A passport (in Germany also known as a national passport in the official language ) is in the narrower and original sense an official ID that is issued to the holder by the state of which he is a national and which is subject to the law of the issuing state for cross-border travel and in principle entitled to return to their own territory. The passport remains the property of the respective state and is used for identification and legitimation vis-à-vis government authorities and also vis-à-vis private institutions and individuals.
Most passports contain information about the person and the nationality of their holder and blank pages that can be used for additional official notes from the issuing country or for the affixing of notes from other countries, such as visas , residence permits or control stamps on entry and exit. In addition, since the early 2000s, there have been an increasing number of biometric passports in which personal data is stored in electronic form in the passport.
In addition to the passport, which is issued for general travel purposes, special passports such as the service passport or the diplomatic passport are issued for journeys by representatives of the issuing state in an official capacity .
Word origin and other colloquial usage
The word pass is derived from the Latin passare (“go through, pass”). The French expression passeport indicates even more clearly that it is about “receiving entry at gates / gates” ( passare portas , gates / doors to pass through).
Colloquially , the term is often used in a broader sense. In everyday language, the term passport also refers to passport substitute papers (such as the identity card or the travel document for refugees, also known as the "refugee passport " ) and other personal documents , even if they are not issued by government agencies and regardless of nationality, such as for example the maternity card or the vaccination card .
The first passport-like documents were mostly official papers for travelers, which were validated by a seal , stamp or signature of the exhibitor, but often did not contain the name or identification features of the holder and were therefore theoretically transferrable .
Middle Ages and early modern times
One of the first pass regulations was issued in 746 by the Lombard King Ratchis . He ordered refugees from the kingdom, secret negotiators with foreign countries and suspects to be controlled. The border guards should be reinforced and nobody should be allowed in without a passport. The surveillance was particularly strict on the Tuscan border, where an important pilgrimage led to Rome .
From the 9th century, a travel catering law , the so-called Tractoria , for royal messengers was established in the Frankish Empire . The messenger got a document on the way, which obliged the officials of the empire to provide him with accommodation and to let him pass through paths. In the High Middle Ages , the right of escort was later created , which also granted special protection for travelers. While these documents were only reserved for privileged people, an ID became mandatory for a specific group of people for the first time when the French King Louis XI. 1462 ordered that discharged soldiers had to carry an identity card issued by their officer on their journey home in order to be able to distinguish them from deserters . In the 16th century, merchants and private travelers were then obliged to carry a document from their city with their name on them, which attested to their righteousness. Similar documents were issued to pilgrims by pastors or bishops.
While the " Black Death " was spreading in Europe , the plague letter was introduced in Venice in 1374 . Citizens could only enter the city if they carried a health card with them confirming that they were free from plague and other contagious diseases.
From the 15th century on, special identifiers were increasingly included in the documents to identify the card holder. To make the frequent forgeries more difficult, registers were introduced with the issuing authorities, each containing a copy of the documents issued. In addition, clothing, badges and coats of arms were used as identification features.
In Spain , Jews , converts and heretics were forbidden to travel to America in the 16th century . King Philip II later created an authority to which every emigrant had to submit proof of origin and lifestyle. According to royal decrees in 1623 and 1669, France could only be left with a valid passport. In fact, the control of travel could hardly be enforced.
The passport system was significantly advanced with the French Revolution . After King Louis XVI. On June 20, 1791, when trying to escape from France disguised as a valet, the borders were closed to tourist traffic. The Constituent Assembly then decided to record precise information on names, gender, age and a personal description in the passports of the travelers. With the establishment of the nation, the concept of the citizen and the question of who should be considered as a foreigner arose. The declaration of human and civil rights of August 26, 1789, however, also included freedom of travel , which is why all travel restrictions for domestic and foreign travel were lifted on September 13, 1791 and the passport system was abolished. However, they were reintroduced on January 30, 1792 after the rulers of neighboring countries threatened France with war. The infiltration of foreign troops was to be prevented. Foreigners in France were also monitored more closely.
