Human Development Index

2018: HDI world map (published in December 2019)
 ﻿≥0.900 ﻿0.850-0.899 ﻿0.800-0.849 ﻿0.750-0.799 ﻿0.700-0.749 ﻿0.650-0.699 ﻿0.600-0.649 ﻿0.550-0.599 ﻿0.500-0.549 ﻿0.450-0.499 ﻿0.400-0.449 ﻿≤0.399 ﻿no data
2015–2016: HDI world map ( quartiles , published March 2017)
 ﻿Very high ﻿high ﻿medium ﻿low ﻿no data

The Human Development Index ( English Human Development Index , abbreviated HDI ) of the United Nations is an indicator of prosperity for States . The HDI is since 1990 in the annual report on human development (English Human Development Report ) of the United Nations Development Program published (UNDP).

The HDI not only takes into account the gross national income per capita, but also life expectancy and the duration of training based on the number of school years a 25-year-old has completed and the expected duration of a child's education at school age. The HDI was essentially developed by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq , who worked closely with the Indian economist Amartya Sen and the British economist and politician Meghnad Desai .

As additional UNDP annually publishes the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index ). This supplementary index is a measure of human development that includes inequality in education, health and income.

Calculation method since 2010 ( NHDI )

As of the Human Development Report 2010, the three dimensions are calculated as follows:

1. Life expectancy index: ${\ displaystyle {\ text {LEI}} = {\ dfrac {{\ text {LE}} - 20} {85 {,} 0-20}}}$
2. Education index: ${\ displaystyle {\ text {BI}} = {\ dfrac {{\ text {DSDI}} + {\ text {VSDI}}} {2}}}$
2.1. Average school attendance index:${\ displaystyle {\ text {DSDI}} = {\ dfrac {{\ text {DSD}} - 0} {15 {,} 0-0}}}$
2.2. Expected school attendance index:${\ displaystyle {\ text {VSDI}} = {\ dfrac {{\ text {VSD}} - 0} {18 {,} 0-0}}}$
3. Income index :${\ displaystyle {\ text {EI}} = {\ dfrac {\ ln ({\ text {BNEpk}}) - \ ln (100)} {\ ln (75000) - \ ln (100)}}}$

Finally, the HDI is calculated as a geometric mean from the three dimensions:${\ displaystyle {\ text {HDI}} = {\ sqrt [{3}] {{\ text {LEI}} \ cdot {\ text {BI}} \ cdot {\ text {EI}}}}.}$

The minimum and maximum values ​​(target values) are used to normalize the sub-indices in the value range [0; 1].
Minimum and maximum values ​​for the 2014 report
indicator minimum observed maximum
(limited to)
LE Life expectancy at birth 20.0 85.0
DSD Average length of school attendance (number of years that a person aged 25 or older has attended school) 0 15.0
VSD Estimated length of school attendance (number of years a 5-year-old child can expect to go to school) 0 18.0
BNEpk Gross national income per capita ( adjusted for purchasing power in US $) 100 75,000 To distinguish it from the original method, the index determined by this method is sometimes also called the New Human Development Index (NHDI). Calculation method from 2009 to 2010 HDI trend between 1980 and 2011 • ﻿Arabic states • ﻿Europe and Central Asia • ﻿Latin America and the Caribbean • ﻿East Asia and the Pacific • ﻿South asia • ﻿Sub-Saharan Africa • The life expectancy factor is regarded as an indicator of health welfare, nutrition and hygiene ; the education is level, as well as the income of acquired knowledge and participation in public and political life for a reasonable standard of living . There are three main indices, whereby the formation is split into three sub-indices: Sub-index lower limit value (min) upper limit value (max) A 0- life expectancy at birth 20 years (fixed value) 83.4 years ( Japan , 2011) B1 - School education completed (mean in number of years) 0 13.1 ( Czech Republic , 2005) B2 - expected total training (mean in number of years) 0 18.0 (fixed value) B3 - Combined Education Index 0 0.978 ( New Zealand , 2010) C 0- Gross National Income (GNI) per inhabitant in PPP US dollars 100 (fixed value) 107,721 ( Qatar , 2011) The limit values ​​are the minima / maxima that have ever been reached by a country. The indices I for A , B1 and B2 are now calculated ${\ displaystyle I _ {\ text {partial index}} = {\ dfrac {{\ text {value}} - {\ text {partial index}} _ {\ text {min}}} {{\ text {partial index}} _ { \ text {max}} - {\ text {partial index}} _ {\ text {min}}}}}$ The education index B is calculated to ${\ displaystyle B = {\ frac {\ sqrt {I_ {B1} \ cdot I_ {B2}}} {B3 _ {\ text {max}}}}}$ The income index Z is calculated to ${\ displaystyle Z = {\ frac {\ ln (C) - \ ln (C _ {\ text {min}})} {\ ln (C _ {\ text {max}}) - \ ln (C _ {\ text { min}})}}}$ The HDI is calculated from this ${\ displaystyle {\ text {HDI}} = {\ sqrt [{3}] {I_ {A} \ cdot B \ cdot Z}}}$ This means that the HDI assumes values ​​between zero and one. According to the HDI value, UNDP has divided the countries into four development categories since 2009: • HDI ≥ 0.800: countries with very high human development • HDI ≥ 0.700: countries with high human development • HDI ≥ 0.550: Countries with average human development • HDI <0.549: Countries with little human development Calculation method before 2009 Sub-index lower limit upper limit Share in the sub-index A 0- life expectancy at birth 25 years 85 years 100% B1 - adult literacy rate 0% 100% 66.67% B2 - gross school enrollment rate 0% 100% 33.33% C 0- Real purchasing power per inhabitant US$ 100 \$ 40,000 100%

