|Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste (Tetum)
República Democrática de Timor-Leste (Portuguese)
Repúblika Demokrátika Timór Loro Sa'e (Tetum, unofficial)
|Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste|
Motto : Unidade, Acção, Progresso
( Portuguese for "unity, movement, progress")
Tetum and Portuguese
besides 15 "national languages"
|State and form of government||semi-presidential republic|
|Head of state||
President Francisco Lú-Olo Guterres
(since May 20, 2017)
|Head of government||
Prime Minister Taur Matan Ruak
(since June 22, 2018)
|population||1.3 million ( 152nd ) (2019)|
|Population density||85 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 2.0% (estimate for 2019)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.606 ( 141st ) (2019)|
|currency||US dollars (USD) (+ own coins )|
|independence||November 28, 1975 (from Portugal )
May 20, 2002 (international recognition)
|National holiday||November 28th|
|Time zone||UTC + 9|
|ISO 3166||TL , TLS, 626|
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste , also known as East Timor in German , is an island nation in Southeast Asia . It was the first state to become independent in the 21st century. The only land border separates East Timor from the Indonesian western part of the island of Timor , which belongs to the province of East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) . To the north are the islands of Alor , Wetar and Liran , which belong to Indonesia , and to the northeast are other islands in the Indonesian province of Maluku . Australia is south, across the Timor Sea . In addition to the eastern part of Timor, the state of East Timor also includes the exclave Oe-Cusse Ambeno in West Timor and the islands of Atauro and Jaco .
The internationally official Portuguese country name Timor-Leste literally means 'Timor-East'. In the official language Tetum , the country is called Timór Loro Sa'e , which also translates as 'East Timor' (literally 'Timor of the rising sun', where the rising sun in this language stands for the direction of the east ). Lately one can also find official documents in which the country's name is Tetum Timór-Leste . If one takes into account that the Indonesian word timur also means 'east' and the name of the island Timor is derived from it, the literal meaning 'east of the east' or 'east of the east island' would result. The province name Timor Timur used during the Indonesian occupation also means 'East Timor'.
East Timorese places value that the country name is not translated into foreign languages, mainly in an effort to avoid the use of the term Timor Timur (short: TimTim ) in Indonesian, which is associated with negative, historical connotations . Since independence, the official country name in international usage (as it is used, for example, by organizations such as the UN , ILO , EU ) has therefore been adopted untranslated in the Portuguese form Timor-Leste in practically all common working languages . It is also used in the official language of the German-speaking countries (at least in international correspondence).
The designation of the inhabitants and the adjective derived from the country name are not used uniformly. Residents are called Timorese / Timoresin or less frequently than Timorese / Timorerin referred to the female form even in large corpora hardly arise. The adjective Timorese is much more common than the competing Timorese . The forms Timorese / Timoresin and Timorese derived from Portuguese can also be found in specialist literature , as well as on the websites of interest groups that deal with the country in the German-speaking area. While the German official bodies earlier (List of States names 2002) East Timorese (in) or osttimorisch recommended that publish the German Foreign Office and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names since the conversion of the official use of language of East Timor on Timor-Leste no guidelines more for the Name of the inhabitants or for the adjective. The Austrian Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs recommends Timorese as an adjective .
Since the 1970s, the population has also been referred to ethnically as Marine . This name was previously a designation for the Mambai ethnic group , then a derogatory word for the rural population during colonial times, until it became the collective name of the East Timorese in the national movement. Even today it is used again and again in the country, less often in official language (so only once in the constitution ) or in international language communication. The negative undertone has now disappeared. Some parties also use the name in their name, such as the Movimentu Libertasaun ba Povu Mauchte (MLPM).
When independence was first proclaimed in 1975, there were voices that preferred to name the country “Timor-Dili” after its capital. However, this proposal did not prevail.
The island of Timor belongs to the eastern part of the Malay archipelago and is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands . In the northwest of the mountainous island lies the Sawu Sea , north the Banda Sea, and south the Timor Sea extends 500 km to Australia. The Timorese call the rough Timor Sea Tasi Mane , the sea of men, while the calm waters north of the island are called Tasi Feto , the sea of women. Just five kilometers from the north coast, the seabed drops to a depth of . During the Cold War , American nuclear submarines were therefore able to pass undetected on the streets of Ombai and Wetar . In the Timor Sea, the narrow Timor Trench extends south of the island with a depth of up to 3300 m.
East Timor is the only country in Asia whose territory is completely south of the equator . It includes not only the eastern half of Timor, but also the exclave Oe-Cusse Ambeno, which is located on the north coast of the Indonesian part of the island, as well as the two small islands of Atauro, north of the capital Dili, and Jaco on the eastern tip. With a total area of 14,918.72 km², East Timor is slightly smaller than Schleswig-Holstein or Styria . The main land mass is 260 km long and up to 80 km wide. With the exclave and the associated islands, the maximum east-west extension is 364 km, the maximum north-south extension 149 km. East Timor's coastline is 783 km long. It is surrounded by coral reefs .
The land border with Indonesia is 228 km long, the course of which has been clarified with Indonesia since 2019. Negotiations on the maritime borders between the two countries have been ongoing since 2015.
Timor lies on the outer edge of the so-called Banda Arch , which is part of an extension of the Pacific Ring of Fire and forms a chain of islands around the Banda Sea. In an oceanic subduction zone , the northwest corner of the Australian plate is pushed under the Eurasian plate . Among other things, this leads to a growth in the mountain range on Timor, which, as the central mountainous region, runs through almost the entire island from southwest to northeast as far as the Turiscai region . Its peaks are East Timor's highest mountains, the Tatamailau ( ) and the Ablai ( ). Further to the east are isolated mountains such as the Curi ( ), the Monte Mundo Perdido ( ) and the Matebian ( ). The Paitchau mountain range ( ) runs along the south coast of the eastern tip of Timor . Some areas in East Timor lift between 1 and 1.6 mm per year. 32.1% of the country's area is between 500 and above sea level , 2.6% above . Geologically speaking, East Timor is still very young, as it was only lifted out of the sea in the last four million years or so. Due to the geological activities, there is a constant risk of earthquakes and tsunamis . Again and again in Dili you can feel the tremors of tremors around Timor, but so far they have not caused any damage. The northeast of the Oe-Cusse Ambeno exclave forms the youngest and wildest surface structure on the entire island. It is of volcanic origin and reaches a height of with the Sapu (Fatu Nipane) . The island of Atauro was also created by volcanism . There are no longer any active volcanoes in the territory of East Timor. However, there are mud volcanoes and hot springs in various locations . Volcanic gases escape from the seabed at the so-called Bubble Beach (Suco Lauhata ).
In the north, the mountains drop steeply into the sea. Characteristic coastal terraces and some striking plateaus with Baucau , shape the picture. Terraces and plateaus emerged from corals. The mountainous interior is cut up by valleys. Alluvial land is found between Lautém and Baucau . Larger areas are the plains of Batugade , Metinaro , Dili, Manatuto , Com and on the Lóis River . On the south coast there are wide coastal plains three to ten kilometers wide, characterized by seasonal swamps, swampy forests and areas with high grass cover. They extend from the national border to Viqueque and then narrower to Lore . The largest are the plain of Alas with the southern Lacló river , the Kicras plain with the Sáhen river (Sahe) , the plain of Luca with the river Dilor and the plain of Bibiluto. On the border with West Timor lies the flat plateau of Maliana , which used to be a bay. The most striking plateau of East Timor is the Fuiloro Plateau in the municipality of Lautém. Towards the south it drops, imperceptibly due to its large area, from a height of to . Originally the plateau was the lagoon of a primeval atoll . Three other plateaus surround the Fuiloro plateau: the Nári plateaus in the north, Lospalos in the west and Rere in the south.height of 400 to , such as those of
The waters of East Timor are still little explored. Sometimes there is controversy about their naming, as the waters in the different regions through which they flow have been given different names. Almost all rivers of East Timor have their source in the central mountainous region and, due to the steep gradient, flow towards the north or south. The flowing waters form a dense hydrographic network in the central island area. As with many small islands with high elevations, these consist almost entirely of streams, which are rather short, winding and rapidly flowing. However, these streams are dry for most of the year.
Intense precipitation during the rainy season leads to the formation of torrents and thus to severe erosion of the soil. With the end of the rain, however, the level of the streams falls again, so that they can be easily waded through. With the return of the dry winds coming from Australia, only thin rivulets remain in wide river beds full of rubbish and debris that widen each year. The annual floods, which can last for a few months, also impede the movement of goods between the fertile plains in the south and the rest of the country. There are efforts to limit the erosion of the banks with the help of plantings and thus to reduce the destruction potential of the brooks. None of the rivers of East Timor are navigable. All year round there are water-bearing rivers, strictly speaking, only in the south of East Timor. The reason for this lies in the longer rainy season compared to the north. Rivers that carry water all year round in the north are fed from the south. This is the case with northern Lacló , which forms the largest hydrographic basin in East Timor, the Seiçal in the municipality of Baucau and the Lóis , the 80 km longest river in East Timor, which flows into Maubara . Southward flowing lead Irabere River (Irabere) , Bebui , Dilor , Tafara , Belulik (Bé-Lulic) , Caraulun River ( Carau-ulun , crucian Ulun ), Southern laclo and Clerec year round water. The main river of the Oe-Cusse Ambeno exclave, the Tono (Nuno-eno) , flows into the sea west of Pante Macassar . In some permanent rivers along the southern coast, the strong tides collect sand at the estuaries, blocking the runoff more and more and leading to the formation of marshland .
The largest lake in East Timor is the Ira Lalaro (also Suro-bec ) in the municipality of Lautém . It is 6.5 km long and 3 km wide. Other inland waters include the Maubara lake and the Tasitol museums . The many waterfalls are a special attraction of the mountainous landscape, the best known is the waterfall of Bandeira near Atsabe .
The local climate is tropical , generally hot and humid, and characterized by pronounced rainy and dry seasons. During the eastern monsoon between May and November there is often persistent drought, the north coast then receives practically no rain and the brown landscape is parched. Agriculture comes to a standstill during these periods of drought. The cooler mountain regions in the center of the island and the south coast get occasional rain in the dry season, so the landscape here remains green. The rainy season lasts from late November to April. During this time the fields are cultivated again. The harvest time follows the end of the rainy season. With the rain often comes floods, the dry river beds can fill up in a very short time and swell into large rivers, dragging the earth and debris with them and breaking roads. On April 4, 2021, heavy rains caused major damage across almost the entire country. Almost the entire capital Dili was flooded. It was the largest natural disaster in East Timor in over 40 years.
Dili has an average annual precipitation of 840 mm; most of the rain falls from December to March. In contrast, the city of Manatuto , east of Dili, receives an average of only 565 mm of annual precipitation. The south coast of East Timor is more rainy with 1500 to 2000 mm of annual precipitation; most of the rain falls on the central south coast and the southern mountains. However, the mountains often create a special local microclimate, as a result of which, for example, the place Lolotoe in the municipality of Bobonaro has the highest annual rainfall in East Timor with 2837 mm. There are also very strong differences in the amount of precipitation over the years (see table for Dili).
The temperature in the dry season is around 30 to 35 ° C in the lowlands (20 ° C at night). Parts of the north coast reach temperatures of over 35 ° C at the end of the dry season, but with low humidity and almost no precipitation. In the mountains it is also warm to hot during the day, but at night the temperature can drop to below 15 ° C, and significantly lower at higher altitudes. Ataltitude of , the annual average temperature is 24 ° C, at at 21 ° C, at 18 ° C and at at 14 ° C. The wind in Dili is weakest in May with 7 km / h and strongest in August with 12 km / h.
|Average temperature [° C]||28.3||28.3||28.3||28.3||28.1||27.5||26.7||26.4||26.4||27.2||28.6||28.9||27.8|
|Average daily maximum [° C]||31.1||31.1||31.7||31.7||31.7||31.1||30.6||30.6||30.6||31.1||32.2||32.2||31.3|
|Average daily minimum [° C]||25.6||25.6||25.0||25.0||24.4||23.9||22.8||22.2||22.2||23.3||25.6||25.6||24.2|
|Absolute temperature maximum [° C]||36.1||35.0||36.7||36.1||35.0||36.7||33.3||35.0||33.9||33.9||35.0||35.0||36.7|
|Absolute temperature minimum [° C]||21.1||22.8||20.0||21.7||20.6||18.9||16.1||17.2||16.1||18.3||21.1||22.8||16.1|
|Average rainfall [mm]||127.0||119.4||137.2||109.2||86.4||25.4||12.7||5.1||7.6||22.9||50.8||139.7||843.4|
|Maximum amount of rain [mm]||161.9||143.9||157.4||148.4||149.8||139.2||137.1||130.1||127.5||149.6||159.9||168.6||1773.5|
|Average number of rainy days||13th||13th||11||9||6th||4th||3||1||1||2||6th||11||80|
|Average duration of sunshine [h / d]||6.1||5.7||7.6||7.8||8.6||8.2||8.8||9.4||9.6||9.6||9.0||7.1||8.1|
|Average water temperature [° C]||26.7||26.4||26.4||27.2||28.6||28.9||28.3||28.3||28.3||28.3||28.1||27.5||27.8|
|Average relative humidity [%]||80||82||80||77||75||72||71||70||71||72||73||77||75|
|Average wind speed [km / h]||10||8th||9||8th||7th||8th||10||12th||11||11||11||10||-|
|season||Rainy season||dry season||RZ|
Source: Phytosociological Research Center ; wetterkontor.de ; Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Timor-Leste in figures 2011 (PDF; 3.8 MB) , accessed on May 5, 2013
fauna and Flora
The island of Timor is part of Wallacea , an area of the biogeographical transition zone between the Asian and Australian flora and fauna . However, there are only a few Australian species, such as the gray cuscus . The few mammal species on Timor , such as the maned deer , musangs , species of taxa fruit bats , shrews and monkeys , as well as birds and insects, resemble common Malay phenotypes . However, 23 bird species are only found in the Timor and Wetar Endemic Bird Area , which makes East Timor particularly interesting for ornithologists . The approximately 240 species of birds include numerous species of parrots as well as amadines , cockatoos and pigeons . Dugongs and blue whales can be found off the north coast , sperm whales and other marine mammals regularly pass directly in front of Dili.
East Timor can only come up with a few species of frogs from the class of amphibians , which are mostly not endemic , i.e. only limited to Timor. Also reptiles enrich the wildlife Timor, such as named after the island of Timor Monitor ( Varanus timorensis ), the Timor-liasis ( Liasis mackloti ) and living in the sea of Timor-Riffschlange ( Aipysurus fuscus ). Endemic is the Timor tortoise, which lives on the eastern tip of the island and was only discovered in 2007, which is seen partly as a subspecies of McCord's snake- necked tortoise ( Chelodina mccordi ) and partly as a separate species, Chelodina timorensis .
The estuarine crocodile , known as the “grandfather crocodile”, has a special cultural significance . According to legend, the island of Timor was created from a crocodile. CrocBITE, Charles Darwin University's database of crocodile attacks, has registered 15 fatal and five other attacks on people in East Timor since 2007 (as of September 2016). Pets are also being torn more and more often, which is why a Crocodile Task Force of ten men was set up in 2010 .
Endemic freshwater fish in the rivers of Timor are the only four centimeters long Oryzias timorensis from the family of rice fish (Adrianichthyidae) and Craterocephalus laisapi from the genus of the hard-headed species . Quite a few species of East Timor tend to live in the brackish water of the estuaries and mangroves , among others from the families of the cross catfish (Ariidae), the gobies (Gobiidae), the archer fish (Toxotidae) and Kuhlia mugil from the family of the flag tails (Kuhlia). The carp , the African catfish and Cyprinodontiformes Guppy , Koboldkärpflinge and Panchax were introduced by man. The waters around Timor belong to the so-called Coral Triangle , a region with the greatest biodiversity of corals and reef fish in the world. The reefs around the island of Atauro provide the highest value for fish. Up to 314 species were discovered in individual places in 2016, a value that is nowhere surpassed in the world. A total of 643 species of fish have been detected around Atauro, several of which have not even been scientifically described.
It is estimated that there are around 2500 species of plants in East Timor. The vegetation of East Timor consists mainly of secondary forest , savannas and grasslands . There are mostly species from the casuarina family , the eucalyptus genus , the sappan wood genus , sandalwood ( tetum Ai-kameli ) and palmyra palms ( Lontar palms). The area of the original primary forest of East Timor has shrunk to 220,000 hectares, or one percent of the territory . Dense forest can only be found in the south of the country and in the mountain regions. Mangrove forests only cover around 7500 hectares of East Timor, as, in contrast to other islands in the archipelago, there are only a few bulges in the coastline. These occur mainly on the north coast, where the sea is calmer. For example, you can find mangrove forests at Metinaro , Tibar and Maubara . On the south coast, the mangroves do not spread much further than beyond the estuaries and swampy terrain.
Languages and ethnic groups
In the case of Timor, the scientific literature shows in a simplified way that the individual language groups each have their own culture and thus each form their own ethnic group. People define themselves through their language. There are around 16 ethnic groups in East Timor, twelve of which are larger tribal associations. They mostly speak Austronesian ( Malayo-Polynesian ) languages and Papuan languages . The official languages are Portuguese and Tetum , the most widely used indigenous language as the lingua franca . The 15 other languages of the indigenous ethnic groups are recognized as national languages that should be "valued and promoted" according to the constitution: These are Atauru , Baikeno , Bekais , Bunak , Fataluku , Galoli , Habun , Idalaka , Kawaimina , Kemak , Makuva , Makalero , Makasae , Mambai and Tokodede . English and Bahasa Indonesia are listed as working languages .