Shortly before the declaration of war on France, on March 20, 1813, Prussia issued passport regulations to reintroduce compulsory passports for people to leave the country. The local authorities were no longer authorized to issue the passports. This task has now been taken over by higher state organs such as the State Chancellery or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Interior, and in exceptional cases also by the police deputation of the provincial governments. The papers issued were only valid for certain pre-determined travel routes and had to be signed off daily.
The provisions were, however, almost a year later by Friedrich Wilhelm III. at least for business travelers relaxed again and made it easier for them to leave the country. As a result of the defeat of France and the convergence of the states of what would later become the German Confederation , the passport regulations were suspended and replaced by the pass edict for the Prussian monarchy of June 22, 1817. Then, for example, local authorities, port authorities, Prussian consuls and foreign diplomats were able to issue so-called “entry passports” for entry into Prussia. In order to prevent emigration, however, the emigration regulations remained restrictive until the 1830s. From June 1817 onwards , the Kingdom of Bavaria no longer issued passports for emigration to Russia.
With the increasing mobility through the railways, the passport card was introduced as a document for cross-border travel within the German Confederation and replaced the visa that was required until then. With the passport treaty that Saxony , Bavaria , Hanover and Württemberg signed with each other on February 7, 1865, local citizens no longer had to carry a passport with them. The advantages of the passport card and the passport contract, however, were often reserved for the upper classes of society .
On October 12, 1867, a new passport law was passed by the Reichstag of the Federation, according to which all states of the North German Confederation received uniform passport legislation. From January 1, 1868, a passport or visa was no longer required for nationals to enter or leave the federal territory or to stay there. The law was adopted with some changes after the establishment of the German Empire in 1871. In 1879, however, restrictions were made to prevent the spread of the plague and to make immigration of Polish and Russian workers more difficult. From now on, travelers from Russia had to carry a passport with them again and, from 1880 onwards, had this vised by a German consulate in Russia prior to departure . With an ordinance of December 1, 1892, passports could only be issued to German citizens.
With the First World War , the liberal passport system of the German Empire and other European states ended with the reintroduction of passport controls in Europe. In France , the fingerprint was introduced to identify the owner. As of August 1, 1914, according to the ordinance on the temporary introduction of the passport requirement when entering the German Reich, it was mandatory to carry a passport or other documents that enabled unequivocal identification as a German citizen. On December 16, the ordinance was replaced by the ordinance relating to other regulation of the passport requirement , which, among other things, required a photo of the ID card holder. This had to be stuck to the passport and stamped so that the stamp was partially shown on the picture and on the paper.
On June 21, 1916, another passport ordinance was issued, which regulated content, formal and organizational characteristics in particular and, with the implementation regulation ordered two days later, limited the term of the passports to one year. Furthermore, children from the age of twelve who were previously entered in the father's passport had to be in possession of their own document.
After the First World War and increasing refugee flows within Europe, the Nansen passport was introduced as a travel document for stateless Russian refugees in 1922 . The passport requirement temporarily introduced in several countries during the war remained largely in place. The punishment of violations of the passport regulations was regulated in an ordinance of April 6, 1923.
From 1924 the passport system of the Weimar Republic was regulated in more detail than ever before in an ordinance issued by the Interior Minister. In 1932 it was reduced and revised.
With the Reich Citizenship Law of 1935, the German population was divided into Reich citizens and "members of German or related blood" on the one hand and into citizens and "members of non-racial people" on the other. With the law on passports, foreigners police and registration, as well as identity cards of May 11, 1937, the Reichsminister was given the authority to “re-regulate the immigration police and registration”. With an ordinance of July 22, 1938, the ID card was introduced as a “general police national identity card” and with the ordinance on passports of Jews of October 5, 1938, all passports of Jews were declared invalid. The intended secondary intention was to prevent the “use of the exemption limit” for foreign exchange. The passports had to be submitted to an authority within two weeks and stamped with a red “J” in order to identify the holder as a Jew and thus regain validity.
