Hungarian Parliament

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Hungarian Parliament
National coat of arms Front view
logo Front view
Basic data
Seat: Parliament building in Budapest
Legislative period : four years
MPs: 199
Current legislative period
Last choice: April 8, 2018
Chair: László Kövér ( Fidesz )
6th 15th 116 17th 17th 13 
Distribution of seats: Government (133)
  • Fidesz 116
  • KDNP 17
  • Support (1)
  • LdU 1
  • Opposition (65)
  • Jobbik 17
  • MSZP 15
  • DK 9
  • LMP 6
  • PM 5
  • Non-attached 13
  • Website

    The Hungarian Parliament ( Országgyűlés in Hungarian ) is a unicameral parliament based in Budapest . It has consisted of 199 members since 2014 and is directly elected by the people every four years. The Reichstag has been meeting in the Hungarian parliament building since 1902 .

    Electoral system

    The electoral system is a combination of majority and proportional representation. In 2011 the electoral system was changed significantly and the majority electoral element was strengthened.

    Electoral system until 2011

    The voters had two votes : one for a direct candidate in 176 single- seat constituencies and one for regional lists in multi- seat constituencies of different sizes (4–28 seats, altogether 152 seats). Seats are awarded for full droop quotas ; remaining seats go to the lists with the most remaining votes , as long as these account for more than two thirds of a quota; otherwise these seats go to the quota for national lists, which consists of a base of 58 mandates.

    An absolute majority of the valid votes was necessary in the single electoral districts; Otherwise there will be a runoff , for which all candidates qualify with at least 15% of the valid votes, but at least the 3 strongest candidates. However, the candidates could forego participation in order to increase someone else's chances.

    The distribution to the national lists was based on residual votes according to D'Hondt . The remaining votes are, on the one hand, the votes cast in the singles' constituencies in the first ballot to candidates who are on a national list and who have not received a mandate, and, on the other hand, the remaining votes in the distribution to the regional lists. The latter were negative if a remaining mandate was awarded for less than a full quota.

    In the distribution of seats outside of the single constituencies, only lists that have received more than 5% of the valid national regional list votes took part . Joint or linked lists of 2 parties had to reach 10%, lists of several parties 15%. When calculating the quota in the multi-mandate constituencies, however, these lists are not excluded, so that there are regularly some remaining mandates .

    If the turnout in the first ballot was not greater than 50%, the result was invalid up to and including the 1998 election and a second ballot will take place. In the single constituencies there was no runoff. In the second ballot, a turnout of more than 25% is required. Otherwise there was a by-election in the single-electoral districts and no remaining votes; the mandates of the regional constituencies were then transferred to the national contingent and the votes from the first ballot were counted as remaining votes.

    The residual vote system leads to a limited balance . Votes to a successful direct candidate have a much higher success value than votes to inferior candidates, which are nevertheless not completely ignored. The value of the remaining votes from the regional constituencies depended in a complex way on the election result, but tended to be lower than that of the votes that were directly used. Overall, it is an electoral system that (locally) strongly favors larger parties; however, it was far removed from pure majority voting .

    Electoral system from 2011

    The electoral system, which had not changed much since 1990, was fundamentally reformed in 2011. The main changes were:

    • The size of parliament was almost halved from 386 to 199 seats.
    • In the constituencies, whose number was reduced from 176 to 106, a relative majority is enough to win in the first ballot. The proportion of directly elected MPs rose from 45.6% to 53.3%, which strengthened the majority electoral element.
    • The votes in the constituency of victorious applicants are also partly taken into account when allocating the seats to the national lists, which also reinforces the majority voting element.
    • There are no longer any regional party lists.
    • Hungarians abroad who register are given the right to vote.
    • Voters can register as a member of a minority and then choose a minority list that is favored when the first seat is allocated.

    The controversial introduction of a provision that only citizens who register for the election can vote has been stopped by the Constitutional Court.

    Voters living in Hungary have two votes, one list vote and one vote to vote for a direct candidate in the constituency. Hungarians abroad have only one list vote. Anyone who is registered as a minority voter can only vote on a minority list. The remaining voters can only choose one party list with their list vote.

    Distribution of seats in the constituency

    The candidate with the most votes is elected in each of the 106 constituencies. In contrast to the previous right to vote, there are no more runoff elections. Party applicants and non-party candidates who each need 500 supporting signatures from those eligible to vote in the constituency are allowed to stand in the constituency. According to the old electoral law, 750 signatures were required. Several parties can set up a joint applicant.

    The number of eligible voters in the constituency may differ from the average by a maximum of 20%. In previous elections, there were constituencies with a significantly larger deviation. Nevertheless, the new constituency division was partially criticized as being partisan.

    Distribution of seats according to lists

    93 seats are distributed via national lists. Lists can be submitted by political parties and by national minorities. A party can only submit a list if it has put up candidates in at least a quarter of all constituencies and these constituencies are spread over at least 9 counties or Budapest (which does not belong to any county). Several parties can submit a joint list.

    Parties must receive at least 5% of all list votes in order to participate in the distribution of seats. In the case of a joint list of two parties, the threshold clause is 10%; in the case of a joint list of three or more parties, 15%. Minority lists are allocated a seat in advance if they reach the so-called "preference quota". This is 1/93 of the number of all votes to be taken into account when distributing the list seats divided by four (i.e. 1/372 or approx. 0.27%). Minority lists only take part in the further distribution of seats if they achieve at least 5% of all list votes.