The calculation method before 2009 differs significantly from the current one. In the old HDI, the literacy rate of adults was also counted with two thirds of the weighting for sub-index B and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrollment rate with one third of the weighting.

However, since schools and teaching qualifications in developing countries cannot be equated with those in industrialized countries, the index was re-created in favor of pure school duration and expected training time.

history

Amartya Sen
Mahbub ul Haq

According to Amartya Sen, the basic motivation for the development of the Human Development Index in 1990 was the lack of informative value of previous measuring instruments (e.g. assessment of development according to gross domestic product ). The HDI should enable the level of development to be measured, which is more in line with people's needs and takes into account as many aspects of development as a relatively simple index can. Mahbub ul Haq (one of the inventors of the HDI) argued that development should increase people's possibilities. The development goals therefore also include values ​​such as nutrition, health, education, leisure and opportunities for people to have a say.

In the introduction to the first Human Development Report from 1990, the aim was to:

“People are the real wealth of a nation. The basic objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. This may appear to be a simple truth. But it is often forgotten in the immediate concern with the accumulation of commodities and financial wealth. "

“People are the real wealth of a country. The basic goal of development is to create an environment in which people can enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. This may seem like a simple truth, but it is often forgotten behind concerns about the accumulation of material goods and financial wealth. "

criticism

The informative value of the HDI is controversial. The point of contention is, for example, the weighting of the aspects of human development, with different assessments prevailing as to which aspects are to be included and how high these should be assessed.

The HDI uses mean values for a country and therefore cannot directly map inequalities within the country. The structure of the HDI has been changed several times in the past few years (for example in the treatment of income or the modification of upper and lower limits). This also results in limited comparability of the data over the years.

The HDI is criticized for reasons of redundancy , since the indicators recorded in the HDI correlate very strongly with the gross national income per capita and are therefore recorded by it.

The conservative economist Bryan Caplan criticizes the HDI for several reasons: everyday important material goods are undervalued and education is overrated. In addition, full marks can only be achieved for the educational parameter if the entire population consists of schoolchildren or students. Caplan also sees the problem that the scale undervalues ​​gross national income. Since they are already at the upper end of the scale, rich countries have little further development in this area. It is similar with life expectancy. In addition, the HDI makes Scandinavia the top of human achievements (compare Swedish model ), which makes it practically a measure of how "Scandinavian" a country is. But Caplan has doubts that there is no room for improvement there.

The HDI is also criticized for not taking ecological factors into account. According to the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF), countries with a very high level of human development currently have a particularly large ecological footprint . The organization assumes that currently not a single country fulfills the conditions of a reasonable standard of living and an earth-friendly ecological footprint. Since an intact ecosystem can be seen as the basis for human well-being and a high life expectancy, the WWF believes that the ecological footprint should be taken into account as a factor in the HDI.

Human Development Index 2018 - Ranking

The HDI 2018 ranking was published on December 9, 2019 and is based on data for 2018.