The Malayo-Polynesian Tetum form the largest ethnic group in East Timor with around 433,000 members . Other Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Mambai (196,000), the Kemak (69,000), the Tokodede (47,000) and the Galoli (16,000). The Baikeno in Oe-Cusse Ambeno (69,000) speak a Malayo-Polynesian language, but are descended from the Veddo-Austronesian wave of immigration. The speakers of the Papuan languages are of Melanesian origin: the Makasae (130,000), the Bunak (65,000), the Fataluku (42,000) and the Makalero (9,000).
Tetum was the lingua franca of Eastern Timor even before the Portuguese colonial era . After the annexation of East Timor by Indonesia, the Portuguese language was banned. However, the Catholic Church did not hold its masses in Bahasa Indonesia, but from April 7, 1981 on Tetum and thus contributed to the development of the language and the establishment of identity. 62.5% of the population can speak, read and write Tetum, another 1.3% speak and read, 2.2% only read and 25.7% only speak.
While Tetum is widespread, only 30.8% of the population speak, read, and write Portuguese. Another 2.4% can speak and read, 24.5% can only read and 3.1% can only speak. Many teachers also speak no or very poor Portuguese. Because of these problems, Tetum lessons are held for the first three years and only then Portuguese is gradually introduced.
There are also immigrants from recent history, such as Chinese (mainly Hakka traders), Arabs and Portuguese . With the establishment of the steamship line between Macau and Dili at the turn of the century , the immigration of Chinese to Portuguese Timor increased. Among the immigrants there were also many who fled China as opponents of the Chinese Manchu emperors . By 1912 the Chinese community was already well organized. There was a club building, its own school and a Buddhist temple. The Chinese people originally spoke Hakka, Standard Chinese, and Cantonese . Before the Indonesian invasion of 1975, East Timor had a large and lively Hakka community. During the invasion, however, many Hakka died or fled to Australia. Today most of the Timorese Hakka live in Darwin and other Australian cities such as Brisbane , Sydney and Melbourne . In East Timor, around 800 people still name Chinese as their mother tongue. For example, the former Prime Minister Marí Alkatiri is of Arab origin . His ancestors came to Timor from what is now Yemen at the end of the 19th century .
A small part of the population is of mixed Portuguese-Timorese origin. In Portuguese this population is called Mestiços (German: Mestizos). For example, the former President José Ramos-Horta is one of them . There is also a small group of pure Portuguese. About 1400 East Timorese call Portuguese their mother tongue. Some immigrants from Indonesia also stayed in the country after East Timor became independent. Bahasa Indonesia, however, has lost its importance as a lingua franca, while English has gained in importance due to the foreign UN soldiers. 36.6% of the population can speak, read and write in Bahasa Indonesia, another 1.7% speak and read, 17.6% only read and 6.2% only speak. 15.6% of the population can speak, read and write English, another 1.7% speak and read, 19.8% only read and 1.9% only speak. About 2,700 residents speak Bahasa Indonesia as their mother tongue and about 7300 name English as their mother tongue. At the national university in Dili, however, many courses are still held in Bahasa Indonesia.
The occupation gave rise to a strong sense of East Timorese nationalism, but the unrest of 2006 brought back an ethnic division in the public mind that existed before the colonial era. This division of the country into an east and a west part has a significant impact on everyday life in East Timor. The western population from Loro Munu is called Kaladi , the eastern one from Loro Sae is called Firaku . The east consists of the municipalities of Lautém, Baucau, Viqueque and Manatuto. Loro Munu consists of the municipalities of Dili, Aileu, Ainaro, Manufahi, Ermera, Bobonaro, Cova Lima, Liquiçá and Oe-Cusse Ambeno.
The Firaku see themselves as those who defeated the Indonesian occupation forces through their long resistance. The Firaku include important East Timorese military figures. The Firaku accuse the West of sympathizing with the Indonesians. Many of the police officers who recruited the Indonesians were Kaladi. The United Nations and independent East Timor have taken on most of these police officers. The smoldering conflict between the police and the military results from this. As a melting pot of the country's various ethnic groups and groups, Dili is the scene of regular street fighting between gangs from the east and the west. A separation can also be seen politically. While the eastern parishes are the strongholds of the old FRETILIN independence party, parties in the western part have the majority that were only founded after the independence referendum .
Nevertheless, there are also numerous family relationships between the communities. The close links between the individual tribes and ethnic groups through marriage have a long tradition that linked the island and its rough division into a western, central and eastern region even before colonization. The tribes on the western edge of the area of influence of Wehale had at the same time alliances with western Timor and Oe-Cusse Ambeno, the tribes in the east with eastern Timor and its centers Atsabe and Lospalos. In this way, from the point of view of many Timorese, the island formed a unity, despite the different spheres of influence, which was only destroyed by the colonial division between the Dutch and the Portuguese. But feuds and wars are also reported. The old relationships and family structures still have a significant influence on the politics of the country today.
At the beginning of 2006, East Timor had just under 950,000 inhabitants, the 2015 census brought a result of 1,183,643 inhabitants, the population in 2019 was estimated at 1.3 million inhabitants. In 2011, 10,983 of the residents of East Timor were foreign nationals. These include 5,501 Indonesians, 1,139 citizens of the People's Republic of China, 726 Filipinos, 517 Australians and 318 Portuguese.
The population development in the 20th century shows particularly noticeable fluctuations due to the war. Before the Second World War, around 450,000 people lived in what was then the Portuguese colony. Between 40,000 and 70,000 Timorese lost their lives in the war. The last Portuguese census in 1970 counted 609,477 inhabitants. The Indonesian invasion in 1975, the guerrilla war and reprisals by the occupying forces killed 183,000 people between 1974 and 1999. Many also fled the country, especially immediately after the invasion and in the 1990s, which culminated in the 1999 expulsions, which ultimately led to the intervention of the international community. At that time three quarters of the population were on the run. Around 280,000 East Timorese were forcibly deported from Indonesia to West Timor or had sought refuge there.
The annual population growth is 1.81% (2015, 2004: 3.2%) and is thus, apart from Singapore , the highest of all countries in the region. The fertility rate decreased in the last few years from 6.9 (2004) to 5.7 (2011). It was an average of 4.9 in the city and 5.9 in the country. The proportion of the population under 15 years of age is 41.4%, that of those over 60 is 8.2% (2010), the average age in 2011 was 18.4 years. For every 100 people of working age between 15 and 64 there are 81 children under 15 and 9.6 people over 64. Life expectancy in 2006 was 60.2 years, in 2016 it was 68.1 years. The proportion of the urban population is 29.6% (2010, 2007: 27%). Statistically, there were 102 men for every 100 women in 2015. In 2006 the ratio was 100 to 103.2. However, the ratio in the municipality of Dili is particularly unbalanced at 100 to 106. The reason is the influx of many young men into the state capital.
|Religion / denomination||Number of believers||proportion of|
Almost all of the residents of East Timor are of the Christian faith . Over 97% said they were Catholics in the 2015 census ; Protestants form a Christian minority (2.0%). Of these, around 17,000 belong to the Protestant Church in East Timor (IPTL). 0.2% of East Timorese are Muslims , mostly Sunnis . They are descendants of Arabs who immigrated in the 19th century and Javanese who settled during the occupation . The Annur Mosque in Dili is the largest mosque in the country. There are more in Baucau, Lospalos and Liquiçá. There are also minorities of Buddhists and Hindus . The Pura Girinatha in Dili is the only Hindu temple in the country; the Chinese minority has had a Buddhist temple with the Guandi temple for a hundred years . The traditional religion of Timor is only weakly represented (0.08%). However, animistic beliefs are still practiced in everyday life.
During the Portuguese colonial rule, the Catholic faith was limited to the capital Dili and a few larger towns. The majority of the population were animists. Around 1975 the proportion of Catholics in the population was only about 30%. During the freedom struggle against Indonesia, however, the Catholic Church became the unifying bracket around the twelve larger tribal associations against the predominantly Muslim Indonesians. In no other country in the world has the Catholic Church achieved such great growth in the last few decades.
It owes this, among other things, to the then Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Dili , established in 1940 , Martinho da Costa Lopes , who preached against human rights violations by the Indonesians. In 1983 he had to abdicate under pressure from Jakarta and was replaced by Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo . But he too turned against the occupiers. In an open letter to the Secretary General of the United Nations , he called for a referendum on the independence of East Timor . The Catholic Church received a further boost in 1989 when Pope John Paul II visited East Timor. In 1996, Bishop Belo, together with José Ramos-Horta, received the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent advocacy for the freedom of East Timor . The liberation movement FRETILIN had communist features, but its leaders were strongly influenced by the liberation theology of Latin America by Catholic priests.
The diocese of Baucau was established in 1996, followed by the third diocese of Maliana in 2010 . Until 2019, all dioceses were directly subordinate to the Holy See under canon law . On September 11, 2019, Pope Francis established the ecclesiastical province of Dili by elevating the diocese of Dili to the rank of archdiocese, to which the dioceses of Baucau and Maliana were subordinated as suffragans . In 2002 a statue of the Virgin Mary was shipped from Fátima (Portugal) to Dili for the independence celebrations and the land was consecrated to the Mother of God of Fátima . In May 2005, after weeks of protest marches, religious education in public schools was reintroduced as a compulsory subject in the curriculum. Prime Minister Alkatiri introduced a bill in February that the subject should only be attended voluntarily.
East Timor is a secular state and according to the constitution there is freedom of religion. However, in his inaugural address as Prime Minister in 2006, Ramos-Horta emphasized the importance of the Catholic Church as an element that unites the country and reconciles the various conflicting parties. In a next step 2007, sent government with Justino Maria Aparício Guterres the first ever to the Holy See accredited ambassador to the relations with the Vatican further. An apostolic nuncio was also sent to East Timor. On August 14, 2015, on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the evangelization of Timor, a concordat was signed between East Timor and the Vatican . It defines the areas in which the Catholic Church can act independently of the state, for example with spiritual care in prisons, hospitals and orphanages and with running its own schools at every level of education.
A number of movements , such as Colimau 2000 or the Sagrada Família , have quasi-religious features. These groups use Christian and animistic elements and combine them with various martial arts. They each have a few hundred to a few thousand members. In the last few years the reading has become established that the Timorese were believers even before the missionaries arrived. Prime Minister Rui Maria de Araújo stated in a 2015 speech:
“Christianity did not enter our culture and our history by being imposed by arms (…) Christianity elevated, honored and enriched that which was already pulsating in the nature of the Timorese people. In other words, Christianity found a people with a sense of God ( Maromak ) and a sense of the holy ( Lulik ) . "
The apostolic nuncio Joseph Salvador Marino took up this image in a speech in the same year, who stated that the Timorese had known “the light of God” before the missionaries.
Women in East Timor
49.2% of the inhabitants of East Timor are women (2015). 24% of women are married before their 20th birthday. In men it is only 5%. They usually get married between the ages of 25 and 29. The husbands are therefore usually seven to ten years older than their wives. Domestic violence is a major problem in general . The reasons for this can be found in the traumatic experiences of the inhabitants during the Indonesian occupation. More than 400 cases were registered in 2008 alone, but the number of unreported cases is likely to far exceed this number. Studies by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in two of the then districts of the country found that violence for Timorese women was "normal" and considered a private matter. In 2009, domestic violence was included in the civil code as a criminal offense, for the first time in the country's history, as this was not the case under Indonesian rule either. On May 3, 2010, the National Parliament passed a law to provide legal assistance to victims of domestic violence.
The abortion law still follows old Indonesian law. Abortions, even if the mother's life is in danger, are prohibited by law, which is why illegal abortions are performed without medical help. A new law based on Portuguese and Australian law is currently being planned. According to this, abortions should be allowed if the pregnancy endangers the life of the woman. Initially, Catholic forces in politics, such as Fernanda Borges, spoke out against the law and criticized it as "Western influence". But because abortions should continue to be considered criminal apart from the exception regulation, the Catholic Church later advocated the new regulation. Abortions by victims of sexual violence and incest are no longer decriminalized, contrary to initial plans.
Medical care is poor but slowly improving. The variety of languages in the country often leads to problems in communication between doctor and patient. There are 302 medical facilities (2003: 218): six public hospitals (the two largest in Dili and Baucau), 66 community health centers, 189 medical wards and 41 private clinics (as of 2008). The population receives free treatment in public institutions. For every 1000 inhabitants there are an average of 0.3 doctors, 0.8 nurses and 0.3 midwives (2008). Until recently, there was mainly a lack of local doctors. Of 40 doctors in the main hospitals in Dili and Baucau, only 10 were East Timorese in 2003. Thanks to a cooperation between Dili and Havana , 300 Cuban doctors were working in East Timor in 2007 , 90% of all doctors in the country. 700 Timorese studied medicine in Cuba. At the end of 2012 there were 152 doctors in East Timor, including 13 specialists, 1271 nurses, 427 midwives and 416 medical-technical assistants. In December 2012, an additional 400 East Timorese graduated as doctors, after four years of study in Cuba and two years in East Timor. Another 80 had already successfully completed their medical studies in 2010/11 . Two aircraft from the Mission Aviation Fellowship Timor-Leste (MAF TL) transport the sick and injured from rural areas to the capital Dili.
The share of the state budget for health expenditure was 4.73% in 2008. 34.1% (2010, 2006: 38%) of the residents have no clean drinking water and 60.8% (2010, 2006: 59%) have no access to sanitary facilities (as of 2006). For every 100,000 live births in 2004, 800 mothers died. In 2008, UNICEF praised East Timor for reducing child mortality by 40% between 1990 and 2006. The infant mortality rate was in 1990 at 177, 2004 80, 2005 61 and 2010 44. The infant mortality rate in 1974 at 50%, in 1990 at 133 of 1000 births, 2004 64, 2005 52 and 2006 47. One reason for the Falling rates in child mortality is due to increasing medical care. In 2010, 53% of children between the ages of 12 and 23 months received all important vaccinations, in 2003 it was only 18%. However, in 2010, 23% of children were still without any vaccinations.
The Cruz Vermelha de Timor-Leste CVTL (Red Cross East Timor) was founded in 2000.
Persistent malnutrition , especially among children, is problematic . 46 percent of children under five are malnourished due to malnutrition, 24 percent of children are severely underweight. Only 6 percent are overweight (as of 2018). The situation is worst in the municipalities of Ermera , Ainaro and the Oe-Cusse Ambeno Special Administrative Region . On the Global Hunger Index, East Timor ranks 106th out of 107 in 2019 with a value of 37.6 (2008: 46.8; 2019: 34.5). The situation is classified as very serious. The reasons for the critical situation are the frequent bad harvests in East Timor and the low productivity of agriculture (see also: Chapter Agriculture and Crafts ). The average male East Timorese is very short at 160 cm. It is the smallest average height in the world.
The birth rate in 2011 was 36.85 births per 1000 inhabitants (2004: 43.6), the death rate in 2011 was 8.77 deaths per 1000 inhabitants (2004: 10.8). Due to the reports of alleged forced sterilizations during the Indonesian occupation, women in particular have an increased distrust of government medical facilities, which makes it particularly difficult to care for pregnant women. In some areas, the proportion of young mothers is extremely high. The national average for every 1,000 live births in 2004 was 59.2 births to mothers between the ages of 15 and 19, but in Tilomar , for example, it was 114.4, which means that this sub-district at that time had similar numbers to some Latin American countries.
East Timor is one of the countries with the highest proportion of smokers in the population. 33% of the population smoke every day, and the proportion of men is as high as 61%. There is a lack of comprehensive health education and there is no regulation of cigarette consumption, tobacco sales or advertising. Mostly imported goods from Indonesia are smoked. But there are also local tobacco farmers whose production is used to roll cigarettes yourself, which further lowers the already low prices for cigarettes.
In the rainy season, protection from mosquitoes is necessary to protect yourself from infections they transmit. In 2006 there were 223,000 registered cases of malaria and 68 deaths. With the help of the WHO , a nationwide National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) was started. In 2018, no new malaria infections were registered in East Timor. Other diseases, such as tuberculosis and Japanese encephalitis , are still widespread. The number of cases of dengue fever has fallen sharply in recent years, from 2789 in 2006 to 187 in 2008. However, there were major outbreaks of the disease in 2014 and early 2019 in Dili and in 2020 in Ermera with 117 infected people and four deaths.
When leprosy progress has been made in the fight. In 2004 4.7 new infections per 10,000 inhabitants were registered, in 2009 it was only 1.3. Even so, that meant about 1,300 new cases of the disease between 2004 and 2009. East Timor has been considered measles- free since 2018 . So far there have been over 2,800 confirmed cases of corona in East Timor. There are currently 1,417 infected people (as of May 6, 2021) and four deceased.
HIV still plays a minor role, although most East Timorese are ignorant of the risk of AIDS or how to prevent it. In 2002 there was only one death from HIV in East Timor, in 2003 six people were known to be infected. In March 2011, a total of 239 cases were counted, of which 42 had already died. Most of the infected come from Dili, but there are also cases in Maliana (18) and Baucau (9). In August 2012, 263 people infected with HIV were registered, including 28 new cases. 73 of them are receiving antiretroviral drugs . Seventeen of those infected are children under the age of five, and another five children have already died as a result of AIDS.
Eye problems are relatively common among the East Timorese population. 3.6% of residents over 40 years of age are blind. The most common cause of this is cataracts . The age-related macular degeneration, which is otherwise common worldwide , hardly occurs. The reason could be the genes of the majority of the population. The Haplogroups for the Y-chromosome derived to 73% of Asian ancestors, 13% each of Eurasien and Africa and 1% from Oceania. The haplogroups for mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ), on the other hand, have 69% origin from Asia, 15% from Africa, but only 1% from Eurasia and 17% from Oceania. The different origins suggest that there were either very many different waves of immigration to Timor or that the East Timorese are descended from a few men with very different origins. Studies have shown that there are clear differences from the West Timorese population, which has a different ethnic composition. In fact, historians speak of at least four waves of immigration to Timor.
Discrimination based on sexual orientation is prohibited by law. Sexual orientation or gender are not big issues in society , but discrimination and stigmatization are commonplace. Some LGBT organizations exist.