After the beginning of the Second World War , on September 10, 1939, the ordinance on the compulsory passport and visa as well as the compulsory identity card came into force. This was the first time that the mandatory identification was introduced. In addition, the regulation stipulated that passports were required for entry and exit and that these had to be visually endorsed before crossing the border. On October 23, 1941, all Jews were banned from leaving the areas controlled by the German Reich.
The so-called inter-zone pass was in the post-war period from 1946 to 1953 for the area of the four occupation zones as valid identification for German domestic travel. For the passports of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR, see German passport .
In 1981 the design of the passports of the EC member states was adjusted in many respects, e.g. B. in format (paper size DIN B7 according to ISO / IEC 7810 ID-3, 88 mm × 125 mm) and in color (Bordeaux red-violet). In 2005, the electronic passport became the European standard.
Features of the pass
General (is between passes English passports ) (and pass replacement papers English documents travel ) are differentiated; both are ID cards. Passport substitute papers differ from passports in that they do not have all the functions of a passport, but are also used for cross-border travel.
Passports and passport substitute papers mostly fulfill the following functions:
- You confirm that the personal details entered belong to the person who is entered in the paper.
- They allow the holders to travel abroad with the paper across the border of the issuing country (exit visas are very unusual today).
- In accordance with their traditional function as letters of protection from the sovereign, they allow the owner to travel to other countries. Some designs still have a corresponding request for protection today, for example the British passport.
All passports (in the narrower sense) also have the following functions, which are often not fully fulfilled by passport substitute documents:
- They allow the holder to travel back to the issuing country.
- They promise host countries that the holder will also be withdrawn if the stay is terminated ( deportation ).
- They mediate the protection of the diplomatic missions of the issuing state.
- They contain a declaration to other countries that the owner is a citizen of the issuing country. Other states can rely on the correctness of this declaration in their international relations. The extent to which the passport holder can prove his citizenship to the authorities of the issuing country with the passport depends solely on the law of the issuing country. The German passport, like the identity card, does not provide any irrefutable proof of German citizenship to domestic authorities in Germany, for example, but only establishes the assumption that the card holder is German. Proof of citizenship is only the citizenship card .
Many passports have a geographical area of application that can be determined by the issuing country (in German passports, for example, “for all countries”). In addition, the geographical validity is limited as a result of the fact that passports of entities that are not recognized as a state by the destination country often do not allow entry there. This is not a mandatory rule, for example the Republic of China (Taiwan) is not recognized as a state by the Federal Republic of Germany, but entry is still possible with your passports.
Up until 1955 - ten years before diplomatic relations were established with the Federal Republic - Israel's passports even contained the statement “Valid for all countries except Germany”. Such passports were nevertheless accepted by the Federal Republic of Germany, whereby it was customary for the Israeli side to notify the trip beforehand via a message from the informal liaison office. To this day, the passports of some countries - such as Malaysia and Pakistan - contain a note that the passport is valid for all countries with the exception of Israel.
In business passports of the GDR one could find the information "Valid for all states and West Berlin ". The reason for this was the status of West Berlin as an “independent political unit” from the GDR perspective. In the normal private passports there is no indication of the validity at all.
Until June 2014, Italian passports had to be provided with a token with a value of 40.29 euros each year if they were used to travel to a non-Schengen country. The presence of the token and thus implicit payment of the passport tax were checked at the port or airport. Outside of Italy, the (non-) presence of the token was irrelevant. It was also possible to apply for passports in advance that were only valid for the European Union, although the national identity card would of course also suffice for these trips. The regulation with the annual tax stamp was abolished on June 24, 2014.
Types of passport substitute papers
These include the travel document for refugees and the travel document for stateless persons . These papers are commonly known as refugee passport or stateless passport referred, however, are no national passports because they are not issued by the State whose nationality has the owner.
Passport sovereignty under international law
Basically has each state for its nationals after the international law the passport authority , composed of personnel authority is derived the state of its citizens. This means that another state may not simply issue foreign nationals with passports in which the personal details and nationality are bindingly determined. Since the passport law of almost all states allows for legitimate reasons to temporarily or permanently withdraw passports (example: notorious football hooligans before an upcoming international match) or not to issue passports from the outset, no other state should be able to circumvent this decision. There are, however, permissible deviations from this, for example in the case of refugees under Article 28 of the Geneva Refugee Convention , or of course in the case of multi-nationals, for whom each state can issue a passport to its member.