Very high human development

Rank
2018
Change
to 2017
Country or territory HDI
2018
Change
to 2017
1    Norway 0.954   0.001
2    Switzerland 0.946   0.003
3    Ireland 0.942   0.003
4th    Germany 0.939   0.001
4th   (2)  Hong Kong 0.939   0.003
6th   (1)  Australia 0.938   0.001
6th   (1)  Iceland 0.938   0.003
8th   (1)  Sweden 0.937   0.001
9    Singapore 0.935   0.001
10    Netherlands 0.933   0.001
11    Denmark 0.930   0.001
12    Finland 0.925   0.001
14th    New Zealand 0.921   0.001
15th    United Kingdom 0.920   0.001
15th    United States 0.920   0.001
17th    Belgium 0.919   0.002
18th    Liechtenstein 0.917   0.001
19th    Japan 0.915   0.002
20th    Austria 0.914   0.002
- 2nd    Macau 0.909   0.001
21st    Luxembourg 0.909   0.001
- 2nd    Taiwan 0.907   0.002
22nd    Israel 0.906   0.002
22nd    South Korea 0.906   0.002
24    Slovenia 0.902   0.003
25th    Spain 0.893   0.002
26th   (1)  Czech Republic 0.891   0.003
26th    France 0.891   0.001
28    Malta 0.885   0.002
29    Italy 0.883   0.002
30th    Estonia 0.882   0.003
31    Cyprus 0.873   0.002
32    Greece 0.872   0.001
32   (1)  Poland 0.872   0.004
34    Lithuania 0.869   0.003
35    United Arab Emirates 0.866   0.002
36   (2)  Andorra 0.857   0.005
36    Saudi Arabia 0.857   0.001
36   (1)  Slovakia 0.857   0.003
39    Latvia 0.854   0.004
40    Portugal 0.850   0.002
41   (1)  Qatar 0.848
42    Chile 0.847   0.002
43    Brunei 0.845   0.002
43   (1)  Hungary 0.845   0.004
- 2nd    Puerto Rico 0.845   0.001
45    Bahrain 0.838   0.001
46    Croatia 0.837   0.002
47    Oman 0.834   0.001
48    Argentina 0.830   0.002
49    Russia 0.824   0.002
50    Belarus 0.817   0.002
50   (1)  Kazakhstan 0.817   0.004
52   (1)  Bulgaria 0.816   0.003
52   (1)  Montenegro 0.816   0.003
52   (1)  Romania 0.816   0.003
55   (1)  Palau 0.814   0.003
57    Kuwait 0.808   0.001
57   (1)  Uruguay 0.808   0.001
59    Turkey 0.806   0.001
60    Bahamas 0.805   0.001
61    Malaysia 0.804   0.002
62    Seychelles 0.801   0.001
1 Andorra and Liechtenstein were recorded for the first time in the HDI 2010.
2The Republic of China in Taiwan is not a member of the UN due to the Taiwan conflict and is therefore not included in the Human Development Report. However, the national statistical authority calculates its own value for the HDI using the same methods. Puerto Rico, Hong Kong and Macao are also not independent states, but are listed here for comparison purposes.

High human development

Rank
2018
Change
to 2017
Country or territory HDI
2018
Change
to 2017
63   (2)  Serbia 0.799   0.005
65   (2)  Iran 0.797   0.001
66    Mauritius 0.796   0.003
67   (1)  Panama 0.795   0.002
68    Costa Rica 0.794   0.002
69    Albania 0.791   0.002
70    Georgia 0.786   0.003
71   (1)  Sri Lanka 0.780   0.004
72   (1)  Cuba 0.778   0.001
73   (1)  St. Kitts and Nevis 0.777   0.003
74   (1)  Antigua and Barbuda 0.776   0.002
75    Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.769   0.002
76    Mexico 0.767   0.002
77    Thailand 0.765   0.003
79   (1)  Brazil 0.761   0.001
79   (1)  Colombia 0.761   0.001
81    Armenia 0.760   0.002
82   (1)  Algeria 0.759   0.001
82   (1)  North Macedonia 0.759   0.001
82   (3)  Peru 0.759   0.003
85   (1)  People's Republic of China 0.758   0.005
87    Azerbaijan 0.754   0.002
88    Ukraine 0.750   0.003
89   (1)  Dominican Republic 0.745   0.004
89    St. Lucia 0.745   0.001
- 3    Kosovo 0.742
91    Tunisia 0.739   0.001
92    Mongolia 0.735   0.006
- - world 0.731   0.002
93    Lebanon 0.730   0.002
94   (3)  Botswana 0.728   0.004
94   (1)  St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.728   0.002
96    Jamaica 0.726   0.001
96   (4)  Venezuela 0.726   0.009
98    Dominica 0.724   0.001
98   (4)  Fiji 0.724   0.003
98   (1)  Paraguay 0.724   0.002
98   (1)  Suriname 0.724   0.002
102   (3)  Jordan 0.723   0.001
103    Belize 0.720   0.001
104   (1)  Maldives 0.719   0.003
105   (1)  Tonga 0.717
106    Philippines 0.712   0.003
107   (1)  Moldova 0.711   0.002
108    Turkmenistan 0.710   0.002
108   (1)  Uzbekistan 0.710   0.003
110   (1)  Libya 0.708   0.004
111    Indonesia 0.707   0.003
111   (1)  Samoa 0.707   0.001
113   (2)  South Africa 0.705   0.001
114    Bolivia 0.703   0.003
115   (1)  Gabon 0.702   0.002
116    Egypt 0.700   0.004
3The Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the UN and is therefore not included in the Human Development Report. The United Nations Development Program nevertheless uses the same methods to calculate a value for the HDI, but publishes it separately.

