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Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
Sejm of the Republic of Poland
logo Sejm building in Warsaw
logo Sejm building in Warsaw
Basic data
Seat: Sejm building,
Legislative period : 4 years
MPs: 460
Current legislative period
Last choice: October 13, 2019
Next choice: probably 2023
Chair: Sejm Marshal
Elżbieta Witek ( PiS )
Distribution of seats: Government (235)

Opposition (225)


The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (in Polish Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [ sεjm ]) forms one of the two chambers of the Polish National Assembly alongside the Senate . It is one of the oldest parliamentary institutions in the world with roots in the 12th century and was established in 1493 as a regularly meeting institution. It has existed in its current form since 1989 and is the most important political organ of the Third Republic .


Sejm in 1622
The “Great” Sejm adopts the constitution of May 3, 1791

The Polish parliament is one of the oldest in the world and developed out of the institutions of the historical assembly of estates (Sejm) and the council of elders (Senate), which Polish rulers consulted on important state matters. In the second half of the 12th century, the Sejm in particular gained in influence. In 1182 its members passed the first rules to counteract the absolutist tendencies of the monarchs. Until the 15th century, meetings and deliberations were held irregularly and only convened on important occasions.

The Sejm has existed in its institutionalized form today since 1493. Since then, regular meetings have been held every two years for six weeks, with special meetings being possible for important occasions. The Sejm's area of ​​competence included the election of the king and tax policy. The higher chamber (Senate) consisted of the highest dignitaries and bishops, the lower (Sejm) of members of parliament who were sent by the parliaments of individual provinces ( Sejmiks ). Only representatives of the landed nobility ( Szlachta ), who made up up to 15 percent of the population and who, regardless of their material status, held all civil rights in today's sense, had passive and active voting rights.

Over time, the Sejm developed into a center of power alongside the king and, especially after the Union of Lublin , played a major role in the Polish aristocratic republic . This system existed until the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century and represents a democratic institution that is unique in Europe and which was intended to ensure participation by the population. At the same time, however, this parliamentary state order harbored the danger of populism and interference from abroad.

When Russia began to pursue its European policy in the middle of the 18th century, it defined parliamentarism as a weak point of the Polish state. In the Sejm, pro-Russian parliamentary groups were promoted, which acted more in the interests of their neighbors than those of Poland and undermined a number of reform efforts aimed at consolidating the state. In 1772, for example, the first partition of Poland under Russian cannons surrounding the parliament building was "ratified" by the so-called Mute Sejm without objection. After this event, the Polish King Stanisław August Poniatowski stepped up his reform efforts. In 1791 Poland was the first European state to adopt a modern constitution , some excessive rights of the parliament ( Liberum Veto ) were restricted; a restructuring of the armed forces followed. Both were undermined by the pro-Russian camp: the Targowica Confederation asked Russia to intervene to guarantee traditional civil rights and freedoms. As a result of the second and third partition, Poland was dissolved as a state by Russia, Prussia and Austria in 1795.

In the 19th century, different "parliaments" functioned as advisory bodies in the Duchy of Warsaw , in Congress Poland , in the Province of Poznan and in Galicia, with varying degrees of autonomy.

In the Second Republic (1918–1939) the Sejm was re-established with two chambers . The Polish National Assembly also met between 1919 and 1922 .

In the People's Republic of Poland , the Senate was dissolved and the Sejm, with a chamber, was retained as a purely advisory facade institution. The actual power center was in the central committee of the communist PZPR or the CPSU .


Plenary hall

In June 1989 the first parliament of the Third Republic was set up in a limited election . 40 percent of the mandates were contractually guaranteed to the communist government. In a free election, 35 percent of the MPs and 100 percent of the senators should be determined. The opposition eventually won 99 out of 100 seats in the Senate and 160 out of a possible 161 seats in the Sejm (out of a total of 460 seats). On July 19, 1989, Wojciech Jaruzelski was elected President of the State by the Sejm. The term of office of the "contract" lasts two years. The next parliament was elected in 1991 in a completely free election for regular four years.

