A passport (also known as a national passport in official parlance in Germany ) is, in the narrower and original sense, an official form of identification issued to the holder by the state of which he is a national and which, according to the law of the issuing state, is used for cross-border travel and entitled in principle to return to their own sovereign territory. The passport remains the property of the respective state and is used for identification and legitimation towards state authorities and also towards private institutions and private individuals.
In addition to personal information and the nationality of the holder, most passports contain blank pages that can be used for additional official notes from the issuing country or for the attachment of notes from other countries, such as visas , residence permits or control stamps on entry and exit. In addition, since the early 2000s there have been increasing numbers of biometric passports , in which personal data is stored in electronic form in the passport.
In addition to the passport, which is issued for general travel purposes, special passports such as the service passport or the diplomatic passport are issued for travel by representatives of the issuing state in an official capacity .
Word origin and other colloquial usage
The word pass is derived from the Latin passare (“to pass through”). The French expression passeport indicates even more clearly that this means "to be admitted at gates" ( passare portas 'to pass through gates/doors').
Colloquially , the term is often used in a broader sense. In everyday language, the term passport also refers in particular to passport replacement documents (e.g. the identity card or the travel document for refugees , also known as the “refugee passport” ) and other personal documents , even if they are not issued by government agencies and are independent of nationality, such as for example the maternity card or the vaccination card .
The first passport-like documents were mostly sovereign papers for travelers, which were validated by a seal , stamp or signature of the issuer, but often did not contain the name or identification features of the owner and were therefore theoretically transferrable .
Middle Ages and early modern times
One of the first passport regulations was issued in 746 by the Longobard king Ratchis . He ordered fugitives from the kingdom, secret negotiators with foreign countries and suspects to be checked. The border guards should be strengthened and no one should be allowed in without a passport. The surveillance was particularly sharp on the Tuscan border, where an important pilgrimage route led to Rome .
From the 9th century, the Frankish Empire established a travel catering right, the so-called tractoria , for royal messengers. The messenger was given a document on his way that obliged the officials of the empire to provide him with accommodation and to let him pass the roads. Later , in the High Middle Ages , the right to escort arose , which also granted special protection for travellers. While these documents were only reserved for privileged individuals, an identity card first became mandatory for a certain group of people when the French King Louis XI. 1462 decreed that discharged soldiers had to carry an identity card issued by their officer with them on their journey home, in order to be able to be distinguished from deserters . Then, in the 16th century, merchants and private travelers were required to carry a document from their city with their name, certifying their probity. Pilgrims were issued similar documents by pastors or bishops.
While the “ Black Death ” was spreading in Europe, the plague letter was introduced in Venice in 1374 . Citizens could only enter the city if they carried the health card, which confirmed that they were free from plague and other contagious diseases.
From the 15th century, special marks to identify the card holder were increasingly included in the documents. To make frequent forgery more difficult, registers were introduced at the issuing authorities, each containing a copy of the documents issued. Clothing, badges and coats of arms were also used as identification features.
In Spain in the 16th century Jews , converts and heretics were forbidden to travel to America . King Philip II later created an authority to which every emigrant first had to submit proof of their origin and lifestyle. According to royal decrees in 1623 and 1669, France could only be left with a valid passport. In fact, however, the control of travel could hardly be enforced.
The passport system was significantly promoted with the French Revolution . After King Louis XVI. on June 20, 1791, disguised as a valet, tried to flee France, the borders were closed to travel. The Constituent Assembly then decided to record precise information on names, gender, age and a personal description in the passports of the travellers. With the establishment of the nation came the concept of citizenship and the question of who was to be considered a foreigner. However , the Declaration of Human and Civil Rights of August 26, 1789 also included the freedom to travel , which is why on September 13, 1791 all travel restrictions for Germany and abroad were lifted and the passport system was abolished. However, it was reintroduced on January 30, 1792, after the rulers of neighboring countries threatened France with war. The infiltration of foreign troops was to be prevented. Foreigners in France were also increasingly monitored.
Shortly before the declaration of war on France, Prussia issued passport regulations on March 20, 1813, reintroducing the obligation to have a passport when leaving the country. From then on, the local authorities were no longer authorized to issue passports. This task was now taken over by higher state organs such as the state chancellery or the foreign and interior ministries, and in exceptional cases also by the police deputation of the provincial governments. The papers issued were only valid for certain, predetermined travel routes and had to be signed off daily.
