|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||67.26 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||97-300 to 97-312|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 44|
|License plate :||EP|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Motorway A1|
|Rail route :||Koluszki – Czestochowa|
|Next international airport :||Łódź-Lublinek|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1091 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||1062011|
|Administration (as of 2006)|
|Mayor :||Krzysztof Chojniak|
|Address:||Pasaż Rudowskiego 10
97-300 Piotrków Trybunalski
City coat of arms and city flag
As one of only three Polish cities, Piotrków Trybunalski has the white Polish state eagle (in the early Piastic form without a crown) in the red field as the city's coat of arms.
Petrikau was first mentioned in 1217 as a trading settlement on the important road from Pomerania to Rus and Hungary and later from Mazovia to Wroclaw . The city received city rights in 1292 . Around 1300 Petrikau became a district town in the Kalisch Voivodeship . King Casimir III the Great here issued the Piotrków Statute in 1347 , an extension of the Wiślica Statute . Petrikau became an important center of Polish political life. Encouraged by this king, large numbers of expelled German Jews moved to Poland. Petrikau became one of the largest Jewish settlements in the country.
From 1455 the city became one of the seats of the Sejm and the place of meetings of the nobility, later also the synod . On May 26, 1496 King Johann I Albrecht published his "Petrikau Privilege" here, which expanded the privileges of the nobility and restricted the freedoms of citizens and farmers.
In 1555 ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the increasing number of non-Catholics was abolished here at the Reichstag. The influence of the Reformation was also visible among the Szlachta , the nobility, there were 70 Catholic (55 lay and 15 bishops), 58 Protestant and 2 Orthodox members at this meeting.
In 1578, Petrikau became the seat of the crown tribunal (the highest court for Poland, the tribunal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was based in Grodno ) next to Lublin - hence the nickname "Trybunalski". The Jews were driven out of the city. The settlement ban for Jews was only lifted 100 years later. The city received a post office in 1684. The first German settlers, often from Swabia , came to the area around 1705 and founded villages, most of which retained their customs and language until 1945. In 1793 Poland was divided for the second time . Petrikau came to the newly created Prussian province of South Prussia and received Prussian district authorities. Many German settlers, especially from the area of Oels and Breslau , settled in the city and the area and founded the textile industry that later flourished. After the Treaty of Tilsit , Petrikau and the entire province of South Prussia came to the Duchy of Warsaw and remained a district town in the new department of Kalisch from 1807 to 1815 . The city came to Congress Poland in 1815 and belonged to the Voivodeship (from 1837 governorate ) Kalisch. The city received a rail link with Warsaw in 1846. After 1860 the industry (food, machine and construction industries) emerged. Petrikau 1867 to the seat of a Russian province and kept this rank until 1915. The glassworks "Hortensja" began production from the 1889th The textile factory "Manufaktura Piotrkowska" was opened in 1896. In 1905 there were many strikes and demonstrations by workers.
In 1938, one year before the start of the war, Petrikau had 51,000 inhabitants, of which around 25,000 were Jews and 1,500 Germans. The Second World War began on September 5, 1939 : Heavy fighting between the Polish 19th Infantry Division and the 16th Armored Corps of the Wehrmacht . From 1939 to 1949, the first Nazi assembly camp (ghetto) was built in occupied Poland with around 25,000 inmates and a first Jewish council was forcibly installed there: Ghetto Piotrków Trybunalski . Around 22,000 of the prisoners were deported to the Treblinka extermination camp and murdered there, and around 3,000 were sent to forced labor camps. In the forced labor company Dietrich & Fischer (DiFi) there were shootings, Dietrich was acquitted in 1958 by the Hamburg district court. Many resistance groups formed in the area, which in the summer of 1944 took part in the partisan struggle against the Germans. According to the situation report by the German police, the two communities Petrikau and Radziejów together had 71,500 inhabitants, 15% of whom were now Germans and “still” 85% Poles. Jews no longer lived in the area. With the invasion of the Red Army in 1944, the city was liberated from occupation by Nazi troops. Petrikau had about 40,000 inhabitants in 1945 and was the district capital. From that year on, fierce fighting raged between the communist secret police with their special units and the armed anti-communist underground .
On April 20, 1946, anti-communist units of the Polish Home Army under Captain Sojczyński conquered the city and freed 57 prisoners from the prison of the secret police. On August 8th, another 43 prisoners were attacked. The activities of the anti-communist partisans did not end until 1953. From 1949 to 1970 Piotrków Trybunalski was built into an industrial center. The city became the capital of the newly created Piotrków Voivodeship in 1975 and grew rapidly through many incorporations. In 1999 the city became a district town again.
The city is the second largest industrial center of the voivodeship after Łódź and has: glass industry, machine industry, paper industry, textile industry, wood industry, building materials industry, as well as some larger logistics companies and construction companies.
The following roads currently connect the city to the road network:
- Autostrada A1 / Droga krajowa 1 ( E75 ): Gdańsk - Toruń - Łódź - Piotrków Trybunalski - Częstochowa - Cieszyn
- Droga krajowa 8 ( E67 ): Kraków - Piotrków Trybunalski - Warsaw - Białystok - Budzisko
- Droga krajowa 12 : Leszno - Kalisz - Piotrków Trybunalski - Radom - Lublin - Chełm - Dorohusk
- Droga krajowa 91 : Częstochowa - Radomsko - Piotrków Trybunalski - Głuchów
The city currently has two bypasses, the east bypass of the DK12 (approx. 5 km) and the northwest bypass of the A1, DK1 and DK8 (approx. 16 km).
In addition, the southern bypass (planned S12 ) and the inner city bypass (DK91) are being planned.