According to the Constitution of 1997, the Sejm, acting with the Senate as the National Assembly , the legislative power of Poland. The Sejm consists of 460 members who are elected using proportional representation. There is a threshold clause of 5 percent for parties or free lists and 8 percent for party alliances (except for representatives of national minorities). The Sejm is presided over by the Sejm Marshal (Polish Marszałek Sejmu ).

The Sejm plays a central role in the political system of the Republic of Poland (also in comparison to the Senate) and not only as the legislative power ( legislature ). The executive power ( executive ) that the government (officially the Council of Ministers ; Pol. Rada Ministrów ) is dependent on him. A new Prime Minister ( chairman of the Council of Ministers , Polish: prezes Rady Ministrów , premier for short ) and his ministers must submit a vote of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks of their appointment by the President . The Sejm can overthrow a government through a constructive vote of no confidence . The resignation of the old government is submitted at the first session of a newly elected Sejm.

The Sejm also appoints (sometimes in consultation with the Senate and the President) other high-ranking state officials such as constitutional judges and the President of the National Bank .

Laws are passed by the Sejm. If they are changed or rejected ( veto ) by the Senate or the President , they require a qualified majority .

International treaties must be ratified by the Sejm .

The chairman of parliament, the Sejm Marshal, is directly behind the President of the State and thus in front of the Prime Minister in the protocol order of priority. This is indirectly derived from the right of the Sejm Marshal to temporarily fulfill the duties of the President in certain cases. For example, in the event of a temporary absence, resignation, removal from office or the death of the president. For example, in April 2010, after the plane crash near Smolensk and the death of President Lech Kaczyński , Sejm Marshal Bronisław Komorowski acted as head of state.

Salary, diet and lump sums

MEPs can use all public transport free of charge.

The members of the Sejm receive a salary of 9,892.30 PLN and a non-taxable diet of 2,473.08 PLN per month (as of May 2008). Each member of the finance, EU and legal committee receives a 10% allowance. In the other committees, the chairmen receive a 20% allowance and the vice-chairpersons 15%. In addition, each representative receives PLN 10,000 a month to maintain his office in the constituency and an annual flat rate of PLN 7,600 for overnight stays outside Warsaw. MEPs are also entitled to a limousine with a driver, free taxi rides in Warsaw and free rides on all public transport (Polish state railway PKP , state bus company PKS and municipal transport company). The basic salary of the Sejm Marshal is 10,705 PLN plus 3,453 PLN functional allowance. The Vice-Sejm Marshals receive PLN 9,842 basic salary plus PLN 2,762 functional allowance. For business trips by private car, MPs can charge PLN 0.52 to 0.84 per kilometer (a maximum of 3,500 km per month).

Current composition

The Sejm is currently composed as follows: (Status: constitutive session on November 12, 2019)

club Alignment Chairman Seats
Klub Parlamentarny Prawo i Sprawiedliwość
Parliamentary Club Law and Justice
(includes the members of all parties who stood on the PiS electoral lists in 2019)
conservatism Right-wing populism
still open 235
Klub Parlamentarny Koalicja Obywatelska - Platforma Obywatelska , Nowoczesna , Inicjatywa Polska , Zieloni
Parliamentary Club Citizens' Coalition
(includes the members of all parties that entered into the official Koalicja Obywatelska electoral alliance in 2019 )
Catch-all Group
still open 134
Koalicyjny Klub Parlamentarny Lewicy ( Lewica Razem , Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej , Wiosna Roberta Biedronia )
Coalition parliamentary club Left
(includes the members of all parties who stood on the electoral lists of the SLD in 2019 under the unofficial electoral alliance Lewica )
Social Democracy
Democratic Socialism
still open 49
Klub Parlamentarny Koalicja Polska - Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - Kukiz15
Parliamentary Club Polish Coalition
(includes MPs from all parties who entered the PSL electoral lists in 2019 under the unofficial electoral alliance Koalicja Polska )
Christian Democracy
still open 30th
Koło Poselskie Konfederacja Association of
Members of the Confederation
(includes MPs from all parties that joined the Konfederacja Wolność i Niepodległość party in 2019 )
Right-wing extremism right-wing
still open 11
does not belong to any political group
Name / party Alignment Chairman Seats
Komitet Wyborczy Mniejszość Niemiecka (MN)
Election Committee for the German Minority
Minority policy Ryszard Galla 1
Other non-attached MPs 0
total 460