The provisions were, however, almost a year later by Friedrich Wilhelm III. loosened again at least for business travelers and made it easier for them to leave the country. As a result of the defeat of France and the coming together of the states of the later German Confederation , the passport regulations were repealed and replaced with the passport edict for the Prussian monarchy of June 22, 1817. As a result, local authorities, port authorities, Prussian consuls and foreign diplomats, for example, were able to issue so-called “entry passports” for entry into Prussia. To prevent emigration, however, emigration regulations remained restrictive until the 1830s. From June 1817 , the Kingdom of Bavaria no longer issued passports for emigration to Russia.
With the increasing mobility through the railways, the passport card was introduced as a document for cross-border travel within the German Confederation and replaced the visa required up to then. With the passport agreement that Saxony , Bavaria , Hanover and Württemberg concluded with each other on February 7, 1865, local citizens no longer needed to carry a passport with them. However, the advantages of the passport card and the passport contract were often reserved for the higher classes of society .
On October 12, 1867, the Reichstag of the Federation passed a new passport law, according to which all states of the North German Confederation received uniform passport legislation. From January 1, 1868, a passport or visa was no longer required for federal citizens to enter or leave the federal territory or to stay there. Foreigners were also not required to have a passport when entering or leaving the federal territory, nor during their stay or when traveling in the federal territory. The law was adopted with some modifications after the establishment of the German Empire in 1871. In 1879, however, restrictions were put in place to prevent the spread of the plague and to make it more difficult for Polish and Russian workers to immigrate. From then on, people arriving from Russia had to carry a passport with them again and, from 1880 onwards, they had to have it visaed by a German consulate in Russia before starting their journey . With an ordinance of December 1, 1892, passports could only be issued to German citizens.
With the First World War , the liberal passport system of the German Empire and other European countries ended with the reintroduction of passport controls in Europe. In France , fingerprints were introduced to identify the owner. From August 1, 1914, according to the decree concerning the temporary introduction of passport requirements when entering the German Reich, it was mandatory to carry a passport or other documents that enabled unequivocal identification as a German citizen. On December 16, the ordinance was superseded by the ordinance concerning other regulation of the passport requirement , which, among other things, also stipulated a photo of the ID card holder. This had to be stuck onto the passport and stamped so that the stamp was partially shown on the image and on the paper.
On June 21, 1916, another passport ordinance was issued, which regulated in particular the content, formal and organizational characteristics and, with the implementation regulation ordered two days later, limited the term of the passport to one year. Furthermore, children over the age of twelve who were previously entered in their father's passport now had to have their own document.
After the First World War and increasing refugee flows within Europe, the Nansen passport was introduced in 1922 as a travel document for stateless Russian refugees. The passport requirement introduced temporarily in several countries during the war largely remained in place. The penalties for violating the passport regulations were regulated in an ordinance of April 6, 1923.
From 1924, the passport system of the Weimar Republic was regulated in more detail than ever before in an ordinance issued by the Minister of the Interior. In 1932 it was reduced and reorganized.
With the Reich Citizenship Law of 1935, the German population was divided into Reich citizens and “members of German or related blood” on the one hand, and nationals and “members of non-racial ethnicity” on the other. With the Act on Passports, Aliens Police and Registration as well as Identity Cards of May 11, 1937, the Reich Minister was authorized to "re-regulate the Aliens Police and Registration". With an ordinance of July 22, 1938, the identity card was introduced as the "general police domestic ID card" and with the ordinance on Jewish passports of October 5, 1938, all passports of Jews were declared invalid. The intended secondary intention was to prevent the "utilization of the exemption limit" for foreign exchange. The passports had to be submitted to an authority within two weeks and stamped with a red "J" to identify the owner as a Jew and thus become valid again.
After the beginning of the Second World War , on September 10, 1939, the ordinance on compulsory passports and visas as well as compulsory identification came into force. This was the first time compulsory identification was introduced. The ordinance also stipulated that passports were required for entry and exit and that these were to be stamped with a visa before crossing the border. On October 23, 1941, all Jews were banned from leaving the areas controlled by the German Reich.
The so-called interzonal pass was valid in the post-war period from 1946 to 1953 for the area of the four occupation zones as a valid identification document for inner-German travel. For the passports of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR , see German passport .
In 1981, the design of passports was adjusted by the EC member states in many respects, e.g. B. in format (paper size DIN B7 according to ISO/IEC 7810 ID-3, 88 mm × 125 mm) and in color (burgundy-violet). In 2005, the electronic passport became the European standard.