Average human development

Rank
2018
Change
to 2017
Country or territory HDI
2018
Change
to 2017
117   (1)  Marshall Islands 0.698   0.002
118    Vietnam 0.693   0.003
119    Palestine 0.690   0.001
120    Iraq 0.689   0.005
121    Morocco 0.676   0.001
122    Kyrgyzstan 0.674   0.003
123    Guyana 0.670   0.002
125   (1)  Tajikistan 0.656   0.005
126   (2)  Cape Verde 0.651   0.004
126   (1)  Guatemala 0.651   0.002
126   (1)  Nicaragua 0.651   0.002
129   (1)  India 0.647   0.007
130   (1)  Namibia 0.645   0.002
131    East Timor 0.626   0.002
132   (1)  Honduras 0.623   0.002
132    Kiribati 0.623
134    Bhutan 0.617   0.002
135    Micronesia 0.614   0.002
137   (2)  Sao Tome and Principe 0.609   0.006
138   (2)  Republic of the Congo 0.608   0.001
138   (1)  Swaziland 0.608   0.005
140    Laos 0.604   0.002
141    Vanuatu 0.597   0.002
142    Ghana 0.596   0.005
143   (1)  Zambia 0.591   0.002
144   (1)  Equatorial Guinea 0.588   0.002
145   (1)  Myanmar 0.584   0.007
146   (1)  Cambodia 0.581   0.003
147   (1)  Kenya 0.579   0.005
147   (1)  Nepal 0.579   0.005
149   (2)  Angola 0.574   0.002
150    Cameroon 0.563   0.003
150   (3)  Zimbabwe 0.563   0.010
152   (1)  Pakistan 0.560   0.002
153   (1)  Solomon Islands 0.557   0.002

Low human development

Rank
2018
Change
to 2017
Country or territory HDI
2018
Change
to 2017
154    Syria 0.549   0.005
155   (1)  Papua New Guinea 0.543
156    Comoros 0.538   0.001
157   (1)  Rwanda 0.536   0.007
158   (1)  Nigeria 0.534   0.001
159   (1)  Tanzania 0.528   0.004
159   (1)  Uganda 0.528   0.004
161   (2)  Mauritania 0.527   0.003
163    Benin 0.520   0.003
164    Lesotho 0.518   0.004
165    Ivory Coast 0.516   0.004
166    Senegal 0.514   0.004
167    Togo 0.513   0.003
168    Sudan 0.507
169    Haiti 0.503   0.002
170    Afghanistan 0.496   0.003
171    Djibouti 0.495   0.003
172    Malawi 0.485   0.003
173    Ethiopia 0.470   0.004
174   (3)  Gambia 0.466   0.007
174   (2)  Guinea 0.466   0.003
176   (3)  Liberia 0.465   0.001
177   (2)  Yemen 0.463
178   (1)  Guinea-Bissau 0.461   0.001
179    Democratic Republic of Congo 0.459   0.003
180    Mozambique 0.446   0.004
181    Sierra Leone 0.438   0.003
182   (1)  Burkina Faso 0.434   0.005
182    Eritrea 0.434   0.003
184    Mali 0.427   0.001
185    Burundi 0.423   0.002
186    South Sudan 0.413   0.001
188    Central African Republic 0.381   0.005
189    Niger 0.377   0.004
-    Somalia 0.356   0.006

Countries not included in the HDI

Countries for which no or no suitable data were available at the time of compilation were not taken into account. This affects the following states and areas:

• Monaco
• Nauru
• North Korea - The country is isolated in terms of foreign policy, so almost no data is published internationally.
• San Marino
• Taiwan - The Republic of China in Taiwan is not a member of the UN due to the Taiwan conflict and is therefore not included in the Human Development Report. However, the national statistical authority calculates its own value for the HDI using the same methods.
• Tuvalu
• Vatican City - The Vatican is not a member of the UN and does not have its own education system.
• Western Sahara - Claimed and mostly occupied by Morocco.