Forms of the association of representatives

A Poselski Club ( Members' Club ) is a parliamentary group made up of at least 15 members of parliament who are represented in the Sejm. An MP can speak in person or on behalf of the club during a discussion. Moreover, with senators still a club parlamentarny ( parliamentary group ) are formed.

A so-called Koło Poselskie (circle of representatives ) must have at least three parliamentarians.


In the following, the quorum is understood as the mandatory minimum number of votes cast. There is no quorum for some votes.

Simple majority ( większość zwykła )

There are more yes votes than no votes. The abstentions are only taken into account in the quorum (230 votes).

example 1

possible votes:
votes cast:

Example 2

possible votes:
votes cast:

Absolute majority ( większość bezwędna )

There are more yes-votes than no-votes and abstentions. While in the Bundestag more than half of all possible votes are required for an absolute majority, in the Sejm it depends on the votes cast. A quorum of 230 votes applies.

example 1

possible votes:
votes cast:

Example 2

possible votes:
votes cast:

Qualified majorities (selection)

According to the Polish constitution (Art. 98 Para. 3), a qualified two-thirds majority based on the possible votes (460) is required to shorten the legislative period, so that at least 307 yes votes are required. A qualified two-thirds majority based on the votes cast with a quorum of 230 votes is required for a constitutional amendment (Article 235, Paragraph 4).

Election results for the Sejm since 1991

1st legislative period (1991–1993)

For the election to the Polish parliament in 1991, the 460 seats of the Sejm were elected in two separate mandate contingents. 85% of the seats (391) were determined at regional level ( voivodeships ), 15% of the seats (69) at national level (country list). The MPs were elected in 37 multi-person constituencies with 7 to 17 seats. A threshold clause only existed at national level for the state lists - it was 5%. For the constituency lists, on the other hand, there was no hurdle, so that just a few percent were enough to win a mandate. The reason for this missing threshold clause was the wish to give as many social groups as possible the chance of parliamentary representation after the years of the People's Republic. A total of 111 constituency lists and 47 state lists ran for election. In the founding elections, a total of 29 parties moved into the Sejm, 11 of them with only one seat. There was no concentration effect; the parliamentary party system of the first legislative period was highly fragmented. The formation of a government proved difficult. A majority of at least 231 seats would only have been possible through a coalition of at least five parties.

In view of the election results, President Lech Wałęsa proposed the formation of a cabinet of experts under his leadership. Almost all parties represented in the Sejm opposed such a presidential cabinet; Thereupon Wałęsa commissioned the chairman of the Democratic Union (UD), Bronisław Geremek , to form a government. After this attempt failed, the chairman of the Center Alliance (PC), Jan Olszewski , was charged with forming a government. He forged a conservative-liberal-catholic five-party minority government . Despite the lack of a coalition majority, Olszewski was elected Prime Minister by the Sejm with over 60 percent of the vote. Six months later, he was overthrown by a vote of no confidence. At the request of the President, the Sejm elected PSL Chairman Waldemar Pawlak as Prime Minister with a large majority (70.8%). He did not succeed in setting up a government; he resigned a month later. After President Wałęsa threatened extraordinary measures such as the dissolution of parliament or the formation of a presidential government , the UD politician Hanna Suchocka was able to form a seven-party coalition of liberal, conservative, Christian Democratic, Catholic and peasant forces and became part of the Sejm in July 1992 elected prime minister. In May 1993, Suchocka was overthrown by a vote of no confidence after the Solidarność union had requested this in order to put the Prime Minister under pressure in the ongoing collective bargaining negotiations. Lech Wałęsa dissolved parliament and called new elections. A day before the dissolution, a new electoral law was passed, which is intended to prevent severe devolution in the future.