After many countries made passports mandatory for border crossings during the First World War, attempts were made to standardize travel documents internationally. A 1924 conference on passports and customs formalities organized by the League of Nations resulted in certain guidelines and a model design for passports. Further standardization was not initiated until 1980 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Their standards now included machine-readable passports.
Official definition in the legal area of the Federal Republic of Germany
“A passport is a document issued by a state to its own nationals. It requires the signature of the passport holder. According to traditional understanding, the passport has various functions. It certifies that the personal data (surname, first name, date of birth) correspond to the personal details of the owner of the paper, who is identified by a photo and – except in the case of illiterate people – signature. The passport declares the holder's claim as a citizen of his own in traffic under international law. The passport generally allows the holder of their state to cross their own state border in an outward direction and declares that there are no objections to entry into the states for which the passport is valid. With the passport, permission is given to cross one's own state border to enter - in principle - the entire own sovereign territory. Furthermore, according to the prevailing opinion, foreign states are assured that the issuing state will take back the holder within the scope of the passport validity. The issuing state takes on the consular protection of the passport holder.”
features of the passport
In general, a distinction is made between passports and replacement papers for passports ( travel documents ); both are ID cards. Passport replacement papers differ from passports in that they do not have all the functions of a passport, but are also used for cross-border travel.
Passports and passport replacement papers usually fulfill the following functions:
- You confirm that the personal details entered belong to the person entered on the paper.
- They allow holders to travel abroad with the paper across the border of the issuing country (exit visas are very uncommon today).
- In accordance with their traditional function as letters of protection from the sovereign, they allow the holder to travel to other countries. Some models still bear a corresponding request for protection today, for example the British passport.
All passports (in the narrower sense) also have the following functions, which are often not completely fulfilled by passport replacement papers:
- They allow the holder to travel back to the issuing country.
- They promise host countries that the holder will also be taken back if their stay ends ( deportation ).
- They mediate the protection of the diplomatic missions of the issuing country.
- They contain the declaration to other states that the holder is a national of the issuing state. Other states can rely on the correctness of this declaration in the interstate relationship. The extent to which the passport holder can use the passport to prove his nationality to the authorities of the issuing state depends solely on the law of the issuing state. For example, the German passport, like the identity card in Germany, does not provide irrefutable proof of German citizenship to domestic authorities, but only justifies the assumption that the card holder is German. Proof of citizenship is only the citizenship card .
A geographical area of validity is entered in many passports, which can thus be determined by the issuing country (in German passports, for example, “for all countries”). In addition, the result is that the territorial validity is limited by the fact that passports from entities that are not recognized as a state by the target state often do not authorize entry there. This is not a mandatory rule, for example the Republic of China (Taiwan) is not recognized as a state by the Federal Republic of Germany, but entry is still possible with your passport.
Up until 1955 – ten years before diplomatic relations were established with the Federal Republic – Israel’s passports even stated “Valid for all countries except Germany”. Such passports were nonetheless accepted by the Federal Republic of Germany, it being customary for the Israeli side to pre-notify the trip via a message from the informal liaison office . To this day, the passports of some countries - such as Malaysia and Pakistan - contain a note stating that the passport is valid for all countries except Israel.
GDR business passports stated “Valid for all states and West Berlin ”. The reason for this was West Berlin's status as an "independent political entity" from the GDR's point of view. Normal private passports do not state the validity at all.
Until June 2014, Italian passports had to be stamped with a value of 40.29 euros each year if they were used to travel to a non-Schengen country. The presence of the token and thus implicitly the payment of the passport tax was checked at the port or airport. Outside Italy, the (non)existence of the token was irrelevant. It was also possible to apply in advance for passports valid only for the European Union, although of course the country's identity card would also be sufficient for these trips. The regulation with the annual tax stamp was abolished on June 24, 2014.
Types of Passport Substitute Papers
These include the travel document for refugees and the travel document for stateless persons . These papers are colloquially referred to as refugee passports or stateless persons ' passports, but are not national passports because they are not issued by the state of which the holder is a national.
International passport sovereignty
In principle, every state has passport sovereignty for its nationals under international law , which is derived from the state's personal sovereignty over its nationals. This means that another state may not simply issue passports to foreign nationals in which personal details and nationality are bindingly determined. Since the passport law of almost all states allows for temporary or permanent withdrawal of passports for legitimate reasons (e.g. from notorious football hooligans before an upcoming international match) or not to issue passports from the outset, no other state should be able to circumvent this decision. However, there are permissible deviations from this, for example in the case of refugees under Article 28 of the Geneva Refugee Convention , or of course in the case of multi-nationals, where each state can issue a passport to its national.