Small empires and foreign domination
The oldest traces of human settlement on the island were found in 2017 in the Laili cave near Laleia , in the north of East Timor. They are at least 43,000 to 44,000 years old. In addition to stone tools, the oldest known fish hook in the world and mussel shells that were used as jewelry, the remains of turtles, tuna fish and giant rats, which had served as food for the cave dwellers , were found in the limestone cave Jerimalai near Tutuala . In addition, the findings showed for the first time that people were fishing in the deep sea as early as 42,000 years ago. These findings support the theory that Australia was settled via the Lesser Sunda Islands.
From 40,000 BC In BC Timor was settled in at least three other waves by Austronesians , Melanesians and Proto-Malayans . According to reports from the Portuguese , the island was divided into three loose domains, which in turn were split up into numerous small empires whose rulers were called Liurais . Marriage and alliance policy formed a network that linked practically the entire island, but this did not prevent constant conflicts and fights between the empires into the 20th century. In 1515, the Portuguese landed on Timor for the first time and founded the Portuguese Timor colony , whose final borders with the Dutch part of the island were not established until 1916. Until the beginning of the 20th century, both colonial powers were still dependent on traditional rulership structures to administer their territories. There were constant revolts against the Europeans . The greatest rebellion against the Portuguese led Boaventura of Manufahi in 1912 .
Japanese troops occupied the entire island from 1942 to 1945, although Portugal was a neutral country during World War II . The result was a guerrilla war waged by Allied troops against the Japanese on the island, known as the Battle of Timor . Timorese also fought on both sides. In Portuguese Timor alone, between 40,000 and 70,000 people died. After the end of the World War, Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch colonial power. West Timor became part of the new state, while East Timor only received the new status of a Portuguese overseas province in 1951 .
It was not until 1974 that the Carnation Revolution changed the political situation in Portugal. In 1975 the colony was to be prepared for independence, but a civil war broke out between the two largest parties FRETILIN and UDT , from which FRETILIN emerged victorious. It proclaimed independence on November 28, 1975 , but just nine days later Indonesia began to openly occupy the country with Operation Seroja, and in 1976, despite international condemnation, formally made it its 27th province of Timor Timur . As a result of the 24-year Indonesian occupation, up to 183,000 of the 800,000 inhabitants died. After a referendum in 1999 that resulted in independence and further violence by pro-Indonesian militias ( Wanra ) and the Indonesian army , the United Nations dispatched the peacekeeping force INTERFET under Australian leadership . East Timor came under the administration of UNTAET until it was finally given independence on May 20, 2002 . On September 27, 2002, East Timor became the 191st member of the United Nations.
From the end of April to the end of May 2006, East Timor experienced serious unrest . 37 people died, 155,000 were on the run. The starting point for this was the dismissal of around 40% of the members of the army who deserted at the beginning of the year in protest against abuses in the East Timorese defense forces . Over 3,000 soldiers ( International Stabilization Force ISF ) were sent to East Timor from various countries to stabilize the situation again. Prime Minister Marí Alkatiri resigned on June 26th. Until March 2011, the UNMIT (UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste), together with the foreign troops of the ISF, took on the task of maintaining order in the country. UNMIT's mandate was extended to December 31, 2012. Until then, she supported the East Timorese National Police (PNTL) and also contributed to the security of the 2012 elections.
The first new elections after the restoration of independence in 2007 resulted in a loss of power for FRETILIN. The non-party José Ramos-Horta prevailed against the FRETILIN candidate in the runoff election for president. A four-party coalition managed to win a majority in parliament and install Xanana Gusmão as prime minister. Although FRETILIN was the strongest party in parliament, it could not find any coalition partners. FRETILIN saw the fact that it was the strongest force and did not lead the government as a breach of the constitution, but abandoned initial threats to boycott parliament or to take it to the Supreme Court .
In the same year, Alfredo Reinado , the leader of the soldiers who mutinied in 2006, had broken out of a prison with 56 followers in the same year, in which they were held for illegally possessing weapons and suspected murder in the course of the May riots. In 2007 the situation escalated around the fugitives who were hiding in the mountains of Manufahi and Ermera . In an attack on two border police posts, they stole 23 weapons, some of them heavy. President Gusmão authorized the ISF to arrest Reinado and asked Indonesia for assistance. An attempt to gain access by Australian special forces in March 2007 failed. Reinado repeatedly threatened the government with civil war and attacks on Dili.
On February 11, 2008, there was an exchange of fire between Reinado, some of his men and the security forces in the home of President Ramos-Horta. Ramos-Horta and one of his bodyguards were seriously injured, Reinado and another rebel were killed. Shortly afterwards, the car was shot at by Prime Minister Gusmão. He escaped the attack unharmed. Gusmão declared the attempted coup a failure. President Ramos-Horta returned to office in April after receiving medical treatment in Darwin . The rebel movement finally collapsed shortly after the attacks.
In the following years the political situation stabilized significantly. In December 2012, the last soldiers and police officers from ISF and UNMIT were bid farewell. In 2008, 75% of the residents of East Timor said they were satisfied with the work of the UN, while 3% felt it was bad. In 2015 there was another incident with the KRM , in which the army quickly restored peace and order. In the border disputes with Australia , East Timor was able to prevail in court. Severe flooding occurred on April 4, 2021, resulting in dozens of deaths. It was the worst natural disaster in East Timor since the Portuguese colonial era.
From many quarters East Timor is referred to as a " rumor-based society ", which is a consequence of the traumatization caused by the violent past. After the end of the conquest, Indonesia kept the occupied country in a state of permanent tension through a kind of strategy of tension in order to suppress domestic political resistance to the occupation. There were arbitrary arrests, public display of corpses, mysterious murders and the spread of rumors. The secret resistance groups probably used similar methods to stir up fear among the occupiers. The population is therefore susceptible to rumors and conspiracy theories , which is exploited by all political parties and actors. This starts with assumptions about the constitutional legitimacy of the first coalition government under Xanana Gusmão and goes through unsubstantiated allegations of corruption and allegations of misconduct by the foreign security forces (for example the " INTERFET frog ") and inability of the rulers to rumors about armed, paramilitary groups and Speculation about the violent death of the rebel Alfredo Reinado and his connections abroad. In May 2009, the deputy police commander Alfredo de Jesus appealed to the population via radio and television not to believe the rumor that a witch named Magareta would fly over Dili at night. The rumors spread quickly through word of mouth, text messages and internet blogs. In addition, there are announcements and warnings (for example by SMS) of violent riots or mass demonstrations, which then never take place, or demonstrations of power by militant groups, for example with staged flag ceremonies. Result is an "empire of fear" (Kingdom of Fear) , which is reinforced by the constantly occurring real violence.
Only 62% of the residents of East Timor said in 2009 that they could freely express their political opinion in their hometown; 24% said no. In 2017, 90% were of the opinion that they could freely express their views, only 2% did not believe it.
98% of 1200 respondents in November 2016 said they wanted to go to the upcoming elections in 2017. 72% expected the country to be better next year, and 49% already saw it on the right track. 29% of the respondents said the government was doing a very good job, 45% said the job was good. 44% said they were close to FRETILIN , 75% had a positive attitude towards the party. 29% saw the condition of the country's roads as the most important problem. 32% thought it had gotten worse in the last year, 29% saw an improvement. A majority of respondents saw improvements in health care (79%), education (78%) and electricity (71%). 66% are afraid of violent rioting in the vicinity of the elections
In the Global Peace Index 2020, East Timor came in 54th and received the classification “High State of Peace” with a value of 1.863. This puts you ahead of Albania (55th place) and Greece (57th place). In the 2020 Democracy Index of the British magazine The Economist, East Timor ranks 44th out of 167 countries and is therefore considered an "incomplete democracy". In the country report Freedom in the World 2020 by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system is rated as “free”. In the ranking it is behind India and ahead of Hungary .
Transparency International listed East Timor in the Corruption Perception Index 2020 at number 86 with a value of 40, which is an improvement on previous years and the same ranking as that of Burkina Faso , India , Morocco , Trinidad and Tobago and Turkey . The Anti-Corruption Commission (CAC) began its work in 2010 to fight corruption . In a survey, 79% of residents welcomed the establishment of the Commission. Over the past few years, there have been repeated court hearings against former members of the government on charges of corruption and mismanagement. In 2012, Lúcia Lobato , a former minister, was sentenced for the first time to five years in prison for mismanagement, but only served 18 months of it due to a pardon. In 2015, former Education Minister João Câncio Freitas was sentenced to seven years in prison for corruption. In addition, two state secretaries and four senior officials have been sentenced to prison terms for corruption.
The government's handling of the crimes during the Indonesian occupation was criticized by human rights organizations, the Catholic Church and large parts of the population. Politicians have been in favor of reconciliation and forgiveness since regaining independence, both with neighboring Indonesia and with the collaborators within East Timor. The processing of the events was limited to a registration of the incidents and local peace mediation under state leadership. In early 2015, the government adopted the policy of “mourning the nation” ( tetum dec-lutu nasional ) or “ shedding the black”. The memory of the past should now be carried out more in memory than in mourning as before. Critics note that many families have not finished grieving because the remains of their relatives have not yet been found. There is no trace of many of the victims of the occupation, including the folk hero Nicolau Lobato , whose death anniversary on December 31, 2015 was supposed to mark the end of the Dec-lutu Nasional .
|Name of the index||Index value||Worldwide rank||Interpretation aid||year|
|Fragile States Index||82.7 out of 120||47 of 178||Stability of the country: big warning
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
|Democracy index||7.06 out of 10||44 of 167||Incomplete democracy
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
|Freedom in the World Index||71 of 100||-||Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
|Freedom of the press ranking||29.11 out of 100||71 of 180||Recognizable problems for the freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
|Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)||40 out of 100||86 of 180||0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean||2020|
The President of East Timor is elected every five years and has more symbolic powers; but he has the right to veto legislation. The Council of State is at his side in an advisory capacity. In the presidential elections in East Timor 2017 , Francisco Lú-Olo Guterres from FRETILIN won the first round with 57.08% of the vote. It was the third time that Guterres ran for the office. He was also supported by the Congresso Nacional da Reconstrução Timorense (CNRT), the country's second major party. Guterres took over the presidency from his predecessor Taur Matan Ruak at midnight on May 20, 2017, on the 15th anniversary of independence. Taur Matan Ruak no longer ran.
After the parliamentary elections, the president appoints a prime minister who has the majority of a party or coalition in parliament behind him. As the head of the government , the prime minister chairs the cabinet .
The parliament (Parlamento Nacional) consists of only one chamber. Its members are chosen every five years in free elections. Laws and ordinances are published in the Jornal da República . The number of parliamentary seats can vary from 52 to 65. Exceptionally, the 88 seats of the Constituent Assembly were retained during the first electoral term .
Many East Timorese parties focus more on their leaders than on any program that sets them apart. Since the parliamentary elections in East Timor in 2007 , two dominant parties have emerged, the left-wing FRETILIN, from which President Francisco Guterres comes and which is led by Marí Alkatiri , and the CNRT, founded by Xanana Gusmão. Representatives of the younger generation are medium-sized parties in parliament: the PLP of Taur Matan Ruak, the KHUNTO , which has its origins in the ritual arts group Kmanek Oan Rai Klaran and the PD has its roots in the student movement RENETIL . The UDT , the FM and the PUDD are also represented by one member each in parliament. You entered parliament as the FDD party alliance in the parliamentary elections in East Timor in 2018 .
In the elections, the CNRT, PLP and KHUNTO ran together as Aliança para Mudança e Progresso (AMP) and thus won an absolute majority. In parliament, however, each party formed its own parliamentary group. The FDD broke up in the first few days of the meeting. UDT and FM then formed a joint parliamentary group, the PUDD deputy sits alone in parliament.
On June 13, 2018, the new parliament met for the first time and elected Arão Noé da Costa Amaral from the CNRT as the new President of the Parliament. On January 17, 2020, the government failed with its proposal for the state budget because the MPs of the CNRT abstained. The AMP was over. A new six-party alliance was formed, excluding PLP and FRETILIN, but it only lasted a few weeks. The government now relies on a majority of 36 seats from PLP, FRETILIN and KHUNTO in parliament ( see: chapter on domestic policy ). Aniceto Guterres Lopes (FRETILIN) became the new President of Parliament.
The Tribunal de Recurso de Timor-Leste ( German Court of Appeal East Timor ) is the highest court in East Timor. No appeal can be made against his judgments. The chairman of the court, who is appointed by the President of the Republic for four years, presides. Deolindo dos Santos has held the office since April 28, 2017 .
The national parliament elects a member of the Supreme Court, the other members are determined by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura Judicial ( German Supreme Legal Council ). The Attorney General has been Alfonso Lopez since April 29, 2021 . There are district courts in Dili (2017 with 16 judges), Baucau (seven judges), Oe-Cusse Ambeno (one judge) and Suai (seven judges). Also the seats of the Defensoria Pública .
Up until the end of 2014, many foreigners, mainly Portuguese, worked in the East Timorese judiciary, both as advisers to the Attorney General and the Anti-Corruption Authority and as judges. After East Timor had lost several legal proceedings for tax claims against raw material companies, all foreigners in the judiciary were dismissed by parliamentary resolution on October 24th. The advisors were accused of incompetence and possibly corruption. Foreign observers speculated, however, that the state wanted to reverse unpleasant judgments. The tax procedures have been reopened.
The death penalty and life imprisonment have been abolished in East Timor. The maximum permissible sentence is 25 years in prison. Prisoners are responsible for their own food and medical care.
The alliance of the AMP with an absolute majority of the parliamentary seats emerged from the early parliamentary elections on May 12, 2018 . The AMP included the conservative CNRT, Taur Matan Ruak's PLP and the KHUNTO. Taur Matan Ruak was sworn in as the new Prime Minister on June 22, 2018. When the AMP government took office on June 22, 2018, the power struggle with FRETILIN continued. President Guterres turned down eleven candidates for the cabinet, so that initially only part of the government offices could be filled. Two candidates were pending ongoing corruption proceedings (they were later withdrawn by the AMP), seven candidates had been charged with corruption and two candidates were, in Guterres' opinion, ineligible for office for ethnic reasons. The presidential refusal only affected CNRT and KHUNTO politicians.
Taur Matan Ruak came to terms with vice ministers and other ministers running the vacant portfolios while the CNRT was practically excluded from government business. On January 17, 2020, the CNRT MPs refused to approve the draft state budget in parliament. The AMP broke up. After numerous crisis talks, on February 22nd, CNRT, KHUNTO, PD, UDT, FM and PUDD publicly signed a coalition agreement to form a new government. Taur Matan Ruak submitted his government's resignation on February 24, 2020.
Due to the impending COVID-19 pandemic in East Timor , Taur Matan Ruak withdrew his resignation on April 8, after consultation with President Guterres. In the meantime, FRETILIN concluded an alliance with the PLP. FRETILIN General Secretary Alkatiri stated that they wanted to support the existing government until the regular end of the legislative period. Support for the eighth government was also signaled by the KHUNTO, although it was now part of the opposing alliance in parliament. The proposal of this six-party alliance to appoint Xanana Gusmão as Prime Minister was not answered by President Guterres.
On April 27, members of the KHUNTO and PD voted, contrary to the coalition agreement, to extend the state of emergency, and on April 29, the KHUNTO announced its withdrawal from the alliance in favor of the old government. Government restructuring began on May 29th. While most of the CNRT members followed their party's instructions and resigned from the government, members of FRETILIN and the PD were now admitted to the cabinet.
East Timor has extensive, friendly relations with numerous states and regions. It has reconciled itself with the former occupying power Indonesia, as well as with the colonial power Portugal. Through the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP), East Timor also maintains close contacts with the African members, Brazil and Macau . Portugal also serves, along with Ireland, as the gateway to the European Union . The Catholic faith serves as a connecting element with the Philippines . You and Indonesia are among the strongest supporters of East Timor's aspiration to join ASEAN . The Melanesian culture of some ethnic groups of East Timor forms the basis of good relations with Papua New Guinea and the South Sea states. East Timor is an associate member of the Pacific Islands Forum and since 2010 it has had observer status with the Melanesian Spearhead Group . In 2016, East Timor joined the Pacific Islands Development Forum .
There is a lot of sympathy in Australia, as East Timorese fought on the side of the Allies in the Battle of Timor , preventing a Japanese invasion of Australia. Nevertheless, there was a dispute for years about the demarcation of the border in the Timor Sea and the exploitation of the natural resources there, which led to tension and resentment. Especially after it became known that Australian agents had wiretapped the East Timorese cabinet during the negotiations. Finally, East Timor was able to prevail against Australia in court.
East Timor receives major support from Cuba and the People's Republic of China , while the United States also has close ties with the Southeast Asian country. Other partners are New Zealand , the United Kingdom , South Korea and Japan .
Due to its long history of foreign rule, East Timor has developed special relations with Western Sahara and supports both Kosovo and the Palestinian Autonomous Areas . As a formerly fragile state, East Timor is involved in a leadership position in the g7 + states .
Germany , Austria and Switzerland have no embassies in East Timor. The embassies of the countries in Jakarta / Indonesia are responsible. In urgent cases, EU citizens can contact the Embassy of Portugal or the Representation of the European Union in Casa Europa in Dili. The following countries also have embassies in Dili: Australia, Brazil , Brunei, People's Republic of China, Indonesia , Japan, Cuba , Malaysia , New Zealand , the Philippines , South Korea , Thailand , Great Britain and the USA . Since 2010 there has also been an embassy of the Sahara Democratic Arab Republic in Dili. One sees parallels in history as occupied states and therefore established diplomatic relations .