    The 93 list seats, minus the seats that may already have been allocated to minority lists in advance, are distributed based on the following number of votes:

    • In the case of a party or a list of several parties, all list votes are taken into account, to which the votes of the candidates from the same party (s) not elected in the constituency are added. If a candidate from the party (s) in the constituency has been elected, his lead over the runner-up, reduced by one, is added to the list votes.
    • In the case of minority lists, all list votes are taken into account, minus the number of votes required to achieve the preference quota.

    On the basis of these votes to be taken into account, the seats are distributed according to the D'Hondt procedure .

    Composition since 1990

    Allocation of seats (at the beginning of the election periods)
    choice Mandates Fidesz KDNP MSZP MDF SZDSZ FKgP Jobbik LMP DK Others
    1990 386 22nd 21st 33 165 94 44 - - - ASZ 1, Independent 6
    1994 386 20th 22nd 209 38 69 26th - - - ASZ 1, VP 1
    1998 386 148 - 134 17th 24 48 - - - MIÉP 14, Independent 1
    2002 386 164 - 178 24 20th - - - -
    2006 386 141 23 190 11 20th - - - - Somogyért 1
    2010 386 227 36 59 - - - 47 16 - Independent 1
    2014 199 117 16 29 - - - 23 5 4th Együtt 3, MLP 1, PM 1
    2018 199 117 16 15th - - - 26th 9 9 PM 5, German minority 1, MLP 1

    List of Presidents of Parliament since 1920

    Beginning of the term of office Term expires image Surname Life dates Political party
    February 18, 1920 July 30, 1921
    Rakovszky István.jpg
    István Rakovszky 1858-1931 KNEP
    August 12, 1921 August 16, 1922
    Gaál Gaszton.jpg
    Gaszton Gaál 1868-1932 OKGFP
    August 18, 1922 October 18, 1926
    Scitovszky Béla2.jpg
    Béla Scitovszky 1878-1959 EP
    October 19, 1926 January 28, 1927
    Zsitvay Tibor2.jpg
    Tibor Zsitvay 1884-1969 EP
    December 21, 1944 December 21, 1944 István Vásáry
    ( executive )
    1887-1955 FKGP
    December 21, 1944 November 29, 1945
    Zsedenyi relief Miskolc.jpg
    Béla Zsedényi 1894-1955 independent
    November 29, 1945 February 5, 1945
    Nagy Ferenc-MTI 1946.jpg
    Ferenc Nagy 1903-1979 FKGP
    February 7, 1946 July 3, 1947 Béla Varga 1903-1995 FKGP
    4th July 1947 July 31, 1947 Árpád Szargó 1878-1948 FKGP
    September 16, 1947 June 8, 1949
    Nagy Imre retouched.jpg
    Imre Nagy 1896-1958 MKP
    June 8, 1949 August 23, 1949 Károly Olt 1904-1985 MDP
    August 23, 1949 May 18, 1951 Lajos Drahos 1895-1983 MDP
    May 18, 1951 August 14, 1952 Imre Dögei 1912-1964 MDP
    August 14, 1952 5th November 1962
    Rónai Sándor (crop) .jpg
    Sándor Rónai 1892-1965 MDP
    5th November 1962 April 14, 1967 Erzsébet Metzker 1915-1980 MSZMP
    April 14, 1967 May 12, 1971
    Kállai Gyula 1964.jpg
    Gyula Kállai 1910-1996 MSZMP
    May 12, 1971 19th December 1984
    Pártelit fortepan 26074-Apró.jpg
    Antal Apró 1913-1994 MSZMP
    19th December 1984 June 29, 1988
    Sarlós István (crop) .jpg
    István Sarlós 1921-2006 MSZMP
    June 29, 1988 March 8, 1989 István Stadinger * 1927 MSZMP
    March 8, 1989 May 2, 1990
    Szűrös Mátyás 1989 (crop) .jpg
    Mátyás Szűrös * 1933 MSZMP
    October 23, 1989 May 2, 1990
    Fodor István fortepan 124985.jpg
    István Fodor
    ( executive )
    * 1945 independent
    May 2, 1990 3rd August 1990
    Göncz Árpád-001.jpg
    Árpád Göncz 1922-2015 SZDSZ
    3rd August 1990 June 28, 1994 György Szabad * 1924 MDF
    June 28, 1994 June 18, 1998
    Gál Zoltán 2013.JPG
    Zoltán Gál * 1940 MSZP
    June 18, 1998 May 15, 2002
    János Áder * 1959 Fidesz
    May 15, 2002 September 14, 2009
    Szili Katalin 2009-12-14.JPG
    Katalin Szili * 1956 MSZP
    September 14, 2009 May 14, 2010
    Katona Béla 2010-02-20.JPG
    Béla Katona * 1944 MSZP
    May 14, 2010 August 6, 2010
    Pál Schmitt * 1942 Fidesz
    August 6, 2010 officiating
    Kövér László.jpg
    László Kövér * 1959 Fidesz

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Constitutional Court in Hungary overturns controversial voter registration. In: January 4, 2013, accessed December 8, 2017 .
    3. Electoral Law (English translation)

    Web links