General passport requirement
Passports are generally not required for residents. As a rule, there is also no obligation to have a passport (unlike, for example, in Germany for Germans with an identity card ; you must have one from the age of 16, but you do not have to carry it with you all the time , cf. Para. 1 Sentence 1 Personal Identity Card Act ). Possession of a passport also satisfies the obligation to present an identity card (Section 1 (2) sentence 2 PAuswG).
In most countries, foreigners are required to have a passport (e.g. in Germany according to For example, EEA citizens within the EEA area outside of their own country generally only need an identity card (Article 5 (1) of the Directive on the Free Movement of Persons ). If nationality can be proven in another way, this is not even necessary (Art. 5 Para. 4 Free Movement Directive).of the Residence Act), unless this is abolished by special regulations.
Country Specific Details
Several states issue passports in different forms, such as a temporary passport or a passport with a larger number of pages for frequent travelers.
The cover states the issuing state and type of passport, as well as the state's coat of arms. As a rule, the text in the passport is written in English and French (language of diplomacy) in addition to the official language(s) of the issuing country. Passports usually have a cover and numbered pages. All states of the European Union , except Croatia, have burgundy envelopes (except service and diplomatic passports). Numerous states issue passports with biometric features, and many are machine-readable . Some states, such as South Africa , have had fingerprints on the personal data page for decades.
Choice of different passports
Passports have been issued in Albania since the 1920s. Since 2009, the holder's biometric features have also been included in the passport.
Biometric passports have been issued in Belgium since 2004 . They feature the EU-wide harmonized burgundy cover with gold-coloured embossing and the small coat of arms of Belgium in the centre . The Belgian passports are inscribed in all three national languages ( Dutch , French , German ).
For new passports that have been applied for since February 7, 2022, counterfeit protection has been increased with a total of 48 elements such as holograms and barcodes, twice as many as before. The 34 pages intended for stamps show comic characters by Belgian artists such as the Smurfs , Spirou or Marsupilami in the background , each with a reference to travel or mobility. For example, the rocket from the Tintin album Steps on the Moon is shown. Previously, the town halls of the 16 provincial capitals could be seen on these pages.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The passport of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Bosnian : Pasoš ) is the identity document issued to citizens of the country since independence in 1992 for general travel abroad. Since October 15, 2009, only biometric passports have been issued.
Passport requirement for foreigners
Paragraph 1 of the Residence Act (AufenthG), foreigners may only enter or stay in the federal territory if they have a recognized and valid passport or passport substitute. In justified individual cases, the Federal Ministry of the Interior (or a body designated by it) can allow an exception to the passport requirement prior to entry and for a maximum of six months. Pursuant to Section 5 (1) of the Residence Act, the granting of a residence permit to a foreigner also regularly requires that the passport obligation be fulfilled. The Federal Ministry of the Interior is responsible for recognition; (6) of the Residence Act. Citizens of the Union and nationals of the EEA states are required to provide identification in accordance with of the Freedom of Movement Act/EU .
Underage foreigners fulfill the passport requirement according to Residence Ordinance (AufenthV) up to the age of 16 by entering them in the passport of a legal representative, whereby a photo is required from the age of ten .of the
An alien's passport or passport substitute may not be permanently confiscated by any country other than the issuing country, although it may be retained for temporary purposes (such as to ensure exit or to be used as evidence in criminal proceedings). The legal basis is Residence Act or et seq. of the Code of Criminal Procedure . Since the passport or passport substitute is the property of the issuing country and not the holder, it can also be returned to the issuing country and not the registered holder when the purpose of retention has ended.(6) of the
Approved substitute passport documents for foreigners
passport and are therefore sufficient for fulfilling the obligation to have a passport in Germany for EU officials, EU/EEA national and Swiss national ID cards , flight crew ID cards, etc.). This admission does not include exemption from the visa requirement from the outset ; whether a visa is required depends on other regulations.AufenthV, official ID cards are generally accepted as a substitute for a
If a foreigner does not have a passport and is unable to obtain one in a reasonable manner, they can be issued with a substitute ID card, which means that they meet the ID requirement in Germany (subsection 2 of the Residence Act, of the Residence Ordinance). Under narrower, precisely regulated conditions, German authorities can also issue a foreigner with a substitute passport (regulated in to 13 AufenthV). German passport replacement papers for foreigners are:
A foreigner who intentionally violates the passport obligation (and also does not have a substitute ID card) is liable to prosecution under administrative offense ( fine of up to 3,000 euros, (1) and (5) Residence Act)., Paragraph 1, No. 1 of the Residence Act. A negligent violation is subject to a fine as an
The passport of Kosovo has been issued to citizens since 2008 and is mainly recognized by those states that have also recognized Kosovo's independence. Kosovar passports consist of a red cover (only the biometric passports, passports without a chip have a blue cover), on which the coat of arms of Kosovo and the inscription "Republic of Kosovo" and "passport" in three languages ( Albanian , Serbian and English ) with Gold foil embossed.
