, 1959. At that time, the program in III. Łódźs dormitory of the Polytechnic University, where the editorial office is still based. The station can be received on 88.8 MHz or over the Internet.
- “Radio Złote Przeboje” has its Łódź studio on Sienkiewicz Street. 72 and can be received on 101.3 MHz.
- The station “ RMF FM ” is a radio station with a program for the whole of Poland and can be received in Łódź on 93.5 MHz or via its website.
- “ Radio Zet ” is also a radio station that broadcasts a program for all of Poland. In Łódź it can be heard on 90.10 MHz or over the Internet.
- The “Dziennik Łódzki” is another daily newspaper of the city.
- The newspaper "Express Ilustrowany" describes itself as the largest daily newspaper in the city. The editorial office is located at ks.-I.-Skorupka-Straße 17/19 and reports mainly on popular current topics.
As the capital of the voivodeship, the city is the seat of various public authorities. Helena Pietraszkiewicz is Voivodin (2006) in the Voivodship Office on Piotrkowska . The provincial police, veterinary and monument protection offices are also located in Łódź.
The fire brigade commanderships of the city and the voivodeship are located on Wólczańska Street and in 2005 had to coordinate 27,473 missions, 8,409 of them in Łódź alone. A training center for basic and advanced training is connected to the command offices.
The State Archives in Łódź has its roots in 1926. The archive is located at Wolności 1 Square and in two other buildings in the city. There are also two branch offices in Sieradz and Pabianice . The director of the archive is Piotr Zawilski.
The customs office on Lodowa St. 97 employed 716 people in 2005. During this year spent an average of 1,113,000 zloty confiscated. On August 15, 1945, the establishment of an administrative structure for the customs area began. In 1947 35 people worked in the customs office.
Some states are represented in the city by honorary consuls . These include Denmark, Germany, France, Great Britain, Latvia, Austria and Hungary.
Łódź has 23 universities, six of which are state-run and 17 are privately run. The most important of these is the Łódź State University for Film, Television and Theater . It has produced important directors such as Roman Polański , Krzysztof Kieślowski and Andrzej Wajda . Since it trains all film professions, students from all over the world come to this school. The cameramen trained here in particular enjoy an excellent international reputation. But the graduates of the directing department are also internationally successful. Every famous Polish director has attended the film school. The first students at the film school include Andrzej Munk , Andrzej Wajda and Janusz Morgenstern , who became famous as directors in the late 1950s. On the Piotrkowska Street you can, like on the Walk of Fame in Hollywood , stars find the famous graduates of Film School.
The University of Łódź is attended by over 40,000 students in eleven departments. Other public universities are the Medical and Polytechnic University , the Music and Art Academy. In private, among others, the business school of the Salesians Don Bosco , the management, the administrative, the humanistic-economic, the marketing and business university as well as the computer science and the education university.
The city also has 423 schools with around 115,000 students, who are looked after by 10,000 teachers (2004). Of these, 93 are primary schools (Polish szkoła podstawowa ), which are attended by 41,590 pupils, 48 middle schools (Polish gimnazjum ) with 24,000 pupils and 45 high schools (Polish liceum ) with around 20,000 pupils. There are also 31 vocational schools with around 14,000 students.
Numerous well-known personalities were born in Łódź, including the lyricist Julian Tuwim , the pianist Arthur Rubinstein , the textile entrepreneur Izrael Poznański , the film director Jan Machulski and Jan Karski , officer and courier of the Polish Home Army .
Honorary citizenship as a special recognition of the city was awarded to numerous well-known people. These include Pope John Paul II , Marek Edelman , a commander of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, and film directors Roman Polański and Andrzej Wajda .
Other personalities were connected to the city, such as the Nobel Prize for Literature (1924) Władysław Reymont , numerous university graduates and professors such as the Łódź Film School , but also industrialists such as Karl Wilhelm Scheibler and Louis Geyer , and Roman Cycowski , baritone of the Comedian Harmonists who lived in the city until 1920.
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