The East Timorese embassy responsible for Central Europe is located in Brussels . It is also the official representation of East Timor in the European Union. The permanent representation of East Timor to the United Nations in Geneva is also subordinate to the Brussels embassy . In addition, East Timor has embassies in Bangkok , Canberra , Hanoi , Havana , Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur , Lisbon , Manila , Maputo , Beijing, Phnom Penh , Pretoria , Seoul , Singapore , Tokyo , at the Vatican, in Washington, DC and Wellington as well as a mission at the United Nations in New York . Another embassy is planned in Myanmar's capital Naypyidaw because of the planned accession to ASEAN , and a representation has also been set up in Angola, while the African state intends to open an embassy in Dili. There are consulates general in Denpasar , Kupang and Sydney . Another is planned since 2009 in Surabaya , Indonesia , as 2000 East Timorese are studying in universities in the province. In addition, several citizens are treated in hospitals here. A training and health policy cooperation is to be established with the provincial government. Honorary Consul Peter Badge represents East Timor in Berlin . There are other honorary consulates in Ankara , Beirut , Cebu , Dublin , Évora , Geneva, Istanbul , Manila, Melbourne , Port Moresby and Tasmania .
The Defense Forces of East Timor ( Portuguese Forças de Defesa de Timor Leste , tetum Forcas Defensa Timor Lorosae ) or FALINTIL-FDTL (F-FDTL) consist of land forces and a small navy. In 2012 the first East Timorese officers received their helicopter pilot license. Since 2011, the Commander-in-Chief has been Major General Lere Anan Timor , his deputy is Falur Rate Laek . Filomeno Paixão has been Minister of Defense since 2018 .
The planned strength of the armed forces envisages 1500 active members and another 1500 members. Her basic staff was recruited on February 1, 2001 from fighters of the former guerrilla army FALINTIL . However, only a few stayed because of the low pension. After the unrest of 2006 and the desertions that went with it , the army has been back to its old strength since August 2008. The army consists of two infantry battalions. The Navy initially took over the patrol boats NRTL Oecusse and NRTL Atauro . These were replaced in 2010 by the newly built NRTL Jaco and NRTL Betano in the People's Republic of China . Three more patrol boats were taken over by South Korea in September 2011 . They were given the names NRTL Kamenassa , NRTL Díli and NRTL Hera . Two of the boats were handed over to the National Police in 2012.
In June 2007, an armament plan called "Forças 2020" was announced. According to this plan, the navy and army were to be massively upgraded by 2010 in order to safeguard the East Timorese interests in the oil field in the Timor Sea and to prevent smuggling and illegal fishing. Illegal fishermen alone damage East Timor by 45 million US dollars each year. Smuggling costs the state an additional $ 8 million in tax revenue annually. In 2008 the share of defense in the state budget was 4.39%.
In 2007 conscription was officially introduced, but not applied. It was feared that the small army would not be able to accommodate the large number of recruits. In addition, it did not seem a good idea to train members of street gangs to use automatic weapons and hand grenades. Taur Matan Ruak, then president and former head of the armed forces, propagated the application as a means against youth unemployment and to deepen national feeling. In 2020, the government, now led by Taur Matan Ruak as Prime Minister, decided to introduce compulsory military service.
In May 2008, East Timor signed a military alliance agreement with the seven other states of the CPLP . Among other things, East Timorese soldiers are to be trained in Brazil and Portugal. There are also plans for military cooperation in training East Timorese soldiers with China, Poland , Canada , India and Japan .
On September 26, 2018, East Timor signed the United Nations Nuclear Weapons Prohibition Treaty .
Police and crime
Faustino da Costa has been head of the East Timorese National Police (PNTL) since 2019 . Since October 31, 2012, the PNTL has assumed sole responsibility for internal security in East Timor from the United Nations. There are no military units in the Oe-Cusse Ambeno exclave. Here the border police ( Portuguese Unidade de Patrulhamento de Fronteira UPF) take over the tasks of the F-FDTL. At the end of 2018, the police consisted of 4,165 officers.
In addition to the PNTL, there is the Polícia Científica de Investigação Criminal (PCIC, German Scientific Police for Criminal Investigations ), which takes on the investigation, especially in the case of serious crimes.
According to the UN, there were 169 cases of bodily harm per 100,000 inhabitants in East Timor in 2008. The world average was 250, in the USA the value was 795. In addition, there were three murders per 100,000 inhabitants in East Timor in 2008 (USA: six per 100,000). In 2017, a total of 4504 crimes (381 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants) were registered. The municipality of Dili recorded the highest number with 714. 1865 cases were violent acts (158 per 100,000 inhabitants). Only two murders were registered (25 in the previous year). In 2020, the PCIC recorded a total of 26 murders in East Timor. At the end of 2017, 549 people were held in the country's prisons, 157 of them in custody. 511 were male, including the 38 minors.
East Timor has three intelligence services: the Serviço Nacional de Inteligência (SNI), the Serviço de Informações de Polícia (SIP) and the Sistema de Informações Militares (SIM). According to their mandate, the intelligence services support the state in its activities in the area of state security by collecting, processing and passing on information that is necessary for maintaining independence and national sovereignty.
In 2004 the administrative boundaries were revised. In 2009/2015 the previous districts ( Portuguese Distrito ) were renamed municipalities ( Portuguese Município ) and the subdistricts ( Portuguese Subdistrito ) into administrative offices ( Portuguese Posto Administrativo ).
East Timor is divided into twelve municipalities and the Special Administrative Region ( Portuguese Região Administrativa Especial ) Oe-Cusse Ambeno, which has a special role. In Article 71 of the East Timorese Constitution, Oe-Cusse Ambeno guarantees this in administration and economic policy. On June 18, 2014, Law 03/2014 created the Autoridade da Região Administrativa Especial de Oecusse (ARAEO).
The municipalities are divided into a total of 65 administrative offices, 452 sucos and 2,233 aldeias . The island of Atauro forms its own administrative office in the municipality of Dili, the island of Jaco is part of the Sucos Tutuala in the municipality of Lautém.
On February 19, 2021, the Council of Ministers decided with the II. Annex to Law 11/2009 to declare the island of Atauro an independent municipality. In the municipality of Ermera, the Sucos Lisapat , Mau-Ubo , Urahou , Fatubolo and Fatubessi will be separated from Hatulia as the new Hatulia B administrative office . In the municipality of Lautém, the new administrative office of Loré is separated from Lospalos .
|Municipality (number on the card)||ISO 3166-2: TL||Population (2004)||Population (2015)||Area in km²||Capital||Human Development Index (2017)|
|Cova Lima (12)||TL-CO||52,818||65,301||1,198.59||Suai||0.618|
|Oe-Cusse Ambeno (13)||TL-OE||57,469||68,913||813.62||Pante Macassar||0.553|
Transport and traffic
In 2008, 4053 motorcycles (2004: 3512), 1159 cars (2079), 241 small trucks (614) and 216 heavy trucks (385) were registered. If you, like most Timorese, do not have a four-wheel drive vehicle, when traveling overland you have to rely on public transport, which comes in three forms. The Biskota is a bigger bus. Such buses connect the more important localities, such as Lospalos or Baucau, with Dili and drive on the mostly asphalted main routes. However, they do not operate according to a fixed timetable, but only leave when enough passengers have arrived. To get to smaller places, you have to change to minibuses , so-called microléts . The third variant is trucks that are equipped with benches on the loading area. All three are consistently overcrowded with people and merchandise. The native Timor ponies are still an everyday means of transport, especially in the mountainous regions . There are no railways in East Timor.
There is left-hand traffic in East Timor . The road conditions do not make traveling easier. 70% of the 5320 kilometers of road are in need of repair. In the rainy season, many of the paths are only muddy slopes and no longer passable. There are 1,426 km of national roads, 869 km of municipal roads and 3,025 km of local roads. The main traffic routes are the two coastal roads on the north and south coast of the country, which are connected by five interurban roads in a north-south direction. There are also two cross-connections inland. The first section of the Suai – Beaco motorway , from Suai to Fatukaho (Fatukahu) , opened in 2018 and is East Timor’s first ever motorway. In 2018, the National Police registered a total of 1700 traffic accidents with a total of 75 fatalities and 1030 injuries. In 2019, the lowest number in four years was recorded with 1,495 traffic accidents. Even so, there were 70 dead and more than 1,900 injured. There were 817 accidents in the capital Dili alone. The most common (1240 accidents) involved in the accidents were motorcycles, the most common means of transport in the country. There were 475 car accidents and 262 accidents involving bicycles.
Dili 's Presidente Nicolau Lobato Airport is located west of the city center in Suco Madohi and is the only international airport to be served by passenger planes . There are connections to Australia and Indonesia. Regular, civil flight connections to other airports in East Timor are currently not recorded in the airlines' international booking system. For airport Oecusse District , there is a flight connection with a two-propeller engine of the local authority. Even the Suai airport has since been expanded. The Baucau airport is the only airport of East Timor, can land at the larger machines than the Boeing 737th It is primarily used for military and supply flights.
Foreign airlines offer connections from Dili to Darwin and Denpasar ( Bali ). In 2012 the attempt to establish Timor Air failed . From 2008 to 2019 Air Timor (formerly Austasia Airlines) flew with planes chartered by other companies, but had to cease its flights after the termination of the contract by Silk Air . In May 2019, Air Timor agreed a cooperation with the Chinese Air Travel . Now the route Dili - Hong Kong is to be served. Since June 2019, TransNusa Air Services has been flying the Dili - Kupang route in cooperation with Air Timor and since October 31, 2019 Air Timor has been operating the Singapore-Dili route with an Airbus A319 from Drukair .
From 2018 onwards, Aero Dili will be flying on domestic routes. She owns the first machines that were registered in East Timor. After an airplane crash-landed, in which the occupants escaped unharmed, the company's traffic was temporarily suspended. The aircraft registration for East Timor is "4W".
The most important cargo port in the country is Dili . A new port has been under construction in the Bay of Tibar since 2019. A US $ 943 million liquefied natural gas terminal in Beaco , on the south coast, is slated to be built by a Chinese company within four years once the financing is cleared.
With financial support from Germany, a ferry company established a connection to Pante Macassar in the Oe-Cusse Ambeno exclave, initially with the MV Uma Kalada , which was replaced by the Berlin Nakroma in February 2007 . This ship is also a gift from Germany to East Timor. It runs on Tuesdays and Thursdays from Dili in 12 to 13 hours to Pante Macassar and back the same day. On Saturdays, the Berlin Nakroma calls at the island of Atauro in two and a half hours. In addition, small boats connect Atauro with Dili. In 2017, the Haksolok ( German luck ) was launched as a new ferry by the Portuguese Atlanticeagle Shipbuilding in Figueira da Foz . It has a length of 71.3 meters. The Haksolok for 377 passengers and 25 cars was supposed to connect Nakroma , Oe-Cusse Ambeno, Atauro and Dili, but also other places on the north coast of Timor. The delivery was delayed because a subcontractor seized the ship at the shipyard. Instead, the Berlin-Ramelau was launched on May 10, 2021 .
By the end of 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure had been devastated by pro-Indonesian militias and the military. In addition to these consequences of the occupation, other problems are a blatant shortage of skilled workers and the high wage level due to the earlier international presence and the introduction of the US dollar as a currency. These factors reduce the competitiveness of East Timor vis-à-vis neighboring countries.
The gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 30% as a result of the 1999 crisis. Over the next three years, the area was rebuilt with a massive international aid program led by the UN. The program included civil observers, a 5,000-strong peacekeeping force and 1,300 police officers. The gross domestic product therefore rose sharply (15.4 and 18.3%, respectively), supported by the demand for services and the construction sector, and the pre-crisis level was reached again. After gaining independence, the gross domestic product stagnated for the first few years. In 2005 growth of 2.9% was recorded. The withdrawal of most of the UN staff hurt the economy. The 2006 riots brought a slump. Despite the global financial crisis , East Timor was able to achieve economic growth in the non-oil sector of 12.8% in 2008. In a survey in November / December 2008, 29% of those questioned stated that their financial situation had improved since the change of government in 2007. In Oe-Cusse Ambeno (58%), Manufahi (49%) and Lautém (42%) in particular, residents saw a positive development, while in Ainaro (16%) and Baucau (16%) significantly fewer people saw a personal improvement. In a total of 47% it is unchanged, in 20% it has worsened. In 2012 the economy grew by 10.9%, making East Timor the fourth strongest economic growth in Asia. The trend continued in 2013 as well. 2021 they reached an economic force, officially the list of least developed countries to be able to leave (Least Developed Countries LDCs). However, the government decided against upgrading to the group of developing countries in order to continue to benefit from the advantages of additional aid.
The International Monetary Fund estimated GDP per capita at purchasing power parity for 2019 at $ 3,245. However, the number does not reflect the income situation of the individual East Timorese, as the profits from the oil revenues do not go directly to the population, but rather go to a state fund, from which the state budget is partly financed. In 2011, the average monthly per capita income was US $ 62.12. In the country, it was only $ 50.08. According to the United Nations, East Timor is now the second poorest country in Asia , ahead of Afghanistan . Unemployment is around 11%, including many young people with degrees. The reason for the rising rate in recent years is the lack of job offers in their own country (as of 2016). Above all, there is a lack of industry in the country. The only exception so far is one plant from Heineken and Timor Cement Industries. The government is therefore trying to enter into guest work agreements with other countries, such as Australia, South Korea, China, Japan and Malaysia. 16,000 East Timorese live in Great Britain. 37.5% of the population live below the poverty line, which the United Nations has set at $ 1.25 a day. In the Human Development Index (HDI), East Timor was ranked 158 in 2008 (2007: 150). In 2009, East Timor fell back to 162nd place, but was able to increase its value slightly from 0.483 to 0.489 and reached 120th place in 2010 with 0.502. After changes to the criteria, East Timor came 147th place in 2011 with a value of 0.495. From 2000 to 2011, East Timor increased its level of development by 20%, more than any other country in the world. In 2012, East Timor rose to 134th place with a value of 0.576. In 2013 there was another rise to 128th place with a value of 0.620. In 2015, East Timor was ranked 133rd out of 188 with a value of 0.595 and in 2019 ranked 141st despite an increase to 0.606.
According to the 2004 census, 78% work in agriculture, forestry and fishing. 6% work in public administration, education, health and social services, communities and defense, 4% each for the UN or the diplomatic service, or for trade, hotels and restaurants. 3% work from home. 2% work in finance, transportation, storage and communications, only 1% in mining, oil production, electricity and construction. There are agreements with Macau and Australia on the posting of guest workers to these countries. The first East Timorese guest workers arrived in South Korea on October 27, 2009 . In 2012, East Timor's national monthly minimum wage was set at $ 115 by the government. This applies to both the private and the public sector. The average income grew from 367 US dollars in 2005 to 3005 US dollars in 2011. Although the gap between rich and poor and urban and rural areas is widening, it can be seen that more and more people have money at their disposal.
For the south coast, the East Timorese government is planning a comprehensive infrastructure project called the Tasi Mane project . The further processing of the natural gas from the Greater Sunrise field in the Timor Sea is to take place there, if they want. Petrochemical plants, an LNG plant, an airport and a deep-sea port are also planned. The company Woodside Petroleum , which had previously been commissioned with the production of the natural gas, preferred further processing in Australia or offshore , which is why the government stopped the production license. There were also irregularities in the settlement of profits and tax payments by the oil companies from the smaller Bayu Undan gas field , including those by ConocoPhillips . The dispute with Australia over the sharing of profits, the exploitation of the Greater Sunrise field and the demarcation of the border in the Timor Sea ended with the signing of a new border treaty in 2018 (see border disputes between Australia and East Timor ). In 2018, the East Timorese government bought ConocoPhillips' 30 percent stake in the Greater Sunrise natural gas field for $ 350 million. At the end of November, East Timor also took over the 26.56 percent stake in Royal Dutch Shell for 300 million US dollars, bringing the state stake now to 56.56 percent.
The Bayu Undan gas field , which generates the majority of East Timor's profits, is expected to be fully exploited by 2028 .
The GSM network was set up by Timor Telecom , 50.1% of which is owned by Portugal Telecom . Other shareholders are the East Timorese state and Vodatel . In 2009, Timor Telecom signed a contract with the Chinese ZTE to further expand the mobile radio system and establish wideband CDMA . Timor Telecom's monopoly was lifted by the government in 2010 to allow free competition. On June 28, 2012, it was announced that PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia International (Telin) with its East Timorese subsidiary Telkomcel and Digicel Pacific Limited ( Digicel ) would receive licenses. In 2017 Telemor , a subsidiary of the Vietnamese Viettel, launched the first 4G network in East Timor.
In 2016, 1.2% of the population had access to an internet connection. The Internet is in East Timor therefore used mobile primarily. The number of cell phones increased significantly after 2006. In 2006 only ten percent of the population had a mobile phone, in 2012 the proportion rose to more than half of the population, with 600,000 mobile phones, and in 2014 the proportion of mobile phone owners was 63% of the population. In 2008 there were only 2641 landline connections (2004: 2115).
In terms of internet connection speed, East Timor ranks sixth from last in the world in 2020. The average download speed is 0.89 megabits per second . It takes almost 13 hours to download a five gigabyte file. In Portugal it only takes 18 minutes, in the leading country Liechtenstein it only takes three minutes.
Energy-and water supply
|place of residence||Power supply||watch TV||radio||phone||fridge||automobile||motorcycle|
According to statistics, 66% of households have access to clean drinking water sources, with only 21% having the water on or in the house. The residents of the other households have to get the drinking water from public pipes, wells, springs or bodies of water. However, the inadequate sealing of sanitary facilities leads to contamination of the groundwater, which is why Salvador Eugénio Soares dos Reis Pires , Minister for Public Works, assumed in 2018 that around 73% of East Timorese get their water from contaminated sources.
90% of households use wood for cooking, which leads to a decline in forests. Almost half use kerosene to generate light, 37% electricity. Diesel generators are mostly used to produce electricity, which is why in smaller places, if at all, electricity is usually only available for a few hours in the evening. The electricity supplier in East Timor is Electricidade de Timor-Leste (EDTL). He owns the country's larger power plants .