Jan Olszewski, Prime Minister December 23, 1991 to June 5, 1992
Waldemar Pawlak, Prime Minister June 5, 1992 to July 11, 1992
Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on October 27, 1991
Political party be right % Seats
Democratic Union (UD) 1,382,051 12.32 62
Federation of the Democratic Left (SLD) 1,344,820 11.99 60
Catholic election campaign (WAK) 980.304 8.74 49
Center Alliance (PC) 977.344 8.71 44
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 972.952 8.67 48
Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN) 841.738 7.50 46
Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD) 839.978 7.49 37
Farmer Alliance (PL) 613,626 5.47 28
" Solidarność " 566,553 5.05 27
Polish Beer Friends Party (PPPP) 367.106 3.27 16
Others 2,332,130 20.79 43
total 11,218,602 100.00 460
voter turnout 11,887,949 43.20
Eligible voters 27,517,280 100.00

2nd legislative period (1993–1997)

In view of the last election results, the electoral law for the 1993 parliamentary elections was changed. The constituencies were reduced so that there were now 52 constituencies corresponding to the 49 voivodeship borders; the voivodeships of Warsaw and Katowice were divided into two and three constituencies, respectively. The constituency size decreased to 3 to 17 seats. The emergence of medium-sized constituencies favored parties with stronger votes. In addition to the reallocation of constituencies, threshold clauses were introduced at constituency level. In order to be taken into account in the distribution of mandates, parties had to unite 5% of the votes from now on, an 8% hurdle applied to electoral coalitions. At national level, the threshold was increased to 7%. The new regulations did not fail to have an effect: a total of only 35 constituency lists and 15 state lists stood for election. Only seven parties moved into the Sejm. The four strongest parliamentary groups received more than 90% of the vote. The party system was far less fragmented and significantly more stable than in the previous electoral term. Almost all parties in the post-Solidarność camp, however, failed because they underestimated the effects of the new electoral system and therefore ran highly fragmented. As a result, more than a third of the votes in the second legislative term remained unrepresented. The disproportionate effects were therefore extremely strong for a proportional representation system. The mandate shares of the parties represented in the Sejm were in relation to the election results, so that it was possible for the post-socialist electoral alliance Bund der Democratic Left (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), which emerged from the socialist United Peasant Party (ZSL) Form coalition. Although the coalition factions only won a third of the vote, they made up almost two thirds of the MPs. However, the formation of this post-communist government led to a cohabitation under a president from the post-Solidarność camp , which caused numerous tensions and power conflicts. Lech Wałęsa, in particular, often provoked by severely exhausting and sometimes overstimulating the constitution. It was not until the SLD candidate Aleksander Kwaśniewski was elected President in 1995 that the cooperation became more cooperative.

Contrary to the usual coalition agreements, the chairman of the PSL's junior partner, Waldemar Pawlak, became the first prime minister of the legislative period. However, this was overthrown in March 1995 by a vote of no confidence. Nevertheless, the coalition persisted. Pawlak's successor was the previous Sejm Marshal Józef Oleksy (SLD). After he was suspected of collaborating with the Russian secret service and resigned in January 1996, Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz (SLD) became his successor.

Waldemar Pawlak, Prime Minister October 26, 1993 to March 1, 1995
Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on September 19, 1993
Political party be right % Seats
Federation of the Democratic Left (SLD) 2,815,169 20.41 171
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 2,124,367 15.40 132
Democratic Union (UD) 1,460,957 10.59 74
Labor Union (UP) 1.005.004 7.28 41
Confederation of Independent Poland (KPN) 795.487 5.77 22nd
Independent bloc in support of reforms (BBWR) 746.653 5.41 16
Others 4,848,590 35.14 4th
total 13,796,227 100.00 460
voter turnout 14,415,586 52.08
Eligible voters 26,677,302 100.00

3rd legislative period (1997-2001)