Piotrków Trybunalski is on the railway line from Warsaw to Częstochowa , the Piotrków Trybunalski – Biały Ług freight line branches off here. The Piotrków Trybunalski – Sulejów narrow-gauge railway also used to exist .
Colleges and schools
In Piotrków Trybunalski there are several branches of larger universities: the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce , the Łódź University of Economics and Humanities, the Łódź University of Commerce and independent teaching institutions, such as the Teachers' College and a branch of the Institute for Environmental Care at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw .
Piotrków Trybunalski also has (as of 2013):
- 13 municipal kindergartens,
- 8 primary schools,
- 5 middle schools,
- 10 secondary schools.
- City parish church of the Holy Apostle Jacob, Gothic style with baroque chapels, 13th to 14th century
- Former Dominican monastery with the Church of St. Iacentius and St. Dorothea, Gothic around 1350
- Bernardine Church for the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, baroque , around 1626
- Evangelical Church (former Piarist Church), baroque around 1689
- Former Jesuit college with the Church of St. Francis Xavier, baroque , around 1695
- Russian Orthodox Church of All Saints, Classicism , around 1844
- Small synagogue , baroque, around 1790
- Great synagogue , now the city library
- Royal Palace (residential tower), late Gothic, around 1511
- Byki Castle, Renaissance , around 1590
- Town houses on the Ring, 17./18. Century, originally late baroque, facades rebuilt in the 19th century
- numerous Art Nouveau houses, especially on 3. Maja avenue
- Cemeteries: in the "Friedhofsallee" along the Stravka river: Catholic, Protestant, Russian Orthodox, New Jewish cemetery and war cemetery from the First World War , with many interesting gravestones (some from the 17th and 18th centuries, here from older inner-city cemeteries convicted)
Politics and administration
At the head of the city administration is the city president . Since 2006, this has been Krzysztof Chojniak, who ran for the PiS in 2006 and then with his own election committee. The regular election in October 2018 led to the following results:
- Krzysztof Chojniak (Election Committee “Krzysztof Chojniak - Together for Piotrków”) 49.3% of the vote
- Marlena Wężyk-Głowacka ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 24.2% of the vote
- Grzegorz Lorek ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 16.0% of the vote
- Tomasz Sokalski (Election Committee “Yes to Piotrków”) 8.1% of the vote
- Krzysztof Kozłowski (Solidarity Election Committee for Piotrków) 2.3% of the vote
In the runoff election that became necessary, Chojniak was able to prevail against the KO candidate Wężyk-Głowacka with 68.5% of the votes and was thus re-elected.
The city council has 23 members who are directly elected. The election in October 2018 led to the following result:
- Election Committee "Krzysztof Chojniak - Together for Piotrków" 31.7% of the vote, 9 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 26.3% of the vote, 7 seats
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 19.0% of the vote, 4 seats
- Election committee “Yes to Piotrków” 16.0%, 3 seats
- Election Committee “Local Administration” 3.8% of the vote, no seat
- Solidarity election committee for Piotrków 3.2% of the vote, no seat
|Esslingen am Neckar||Germany||1992|
- Ludwig Lucas (1796–1854), school councilor in East Prussia and Posen
- Ernestine Rose (1810-1892), American women's and civil rights activist
- Michail Petrowitsch Wassiljew (1857–1904), naval officer, commander of the first Russian icebreaker
- Damazy Kotowski (1861–1943), painter
- Françoise Frenkel (1889–1975), bookseller and author
- Stefan Rowecki (1895–1944), Commander of the Home Army
- Lazar Wechsler (1896–1981), Swiss film producer
- Konrad Guderski (1900–1939), defender of the Polish Post Office in Gdansk
- Seymour Rexite (1908–2002), actor and singer in Yiddish theater, radio and television
- Alice Miller (1923-2010), author and psychologist
- Waldemar Otto (1929–2020), sculptor
- Mariusz Dmochowski (1930–1992), actor and director
- Israel Meir Lau (* 1937), Israeli rabbi
- Witold Waszczykowski (* 1957), historian, diplomat and politician
- Bogdan Daras (* 1960), wrestler
- Marek Domaracki (1964–2019), politician
- Adam Szymczyk (* 1970), art critic and exhibition curator
- Anita Lipnicka (* 1975), singer and songwriter
- Maciej Ganczar (* 1976), literary scholar, Germanist and translator
- Wioletta Frankiewicz (* 1977), track and field athlete
- Marcin Tazbir (* 1988), chess player
- Kamil Majchrzak (* 1996), tennis player.
- Official site of the city (Polish, English)
- Link catalog on the subject of Piotrków Trybunalski at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Lorenz Hein: Italian Protestants and their influence on the Reformation in Poland during the two decades before the Sandomir Consensus 1570 , Brill, Leiden 1974, ISBN 978-9-00403-893-6 , p. 14
- deathcamps.orgs: Ghetto Piotrków.
- LG Hamburg, July 2, 1958 . In: Justice and Nazi crimes . Collection of German convictions for Nazi homicidal crimes 1945–1966, Vol. XIV, edited by Irene Sagel-Grande, HH Fuchs and CF Rüter . Amsterdam: University Press, 1976, No. 463, pp. 739–806 Archived copy ( memento of the original from February 18, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Report from the German gendarmerie in Radziejów from June 25, 1942.
- Website of the city, Oswiata ( Memento of the original January 29, 2013 Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link is automatically inserted and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed February 10, 2013.
- Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 19, 2020.
- Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 19, 2020.
- Piotrków - Oficjalny portal miejski | Miasta partnerskie. Retrieved September 30, 2019 .