|Bailiwick of Jersey (English)
Bailliage de Jersey (French)
|Bailiwick of Jersey|
|Official language||English , French|
|Form of government||British crown possession 1|
|Head of state||
Duke of Normandy
represented by Lieutenant Governor Stephen Dalton
|Head of government||Chief Minister John Le Fondré|
|population||102,700 (2015, estimated)|
|Population density||859 inhabitants per km²|
|gross domestic product||£ 3.7bn (2013)|
|Gross domestic product per inhabitant||£ 37,000 (2013 estimated)|
|currency||Jersey Pound (JEP)|
(separation from Normandy)
May 9, 1945
(liberation from German occupation)
God Save the Queen
on special occasions that require 2 hymns
UTC ± 0
UTC + 1 (March to October)
|ISO 3166||JE , JEY, 832|
|Telephone code||+44 1534 (landline)|
Jersey (English pronunciation [ ˈdʒɜːzɪ ], French pronunciation [ ʒɛʁˈzɛ ], Norman Jèrri [ dʒɛrɪ ]) is the largest and most populous Channel island with a good 100,000 inhabitants . It is located in the English Channel in the Bay of Saint-Malo , around 150 km from Great Britain and around 25 km from the west coast of the Cotentin peninsula in northern France . To the other Channel Islands the (air-line) distances are 28 km to Guernsey , 20 km to Sark and 50 km to Alderney . Jersey is the sunniest of all the British Isles and has extensive beaches. The capital is Saint Helier .
The island belongs with the smaller islands Minquiers and Ecréhous to the self-government Bailiwick of Jersey (in German about Vogtei Jersey , self-designation: States of Jersey ). The Bailiwick of Jersey also includes other groups of islands and rocks that are not permanently inhabited today: Above all, these are Pierres de Lecq and Les Dirouilles as well as other islands in the south and southeast. Other Channel Islands in the area belong to the Bailiwick of Guernsey .
Jersey is 119.6 km² - 8 km wide from north to south and 14.5 km long from east to west. The island has a 570 km long road network. The “Green Lanes” path system alone takes up around 80 km. These are small, traffic-calmed streets and paths with a maximum speed of 24 km / h. Hikers, cyclists and horse riders have priority here.
The island had 97,857 inhabitants in the last census (2011). By the end of 2014 the population had risen to an estimated 100,800. Of the residents, around 50% were born in Jersey and another 33% in the other British Isles . Around 33,500 people live in the island's capital St. Helier (2011 census). Every fifth inhabitant works in the financial sector.
In addition to English , a Norman dialect is still spoken on Jersey today . This dialect is also called Jersey-French or Jèrriais by the locals . But it differs so strongly from French that it is only understood by the local islanders. Jersey-French is no longer a compulsory subject in Jersey's schools, but can be taken as a minor. It is taught in most elementary schools in the country, but no longer in secondary schools. Jersey French is no longer spoken in most families and is therefore threatened with extinction .
Jersey has the most hours of sunshine in the British Isles. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, the island has an average daily maximum temperature of 21 ° C in summer. The climate is mild all year round and the winter months are almost always frost-free. The sea is relatively cool due to the strong tidal range. Normally in midsummer, favored by the Gulf Stream, it reaches a maximum of 22 to 23 degrees Celsius.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Jersey
National nature, vegetation
Due to the mild climate, caused by the Gulf Stream , there is a mixture of Mediterranean vegetation (e.g. palm trees , dragon trees , camellias ) and such more moderate latitudes (e.g. gorse , coniferous plants). Wild terrestrial orchids also grow on the island (Pré Noir nature reserve on the west coast), including some that are endemic there. Most of the island is either farmed or built on, with the houses in the smaller towns often being surrounded by gardens or parks. There are also remains of mixed forests in the valleys (e.g. in St. Peter's Valley), where hiking trails have also been created. On part of the coast, especially in the north of the island, there are steeply sloping cliffs overgrown with gorse, ferns and low shrubs and herbs. These cliffs can be hiked on the cliff paths (starting point e.g. Plémont Bay or Bouley Bay). In the southwest there are also sand dunes to be found.
The tide difference is up to twelve meters. Large areas of rocks or mud flats are exposed at low tide, especially in the southeast of the island. There are a variety of sea birds, including species of gulls and oystercatchers . Sometimes there is also a lost puffins from the neighboring islands on the cliffs of the north coast. There are a large number of pheasants that can be found all over the island.
The Channel Islands are among the areas that existed before the post-glacial rise of the sea, which occurred around 5000 BC. B.C. was completed, were part of the continental mainland and as such were settled early. The oldest finds come from the cave of La Cotte de St. Brelade. They go back up to 250,000 years. More Neanderthal tools were found there than in the rest of Great Britain. In addition, the only known remains of a late Neanderthal in northwestern Europe have been uncovered here.