The most developed countries since 1975

A look back at the annual rankings in the Human Development Index shows that Norway has been number one for several years; in previous years Canada, Iceland, Switzerland and Australia also came first:

Note: The method of calculating the index has changed since 1990.

Development of the countries according to HDI since 1990

The following list gives an overview of the development of the Human Development Index in various countries since 1990. All values ​​are determined using today's calculation method.

Country or territory HDI Score
1990
HDI score
2000
HDI score
2010
HDI score
2017
Change
1990–2017
Norway 0.850 0.917 0.942 0.953   0.103
Switzerland 0.832 0.889 0.932 0.944   0.112
Australia 0.866 0.898 0.923 0.939   0.073
Ireland 0.763 0.857 0.909 0.938   0.175
Germany 0.801 0.868 0.921 0.936   0.135
Iceland 0.802 0.860 0.891 0.935   0.133
Sweden 0.816 0.897 0.905 0.933   0.117
Hong Kong 0.781 0.827 0.901 0.933   0.152
Singapore 0.718 0.819 0.909 0.932   0.214
Netherlands 0.829 0.876 0.910 0.931   0.101
Denmark 0.799 0.863 0.910 0.929   0.130
Canada 0.849 0.867 0.902 0.926   0.077
United States 0.860 0.885 0.914 0.924   0.064
United Kingdom 0.775 0.867 0.905 0.922   0.147
Finland 0.784 0.858 0.903 0.920   0.136
New Zealand 0.818 0.869 0.899 0.917   0.099
Belgium 0.806 0.873 0.903 0.916   0.110
Japan 0.816 0.855 0.885 0.909   0.093
Austria 0.795 0.838 0.895 0.908   0.113
Israel 0.792 0.853 0.887 0.903   0.111
South Korea 0.728 0.817 0.884 0.903   0.175
France 0.779 0.849 0.882 0.901   0.122
Spain 0.754 0.825 0.865 0.891   0.137
Czech Republic 0.730 0.796 0.862 0.888   0.158
Italy 0.769 0.830 0.870 0.880   0.111
Greece 0.753 0.796 0.856 0.870   0.117
Poland 0.712 0.785 0.835 0.865   0.153
United Arab Emirates 0.727 0.798 0.836 0.863   0.136
Qatar 0.754 0.809 0.827 0.856   0.102
Saudi Arabia 0.697 0.743 0.808 0.853   0.156
Portugal 0.711 0.785 0.822 0.847   0.136
Chile 0.701 0.759 0.808 0.843   0.142
Hungary 0.704 0.769 0.823 0.838   0.134
Argentina 0.704 0.771 0.813 0.825   0.121
Russia 0.734 0.720 0.780 0.816   0.082
Bulgaria 0.694 0.712 0.779 0.813   0.119
Romania 0.701 0.709 0.797 0.811   0.110
Uruguay 0.692 0.742 0.773 0.804   0.112
Kuwait 0.713 0.786 0.792 0.803   0.090
Malaysia 0.643 0.725 0.772 0.802   0.159
Kazakhstan 0.690 0.685 0.765 0.800   0.110
Iran 0.577 0.670 0.755 0.798   0.221
Costa Rica 0.656 0.711 0.754 0.794   0.138
Turkey 0.579 0.655 0.734 0.791   0.212
Panama 0.659 0.719 0.758 0.789   0.130
Serbia 0.718 0.711 0.759 0.787   0.069
Albania 0.645 0.669 0.741 0.785   0.140
Cuba 0.676 0.686 0.779 0.777   0.101
Mexico 0.650 0.702 0.743 0.774   0.124
Sri Lanka 0.625 0.685 0.745 0.770   0.145
Venezuela 0.634 0.672 0.759 0.761   0.127
Brazil 0.611 0.684 0.727 0.759   0.148
Armenia 0.631 0.647 0.728 0.755   0.124
Thailand 0.574 0.649 0.724 0.755   0.181
Algeria 0.577 0.644 0.729 0.754   0.177
People's Republic of China 0.502 0.594 0.706 0.752   0.250
Ecuador 0.643 0.670 0.715 0.752   0.109
Ukraine 0.705 0.671 0.733 0.751   0.046
Peru 0.611 0.678 0.717 0.750   0.139
Colombia 0.592 0.653 0.719 0.747   0.155
Mongolia 0.579 0.589 0.697 0.741   0.162