The first hydropower plant built by Norway has been in operation at Gariuai (Baucau municipality) since 2008 . There are also projects with biogas power plants operated by village cooperatives, for example in Loi-Huno (Viqueque) and Ponilala (Ermera).
In 2011 seven generators for an oil power plant arrived in Hera from Finland . They produce 11 * MW for the nearby one. The Finnish Wärtsilä has been operating the power plant since 2012. In Betano , the Central Eléctrica de Betano, a power plant with 136 MW to supply the south coast, was built and officially inaugurated on August 20, 2013. Nine substations were built. Of the planned 600 km of high-voltage lines and 120 km of distribution cables, 90% had been installed in August 2013. There was thus a central power supply in 47 administrative offices in the twelve municipalities. In the special administrative region, the exclave Oe-Cusse Ambeno, the Inur-Sacato power plant has been in operation since 2015 . This was also built by Wärtsilä. The island of Atauro is to be supplied with electricity by means of an underwater cable.
|Share of households with ...|
|Drinking water supply through ...|
|Pipe or pump in the house||Line or pump outside||Public pipeline, well, borehole||protected source||unprotected source||Surface water||miscellaneous|
|Source of energy for cooking||Light source|
Light walnut /
The total value of imports to East Timor was $ 519,437,000 in 2018 (2016: $ 507,664,000). 31% of the imports in East Timor in 2018 come from Indonesia, 15% each from Hong Kong and Singapore, 13% from the People's Republic of China, 5% from Vietnam, 3% from Thailand and 2% each from Brazil, Malaysia, Australia, Pakistan and Japan and 1% from the United States. The remaining 7% come from 23 other countries. This also includes Austria with a goods value of 1,809,000 US dollars, Germany with 437,000 US dollars and Switzerland with 417,000 US dollars.
In 2018, oil and fuel made up 27.3% of imports. 10.8% were vehicles and vehicle parts. Electrical appliances, machines and grain (rice) account for a larger share of imports. In addition, other foods and medicines.
In 2016, East Timor exported goods worth $ 22,926,000 (2016: $ 25,275,000). The trade balance of 2008 showed only coffee as an export good to East Timor. Oil and gas fell under a different statistic. In 2016, coffee only accounted for 94.8% of the export value at US $ 23,962,947. In 2018, coffee accounted for only 19,243,641 US dollars (84%) of non-petroleum exports. For example, US $ 241,000 came from exporting light nuts and US $ 43,000 from aluminum. Teak was also exported until 2013 and sandalwood until 2012 .
The United States and Germany have alternated as the main buyers of East Timorese coffee in the years since East Timor's independence. In 2018, Germany fell back to third place with 10%, closely followed by Indonesia. The USA was again the main buyer of East Timorese coffee with a share of 28% of the value of goods. Canada followed with 17%. In total, East Timor exported 7,656,620 kg of coffee. 36% of the amount went to Indonesia, 19% to the USA, 12% each to Germany and Canada. Other major buyers (over $ 500,000) include Japan, Portugal and Australia.
The position of the state budget is heavily dependent on revenues in the oil and gas sector and the fluctuating level of the oil price . A national debt does not exist, because the international aid so far as grants (grants) were granted. The state budget for 2008 was originally $ 348.1 million. Due to the rapidly increasing prices for the staple food rice on the world market and the weakness of the US dollar, the government decided at the end of July 2008 to increase the budget to 612 million US dollars. For this, the national reserves from the oil business were touched for the first time. In November 2008, however, the government's plans were declared unconstitutional by the country's Supreme Court. For 2009 the parliament passed a state budget of 1.05 billion US dollars. For 2016, the budget was set at $ 1.56 billion.
The aim of economic policy is stable public finances and the promotion of the private sector. A Banking and Payments Authority has already been established, as has the National Statistical Office. The policy is shaped by a moderate spending policy, the limitation of the number of employees in the public sector and efforts to broaden the tax base. Since 2009 it has been thinking about its own national bank. Bank branches can be found in Dili, Baucau, Viqueque, Gleno, Maliana and Suai.
An industrial park is currently being built to attract foreign investors. However, barriers to investment still have to be dismantled in order to get the private sector going. Additional incentives are to be created with programs to facilitate access to credit for small and medium-sized industries. The government has passed an investment law that guarantees investors legal certainty. This is intended to increase the attractiveness of East Timor for investors.
Four banks have branches in East Timor: the Portuguese Banco Nacional Ultramarino (BNU), the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ), the Indonesian Bank Mandiri and the East Timorese Banco Nacional de Comércio de Timor-Leste (BNCTL).
The US dollar has been the national currency since January 2000 . In addition, Centavo coins have been in use since 2003 . One centavo corresponds to one US cent. The coins are available in values of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 centavos. To this end, the country's first commemorative coin worth 100 centavos was issued in 2012. There are no national banknotes.
The introduction of the US dollar was a political decision. The alternatives were the introduction of a separate currency or, later, that of the euro . A separate currency seemed pointless due to the size of the country. The euro was only introduced as cash a few months before East Timor became independent in 2002. The exchange rate to the US dollar was very low at the time, and the future still seemed uncertain. The US dollar has been used as a safe currency by private individuals before. It is also of great importance for the economies of neighboring countries, as well as for the oil trade, for which East Timor had great hopes. Therefore, despite the close ties with Portugal, the US dollar was introduced as the official currency.
As a result of the dollarization , East Timor initially renounced its own monetary policy . The seigniorage income is limited to the issue of the centavo coins. In 2011 the Bank Payment Authority (BPA) was transformed into the National Central Bank of East Timor (BCTL). The former BPA boss Abráo Vasconcelhos became president of the central bank (as of 2011).
Oil is East Timor's most important economic asset. In 2010 the oil sector accounted for 79% of gross domestic product, 67% of gross national income and 58% of gross national income available. Onshore oil reserves were known early on. As early as 1884, the Dilis lamps were supplied with oil from Laclubar . In 2012, 3.965 million tons of crude oil were produced in East Timor, making East Timor the 47th place among the oil-producing countries. In 2016, 2.843 million tons of crude oil were exported. The national oil company is called Timor Gap EP
No other natural resources are currently playing a role. Minable deposits of marble were discovered in Uma Caduac , 36 km east of Dili, and used by an Indonesian company in the 1990s. East Timor also has gold , manganese and copper deposits . Along the north coast, salt is extracted in several places by the evaporation of sea water in shallow ponds. Hot springs in some regions indicate geothermal energy .
Agriculture and craft
The majority of the Timorese population lives from agriculture, forestry and fishing. Almost 90% of households practice arable farming and keep livestock. The areas that a family cultivates is usually relatively small. If it is more than half, it is no larger than one hectare.
East Timor is in an area where the Javanese rice culture meets the roots-based culture of Melanesia . In general, corn , rice and cassava are the main staples in the country. Rice cultivation dominates from the east of Manufahi and Manatuto to the west of Lautém, in the center of Bobonaro and in the east of Cova Lima. Maize is more likely to be grown in the central highlands. There are also various types of fruit and vegetables. Droughts and floods in particular repeatedly cause high crop losses.
There is also a regional division for domesticated animals: buffalo and pigs are bred all over Timor, but the buffalo, for example, is more important than the pig for the Makasae. In other regions, for example in the East Tetum, the pig is of greater economic importance than the buffalo. Everywhere in East Timor, chickens play an important role in caring for the population. Other pets are goats, sheep, and horses.
33% of households breed fish and marine animals or go fishing. Of these, 85% only farm, while 6% only go fishing.
Coffee has been grown and exported in East Timor since 1815. A particularly aromatic and mild coffee grows in the highlands in particular. A quarter of the population of East Timor is dependent on coffee production. The main centers are the municipalities of Ermera, Ainaro and Liquiçá. In 2014 a total of 10,258 tons of coffee were harvested. This placed East Timor in 37th place among the coffee producing countries. In 2017, 10,827 tons of coffee were harvested.
Through the cultivation of vanilla , cocoa and peanuts in addition to the already established as an export of coffee are expected here in future earnings. When it comes to cinnamon , East Timor is now the sixth largest producer worldwide with 111 tons (2016), even if this corresponds to only 0.1% of world production.
Before and during the colonial era, Timor was known for its sandalwood , the resources of which were almost exhausted by the 19th century. East Timor is also famous in the region for its colorful woven fabrics called tais . These differ depending on the region of the country. Traditional silver jewelry is also made. There are also small blacksmiths, wood processing, pottery and furniture makers.
The country offers mountains suitable for hiking, beaches, diving areas, hot springs (for example the Termas do Marobo ) and a great cultural diversity. The coral reefs in particular are among the most biodiverse in the world. The forests and wetlands provide good bird watching opportunities. Organized tours offer whale watching . In October and November (sometimes even from September to December) blue whales swim along the north coast of Timor and even pass the state capital Dili in close proximity. From July to September they move northwards past the eastern and western tip of Timor. Other marine mammals such as sperm whales , humpback whales , dolphins and dugongs can also be seen here, sometimes all year round.
The close proximity to the popular tourist destinations of Australia and Bali is also advantageous . A lack of infrastructure still causes difficulties, which is why backpackers have so far found their way here. In 2006, East Timor first advertised visitors at the International Tourism Exchange in Berlin and did so again in 2012.
In the first few years there were repeated outbreaks of violence that scared away potential tourists. Criminal youth gangs fought against each other, mainly in Dili , until several groups signed a peace treaty with one another in 2008. Since then the situation has calmed down somewhat. In October 2008, plans for a five-star hotel in Tasitolu , near Dili, were announced. It would be the first luxury hotel of its kind in the country. Investors from Australia, China and Macau in particular are planning further large hotels and beach resorts. In 2011, 50,590 foreigners entered East Timor via Dilis International Airport. The 18 registered hotels in the country with 869 rooms and a total of 871 beds registered 17,422 guests in 2011 (2008: 12,026, 2006: 7,858) and 101,948 overnight stays (59,512, 35,533). Average room rate is $ 68. 434 people work in the 18 hotels and earn an average of $ 183 a month. In 2017, East Timor was visited by 74,000 tourists (2016: 66,000 and 2015: 62,000), making it still one of the least visited countries on earth.
From time to time cruise ships anchor in front of Dili and their passengers visit the city for a day trip.
In the national budget from 2015 to 2017, education accounts for 7.9% of the budget, which is above the regional average of 3.9% in a national comparison.
In 1974, 95 to 99% of the population was illiterate . In 2004 it was still around 54.2%; 58.2% of women between the ages of 15 and 60 could not read or write. According to the 2015 census, the number of illiterate people has now fallen to 15.7% (women: 16.0%; men: 15.4%), with 62.5% in Tetum, 36.6% in Indonesian, 30.8% can read and write in Portuguese and 15.6% in English.
In 2015, 40.6% of residents aged three or over attended school. 39,557 students attend pre- primary schools (Pre-Primário) , 209,225 primary schools (Primário) , 79,982 pre- secondary schools (Pre-secundário) and 63,285 secondary schools (Secundário, Colégio) in the country. 1,804 study at a technical college, 38,005 at a university. Girls are represented almost as well as boys at all levels. 29.0% had left school in 2015. 28.7% have never attended school. 4.6% of the population only attended pre-school, just under a third attended primary school. Secondary schools have completed 27% of the population. 7.0% have a diploma or a completed degree.
In the first 15 years since independence in 2002, the number of pre-school, elementary and secondary schools rose from 93 to 1,715 institutions and the number of teachers from 6,541 to 13,948. This means that there is an average of 28 students for one teacher. Private schools have a large share in education. In the primary schools 13% are not in public hands, in the pre-secondary schools 27% and in the secondary schools even 40%. There are a total of 14 universities in the country recognized by the Agência Nacional para a Avaliação e Acreditação Académica (ANAAA). In 21 secondary schools, 3,500 pupils receive specialist vocational training.
|at school||Finished school||never in a school||Preschool||primary school||Pre-
|Secondary||Diploma / University of Applied
The first three years are taught in Tetum, after which the proportion of lessons in Portuguese increases gradually. At the beginning of 2012, a heated discussion began about plans to hold lessons in the respective national languages in primary schools. According to this, the children should first be taught in their mother tongue and verbally in Tetum in preschool. With the start of elementary school, Portuguese is followed orally. As soon as the students have mastered their mother tongue in writing (2nd grade), reading and writing should follow in Tetum, later in Portuguese (from 4th grade). This leads to a bilingual education in the two official languages, the mother tongue is used for support. Reading skills in the mother tongue should then be further promoted. After all, lessons are only given in the official languages. In the 7th grade, English is added as a foreign language and Bahasa Indonesia as an elective, along with other languages in the 10th grade. While proponents seek to preserve the cultural identity of the country's various ethno-linguistic groups, many perceive the program as a threat to national unity.
Because of the many different languages used in East Timor, the newspapers are also in different languages. The Diario Tempo , Diario Nacional and Seminario appear in Portuguese. The Lia Foun appears in Tetum. Timor Post (in Tetum and Bahasa Indonesia), East Timor Sun and Suara Timor Lorosae (in English, Portuguese, Bahasa Indonesia and Tetum) appear in several languages. One newspaper appears weekly, three daily, and others sporadically.
Television plays a minor role nationally. More affluent Timorese have satellite TV and often watch Indonesian and Australian, and sometimes Chinese, channels. The national broadcaster is Televisão de Timor Leste (TVTL) . He also broadcasts his own productions on Tetum, such as a popular comic series about the history and legends of Timor. In 2015, the state education broadcaster Televisão Educação Timor went on air. Private East Timorese television channels are TV-Suara Timor Lorosae (TV-STL) and Grupo de Média Nacional-TV (GMN TV). Radio e Televisão Mareinigung (RTM) is the FRETILIN party broadcaster.
The majority of the population uses the radio to get information. Radio, 27% television, 13% friends and neighbors, 9% local leaders, and 3% newspapers are the main sources of political information for 31%. 33% of households have a radio. Many languages are used here too. There are currently more than 15 municipal, one national state and three other radio stations in East Timor. Radio Falintil / Voz da Esperanca, Radio Nacional de Timor Leste (RTL) , the party broadcaster of FRETILIN Radio Mabere and the Catholic broadcaster Radio Timor Kmanek (RTK) are of national importance. For the municipality of Lautém, the radio station Rádio Communidade de Lospalos is an example of the various communal radio stations that provide the population with news.
Social networks like Facebook are becoming more and more important than traditional media, but this leads to problems. In view of the pictures posted of arrests and injuries and deaths in accidents, a lack of privacy is complained. Insults, defamations and threats against politicians and traditional leaders are spread as well as false reports. Police arrested several people accused of insulting politicians. However, East Timorese criminal law does not provide for any consequences in the event of defamation, which is why those arrested were released. Virgílio da Silva Guterres , the President of the Press Council , criticized the fact that the action was only directed against people who attacked politicians, but not ordinary citizens. Freedom of expression could also be jeopardized due to the unclear legal situation. Legal questions are also still unanswered when it comes to the right to privacy, the presumption of innocence, violation of legal secrecy and journalistic deontology . Images of those arrested and interrogations were also published in the traditional media.
In 2014, the East Timorese government declared the birthday of the poet Francisco Borja da Costa , October 14th, “National Day of Timorese Culture”. In addition to European and Asian characteristics, the culture of East Timor also has numerous Pacific influences. The way of life of the inhabitants of East Timor has little in common with that of the inhabitants of the Indonesian west of the island. The influence of the Catholic Church on the traditions of the inhabitants is limited and society is very liberal. Although almost all residents of East Timor profess the Catholic faith, animistic rites are still widespread and are partly integrated into the Christian religion.
The cultural traditions of Timor are characterized by different social institutions. The social organizations of the individual societies can be structured matrilineal / uxorilocal or patrilinear / patrilocal ; individual groups fluctuate between these possibilities of kinship organization. While the social organization of the Baikeno is probably characterized by a symmetrical alliance, the asymmetrical alliance can be found, for example, with the Makasae , Naueti and Fataluku . In the case of the Tetum , bilateral or cognate ancestry rules prevail. Lulik , as the belief principle of the old religion, still has influences in everyday life. Especially in rural areas, the local, traditional rules of the Tara Bandu are followed .
Marriages and economic-ritual alliances that are formed along these organizational structures are controlled via the social institution of the so-called “bride price” ( barlarke ), in which women and goods that circulate between social groups always go in a certain direction. Patrilineal and patrilocal organizations are distinguished from matrilineal and uxorilocal organizations by impressive goods transactions. In most Timorian cultures, the completeness of the “bride price” presented determines the couple's residence. If no or only an insufficient “bride price” is paid, the husband lives in the woman-giver lineage; the children remain entirely in this lineage.
In addition to the crocodile ( see chapter Fauna and Flora ), water buffalo are also of great importance in Timor’s culture. They are considered to be the most valuable sacrificial animal and are therefore only sacrificed for the most important ceremonies. The soil is symbolically nourished with the blood of a buffalo and in this way a claim is made on the land. The buffalo horns then serve as a tangible symbol of this claim. Buffalo blood also serves as a ritual bride price and symbolizes the fertility of women and their menstruation. Buffalo are also sacrificed at death ceremonies and funerals. Buffalo horns can still be found on graves today, along with the Christian cross. Buffalo heart and head are offered as sacrifices at the dedication of holy houses.
Even cats are in East Timor as sacred. If you kill a cat, you and your offspring are said to be cursed up to the seventh generation. Cats are kept away from the corpse at funerals because, according to popular superstition, the dead, ruled by evil spirits, come to life again when a cat jumps over them.
In the traditional huts a distinction is made between sleeping houses ( tetum Uma tidor ) and holy houses ( tetum Uma Lulik ). A common national symbol of East Timor are huts with steep roofs, square floor plans and stilts. These "houses on legs" ( fataluku Lee-teinu ) are the sacred houses of the Fataluku on the eastern tip of the island. Almost all of them disappeared during the Indonesian occupation and especially the wave of violence in 1999. They have been rebuilt since independence, as have the traditional holy houses of the other ethnic groups. The steep roofs of the Fataluku houses also serve as a model for modern buildings, such as the Presidential Palace , the airport and port of Dili or the Catholic Church of Lospalos .