The Liechtenstein passport was redesigned when the passport had to be made more counterfeit-proof due to US security requirements. The color was changed from olive green to blue and the passport got the smaller ID-3 format . In addition, a machine-readable passport card was integrated before the first content page . When changing to this new format, a few small errors happened: The national colors were displayed incorrectly on the passport card and the passport numbers began again in the new edition, so that two different people could have the same passport number. In addition, the code letters in front of the serial numbers began with an "R" (for passport ), which caused problems when reading out the data. For this reason, the passports had to be changed again and since then their numbers have started with the – internationally customary – “P” (for passport ) instead of an “R”.
The olive green passport was issued from April 1, 1985 to April 30, 2000 and is currently still used as an emergency passport with a maximum validity of six months. Before 1985, the passport had a light green cover.
Until 2017, Namibia 's passport, issued since 1990 , was one of the few in the world to have the personal information page at the end of the 32-page document. Since 2017 it has been published with biometric features and always 48 pages.
Austria 's passport is generally valid for ten years (except for children under twelve, who are valid for two or five years depending on their age) and cannot be extended, in contrast to the old green passports or even older beige ones, which are five years applied and could be extended twice for a further five years. In contrast , Austrian green passports issued abroad, for example by embassies or consulates , were valid for ten years.
Upon request, all preceding and following academic degrees can be entered in Austrian passports. For example, all possible master 's and doctoral degrees can be entered in front of the name. All recent academic degrees can be entered after the name (e.g.: MA, LL. B, MSc , etc.). Academic degrees from other European countries can also be registered. Since August 21, 2020, master degrees can also be entered in the passport.
The East Timor passport is generally valid for five years. It is valid for two years for children under the age of twelve and ten years for people over the age of 60.
The passport in Switzerland is a strong red color and has the Swiss cross on the front . The structure of the content is similar to that of the EU-wide harmonized passport model. The place of birth is listed instead of the place of birth . The sights of the individual cantons of Switzerland are shown on each page of the pass .
According to the will of the Federal Council and the majority of Parliament , all Swiss passports have been provided with biometric data and an RFID chip since March 1, 2010. A bipartisan committee held a referendum against the law on July 18, 2008 . This came about with 63,733 valid signatures, which forced a referendum on the law. This took place on May 17, 2009. The result was extremely narrow with 50.14 percent voting in favor of the law.
In Serbia , on July 7, 2008, the Ministry of Interior started issuing biometric passports. Residents of Kosovo have the right to apply for a Serbian passport as Serbia does not recognize the validity of Kosovar travel documents.
The validity of the Spanish passport is graduated according to age. The card is valid for two years for people up to the age of five. For Spanish nationals between the ages of 6 and 30, the card is valid for five years. From the age of 30, the card is valid for ten years.
For the passport to be issued, the applicant, being a Spanish national, must present their original valid ID card, the passport to be replaced or a verbatim attestation of the birth certificate. If he does not have any of these documents, the consulate abroad will ask the central authority. Once the identity and Spanish nationality are verified, the consulate will issue the passport. The validity of this passport may be limited to three months.
In an emergency, the consulate can issue a permit for the return journey to Spain, which is only valid for the return journey to Spain.
The express consent of the parent or guardian must be noted on the applications for a passport for minors and for persons under legal guardianship.
You can travel to the member countries of the European Union and countries with which Spain has signed an agreement with a valid national identity card (Documento Nacional de Identidad – DNI).
A passport photo must be submitted along with the passport application on the form provided by the consulate. In the event of loss or theft of the previous passport, the relevant report must be submitted to the local authorities. The passport costs 30 euros.