General passport requirement
There is generally no passport requirement for residents. As a rule, there is also no obligation to have a passport (eg different in Germany for German in. ID card ; you have him over 16 years have , but need not constantly using him run . See Section 1. Sentence 1 of the Identity Card Act ).
In most countries, foreign nationals are required to have a passport (in Germany e.g. in accordance with EEA citizens within the EEA area outside of their own country usually only need an identity card (Art. 5 Para. 1 of the Free Movement Directive ). If the nationality can be proven otherwise, this is not even required (Art. 5 Para. 4 of the Free Movement Directive).Residence Act), unless they are repealed by special regulations. For example,
Several countries issue passports in different versions, for example as a temporary passport or as a passport with a larger number of pages for frequent travelers.
On the envelope, the issuing state and the type of passport are indicated as well as the coat of arms of the state. As a rule, the text in the passport is written in English and French (language of diplomacy) in addition to the official language (s) of the issuing state . The passports of the Holy See are the only ones written in a dead language . Passports usually have an envelope and numbered pages. All states of the European Union , with the exception of Croatia, have burgundy envelopes (except for service and diplomatic passports). Numerous countries issue passports with biometric features, and many are machine-readable . Some countries, such as South Africa , have had fingerprints on their personal data page for decades.
Passports have been issued in Albania since the 1920s. Since 2009, the holder's biometric features have also been included in the passport.
Biometric passports have been issued in Belgium since 2004 . They have the EU-wide harmonized burgundy red envelope lid with gold-colored embossing, in the middle the small coat of arms of Belgium . The Belgian passports are trilingual in all three national languages ( Dutch , French , German ).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The passport of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Bosnian : Pasoš ) is the identity document issued to citizens of the country since independence in 1992 for general travel abroad. Since October 15, 2009, only biometric passports have been issued.
Passport compulsory for foreigners
According to (1) of the Residence Act (AufenthG), foreigners may only enter or stay in the federal territory if they have a recognized and valid passport or passport substitute. In justified individual cases, the Federal Ministry of the Interior (or a body designated by it) can allow an exception to the passport requirement prior to entry and for a maximum of six months. In accordance with Section 5 (1) of the Residence Act, the issuing of a residence title to a foreigner generally requires that the passport requirement is fulfilled. The Federal Ministry of the Interior is responsible for recognition; (6) of the Residence Act. For Union citizens and nationals of EEA countries a valid identity card required by Freedom of Movement Act / EU .
Underage foreigners fulfill the passport requirement according to Residence Ordinance (AufenthV) up to the age of 16 by entering it in the passport of a legal representative, whereby a photo is required from the age of ten .the
A foreigner's passport or passport substitute may not be permanently confiscated by a country other than the issuing country, but it can be withheld for temporary purposes (such as ensuring departure or for use as evidence in criminal proceedings). The legal basis is Residence Act or ff. Of the Code of Criminal Procedure . Since the passport or passport substitute is the property of the issuing country and not the holder, it can also be returned to the issuing country and not to the registered holder when the purpose of retention has ended.(6) of the
Approved passport substitute papers for foreigners
According to passport substitute and are therefore sufficient for fulfilling the passport requirement in Germany , the holder of which must allow the Federal Republic of Germany to enter the country with the ID card based on EU law or agreements (e.g. refugee and stateless passports, ID cards for EU employees, ID cards for EU / EEA citizens and Swiss citizens , flight crew cards , etc.). This approval does not include an exemption from the visa requirement from the outset ; whether a visa is required depends on other regulations.Residence Ordinance, official ID cards are generally approved as a
If a foreigner does not have a passport and cannot obtain it in a reasonable manner, he can be issued with a substitute ID, which means that he / she complies with the identification requirement in Germany (subs. 2 AufenthG, AufenthV). Under strict, precisely regulated conditions, German authorities can also issue a foreigner with a passport replacement (regulated in to 13 of the Residence Ordinance ). German passport substitute papers for foreigners are:
A foreigner who deliberately violates the passport requirement (and does not have a substitute ID) is liable to prosecution under administrative offense ( fine of up to 3,000 euros, (1) and (5) of the Residence Act).(1) No. 1 of the Residence Act. A negligent violation is subject to a fine as an
The passport of Kosovo has been issued to citizens since 2008 and is mainly recognized by those states that have also recognized Kosovo's independence. Kosovar passports consist of a red envelope (only the biometric passports, passports without a chip have a blue envelope) on which the coat of arms of Kosovo as well as the inscription "Republic of Kosovo" and "Passport" in three languages ( Albanian , Serbian and English ) with Gold foil are embossed.