Stilt houses are common among several ethnic groups. The traditional round huts of the Mambai, which are still widely used as residential houses, are striking in comparison to the neighboring ethnic groups.
Especially on festive occasions you can still see the traditional wrap-around skirts, which are worn by both men and women. The woven cloths are called tais . Their patterns show their origins from different regions, ethnic groups and groups. Men wear them around the waist, the upper body is uncovered or one wears a simple shirt or a white, sleeveless undershirt. Women sometimes wrap the tais around their breasts under their armpits so that only their shoulders are free. Sometimes these are covered with another tais. Others wrap the tais around their hips and wear a blouse called a kebaya on their upper body . Kebayas are originally from Java Island , but are popular throughout the Malay Archipelago. In the 1930s, women of many ethnic groups in Timor did not wear outer clothing. For festivities, men and women adorn their heads with feathers called manufulun . They were originally a symbol of the victorious warriors returning home. Another headdress is the Kaibauk , the Timorese crown. It is a symbol of masculinity, while the belak , a metal breast disk that is hung around the neck, symbolizes femininity. There are also necklaces, hairpins for women, bracelets and other silver jewelry. You can sometimes see jewelry on the ankles, dancers wear small bells. The necklaces with orange stones called mortar are often used as the bride price. These so-called mutissalas sometimes have the equivalent of several cattle.
Traditionally turban-like headscarves are used as headgear for women and men in the western part of the country . Men in the Maubisse region also have wide-brimmed hats that are reminiscent of cowboy hats. Western clothing in the form of shirts, t-shirts, pants and jackets has become widespread in everyday life. Instead of walking barefoot, many people are now using flip flops . Sometimes western clothing is combined with traditional clothing.
Women in Laclo in Tais and Kebaya
Women in Letefoho in Tais and Kebaya
... and his wife Isabel da Costa Ferreira with other women in festive clothes
Woman from Atauro with a self-woven skirt made of natural fibers
Dancer's footbells in Taiboco
Woman with Kaibauk in Banafi
Silver bracelet from Maubara
Tattooing also has a long tradition in Timor . It was part of the traditional wake that chosen relatives were given tattoos in memory of the deceased. In Suai Loro , the future bride is tattooed in the crook of her arm during the ritual engagement, making the promise of marriage valid.
Soot mixed with water is used as color in some parts of East Timor, while pigments from cooked leaves or fruits are used in other regions. The color was originally brought under the skin with thorns, and since the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century also with metal needles. In some areas in the southeast, the colors of woven tais cloth are burned into the arm with thick, heated metal skewers - a slow, imprecise, and painful process.
In addition to ornaments, there are also characters in traditional tattoos. The Timorese copied the Latin script introduced by the Portuguese to write the names of dead family members or friends on their skin. But since very few Timorese were able to read and write earlier, characters were often only imitated or simply invented. With the continuation of the remembrance of the deceased in this way, legible tattoos can now also be found on the upper arms. During the War of Independence, the symbols of FRETILIN and FALINTIL were found on the skin of the fighters. Indonesian security forces cut or burned such tattoos on prisoners. With the emergence of gangs in East Timor , tattoos with mystical symbols and the application of decorative scars , which were intended to serve both as identification marks and as protection from enemies, spread. Nowadays there are more and more Christian symbols.
The music of East Timor reflects the influence of foreign rule that the country was under for almost 500 years. Portuguese and Indonesians both brought their music such as fado and gamelan with them. The most widespread folk music style is the Likurai dance , which is performed by the women for the men returning from the war. The dance was accompanied by a snare drum. In earlier times, the heads of slain enemies were carried in procession through the village. Nowadays this dance is used for advertising by women.
The guitar has long been an important part of East Timorese music. It was introduced by the Portuguese, but there are also indigenous stringed instruments that resemble it. The rich tradition of church choirs is also influenced by the Portuguese.
The Karau dikur is a horn made from a water buffalo horn . It is blown in the Holy House ( Uma Lulik ) or the Liurai's residence to call the villagers together for big occasions. It is also used in traditional dances. The Kakalo'uta is a percussion instrument made of three Fataluku woods. It is made from the ai solda tree.
Modern Timorese music has close ties to the former independence movement. For example, the band Dili All Stars released a song that became an anthem during the preparations for the 1999 independence referendum. The United Nations commissioned the song Hakotu Ba by Lahane , which was intended to encourage the population to register for the referendum.
One of the East Timorese pop musicians is Teo Batiste Ximenes , who grew up in Australia and uses the folk rhythms of East Timor in his music. Many East Timorese emigrants also brought their folk music into the world, for example to Portugal and Australia. In Portugal this was mixed with music styles from other Portuguese colonies such as Angola and Mozambique . Other influences come from rock 'n' roll , hip-hop and reggae . Current musicians and bands from East Timor are Ego Lemos , Cinco do Oriente, Rai Na'in, Detective and Diosis Putri.
In the second season of the Indonesian singing casting show D′Academy Asia (late 2016), in which candidates from several Southeast Asian countries participate, Maria Vitória (MarVi) from East Timor came fourth behind three Indonesians. Dangdut songs were sung at the competition . In 2018 MarVi won the 6th season of The Voice Portugal .
The East Timor-born singer Sandra Pires is successful in her current home country of Austria, among other places. Her parents fled the civil war of 1975. In 2007 Pires performed for the first time in her native country.
to eat and drink
East Timorese cuisine reflects the various influences to which the country has been subjected. You can find Chinese, Portuguese and Indonesian elements in it.
Coffee that is highly aromatic and mild grows in the mountains. It is a popular drink for breakfast. There is also bread and butter. Tea is served hot and sweet in glasses. Three meals a day are common, with lunch usually taken between noon and two in the afternoon.
Corn, rice, peanuts, sago , cassava , taro , potatoes, breadfruit and sweet potatoes are grown as well as fruits such as jackfruits , melons , mangoes and bananas . Local pumpkins were an important part of the diet for independence fighters in the mountains, especially in the times of need of the war of liberation. Local fruits such as Salak , Jambul (Jamblang), Uha , Saramalé and Aidák complete the menu. Cowpeas , spinach and cabbage are served as side dishes to main dishes .
In addition, most families raise cattle for their own needs, such as chickens and pigs, and less often cattle, buffalo and goats. In addition to the muscle meat, the offal is also eaten. As in many other parts of East Asia, dog meat consumption is common here . However, this custom is said to have only become established here in the 1980s, coming from Sulawesi , when the first dog meat restaurant opened in Colmera , a district of Dili . Due to the transport difficulties, fish is only important for feeding the population on the coast. Shrimp are considered a delicacy.
Traditional alcoholic beverages are various palm wines (Tuaka and Tua Mutin) and palm brandy (Tua Sabu). Heineken has set up a filling station in Dili for beer and soft drinks . Here is with Liurai a local beer brand. Otherwise, beer is imported from Australia, Indonesia and Singapore and the Portuguese brought the wine to East Timor in colonial times.
The most famous modern author is probably the former freedom fighter and politician Xanana Gusmão. During his struggle for independence, he wrote two books. He is also active as a poet and painter. His works describe the culture, values and skills of the East Timorese people. Other important writers are Luís Cardoso , Fernando Sylvan , Domingos Francisco de Sousa , Ponte Pedrinha, Jorge Barros Duarte, Crisodio Araújo, Jorge Lauten, Francisco Borja da Costa , Afonso Busa Metan and Fitun Fuik.
The Timorese peoples originally had no script. There is a rich tradition of oral traditions, such as that of the Bunak people in the center of the island. The stories were recited in repeating rhymes and alliterations . In every village, the elderly teach the youngsters the legends of the clan, but there are also the Lian Nain (roughly lord of words ) who, as keepers of the traditions, could recite verses for hours. Most often, two-line verses were used, with each line consisting of two sentences. In other words, the first sentence of the second line repeated the content of the last sentence of the first line. The language was rich in metaphors and symbols from the animistic culture of Timor. The rich world of Timorese sagas and legends was traditionally only passed on orally and only written down in modern times.
Fine arts, film and theater
The Portuguese artist Fausto Sampaio came to what was then the colony of Portuguese Timor in 1937, where he painted several pictures of Dili, Baucau, Manatuto, Laclo and Vemasse , as well as portraits such as Aleixo Corte-Real .
The Timorese legends, such as the creation myth about the crocodile , are often represented figuratively and motifs are also used decoratively.
The first free art school Arte Moris has existed in Dili since February 2003 . Its main aim is art as a building block in the psychological and social reconstruction of a country devastated by violence, with a special emphasis on helping its young citizens. Arte Moris offers painting and sculpture and is also active with the drama company Bibi Bulak with plays in the local language Tetum.
The place Maquili is known for its wood carving. Originally, dance masks, male and female figures were carved. There were also carvings of mermaids and eels , which are supposed to refer to the creation myth of the island of Atauro. Christianity influenced these animistic representations. So one began to cover the genitals of the figures with cloths and also to carve Christian motifs. You can still find masks on Atauro that hang on trees and are supposed to protect the gardens from thieves. Warriors and dancers also used the masks. Today they find new buyers as souvenirs.
With A Guerra da Beatriz ( German The War of Beatriz ), the first East Timorese feature film was released in 2013. It was directed by Bety Reis from East Timor and Luigi Acquisito from Australia. In East Timor, the film was often shown in open-air screenings, as there is only a cinema in Dili. Reis and Acquisito were also involved in the documentary film Abdul & José (2017) and the television series Laloran Justisa .
At the request of the East Timorese government, UNESCO has included Max Stahl's film documents on the independence movement in East Timor under the title Birth of a Nation - Turning Points in the World Document Heritage List . It is the only contribution from East Timor so far.
Sports in East Timor suffer mainly from a constant shortage of money. Athletes sometimes lack the simplest sports equipment to practice their discipline. For the first time, East Timorese athletes were successful in international competitions in Kempō karate . At the Southeast Asian Games in 2011 they won a gold and a silver medal in this sport.
The most popular sport in East Timor is soccer . The U23 team was the first East Timorese team to win an international match against Brunei on November 5, 2011 with a 2-1 win. The national team scored their first international win on October 5, 2012 in qualifying for the ASEAN soccer championship when Cambodia were defeated 5-1. The national league is the league Futebol Amadora with a first and a second division .
Furthermore, East Timorese athletes are regularly active internationally in marathons . The Dili Marathon has been held annually since 2010 . In 2009 the annual international mountain bike race " Tour de Timor " took place for the first time and is considered to be one of the toughest in the world.
Martial arts, of which there is also a local, traditional form, are popular among the youth. It is estimated that 70% of young men practice martial arts. Various youth gangs officially refer to themselves as martial arts clubs , which is why learning and practicing martial arts are heavily regulated by law in East Timor. The tradition of cockfighting , which also involves betting for money, is widespread . Since the horse is still very important as a means of transport, horse races are also popular.
|date||Name of the holiday|
|January 1st||New Year|
|March April||Good Friday|
|1st of May||Labor Day|
|May 20th||Restoration of Independence ( Independence Day )|
|May June||Corpus Christi|
|15th of August||Assumption Day|
|August 30th||Consulta - referendum day|
|September 20th||Freedom day|
|1st of November||All Saints' Day|
|November 2||All Souls|
|November 12th||National Youth Day (Santa Cruz Day)|
|November 28th||Proclamation day|
|December 7th||Day of Remembrance "in honor and memory of all those in the resistance and struggle against the Indonesian occupation and for the liberation of the Timorese."|
|December 8th||Immaculate conception|
|December 31||Remembrance day for Nicolau dos Reis Lobato|
|variable||Sugar Festival , end of Ramadan|
|variable||Muslim Festival of Sacrifice|
|date||Name of the memorial day|
|February March||Ash Wednesday|
|March April||Maundy Thursday|
|May June||Ascension of Christ|
|June 1st||International Children's Day|
|20th of August||Day of FALINTIL|
|November 3rd||National Women's Day|
|10th of December||International Human Rights Day|
Since the majority of East Timor is Christian and the Catholic Church played an important role in the struggle for independence, the important Catholic festivals are also public holidays. In addition, two Muslim festivals have also been public holidays since 2005. In 2016, the anniversary of Nicolau dos Reis Lobatos' death was declared a public holiday and December 7th was rededicated.
There are also several holidays that commemorate the country's struggle for freedom:
- On May 20, 2002, East Timor was finally given independence by the UN administration ( Independence Day ).
- On August 30, 1999, the referendum took place in which the population voted for independence from Indonesia.
- On September 20, 1999, the first soldiers of INTERFET , the international reaction force that took control of East Timor from Indonesia after the previous atrocities , landed .
- On November 12, 1991, the Santa Cruz massacre occurred , in which the Indonesian military killed at least 271 people and another 270 " disappeared " without a trace. The incident finally tipped public opinion in the western world in favor of the Timorese.
- On November 28, 1975, East Timor declared its independence from Portugal. The day of the proclamation of independence on November 28th is the national holiday of East Timor. All citizens, especially students, civil servants and civil employees of the state, are required by law to attend the celebrations.
- On December 7, 1975, Indonesia officially invaded East Timor.
- Nicolau Lobato died on December 31, 1978.
In addition to national holidays, local holidays are also possible. The days of remembrance are not vacation days, but employees can be given freely.
The celebrations of Carnival in Dili still a very new tradition. It was organized for the first time by the Ministry of Tourism in 2010 , but was well received by the population and reflects the diversity of local music and dance groups that play in Dilis city center until dawn.
Commercial logging has been forbidden since 2000, but forest land is still being lost to a lesser extent, mostly through firewood extraction (more than 94% of households cook on firewood, 80% of which come from the forest) , slash and burn , grazing and heavy rainfall, which also cause severe erosion in many parts of Timor. This also affects the water quality of the coast, which in turn endangers corals and fish stocks. Household waste and its disposal are a problem in Dili. Often garbage is simply placed in the moats or next to overcrowded garbage cans, from where the garbage is washed into the sea in the rainy season. The law already provides fines for rubbish offenders of between 5 and 500 US dollars. Garbage brigades and volunteers regularly collect garbage on the streets and on the beaches in Dili.
20% of this waste is plastic. As early as 2019, the Kmanek supermarket group issued bags made from cassava starch and biodegradable. On September 23, 2020, Law 37/2020 introduced far-reaching restrictions on the import, production and distribution of plastic. Disposable tableware made of plastic, trays for meals, capsules for beverage dispensers, drinking straws , disposable plastic bags, bottles or other types of beverage packaging with a capacity of less than 0.5 liters, ice cream cups and garbage bags are prohibited. Packaging made of plastic for fruit and vegetables is also no longer allowed. On May 17, 2019, the construction of a new chemical plant in East Timor was agreed, in which plastic is to be converted into new raw materials using a catalytic hydrothermal reactor (Cat-HTR). The aim is to make East Timor “plastic neutral” in this way.
The climate change into East Timor to stronger storms that continue to drive the erosion, and rising temperatures. The El Niño effect appears more often than before, which is why extreme weather conditions are increasing, which leads to more frequent droughts and floods. The CO 2 emissions per capita in 2006 were around 0.2 t. In 2009, East Timor signed the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer .
The national campaign “One Citizen, One Tree” aims to promote the reforestation of the country.
In 2000 UNTAET founded 15 protected natural areas (PNA) . You are also protected by independent East Timor law. Both at sea and on land, they are designed to protect landscapes, rare species and cultural values. These include corals, wetlands and mangroves as well as historical, cultural and artistic locations. The protected areas include the Tasitolu Peace Park with three salt lakes and the Tatamailau , Matebian , Saboria and Monte Mundo Perdido mountains . In addition, BirdLife International has declared a total of 17 areas to be Important Bird Areas . They have a total area of 2,013 km², which corresponds to about 13.4% of the total area of East Timor.
On July 27, 2007, East Timor's first national park, the Nino Konis Santana National Park , was founded and officially opened on August 4, 2008. It includes the Important Bird Areas Paitchau , Ira Lalaro and Lore as well as Tutuala , the island of Jaco and in the sea the Coral Triangle . The national park has a total area of 123,600 hectares (68,000 hectares of land and 55,600 hectares of sea). The Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão National Park on Cablac Mountain between Ainaro and Manufahi was added on October 21, 2015 . It covers 126.23 km².
There are plans to convert Tasitolu Peace Park into a national park as well. In addition, a marine reserve is being prepared together with Australian scientists . The north coast in particular is the habitat of protected species such as the humpback whale and the pilot whale . There are also many coral reefs along the coast. The abundance of fish in the marine areas is threatened by illegal fishing by foreign fleets. For example, in a joint police operation with Sea Shepherd in 2017, 15 Chinese fishing boats that illegally caught 40 tons of sharks were arrested off Com .
The state wanted to make use of the concept of the Lulik (roughly holy ) for environmental protection. With the support of the government, forests and other landscapes were placed under protection through animistic rituals so as not to disturb the spirits there. But the local population took the ban pragmatically. They continued to use the natural resources of the sanctuaries, relying on the spirits to react if something was displeasing to them. You could also negotiate with them in the event of a problem.
Wikipedia: WikiProjekt East Timor - Wikipedia-internal specialist editorial team on the subject of East Timor
- Andre Borgerhoff, Manuel Schmitz (ed.): East Timor at the crossroads. Chaos or a new beginning? Focus Asia (series of publications by the Asian House), No. 31, 2008, ISBN 978-3-933341-40-2 .
- Ruy Cinatti, Leopoldo de Almeida and António de Sousa Mendes: Arquitetura Timorense , 2016, ISBN 978-989-8052-94-0 .
- Oliver Franz: East Timor and the right to self-determination. An investigation into the application of the peoples' right to self-determination using the example of East Timor. Publications on international and public law. Vol. 59. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 2005, ISBN 3-631-53178-8 .