Dominican Republic 0.598 0.657 0.702 0.736   0.138
Jordan 0.617 0.702 0.728 0.735   0.118
Tunisia 0.569 0.653 0.716 0.735   0.166
Uzbekistan k. A. 0.595 0.666 0.710 -
Libya 0.677 0.727 0.755 0.706   0.029
Philippines 0.586 0.624 0.665 0.699   0.113
South Africa 0.618 0.630 0.649 0.699   0.081
Egypt 0.546 0.611 0.665 0.696   0.150
Indonesia 0.528 0.606 0.661 0.694   0.166
Vietnam 0.475 0.579 0.654 0.694   0.219
Bolivia 0.536 0.608 0.649 0.693   0.157
Iraq 0.572 0.607 0.649 0.685   0.113
Morocco 0.458 0.530 0.616 0.667   0.209
Guatemala 0.478 0.546 0.611 0.650   0.172
India 0.427 0.493 0.581 0.640   0.213
Bangladesh 0.387 0.468 0.545 0.608   0.221
Ghana 0.455 0.484 0.554 0.592   0.137
Kenya 0.468 0.451 0.543 0.590   0.122
Zambia 0.401 0.432 0.544 0.588   0.187
Cambodia 0.364 0.420 0.537 0.582   0.218
Angola k. A. 0.387 0.520 0.581 -
Myanmar 0.358 0.431 0.530 0.578   0.220
Nepal 0.378 0.446 0.529 0.574   0.196
Pakistan 0.404 0.450 0.526 0.562   0.158
Cameroon 0.440 0.431 0.506 0.556   0.116
Tanzania 0.370 0.395 0.493 0.538   0.168
Syria 0.556 0.590 0.644 0.536   0.020
Zimbabwe 0.491 0.440 0.467 0.535   0.044
Nigeria k. A. k. A. 0.484 0.532 -
Rwanda 0.250 0.335 0.485 0.524   0.274
Uganda 0.311 0.398 0.486 0.516   0.205
Senegal 0.367 0.380 0.456 0.505   0.138
Sudan 0.331 0.402 0.470 0.502   0.171
Afghanistan 0.301 0.346 0.463 0.498   0.197
Ivory Coast 0.388 0.394 0.442 0.492   0.104
Ethiopia k. A. 0.283 0.412 0.463 -
Yemen 0.399 0.443 0.498 0.452   0.053
Democratic Republic of Congo 0.356 0.333 0.407 0.457   0.101
Mozambique 0.209 0.298 0.403 0.437   0.228
Niger 0.210 0.255 0.318 0.354   0.144

UNDP reports

United Nations Development Program (UNDP):

German Society for the United Nations (translations and summaries):

• 2019: Human Development Report 2019. January 15, 2020 ( download page ).
• 2018: Human Development: Facts and Figures 2018 - Statistical Update on the Human Development Report. Berlin, December 14, 2018, pp. 7–10: Gender inequality - reducing the gap in order to enable half of the world's population to participate more, and pp. 39–39: Table 4: Index of gender-specific development ( summary as PDF : 421 kB; download page ).
• 2016: Human Development Report 2016: Human Development for All. Berlin, March 21, 2017 ( download page ).
• 2015: Report on human development 2015. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-8305-3618-5 ( PDF: 9.3 MB, 328 pages at hdr.undp.org ).

literature

• 2009: Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong, Maximilian Auffhammer: Human Development Index: Are Developing Countries Misclassified? Working paper. January 2009 (English; PDF: 463 kB, 36 pages on ageconsearch.umn.edu ).
• 2007: Elizabeth A. Stanton: The Human Development Index: A History. In: Working Paper Series. No. 127. Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amhers, February 2007 (English; Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University; PDF: 431 kB, 37 pages at peri.umass.edu ).

Commons : Human Development Index  - collection of images, videos and audio files

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