Jerzy Buzek, Prime Minister
October 17, 1997 to October 19, 2001

In the 1997 election for the Sejm, the electoral law was adopted for the first time without modifications. In view of the disappointing results for the post-Solidarność camp in the parliamentary elections in 1993 and the presidential election in 1995, in which the SLD candidate Aleksander Kwaśniewski had won against Lech Wałęsa, around 40 groups joined forces to form the Solidarność election campaign (AWS). This concentration effect led to a further reduction in the lists of candidates (24 constituency lists; 10 state lists). By joining together to form a common electoral alliance, the right now even managed to win most of the seats and thus, together with the Freedom Union (UW), to form a joint government. Jerzy Buzek became prime minister after the AWS chairman Marian Krzaklewski, who was in favor of the coalition partners and the state president, turned down and only wanted to become parliamentary group chairman. The formation of the new right-wing government resulted in renewed cohabitation, which, however, turned out to be less conflictual and destructive. The AWS alliance was falling apart during the electoral term. The UW also left the coalition due to a lack of factional discipline in the AWS. Nevertheless, Buzek was the first prime minister to remain in office until the end of the legislative period - not least because of the adoption of the new constitution in 1997, which now only allows a constructive vote of no confidence instead of a simple vote of no confidence.

Compared to the previous election, the disproportionate effect fell from over a third to less than an eighth. The filtering effect of the threshold clause turned out to be significantly less, but continued to prevent the party system from deconcentrating. A total of six parties moved into the Sejm, of which the four strongest alone received over 98% of the mandates.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on September 25, 1997
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Solidarność election campaign (AWS) 4,427,373 33.83 201
164 27 60 201 6th 

Federation of the Democratic Left (SLD) 3,551,224 27.13 164
Freedom Union (UW) 1,749,518 13.37 60
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 956.184 7.31 27
Movement for the Reconstruction of Poland (ROP) 727.072 5.56 6th
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 51,027 0.39 2
Others 1,625,833 12.42 -
total 13,088,231 100.01 460
voter turnout 13,616,378 47.93
Eligible voters 28,409,054 100.00

4th legislative period (2001-2005)

Leszek Miller, Prime Minister
October 19, 2001 to May 2, 2004
Marek Belka, Prime Minister
May 2, 2004 to October 10, 2005

After the electoral defeat of the SLD and the Labor Union (UP) in 1997, the two parties formed an electoral alliance. In view of the election victory of the electoral coalition, which is becoming apparent in polls, the AWS government decided shortly before the end of the legislative period to change the electoral law so that smaller parties are given preference. The different election contingents were abolished. An amendment to the electoral law was also necessary due to the administrative reform of 1999, in which the 49 voivodships were reduced to 16. From now on, all members of the Sejm will be elected in 41 multi-person constituencies with 7 to 19 seats. The threshold clauses were retained. In this way, the SLD and UP only got 216 seats and missed a majority of 231 seats. If one assumes calculations according to the old electoral system, the electoral coalition would have won the majority of the seats and would not have been dependent on any coalition partner.

The AWS fell to only 5.6% and missed the entry into parliament. Instead, the law and justice (PiS) parties that emerged from the AWS pulled out under the twins Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński with 9.5% and the Civic Platform (PO) under Donald Tusk with 12.7% and the radical Samoobrona parties (10.2%). ) and League of Polish Families (LPR) (7.9%). The AWS was punished with the election result for grave errors during the government, unsuccessful reform projects and the inability to organize a stable legal alliance. As a coalition partner of the AWS, the UW also received a memorandum and did not move into parliament again.

As agreed in the run-up to the election, the UP moved into the Sejm as an independent parliamentary group with its 16 members and then sealed a formal coalition with the SLD. The third coalition partner was the PSL, which, however, had to leave the coalition in 2003 due to its unsteady attitude towards joining the EU . Leszek Miller became prime minister, but due to his past as a member of the Central Committee and the Politburo of the PZPR, he was not without controversy. The reign was marked by numerous corruption scandals . Miller resigned shortly after Poland joined the EU in May 2004. His successor was the economist Marek Belka , who led the minority government until the end of the legislative period.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on September 23, 2001
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Federation of the Democratic Left - Labor Union (SLD-UP) 5,342,519 41.04 216
216 42 65 38 53 44 