- Sibylle M. Gomes et al .: Human settlement history between Sunda and Sahul: a focus on East Timor (Timor-Leste) and the Pleistocenic mtDNA diversity , December 22, 2014 , BMC Genomics201516: 70 doi: 10.1186 / s12864-014-1201 -x
- Alexander Loch: House, Cell Phone & Hallelujah. Psychosocial Reconstruction in East Timor. IKO Verlag, Frankfurt & London 2007, ISBN 978-3-88939-850-5 .
- Andrew McWilliam, Elizabeth G. Traube (Eds.): Land and Life in Timor-Leste. Ethnographic essays. ANU E Press, The Australian National University, Canberra 2011
- Jörg Meier: The East Timor Conflict (1998-2002). Reasons and consequences of a failed integration. Armed conflict after the end of the East-West conflict. Vol. 17. Dr. Köster, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-89574-560-X .
- Henri Myrttinen, Monika Schlicher and Maria Tschanz (eds.) For Watch Indonesia! : The Freedom We Fight For ... - East Timor in Independence - A Political Reader. Berlin 2011, Regiospectra Verlag, ISBN 978-3-940132-26-0 www.regiospectra.de
- José Ramos-Horta: Funu. East Timor's struggle for freedom is not over! Ahriman-Verlag, Freiburg 1997, ISBN 3-89484-556-2 .
- Monika Schlicher: Portugal in East Timor. A critical study of the Portuguese colonial history in East Timor from 1850 to 1912. Abera, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-934376-08-8 .
- Monika Schlicher: East Timor is facing its past. The work of the Reception, Truth and Reconciliation Commission. ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Menschenrechte. Internationales Katholisches Missionswerk e. V., Human Rights Office. Missio, Aachen 2005, (PDF; 297 kB)
- Official government website (English)
- General Directorate for Statistics ( Direcção-Geral de Estatística )
- Country and travel information from the Federal Foreign Office
- East Timor & Indonesia Action News ETAN
- Timor-Leste Studies Association (TLSA)
- Government website 3/2010: Constitution of East Timor on Tetum, accessed on May 20, 2012 (PDF; 245 kB)
- Government website, July 26, 2010, Estatutu Universidade Nasionál de Timor Lorosa'e, accessed May 20, 2012
- Brisbane Times: East Timor names former president as prime minister , June 19, 2018 , accessed June 20, 2018.
- Presidential Decree 18/2018.
- Direcção-Geral de Estatística : Results of the 2015 census , accessed on November 23, 2016.
- population, total. In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- Population growth (annual%). In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- World Economic Outlook Database October 2020. In: World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund , 2020, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 345 (English, undp.org [PDF]).
- Vocabulary portal of the University of Leipzig
- German East Timor Society, accessed on May 20, 2012
- East Timor e. V., accessed on May 20, 2012 ( Memento from December 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- List of the Foreign Office (directory of state names for official use in the Federal Republic of Germany) (PDF; 39 kB)
- Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs Austria
- Constitution of East Timor (Portuguese), accessed May 29, 2015.
- Maeve McCusker, Anthony Soares Soares: Islanded Identities: Constructions of Postcolonial Cultural Insularity. 2011, ISBN 978-90-420-3406-8 , p. 170.
- Important Bird Areas in Timor-Leste ( Memento of November 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (English; PDF file; 1.87 MB), accessed on September 25, 2012.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Timor-Leste in figures 2011 (PDF; 3.8 MB) ( Memento from February 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on 5 . May 2013.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Timor-Leste in Figures 2008 , accessed on May 20, 2012 ( Memento of July 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 3.7 MB)
- RTP: Timor-Leste e Indonésia chegam a acordo para definição de fronteira terrestre , July 23, 2019 , accessed on July 23, 2019.
- Jakarta Post: RI, Timor Leste agree to resolve border problems, boost ties , August 27, 2015 , accessed August 28, 2015.
- Colin Richard Trainor, Brian Coates, David K. Bishop: Aves de Timor-Leste. Burung-burung di Timor-Leste. The Birds of Timor-Leste , p. 67 ff. (Portuguese, Indonesian, English)
- Nova Roosmawati, Ron Harris: Surface uplift history of the incipient Banda arc-continent collision: Geology and synorogenic foraminifera of Red and Savu Islands, Indonesia. In: Tectonophysics. 479, 2009, pp. 95-110. doi: 10.1016 / j.tecto.2009.04.009
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Census of Population and Housing Atlas 2004
- Geographic.org: Nuaf Sapu
- Collections of the Geological Museum in Leiden, Arthur Wichmann: Rocks from Timor and some neighboring islands . Leiden, EJ Brill, 1882-1887 1, volumes 10-11, p. 165.
- University of Coimbra - The geomorfology of Timor-Leste, accessed on May 20, 2012 ( Memento of December 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Asian Development Bank: TIM: District Capitals Water Supply Project - Rehabilitation of Lake Lehumo , September 2011 , accessed February 23, 2014.
- Hinrich Kaiser et al .: The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Hinrich Kaiser et al., Department of Biology, Victor Valley College: The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report.
- CrocBITE - Worldwide Crocodilian Attack Database , accessed September 4, 2016.
- Press Release of Presidency of the Republic: Crocodile Task Force train with the best of the best. May 3, 2012.
- Craterocephalus laisapi on Fishbase.org (English)
- FishBase : List of Freshwater Fishes for East Timor
- The Guardian: Atauro Island: scientists discover the most biodiverse waters in the world , accessed on August 21, 2016.
- Ben Koses: Expedition draws world's attention to new crown jewel of marine life , in: humanature Conversation International blog , accessed on August 21, 2016.
- GOVERNMENT OF TIMOR-LESTE, THROUGH THE SECRETARIA DE ESTADO DOS RECURSOS NATURAIS: Tasi Mane - Suai Supply Base EIA Terrestrial Flora and Fauna Technical Report , March 23, 2012.
- Laura Suzanne Meitzner Yoder: Custom, Codification, Collaboration: Integrating the Legacies of Land and Forest Authorities in Oecusse Enclave, East Timor. P. 104, dissertation, Yale University, 2005 ( PDF file; 1.46 MB ( memento of March 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Results of the 2010 census of the individual sucos, accessed on May 20, 2012
- Herwig Slezak: East Timor twenty years after the Indonesian invasion: A comprehensive review , Master's thesis, September 1995 , p. 9 ff., Accessed on January 16, 2019.
- Monika Schlicher: East Timor confronts its past ( memento of November 7, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), missio 2005, , accessed on November 5, 2017 (PDF; 304 kB)
- Direcção-Geral de Estatística : Population and Housing Census 2015, Preliminary Results , accessed on October 25, 2015.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: 2010 Census Wall Chart (English), accessed on May 20, 2012 ( Memento from August 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2.7 MB)
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 5, 2017 .
- Fischer World Almanac 2010
- The Dili Weekly: About Timor Leste , accessed May 16, 2012.
- Foreign Report.com: Timor Leste: After the UN's departure, can the country sustain its rise ?, August 9, 2013 , accessed on August 19, 2013.
- Les catholiques victimes des ambitions indonésiennes . In: L'Actualité religieuse dans le monde , vol. 1983, issue 2, pp. 20–21, here p. 21.
- erezione della Provincia Ecclesiastica di Dili (Timor Oriental) e nomina del primo Arcivescovo Metropolita. In: Daily Bulletin. Holy See Press Office , September 11, 2019, accessed September 11, 2019 (Italian).
- Zenit, May 12, 2005, East Timor: Church and State Solve the Problem of Religious Education ( Memento of May 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- UCA news: Vatican, Timor-Leste sign bilateral agreement , August 14, 2015 , accessed on August 15, 2015.
- Scamberi, James: A Survey of Gangs and Youth Groups in Dili, Timor-Leste (PDF; 3.1 MB), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Judith Bovensiepen, Frederico Delgado Rosa: Transformations of the sacred in East Timor , pp. 36-37, accessed on December 27, 2017.
- International Women's Development Agency: 10 things you probably don't know about Timor-Leste , June 6, 2017 , accessed June 9, 2017.
- UNIFEM, May 6, 2010, Domestic Violence Law Passed in Timor-Leste ( memento of June 13, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- DPA: New abortion law raises questions in Catholic E Timor , October 13, 2008 , accessed February 14, 2016.
- East Timor says no to abortion and proposes an Accord with the Catholic Church, October 21, 2008 , accessed May 20, 2012.
- Radio Australia: Draft abortion laws dropped in East Timor , April 4, 2009 ( Memento November 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed May 20, 2012.
- Khaleej Times: In East Timor, food shortages take hold. July 17, 2007.
- Jill Jolliffe: East Timor stands between Cuba and defecting doctors. Canberra Times, Jan. 1, 2008.
- Government of East Timor: Health sector in Timor-Leste set for massive capacity boost as over 400 Timorese Doctors graduate , December 6, 2012 , accessed on December 6, 2012.
- News Avia: MAF Timor-Leste vai ter segundo avião até ao final do ano para ajuda humanitária , September 12, 2014 , accessed on September 12, 2014.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Highlights of the 2010 Census Main Results in Timor-Leste English , accessed on May 20, 2012 ( Memento from September 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 4.5 MB)
- Boston.com: Child mortality highest in Sierra Leone. January 22, 2008.
- Reuters: TIMOR-LESTE: "Spectacular" reduction in child mortality rates. July 14, 2010.
- UNICEF: Country Information Timor-Leste (English), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010, Preliminary Report, National Statistics Directorate ( Memento of July 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 7 MB), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Cruz Vermelha de Timor-Leste 5-Year Report 2010–2014 , accessed on March 2, 2017.
- General Directorate of State (GDS), Ministry of Health and ICF 2018, 'Timor-Leste demographic and health survey 2016', Dili, Timor-Leste, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: GDS and ICF, p. 214.
- Tatoli: Três municípios com elevado índice de nanismo infantil , February 16, 2021 , accessed on February 16, 2021.
- BWI: Global Hunger Index 2020 .
- Jonathan Amos: Dutch men confirmed as world's tallest , July 26, 2016, BBC News , accessed July 26, 2016.
- BBC News: The country where nearly two-thirds of men smoke , June 4, 2014 , accessed June 5, 2014.
- WHO SEARO Press Release SEAR / PR / 1583: WHO honors excellence in public health in the South-East Asia Region , September 10, 2014 , accessed on September 11, 2014.
- Sapo: Malária quase erradicada em Timor-Leste e Cabo Verde, Moçambique entre países com mais casos - OMS , December 4, 2019 , accessed on December 4, 2019.
- Observador: Surto de dengue causa cinco mortes em Díli com centenas de casos diagnosticado , April 10, 2019 , accessed on April 16, 2020.
- Tatoli: As Timor Fends off Covid-19, Dengue Claims Four Lives in Ermera , April 9, 2020 , accessed on April 20, 2020.
- Voice of America: East Timor Declares War on Leprosy ; January 30, 2010 , accessed May 20, 2012.
- The Statesman: DRP Korea and Timor-Leste eliminate measles, six countries achieve rubella control , August 3, 2018 , accessed August 4, 2018.
- Ministry of Health of East Timor: Progressu no update kazu surtu COVID-19 ba públiku tomak atu asesu ba informasaun dadus ne'ebe rejistadu iha Komisaun Nasionál COVID-19. , May 6, 2021 , accessed May 6, 2021.
- Timor Post: 239 people are positive infected by HIV / AIDS. November 16, 2011.
- Fundasaun Mahein: HIV / AIDS: A Public Security Issue , August 23, 2012 , accessed on August 25, 2012.
- Margaux A. Morrison: Ancestry of the Timorese: age-related macular degeneration associated genotype and allele sharing among human populations from throughout the world , 2015, Front. Genet. 6: 238. doi: 10.3389 / fgene.2015.00238 .
- Freedom House: Country Report 2015 (English), accessed on July 26, 2016.
- Hawkins, Stuart & O'Connor, Sue & Maloney, Tim & Litster, Mirani & Kealy, Shimona & N. Fenner, Jack & Aplin, Ken & Boulanger, Clara & Brockwell, Sally & Willan, Richard & Piotto, Elena & Louys , Julien: Oldest human occupation of Wallacea at Laili Cave, Timor-Leste, shows broad-spectrum foraging responses to late Pleistocene environments , (2017). Quaternary Science Reviews. 171. 58-72. 10.1016 / j.quascirev.2017.07.008.
- Sue O'Connor et al .: Pelagic Fishing at 42,000 Years Before the Present and the Maritime Skills of Modern Humans. In: Science. Volume 334, 2011, p. 1117.
- Adelaide Now: World's first anglers hooked in Timor. November 26, 2011.
- dradio.de: UN mission in East Timor extended. February 24, 2012.
- United Nations Photo, February 24, 2011, Council Extends UN Timor Mission until February 2012 , accessed May 20, 2012.
- ABC, August 23, 2007, E Timor President meets fugitive military rebel , accessed May 20, 2012.
- Sydney Morning Herald, March 5, 2010, Lindsey Murdoch: Attack on Timorese President unsolved , accessed May 20, 2012.
- International Republican Institute: Timor-Leste National Survey Results , November 10 - December 16, 2008 (PDF; 932 kB), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Henri Myrttinen: Timor Leste - A Kaleidoscope of Conflicts (2007) , Watch Indonesia! , accessed May 20, 2012.
- East Timor Law and Justice Billetin, May 7, 2009: Police call for residents not to believe in witchcraft rumors , accessed May 20, 2012.
- International Republican Institute: National Public Opinion Survey of Timor-Leste , accessed January 18, 2018.
- IRI: Timor-Leste: Poll Reveals Widespread Optimism, Overwhelming Intent to Vote in Upcoming Elections , December 20, 2016 , accessed December 22, 2016.
- Vision of Humanity: Global Peace Index 2020 , accessed June 10, 2020.
- The Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- Freedom House: Country report: Timor-Leste , accessed March 5, 2020.
- Transparency International (Ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2021, ISBN 978-3-96076-157-0 (English, transparencycdn.org [PDF]).
- Government on the evaluation of East Timor in the corruption index
- Radio Australia: Former East Timor justice minister receives jail sentence , June 8, 2012 , accessed June 9, 2012.
- Timor Agora: Membru Governu 8 Tama Ona Prizaun , accessed January 20, 2018.
- Fundasaun Mahein: Nicolau Lobato: A Timorese Hero in Another Country , December 11, 2015 , accessed on December 14, 2015.
- Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- Countries and Territories. Freedom House , 2020, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- 2021 World Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders , 2021, accessed May 3, 2021 .
- RTP: Francisco Guterres é o novo presidente de Timor-Leste , March 20, 2017 , accessed on March 19, 2017 (CET).
- Timor Post: Adérito Soares Lidera Partidu Libertasaun Popular , December 11, 2015 , accessed on December 11, 2015.
- Matadalan online: Taur Harii Partidu Tanba Kauza Lei Pensaun Vitalísia , November 21, 2015 ( Memento of December 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 11, 2015.
- Timor Agora: Parlamento timorense vai ter sete bancadas, com coligações a dividirem-se em partidos , June 21, 2018 , accessed on June 24, 2018.
- Tatoli: Deputadu Arão Noé Eleitu Ba Prezidente PN Lejizlatura Dalimak , accessed on June 13, 2018.
- Website of the President of East Timor: PRESS RELEASE: HIS EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC, TAUR MATAN RUAK, ACCEPTED THE REQUEST FOR RESIGNATION OF JUDGE GUILHERMINO DA SILVA AND APPOINTED JUDGE DEOLINDO DOS SANTOS AS THE NEW PRESIDENT , April 28th 2017 , Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- Timor Post: Judge Claudio Ximenes Tried to save Lucia Lobato. February 1, 2013.
- Tatoli: PR nomea Alfonso Lopez nu'udar Prokuradór Jerál Repúblika , April 28, 2021 , accessed on April 28, 2021.
- Courts of East Timor: Tribunal Distrital de Dili , accessed on November 11, 2018.
- SAPO: Criminalidade em Timor-Leste aumentou em 2017 , March 11, 2019 , accessed on March 12, 2019.
- Sydney Morning Herald: Australia and East Timor restart talks on maritime boundary , October 28, 2014 , accessed October 28, 2014.
- FDFA: Travel advice for Timor-Leste , December 24, 2015 , accessed on July 14, 2016.
- UCA news: Constitutional crisis on the cards in Timor-Leste , July 9, 2018 , accessed on July 9, 2018.
- SAPO (Lusa): Xanana Gusmão anuncia nova coligação para formação de Governo em Timor-Leste. , February 22, 2020 , accessed on February 22, 2020.
- Tatoli: PM: Governing Coalition “No Longer Exists” After Budget Rejection , January 20, 2020, The Interpreter , accessed January 21, 2020.
- Tatoli: Prime Minister Taur Resigns, Clearing the Path for New Coalition Government , February 26, 2020 , accessed February 26, 2020.
- Lusa: Última Hora - Covid-19: PM timorense retira pedido de demissão apresentado a 22 de fevereiro , April 8, 2020 , accessed on April 8, 2020.
- Tatoli: Coalition Confirms Xanana Will Lead Government Again , March 10, 2020 , accessed March 10, 2020.
- Lusa: Fretilin reitera apoio ao atual Governo timorense para que dates legislatura , April 23, 2020 , accessed on April 23, 2020.
- Tatoli: KHUNTO Apoia Nafatin VIII Governu Konstitutionál , April 6, 2020 , accessed on April 13, 2020.
- Tatoli: KHUNTO Deklara Retira Hosi Koligasaun Foun , April 29, 2020 , accessed on April 29, 2020.
- Lusa: Presidente timorense dá posse a oito novos membros do Governo , May 29, 2020 , accessed on May 29, 2020.
- The Fiji Times: Timor Leste is PIDF newest member , July 19, 2016 ( Memento January 21, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), July 20, 2016.
- The Brunei Times: Brunei establishes permanent mission in Timor Leste , March 21, 2015 ( Memento of July 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on April 29, 2016.