Originally, all of the Channel Islands were part of the lands of the Duke of Normandy and before that part of Neustria . In 1066 , Duke William the Conqueror conquered England and became King of England. When the mainland part of Normandy was lost under the reign of John Ohneland in 1204 , the Channel Islands remained as the remainder of the Duchy in the possession of the Kings of England and fortifications such as Groznez Castle were built . The Channel Islands do not belong to Great Britain, but to the British royal family . Until 1569 the island Catholics depended on the diocese of Coutances (now Portsmouth ).
Jersey was occupied by the German Wehrmacht from 1940 during World War II . Approximately 30,000 residents had previously been evacuated to Great Britain . During this time fortifications (bunkers etc.) were installed on the coastline. So the island became part of the Atlantic Wall . In addition, the Germans had forced laborers build a tunnel system ( Jersey War Tunnels , Hohlganganlage 8 - HO 8), which was converted into an underground hospital in the last year of the war , but which was never used. It should serve to supply German soldiers who were wounded in battle. Many forced laborers perished during the construction of this tunnel system.
In September 1942, a little more than 2000 civilians - men, women, children - were deported from the Channel Islands to the German Reich (including to Bad Wurzach ) on the orders of Hitler (in response to the internment of German citizens by the English in Iran). They were held in internment camps (ILAG) until the end of the war.
Jersey was not affected by the invasion of Normandy . It was officially declared that they did not want to dwell on the liberation of the "unimportant" island; There is speculation about possible, deeper constitutional and political reasons. So it happened that the occupiers waited for the war to end and did not capitulate until May 9, 1945. Many buildings and facilities that are used as museums today are still preserved from this time. There is an exhibition in the “Jersey War Tunnels” that shows life during the occupation.
There are two areas that officially have the status of a Bailiwick ( English Bailiwick, French Bailliage ), Guernsey and Jersey. However, they are not headed by a Vogt , but as crown property they are directly subordinate to the British Crown.
Jersey is therefore not part of the UK and does not depend on the UK Parliament . The island belongs with the smaller islands Minquiers and Ecréhous to the self-government Bailiwick of Jersey (in German about Vogtei Jersey ). It is, as a Crown Estates (Engl. Crown dependency ) exclusively to the British Crown, and has therefore its own legislation (the z. T. still on Norman right back), an independent internal management and a private, completely independent control system which, thanks to lower tax rates (Maximum income tax rate of 20%) attracts many foreign investors .
Jersey itself has been divided into twelve parishes for over 1000 years . They each bear the name of the saints who were the patrons of their parish church . All municipalities are further subdivided for administrative purposes. In eleven of the twelve parishes these subdivisions are called Vingtaines , in the Parish Saint-Ouen the subdivisions are called Cueillettes . The term Vingtaine is also used in Guernsey .
There have been political parties in Jersey for a number of years, but so far they have played no role in elections, as almost only independent candidates have been elected in the elections that have been held since. Jersey has had a ministerial government headed by a chief minister since 2006. The "States of Jersey" consist of 53 elected, independent members, including 12 senators and 12 constables - one from each parish - and 29 MPs.
Jersey does not belong to the European Union , but is represented under international law on the basis of an agency agreement for a fee by the British Foreign Office ( Foreign Office ) and, if necessary, also defended by the British armed forces . The German Federal Court of Justice takes a different view , which in a decision of July 1, 2002 (II ZR 380/00) on § 110 of the Code of Civil Procedure, attributed Jersey to the United Kingdom and the European Union: “Since Jersey is part of the United Kingdom, albeit belongs to the European Union, taking into account its special constitutional status, […] ”. Jerseys interests and that of the other Channel Islands are the in Brussels at the European Commission is settled Channel Islands Brussels Office (CIBO) represented.
The island has its own currency: the Jersey pound sterling (JEP) is based on the British pound , which is also accepted, as are debit cards and all major credit cards . The euro is currently only accepted in a few larger shops in the island's capital.
The gross domestic product jerseys was in 2013 about £ 3.7 billion. The most important industry on the island with a share of 42% of the gross value added is the financial sector , which mainly benefits from the low tax rates for foreign investors and employs around a quarter of the workers in Jersey. Jersey was ranked 39th in a ranking of the world's most important financial centers (as of 2018). The tourism industry is also economically important ; Visitor spending on the island was £ 232 million in 2014. The Agriculture Although contributes only 1.6% of gross value added, but is still subject to the appearance of the island (more than half of the island area is used agriculturally). The main agricultural activities are the export-oriented potato cultivation and the dairy industry , which is based on its own breed of cattle, the so-called Jersey cattle . Floriculture is also important for export. In the southwest of the island, in the town of Saint Brélade one is lavender farm that a significant proportion of the UK demand for lavender oil produced.