Citizens Platform (PO) 1,651,099 12.68 65
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (SRP) 1,327,624 10.20 53
Law and Justice (PiS) 1,236,787 9.50 44
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 1,168,659 8.98 42
Polish Family League (LPR) 1,025,148 7.87 38
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 47,230 0.36 2
Others 1,218,863 9.36 -
total 13,017,929 99.99 460
voter turnout 13,559,412 46.29
Eligible voters 29,364,455 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission

5th legislative period (2005-2007)

Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz, Prime Minister
October 31, 2005 to July 14, 2006
Jarosław Kaczyński, Prime Minister
July 14, 2006 to November 16, 2007

In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the SLD was clearly punished for its numerous corruption scandals. The party fell back to just 11.3%. The AWS successor parties PO and especially PiS, which became the strongest party with the Law and Order slogans, benefited from this. Although coalition talks with the PO were sought in the run-up to the election, after the election the PiS oriented itself more towards the populist parties Samoobrona and League of Polish Families (LPR), which were surprisingly well represented in parliament . The PiS first formed a minority government under the leadership of Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz . Jarosław Kaczyński resigned as party leader from the post of prime minister in order not to endanger the chances of his twin brother Lech in the upcoming presidential election . Since an excessive concentration of power in one hand or family met with considerable skepticism in the population, the twin brothers jointly committed themselves not to hold the highest government offices at the same time. In May 2006 the PiS formed a national-conservative coalition with the parties Samoobrona and LPR. Just two months later, Marcinkiewicz resigned as prime minister, making way for Jarosław Kaczyński, who took over the office in December 2005 despite the election of his brother as president. In August 2007 this coalition broke up, which led to new elections only two months later.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on September 25, 2005
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Law and Justice (PiS) 3,185,714 26.99 155
55 133 25th 34 56 155 

Citizens Platform (PO) 2,849,259 24.14 133
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (SRP) 1,347,355 11.41 56
Federation of the Democratic Left (SLD) 1,335,257 11.31 55
Polish Family League (LPR) 940.762 7.97 34
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 821,656 6.96 25th
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 34,469 0.29 2
Others 1,290,204 10.93 -
total 11,804,676 100.00 460
voter turnout 12,244,903 40.57
Eligible voters 30.229.031 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission

6th legislative period (2007-2011)

Donald Tusk, Prime Minister from November 16, 2007 to September 22, 2014
Distribution of seats in the Sejm after the 2007 election

In the new elections to the Sejm, the national-conservative government was voted out. Nevertheless, the PiS was able to increase its share of the vote by absorbing the drastic losses of its coalition partners. The government was punished for its extreme polarization of society and intolerance of other viewpoints. The strongest party was the Citizens' Platform, which established a coalition government with the PSL under Prime Minister Donald Tusk.

The SLD joined the Social Democrats of Poland (SDPL), the Labor Union (UP) and the Democratic Party (PD), which emerged from the Freedom Union (UW), as an electoral alliance for Left and Democrats (LiD). The electoral coalition forged in 2006, however, dissolved again in 2008 after the hoped-for successes in the parliamentary elections failed to materialize. Compared to the combined election results of the individual parties in 2005, the alliance even lost 4.4% of the votes. The alliance members now have their own factions.

Due to the founding of the party Poland is most important and related party changes as well as the dissolution of the alliance LiD there were some changes in the distribution of seats.

Bronisław Komorowski (PO) was appointed as Sejm Marshal . Since his election as president on July 8, 2010, Grzegorz Schetyna (also PO) has been Sejm Marshal.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on October 21, 2007
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Citizens Platform (PO) 6.701.010 41.51 209
53 209 31 166 

Law and Justice (PiS) 5,183,477 32.11 166
Left and Democrats (LiD) 2,122,981 13.15 53
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 1,437,638 8.91 31
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 32,462 0.20 1
Others 664.634 4.12 -
total 16,142,202 100.00 460
voter turnout 16,477,734 53.88
Eligible voters 30,615,471 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission

7th legislative period (2011-2015)

Distribution of seats in the Sejm after the 2011 election

The elections for the VII Sejm took place on October 9, 2011 during the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The citizens' platform was again the strongest force, Donald Tusk was confirmed in the office of Prime Minister. It was the first time that a government of post-communist Poland had been elected for a second term. After his appointment as EU Council President, Tusk was replaced by his party friend Ewa Kopacz , who continued the coalition of PO and PSL.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on October 9, 2011
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Citizens Platform (PO) 5,629,773 39.18 207
27 40 207 28 157 

Law and Justice (PiS) 4,295,016 29.89 157
Palikot Movement (RP) 1,439,490 10.02 40
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 1,201,628 8.36 28
Federation of the Democratic Left (SLD) 1,184,303 8.24 27
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 28,014 0.19 1
Others 591.279 4.11 -
total 14,369,503 99.99 460
voter turnout 15,050,027 48.92
Eligible voters 30,762,931 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission

8th legislative period (2015-2019)

The elections for the 8th Sejm took place on October 25, 2015. The Prawo i Sprawiedliwość managed to win the election with 37.6% of the vote. It achieved an absolute majority with 235 of 460 mandates, which is a novelty in the history of the Third Polish Republic . Neither left party succeeded in entering parliament. The constitutional crisis arose through the repeated election of three constitutional judges, despite the fact that posts were already legally filled .

Result of the parliamentary election in Poland on October 25, 2015
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Law and Justice (PiS) 5,711,687 37.58 235
28 138 16 42 235 

Citizens Platform (PO) 3,661,474 24.09 138
Kukiz Movement (Kukiz'15) 1,339,094 8.81 42
Nowoczesna Ryszarda Petru (.N) 1,155,370 7.60 28
Polish Peasant Party (PSL) 779.875 5.13 16
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 27,530 0.18 1
Others 2,525,641 16.62 -
total 15.200.671 100.01 460
voter turnout 15,595,335 50.92
Eligible voters 30,732,398 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission

9th legislative period (2019-2023)

The elections for the IX. Sejm took place on October 13, 2019. The Prawo i Sprawiedliwość managed to win the election with 43.59% of the vote. With 235 of 460 mandates, it achieved exactly the same number of seats as before and thus the absolute majority. The opposition took part in both official and unofficial electoral alliances, each of which consisted of several parties, but which all ran under the name of one party in the unofficial electoral alliances. In the IX. With Lewica, a left-wing electoral alliance again entered the Sejm under the name of the SLD , the right-wing extremist Konfederacja received 11 seats.

Result of the parliamentary elections in Poland on October 13, 2019
Political party be right % Seats Distribution of seats
Law and Justice (PiS) ( PiS + Poroz. + SP + PR ) 8.051.935 43.59 235
49 134 30th 235 11 

Citizens' Coalition (KO) ( PO + .N + IP + Zieloni ) 5,060,355 27.40 134
Lewica 1 ( SLD + Wiosna + razem ) 2,319,946 12.56 49
Polish Coalition (KP) 2 ( PSL + Kukiz'15 + UED ) 1,578,523 8.55 30th
Confederation ( KORWiN + RN + KKP ) 1,256,953 6.81 11
Election Committee German Minority (MN) 32.094 0.17 1
Others 170,700 0.92 -
total 18,470,710 100.00 460
voter turnout 18,678,457 61.74
Eligible voters 30.253.556 100.00
Source: State Electoral Commission
1 Campaign name of the unofficial electoral alliance under the official name of the SLD
2 Campaign name of the unofficial electoral alliance under the official name of the PSL