The Liechtenstein passport was redesigned when the passport had to be made more forgery-proof due to the security requirements of the USA. The color was changed from olive green to blue and the passport got the smaller ID-3 format . In addition, a machine-readable passport card was integrated in front of the first content page . When changing to this new format, some small errors happened: The national colors were displayed incorrectly on the passport card and the passport numbers started all over again with the new edition so that two different people could have the same passport number. In addition, the code letters in front of the serial numbers began with an “R” (for R ice pass), which resulted in problems when reading out the data. For this reason, the passes had to be changed again, and their numbers start since the - international standard - "P" (for P assport) instead of an "R".
The olive green passport was issued from April 1, 1985 to April 30, 2000 and is currently still used as an emergency passport with a maximum validity of six months. Before 1985, the passport had a light green envelope.
The Namibian passport, which has been issued since 1990 , was one of the few worldwide to have the personal information page at the end of the 32-page document until 2017. It has been published with biometric features and always 48 pages since 2017.
The Austrian passport is generally valid for ten years (except for children under twelve, which are two or five years old depending on their age) and cannot be extended, unlike the old green passports or even older beige passports, which are five years were valid, and could be extended twice for another five years. Austrian green passports that were issued abroad, for example at embassies or consulates , on the other hand, were valid for ten years.
The East Timor passport is generally valid for five years. It is valid for two years for children under the age of twelve, and ten years for people aged 60 and over.
The passport in Switzerland has a strong red color and has the Swiss cross on the front . The structure of the content is similar to that of the EU-wide harmonized passport model. Instead of the place of birth , the place of origin is listed. The sights of the individual cantons of Switzerland are shown on each side of the pass .
In accordance with the will of the Federal Council and the majority in Parliament , since March 1, 2010, all Swiss passports have been provided with biometric data and an RFID chip. A non-partisan committee held a referendum against the law on July 18, 2008 . This came about with 63,733 valid signatures, which forced a referendum on the law. This took place on May 17, 2009. The result was extremely narrow with 50.14 percent yes votes in favor of the law.
In Serbia , the Ministry of the Interior began issuing biometric passports on July 7, 2008. The residents of Kosovo have the right to apply for a Serbian passport as Serbia does not recognize the validity of Kosovar travel documents.
The validity of the Spanish passport is graded according to age. The ID is valid for two years for people up to the age of five. For Spanish nationals between 6 and 30 years of age, the card is valid for five years. From the age of 30, the ID card is valid for ten years.
To issue the passport, the applicant as a Spanish citizen must present his or her original valid identity card, the passport to be replaced or a verbatim certificate of the birth certificate. If he does not have any of these documents, the consulate abroad inquires with the central authority. Once the identity and the Spanish nationality have been established, the consulate will issue the passport. The validity of this passport can be limited to three months.
For the return journey to Spain, the consulate can issue a pass in an emergency, which is only valid for the return journey to Spain.
Applications for passports for minors and incapacitated persons must include the express consent of their legal guardian or legal guardian.
You can travel to member countries of the European Union and countries with which Spain has signed an agreement with a valid ID card (Documento Nacional de Identidad - DNI).