Biometric and machine-readable passports have been issued to citizens in Turkey since the summer of 2010. Issuing a Turkish passport costs the equivalent of up to 180 euros. This makes Turkish passports the most expensive in the world.
The United Kingdom issues a variety of passports. The standard adult British Passport is valid for ten years. Responsible is the Identity and Passport Service , founded in 2006, renamed HM Passport Office of the British Home Office in 2013, represented abroad by the respective embassy (rarely also consulates -general ).
The United States issues a variety of passports. The normal adult passport is valid for ten years. The Bureau of Consular Affairs of the US Department of State is responsible , represented abroad by the respective embassy (rarely also consulates general ).
Country lists for freedom of travel
- Henley Passport Index - List of states with freedom of travel for their citizens
- Arton Capital Passport Index - List of states with number of countries that can be visited without a visa
- Jane Caplan, John Torpey (eds.): Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World . Princeton University Press, Princeton 2001, ISBN 0-691-00911-2 .
- Thomas Claes: passport control! A critical history of identifying oneself and being recognized. Past Publishers, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-940621-27-6 .
- Valentin Groebner : The Appearance of the Person. Wanted posters, identification and control in medieval Europe . CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-52238-6 .
- John Torpey, The Invention of the Passport, Surveillance, Citizenship and the State , Cambridge 2000, ISBN 0-521-63493-8
- Information from the US Department of Homeland Security regarding passport requirements for entry into the United States
- Chaos Computer Club Collection of material and background information on the subject of electronic passports (“ePassports”)
- Prado European Union document database with passport samples from 31 countries
- Passport Index Database of passports from all over the world
- Cf. Asylum Act.
- Hartmann: History of Italy in the Middle Ages. Vol. II part 2, Perthes, Gotha 1903, pp. 147-148.
- Valentin Groebner: The Appearance of the Person. Wanted posters, identification and control in Europe in the Middle Ages. Munich 2004, pp. 125–127.
- Valentin Groebner: The Appearance of the Person. Wanted posters, identification and control in Europe in the Middle Ages. Munich 2004, p. 137 ff.
- Thomas Claes: passport control! – A critical history of identifying oneself and being recognized. Past Publishers, 2010, ISBN 978-3-940621-27-6 .
- Visa-free travel in the German Confederation. In: Saxon newspaper . dated October 21, 2010.
- Ordinance concerning other regulation of the passport obligation. From June 21, 1916. In: Reichs-Gesetzblatt. 1916, No. 143, pp. 599–601.
- Announcement regarding implementation regulations for the Passport Ordinance of June 24, 1916. In: Reichs-Gesetzblatt. 1916, No. 143, pp. 601–608.
- Ordinance on the punishment of violations of the passport regulations of April 6, 1923. In: RGBl. 1923, p. 249.
- Announcement on the implementation of the passport ordinance of June 4, 1924. In: RGBl. 1924 Part 1, pp. 613–637.
- Document VEJ 2/110 of October 27, 1938
- In: Official Journal of the European Union. C241
- Information from the Federal Printing Office on the electronic passport ( memento of November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Passport. Right - Object - Journey . Article online at www.hisour.com, accessed October 17, 2021.
- Sinthujan Varatharajah: Be careful - a style critique In: fluter , May 5, 2021, accessed December 9, 2021.
- Residence Act – AufenthG; § 3 Passport obligation
- Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior proof of citizenship . ( Memento of March 12, 2013 at the Internet Archive )
- Compare general decree of the Federal Ministry of the Interior of January 3, 2005, Federal Gazette 2005 p. 738 ff.
- Belgian passport will show comics in future. Spiegel Online , January 29, 2022, retrieved February 8, 2022.
- New Belgian passport honors nation's comic book heroes. BRF retrieved February 8, 2022.
- Above all, these are Regulation (EU) 2018/1806 (EU Visa Regulation) and §§ et seq. AufenthV.
- Amendments to the Residence Ordinance of April 8, 2017
- Passport - Surname, First Names and Degrees. Retrieved 14 June 2021 .
- CH: Federal decree on the approval and implementation of the exchange of notes between Switzerland and the EU regarding the adoption of Regulation (EC) No. 2252/2004 on biometric passports and travel documents (further development of the Schengen acquis), June 13, 2008
- Albanians want Serbian passport
- Srbija ne priznaje kosovske pasoše
- Information on issuing a passport
- report by Deutschlandradio on dradio.de