See also


  • Dieter Bingen: Poland: How an unstable party system contributes to the stabilization of democracy. In: Ellen Bos, Dieter Segert (Ed.): Eastern European Democracies as Trendsetters? Parties and party systems after the end of the transition decade. Budrich, Opladen et al. 2008, ISBN 978-3-86649-161-8 , pp. 77-90.
  • Florian Grotz: Political Institutions and Post-Socialist Party Systems in East Central Europe. Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia in comparison (= Young Democracies. Vol. 5). Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2000, ISBN 3-8100-2746-4 (also: Heidelberg, Univ., Diss., 1999).
  • Michael Holländer: Lines of conflict and configuration of the party systems in East Central Europe 1988–2002. Books on demand, Norderstedt 2003, ISBN 3-8330-0762-1 (also: Tübingen, Univ., Diss., 2003).
  • Wolfgang Ismayr (Ed.): The political systems of Eastern Europe in comparison. In: Wolfgang Ismayr (Ed.): The political systems of Eastern Europe in comparison. With the collaboration of Solveig Richter and Markus Soldner. VS - Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-531-17181-4 , pp. 9–78.
  • Csilla Machos: Disintegration and Restructuring: Party Systems in East Central Europe since the 1997/98 parliamentary elections. In: Southeast Europe. Vol. 50 2001, ISSN  0722-480X , pp. 7-9, pp. 403-440.
  • Karsten Schmitz: Electoral systems and party systems in Eastern Europe. Analysis of the influence of the electoral systems on the party systems of Eastern Europe in the transformation process. VDM - Müller, Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-3242-9 .
  • Tom Thieme: Change in the party systems in the countries of East Central Europe: Stability and effectiveness through concentration effects? In: Journal for Parliamentary Issues . Vol. 39, No. 4, 2008, ISSN  0340-1758 , pp. 795-809.
  • Konstanty Adam Wojtaszczyk: The party system in Poland. In: Stanislaw Sulowski (ed.): The Polish political system. Elipsa Publishing House, Warsaw 2001, ISBN 83-7151-444-1 , pp. 105-112.
  • Klaus Ziemer : The political order. In: Dieter Bingen, Krzysztof Ruchniewicz (ed.): Country report Poland. History, politics, economy, society, culture (= Federal Agency for Political Education. Series 735). Federal Agency for Political Education, Bonn 2009, ISBN 3-8933-906-0 , pp. 147–191.
  • Klaus Ziemer, Claudia-Yvette Matthes: The political system of Poland. In: Wolfgang Ismayr (Ed.): The Political Systems of Eastern Europe (= UTB 8186 Political Science ). 2nd, updated and revised edition. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2004, ISBN 3-8252-8186-8 , pp. 189–246.
  • Klaus Ziemer: Parliament - parties - elections. In: Jochen Franzke (Ed.): Modern Poland. State and society in transition. Contributions to the debate (= Potsdam text books. Vol. 8). Berliner Debatte Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-936382-26-3 , pp. 24–45.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The 1997 Constitution of Poland (basis for the entire section)
  2. Cf. Art. 131 Para. 1 and 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland i. d. F. dated April 2, 1997.
  3. fact , February 4, 2006, p. 7.
  4. Source: Listy do Sejmu - ILE WYNOSZĄ UPOSAŻENIE I DIETA POSELSKA ? Polish Sejm website, accessed May 25, 2008
  5. fact , February 4, 2006, p. 7.
  6. Composition of the Sejm on
  8. REGULAMIN SEJMU RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ. In: Accessed on September 2, 2018 (see Art. 184 Para. 4).
  9. a b Głosowania. In: Retrieved April 12, 2018 .
  10. ^ Ziemer Klaus: The political order. 2009, p. 164.
  11. Poland - 1991 Parliamentary Elections ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. University of Essex (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Poland - 1993 Parliamentary Elections ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. University of Essex (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Poland - 1997 Parliamentary Elections ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. University of Essex (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  14. Official result of parliamentary elections 2001 State Election Commission (Polish, English)
  15. Official result of parliamentary elections 2005 State Election Commission (Polish, English)
  16. Official result of parliamentary elections 2007 State Election Commission (Polish, English)
  17. Official result of parliamentary elections 2011 State Election Commission (Polish, English)
  18. Official result of the 2015 parliamentary elections State Election Commission (Polish)
  19. Official result of parliamentary elections 2019 State Election Commission (Polish)

Coordinates: 52 ° 13 '30.7 "  N , 21 ° 1' 40.8"  E