A passport photo must be submitted along with the application for the passport on the form given by the consulate. In the event of loss or theft of the previous passport, the relevant notification must be submitted to the local authorities. The passport costs 30 euros.
In Turkey , biometric and machine-readable passports have been issued to citizens since summer 2010. Issuing a Turkish passport costs the equivalent of up to 180 euros. This makes the Turkish passports the most expensive in the world.
The United Kingdom issues a variety of passports. The normal British Passport for adults is valid for ten years. Responsible is the Identity and Passport Service , founded in 2006, renamed the HM Passport Office of the British Interior Ministry in 2013, represented abroad by the respective embassy (rarely also consulates general ).
The United States issues a variety of passports. The normal adult passport is valid for ten years. Responsible is the Bureau of Consular Affairs of the US State Department , represented abroad by the respective embassy (rarely also consulates general ).
- Stolen and Lost Travel Documents Database
- Henley Passport Index - List of states with free travel for their citizens
- Arton Capital Passport Index - List of countries with the number of countries that can be visited without a visa
- Jane Caplan, John Torpey (Eds.): Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World . Princeton University Press, Princeton 2001, ISBN 0-691-00911-2 .
- Thomas Claes: Passport Control! A critical story of identifying yourself and being recognized. Past Publishing House, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-940621-27-6 .
- Valentin Groebner : The appearance of the person. Profile, identification and control in Europe in the Middle Ages . CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-52238-6 .
- John Torpey: The Invention of the Passport, Surveillance, Citizenship and the State , Cambridge 2000, ISBN 0-521-63493-8
- Advertising for the book ePass - the new biometric passport from 2005
- Information from the US Department of Homeland Security regarding passport requirements for entry into the USA
- Chaos Computer Club Collection of materials and background information on the topic of electronic passports ("ePass")
- GlobalTester - Open source tool for testing e-Passports and smart cards in general
- Prado document database of the European Union with passport samples from 31 countries
- Passport Index Database of passports from around the world
- See AsylG.
- Hartmann: History of Italy in the Middle Ages. Vol. II Part 2, Perthes, Gotha 1903, pp. 147-148.
- Valentin Groebner: The appearance of the person. Profile, identification and control in Europe in the Middle Ages. Munich 2004, pp. 125–127.
- Valentin Groebner: The appearance of the person. Profile, identification and control in Europe in the Middle Ages. Munich 2004, p. 137 ff.
- Thomas Claes: Passport Control! - A critical story of identifying yourself and being recognized. Past Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-3-940621-27-6 .
- Visa-free travel in the German Confederation. In: Saxon newspaper . of October 21, 2010.
- Ordinance regarding other regulation of the passport requirement. From June 21, 1916. In: Reichs-Gesetzblatt. 1916, No. 143, pp. 599-601.
- Announcement regarding the implementation regulations for the Passport Ordinance of June 24, 1916. In: Reichs-Gesetzblatt. 1916, No. 143, pp. 601-608.
- Ordinance on the punishment of offenses against the passport regulations of April 6, 1923. In: RGBl. 1923, p. 249.
- Announcement on the execution of the passport ordinance of June 4, 1924. In: RGBl. 1924 Part 1, pp. 613-637.
- Document VEJ 2/110 from 27 October 1938
- In: Official Journal of the European Union. C241
- Information from the Federal Printing Office on the electronic passport ( memento from November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior Proof of citizenship certificates . ( Memento from March 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Compare the general the Federal Ministry of the Interior of January 3, 2005, Federal Gazette 2005 p. 738 ff.
- These are primarily Regulation (EU) 2018/1806 (EU Visa Regulation) and § ff. AufenthV.
- Changes to the Residence Ordinance of April 8, 2017
- CH: Federal resolution on the approval and implementation of the exchange of notes between Switzerland and the EU regarding the adoption of Regulation (EC) No. 2252/2004 on biometric passports and travel documents (further development of the Schengen acquis), June 13, 2008
- Albanians want a Serbian passport
- Srbija ne priznaje kosovske pasoše
- Information on issuing a passport
- report from Deutschlandradio on dradio.de