Jersey's economy also lives in large part from tourism . Planes from London and other major European cities land at the airport . From Germany there are direct flight connections from Berlin , Düsseldorf , Hanover , Munich and Stuttgart in the summer season (as of 2016) . In Switzerland there are flights to Bern . Thanks to the TGV and speedboats, the island can be reached in around five hours from Paris . The ferries run at least twice a day. Camping is only allowed on the official campsites. The price level has fallen sharply since the devaluation of the British pound, to which the Jersey pound is pegged.
In addition to the island's capital, St. Helier, there are numerous tourist destinations, such as the archaeological sites ( dolmen ), Mont Orgueil Castle or the Quétivel mill . The bays u. a. from Saint Brélade , Saint Aubin and the Royal Bay of Grouville are popular for beach holidays.
The total length of the island's paved roads is about 570 km. As in Great Britain, people drive on the left side of the road ( left-hand traffic ), only during the German occupation they switched to right-hand traffic. The maximum speed is 64 km / h (40 mph). The Green Lanes are a unique network of small, traffic-calmed streets and paths on which cyclists, hikers and horse riders have absolute priority over motorized traffic. The maximum speed for vehicles there is 24 km / h (15 mph). This unique project was awarded the “Silver Unicorn” in 1996 by the Guild of Travel Writers .
There is no longer a railroad in Jersey . Since January 2013 all parts of the island can be reached by 24 bus routes (as of spring 2016) of the "LibertyBus". The former bus operator “myBus” carried more than 3 million passengers per year with around 80 buses on 18 lines from the central bus station “Liberation Station” in the capital Saint Helier .
1959 by animal welfare pioneer Gerald Durrell of the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust established that the Jersey Zoo ( Jersey Zoo until 2017: Durrell Wildlife Park ) operates. Located in a park, the Trust is working with great success to rescue endangered species. Various animal species have already been bred and released back into the wild in their ancestral home. The project is financed through donations and animal sponsorships. In addition to a well-documented orangutan group, there are other great apes , lemurs , a large enclosure for flying foxes and nocturnal animal species.
The most important cultural event on the island is the Jersey Battle of Flowers , which takes place on the second Thursday in August in the afternoon and the following Friday in the evening. It is a parade of floats decorated with flowers . This took place for the first time in 1902 on the occasion of the coronation of King Edward VII .
There are nine ballet schools in Jersey, all of which use the Royal Academy of Dancing teaching method . Every two years they hold a ballet competition that is integrated into the Jersey Eisteddfod Festival of Performing Arts .
Jersey has some of Europe's best surf spots due to its many and long sandy beaches . In St. Helier itself there are a few surf shops, in which almost all board sports are represented. There are also some board rentals at St. Ouen's Bay. In September 2009, St. Ouen's Bay was the venue for EUROSURF09, the European surfing championships .
Sons and daughters
- Helier († 555), patron saint of the island
- Lillie Langtry (1853–1929), actress, courtesan and mistress of King Edward VII.
- Harry Vardon (1870–1937), professional golfer and seven-time major winner
- Ted Ray (1877–1943), professional golfer and two-time major winner
- Charles le Maistre (1874–1953), electrical engineer
- Babette Cole (1950–2017), children's author and illustrator
- Guru Josh , actually Paul Walden (1964–2015), musician
- Graeme Le Saux (* 1968), football player; grew up in Jersey
- Andy Chatterley (* 1973), grammar nominee music producer
- Nerina Pallot (* 1975), singer and songwriter; grew up in Jersey
- Henry Cavill (born 1983), actor
- Charlie Carrel (born 1993), poker player
- Scott Clayton (born 1994), tennis player
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- ibid. , P. 255, § 99.
- ibid. , P. 271, § 110.
- ibid. , P. 386, § 198.
- ibid. , P. 407, § 214.
- ibid. , P. 430, § 224.
- ibid. , P. 444, § 231.
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- ibid. , P. 94, § 11.
- ibid. , P. 97, § 12.
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- Léopold Delisle , Les actes normands de la Chambre des Comptes sous Philippe de Valois (1328-1350) , Rouen, Le Brument, 1871, p. 208, § 116.
- Ibid. , P. 209, § 117.
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- ibid. , P. 4b, § 46.
- ibid. , P. 5a, § 52.
- ibid. , P. 5b, § 59.
- ibid. , P. 5b, § 61.
- ibid. , P. 72a, § 393.
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