- New Zealand Representatives Overseas , accessed June 23, 2015.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand: Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of East Timor - List of foreign embassies in East Timor ( memento of February 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- United Nations, General Assembly, GA / SPD / 482, October 10, 2011, Committee Wraps Up General Debate on Decolonization Issues, Speakers Focus on Question of Western Sahara, Special Committee on Decolonization , accessed May 20, 2012.
- Irish Aid: Timor Leste , accessed December 30, 2017.
- embassypages.com: Consulate of Mexico in Dili, East Timor , called on February 7 2016th
- Website of the Government of South Africa , accessed September 25, 2013.
- Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of East Timor - list of the embassies of East Timor ( memento of September 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Myanmar Times, August 2, 2010, East Timor to open embassy in capital ( Memento September 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), accessed May 20, 2012.
- allAfrica: Angola: Country to Open Embassy in East Timor , February 22, 2012 , accessed May 20, 2012.
- Federal Foreign Office , accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Website of the East Timorese Ministry of Foreign Affairs - List of the East Timor Consulates ( Memento of February 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- President's Facebook page: Brigadeiru-Jenerál Falur Rate Laek , October 1, 2018 , accessed on October 1, 2018.
- Government of Timor-Leste: Timor-Leste receives three patrol vessels from the South Korean Government, September 27, 2011 , accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Diario Nacional: F-FDTL agrees to hand over two boats to PNTL. May 8, 2012.
- Loro Horta : "Timor-Leste - The Dragon's Newest Friend", 2009 (PDF; 103 kB), accessed on May 20, 2012.
- Henri Myrttinen: Little brother loses, big brother wins , information and analysis, April 20, 2012 , Watch Indonesia! , accessed May 20, 2012.
- Lusa: Governo timorense aprova serviço militar obrigatório em novo regulamento , October 28, 2020 , accessed on October 30, 2020.
- Herald Sun: East Timor signs military pact. May 18, 2008.
- President of East Timor's Facebook page: Discursu hosi Sua Exelénsia Prezidente Repúblika, Dr. Francisco Guterres Lú Olo iha okaziaun Serimónia Aniversáriu Polísia Nasionál Timor-Leste ba dala 19 , 27 March 2019 , accessed on 28 March 2019.
- Asia One: UN hands full police powers to E. Timor , October 31, 2012 , accessed October 31, 2012
- SAPO: Morre uma pessoa a cada cinco dias vítima de acidentes de viação em Timor-Leste , October 29, 2019 , accessed on October 30, 2019.
- Terraviva: Q&A: Timor's "Extreme Poverty Is Centuries-Old". , May 20, 2009.
- PCIC: Statistics , accessed June 5, 2021.
- Jornal da República : Lei do parlamento 02/2010, Artigo 39.º , accessed on May 2, 2017.
- Jornal da República : Lei do Parlamento 09/2008 , accessed on May 2, 2017.
- Jornal da República: Diploma Ministerial no 24/2014 de 24 de Julho - Orgânica dos Postos Administrativos ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 9, 2015.
- Ministério da Administração Estatal: Município de Aileu ( Memento of June 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) as an example, accessed on November 9, 2015.
- Jornal da República: DECRETO LEI No. 5/2015 de 22 de Janeiro - Estatuto da Região Administrativa Especial de Oe-Cusse Ambeno ( Memento of March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 9, 2015.
- Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance: Oé-Cusse: the beginning of a better future for Timor-Leste , accessed on February 3, 2015.
- I Constitutional Government. In: Timor-Leste government website. Retrieved July 18, 2014 .
- Arsénio Bano elected Vice President of FRETILIN. (PDF; 68 kB) FRETILIN, July 30, 2007, accessed on July 18, 2014 (English).
- Jornal da Républica with the Diploma Ministerial n. 199/09 ( Memento of February 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 20, 2012 (PDF; 315 kB)
- Government of East Timor: Meeting of the Council of Ministers on February 19th, 2021 , accessed February 21, 2021.
- Tempo Timor: Oficialmente Ohin Hatulia B sai Ona Postu-administrativu Foun iha Ermera , February 19, 2021 , accessed on February 21, 2021.
- Seeds of Life , accessed July 5, 2014.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Census 2004 ( Memento from September 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on October 18, 2014.
- Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved December 8, 2018 .
- Timor-Leste, Eleições Gerais de 2012 , accessed on September 2, 2012.
- Government of East Timor: ON THE OCCASION OF THE INAUGURATION OF SECTION 1 (SUAI FATUKAHU / MOLA) OF THE HIGHWAY , November 17, 2018 , accessed on December 22, 2018.
- Lusa: Acidentes de viação em Timor-Leste caem para nível mais baixo em quatro anos , October 21, 2020 , accessed on October 23, 2020.
- ABC News: Fledgling Timor Air stops Darwin to Dili flights , May 10, 2012
- Visit East Timor: Timorese Government to Sign a Memorandum With Malaysia for Air Transport , March 2019 , accessed May 22, 2019.
- Macau News Agency: East Timor: China's Air Travel, Air Timor agree direct flight Dili-Hong Kong , May 25, 2019 , accessed June 3, 2019.
- Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste: AIP - Aeronautical Information Publication ( Memento of May 22, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) (Web archive)
- Joel Magno Cardoso: First Aircraft To Be Registered in TIMOR LESTE (4W AVIATION TIMOR LESTE) AERO DILI , June 13, 2018 , accessed on July 16, 2018.
- SAPO: Projeto de Porto de Tibar reconhecido com prémio internacional , April 9, 2019 , accessed on April 30, 2019.
- e-global: Timor-Leste: Eempresa Chinesa vai construir porto no sul do território timorense , April 29, 2019 , accessed on April 30, 2019.
- TSF.pt: 'Ferryboat' construído na Figueira da Foz vai quebrar isolamento em Timor-Leste , May 26, 2017 , accessed on May 31, 2017.
- Diário as Beiras: Ferry encomendado pelo governo timorense foi arrestado , January 10, 2018. , accessed on January 11, 2018.
- Government of East Timor: Berlim – Ramelau foi lançado ao mar pela primeira vez , May 10, 2021 , accessed on May 11, 2021.
- Human Development Report ( Memento from December 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Jill Jolliffe in The Age, February 5, 2009, Timor tears of joy as world weeps
- Macauhub: East Timor expected to post two figure economic growth in 2013 and 2014 , April 10, 2013 , accessed on April 13, 2013.
- Government of East Timor: Reunião do Conselho de Ministros de 13 de janeiro de 2021 , January 13, 2021 , accessed on January 14, 2021.
- National Statistics Directorate General Directorate for Analysis & Research, Ministry of Finance Timor-Leste: Timor-Leste Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2011 ( Memento of November 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), p. 22, accessed on December 10, 2013.
- Diário de Notícias: Fábrica da Heineken em Timor-Leste inaugurada, investimento de 31 milhões de euros , January 22, 2018 , accessed on January 23, 2018.
- The Dili Weekly: Unemployment rate in Timor-Leste reaches 11% , July 8, 2016 ( memento of July 12, 2016 in the web archive archive.today ), accessed on July 11, 2016.
- Institute of Development Studies: Brexit and Timorese workers in the UK , August 5, 2016 ( Memento July 15, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 11, 2017.
- Human Development Indices (PDF; 729 kB)
- Human Development Report 2009 ( Memento from October 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- International Human Development Indicators ( Memento from November 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Damien Kingsbury: A glass half-full , The Dili Weekly, July 2, 2012 , accessed July 4, 2012.
- Human Development Index , accessed October 10, 2013.
- Human Development Index , accessed July 27, 2014.
- United Nations Development Program (UNDP): Human Development Report 2015 . Ed .: German Society for the United Nations eV Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin ( undp.org [PDF; 9.3 MB ; accessed on November 1, 2016]). Page 248.
- Andersen, AB; Pant, J .; Thilsted, SH: Food and nutrition security in Timor-Leste , 2013.
- Blogspot.com , Foreign Ministry, Oct. 27, 2009, First Timorese workers arrive in South Korea
- Macauhub: National minimum wage for private sector in East Timor set at US $ 115 , June 5, 2012
- Government the Fifth Government of East Timor (English), accessed on December 30, 2013.
- La'o Hamutuk: South Coast Petroleum Infrastructure Project , November 16, 2013 , accessed December 30, 2013.
- ABC Australia: Taxing Times in Timor , accessed December 30, 2013.
- LUSA: Timor-Leste compra participação da ConocoPhillips no consórcio do Greater Sunrise , September 29, 2018 , accessed on September 30, 2018.
- Damien Kingsbury: Hard times ahead for a politically divided Timor-Leste , accessed December 14, 2018.
- The Dili Weekly: Eight candidates to contest presidential election , February 27, 2017 , accessed March 2, 2017.
- The Guardian: Timor-Leste presidential election: revolutionary hero v new generation , March 20, 2017 , accessed March 20, 2017.
- Macauhub, July 6, 2009, China's ZTE takes third generation mobile phones to East Timor
- Tempo Semanal Timor, April 3, 2010, Timor Telcom Monopoly Finished.
- Government declaration of June 28, 2012: Timor-Leste will license Digicel and Telin to enter the telecommunications market , accessed on June 30, 2012.
- Nikkei Asian Review: Telemor launches 4G in East Timor , August 1, 2017 , accessed August 11, 2017.
- Internet Users by Country (2016) Internetlivestats.com (English), accessed on September 22, 2019.
- UNMIT: Timor-Leste Communication and Media Survey ( Memento from May 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), June 2011, accessed on July 30, 2014.
- East Timor (Timor Leste) - Telecoms, Mobile and Internet, July 2012 , accessed October 1, 2012.
- East Timor (Timor Leste) - Telecoms, Mobile and Internet - Executive summary , accessed July 27, 2014.
- Lusa: Timor-Leste tem sexta pior velocidade de ligação à internet do mundo - estudo , accessed on October 2, 2020.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Suco Report Volume 4 (English) ( Memento of 9 April 2015, Internet Archive ) (PDF; 9.8 MB)
- The Dili Weekly: Majority of Water Sources in Country Contaminated , July 25, 2018 , accessed July 25, 2018.
- Hydrotimor - hydropower projects in East Timor ( Memento from June 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
- Government of Timor-Leste, April 3, 2010, Almost 150 families of Ponilala Village are beneficiaries and shareholders of biogas energy
- Timor-Leste thermal power stations managed and maintained by Finnish group , October 12, 2017 , accessed January 15, 2018.
- Diario Nacional, August 25, 2011, Independence is nothing if people still living in darkness: Gusmao
- Wärtsilä: Wärtsilä awarded Operations & Maintenance contract for power plant in Timor-Leste , July 10, 2012 , accessed on July 12, 2012.
- Macau Hub: East Timor has electricity across almost its entire territory, August 22, 2013 , accessed August 22, 2013.
- Macau Hub: New power plant starts operating in Timor-Leste enclave , November 24, 2015 , accessed November 25, 2015.
- PennEnergy: Wärtsilä to optimize power plant performance in Timor-Leste , accessed on January 28, 2016.
- East Timorese government website: Electrification of the Nation continues with the Inauguration of Central Electric Betano, August 28, 2013 , accessed on September 21, 2013.
- Direcção-Geral de Estatística: External Trade Statistics Annual Reports 2018 , accessed on April 17, 2019.
- Direcção-Geral de Estatística: External Trade Statistics Annual Reports 2016 ( Memento of January 10, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 10, 2018.
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 7, 2017 .
- National Parliament: Press Release on agenda No. 22 / II, December 5, 2007.
- ABC News, November 14, 2008, E Timor's budget unconstitutional, court rules
- East Timor’s Ministry of Finance: State Budget 2016 approved , accessed on August 7, 2017.
- Miokrofinance Pasifika - INFUSE: Map of Financial Service Access Points in Timor-Leste as of December 31, 2009 ( Memento of May 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Central Bank of East Timor: National Saving Day , November 2015 , accessed June 7, 2019.
- Website of the Central Bank of East Timor , accessed 2011.
- Direcção Nacional de Estatística : Timor-Leste's National Accounts 2004–2010 Volume I ( Memento of September 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 8.7 MB) , accessed on May 18, 2013.
- History of Timor ( Memento of March 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) - Technical University of Lisbon (PDF; 805 kB)
- Autoridade Nacional do Petróleo e Minerais : Ilimanu Marble , accessed on January 3, 2021.
- UN investigations into the mineral deposits in East Timor ( Memento of September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 5 MB)
- Seeds of Life: Agriculture in Timor-Leste , accessed July 17, 2017.
- ETAN.org , DPA, October 10, 2008, East Timor's coffee trees stunted by soil and culture
- FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Statistics Division , accessed on December 3, 2014.
- Coffee, green, production quantity (tons) - for all countries , factfish.com, accessed August 9, 2018
- fact fish: Timor-Leste: Cinnamon, production quantity (tons) , accessed on August 9, 2018.
- Rahil, p. 2008. East Timor To Get Its 1st Luxury Resort. East Timor & Indonesia Action Network
- Northern Territory News, May 29, 2009, NT businessman's Dili resort dream
- Observatório da Língua Portuguesa: Número de escolas e de alunos em Timor-Leste quase duplicou nos últimos 15 anos , accessed on May 18, 2017.
- Institutional Accreditation , accessed on August 22, 2020.
- Ministry of Education and National Education Commission: Mother Tongue-Based multilingual Education for Timor-Leste National Policy , September 8, 2010
- Freedom house: Freedom of the Press 2011 - East Timor, September 14, 2011
- ARKTL - Asosiasaun Radio Komunidade Timor-Leste (English)
- East Timorese government website: Government Launches first phase of National News Agency of Timor-Leste , July 29, 2016 , accessed on July 29, 2016
- Observador: Polícia timorense detém várias pessoas por insultos no Facebook a líderes nacionais , March 22, 2018 , accessed on March 22, 2018.
- National Day of Timorese Culture , accessed October 29, 2014.
- Matthew Libbis BA (Hons) Anthropology: ritual Sacrifice & Symbolism in Timor-Leste , accessed February 18, 2015.
- A preliminary study on the construction systems of house types in Timor-Leste (East Timor) in: Vernacular Heritage and Earthen Architecture, accessed on December 27, 2013.
- Tony Wheeler, East Timor , Lonely Planet, 2004, p. 93.
- Damien Kingsbury: National Identity in Timor - Leste: A Brief Comparative Study
- Colónia Portuguesa de Timor - Álbum Álvaro Fontoura 1937–1940.
- Josh Trindade: Lulik: The Core of Timorese Values , accessed November 6, 2017.
- TLcultura: Produto Tradisional Iha Timor Leste
- The 4th wall: Tattooing Timor - written and researched by the Dili Collective (published in Things & Ink, issue 10) , November 22, 2015 , accessed December 16, 2015.
- MTV EXIT Anti-Trafficking Campaign Comes to Timor-Leste
- Selamat, Weni Jadi Juara Dangdut Academy Asia 2. In: Liputan6.com. Retrieved December 30, 2016 .
- Visit East Timor: Food of East Timor , accessed July 23, 2016.
- Heidi Zajac: The tales of food in Timor Leste , 2014 , accessed on March 5, 2016.
- Cliff Morris: A Traveller's Dictionary in Tetun-English and English-Tetun, The people of East Timor
- Legends from Timor ( Memento from January 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- The Timor-Leste Coastal / Marine Habitat Mapping for Tourism and Fisheries Development Project, Project No 2, Coastal and Marine Ecotourism Values, Issues and Opportunities on the North Coast of Timor Leste, Final Report, October 2009 ( Memento from March 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 15.2 MB), accessed on December 28, 2012.
- Sydney Morning Herald: Fresh start for East Timor's film scene, October 2, 2013 , accessed October 4, 2013.
- On the Birth of a Nation: Turning points | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved March 26, 2017 (English).
- Brunei U23 Vs East Timor U23 Result
- France24: The skier taking East Timor to the Winter Olympics , January 5, 2014 , accessed on January 6, 2014.
- SAPO Notícias: Governo aprova novo feriado e data da invasão indonésia passa a Dia da Memória , February 12, 2016 , accessed on February 12, 2016.
- Law 10/2005 of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste of August 10, 2005. ( Memento of July 2, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- National Geographic: Ten Places That Deserve More Travelers , June 9, 2016 , accessed August 7, 2016.
- Forest Policy Research: East Timor: So far there has not been a Law on Forestry, February 1, 2009
- ABC Radio Australia, August 6, 2008, East Timor faces climate change challenge
- Sapo: Governo timorense prepara decreto para travar importação de plástico de uso único , January 11, 2019 , accessed on January 13, 2019.
- Journal da República: DECRETO-LEI N.º 37 / 2020de 23 de Setembro - ALIENAÇÃO, IMPORTAÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DESACOS, EMBALAGENS E OUTROS OBJETOS DEPLÁSTICO , accessed on October 30, 2020.
- ABC: Chemical recycling plant to open in Timor-Leste , May 17, 2019 , accessed on May 17, 2019.
- Brisbane Times: East Timor at the forefront of fixing the global recycling crisis , May 17, 2019 , accessed May 17, 2019.
- University of Sydney: A new plastic recycling technology converts a liability into an asset , accessed May 17, 2019.
- Ynet News, September 15, 2009, E. Timor makes UN history with ozone treaty signing
- Bird life International, October 27, 2009, Endemics thrive on Timor-Leste's "Lost World" mountain
- East Timorese Government website: Meeting of the Council of Ministers on October 20th, 2015 , accessed November 1, 2015.
- ABC, December 18, 2007, NT helping E Timor establish first marine park
- Diário de Noticias: Navios chineses apanhados a pescar toneladas de tubarões em águas timorenses , accessed on September 12, 2017.
- Guido Sprenger: Should one believe in ghosts? - A pros and cons , In: Südostasien - Zeitschrift für Politik, Kultur, Dialog, December 22, 2018, accessed on January 3, 2019.