|Jamhuri ya Kenya (Swahili)
Republic of Kenya (English)
|Republic of Kenya|
Motto : Harambee
( Kiswahili , "Let's work together")
|Official language||Swahili and English|
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Presidential system|
|Head of state , also head of government||President Uhuru Kenyatta|
|population||47,564,296 (2019 census)|
|Population density||82 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 2.52% (2017)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.555 ( 146th ) (2016)|
|currency||Kenyan Shilling (KES)|
|independence||December 12, 1963
(from the UK )
Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu
|Time zone||UTC + 3|
|License Plate||EAK ( East Africa )|
|ISO 3166||KE , KEN, 404|
Kenya [ ˈkʰeːni̯a ] ( Swahili , English Kenya [ ˈkʰɛnjə, ˈkʰiːnjə ]), officially the Republic of Kenya , is a state in East Africa . The capital and largest city of the country is Nairobi , the second megacity is Mombasa . In terms of gross domestic product , Kenya's economy is the largest in Southeast and Central Africa.
Kenya gained independence from Great Britain in December 1963. After the adoption of a new constitution in August 2010, Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous local authorities , so-called counties , each of which is governed by an elected governor.
The following islands also belong to the national territory of Kenya:
- Lamu , Pate , Manda , Kiwayu , Manda Toto ( Lamu Archipelago in the Indian Ocean)
- Chale Island , Mombasa Island , Wasini Island (Indian Ocean)
- Mfangano Island , Ndere Island , Pyramid Island , Rusinga Island ( Lake Victoria)
- Central Island , South Island (Turkana Lake)
Central-Central Kenya is crossed by the Rift Valley , part of the East African Rift Valley . The highest point - the Batian at 5199 m - is in the Mount Kenya massif , the mountains are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The lowest point is 0 m on the 480 km long coast of the Indian Ocean; there are partly coral reefs offshore. The longest rivers in the country are: Tana , Sabaki and Kerio . In the east the coastal lowlands extend as a narrow border. The coastline is divided by bays and lagoons. Coral reefs are offshore to the south. To the west, hill and table lands adjoin.
Kenya can be divided into two climatic zones: In the highlands, which are higher than 1800 m, there are rainy periods from April to June and from October to November. The precipitation usually falls in the afternoon, evening and night. The nights are relatively cool. The coldest time in this region is July and August with a daily minimum of around 10 ° C. The warm period is in January and February with a daily maximum of around 25 to 26 ° C. The humidity is around 65 percent. In Nairobi, the temperatures in July are 11 to 21 ° C and in February 13 to 26 ° C. The annual average rainfall in Nairobi is 958 mm. At Lake Victoria the temperatures are much higher, there is sometimes heavy rain.
On the coast, temperatures are between 22 and 32 ° C and the mean humidity is around 75 percent. Most of the precipitation falls from April to June. The driest months are January and February. The warmest months are October to May.
The country's hydrogeography varies in character. Due to the different climatic zones, the smallest catchment area, that of Lake Victoria with almost 10% of the land area, has the highest discharge with half of the total amount of water. The largest catchment area, on the other hand, that of the Ewaso Ng'iro , which drains into the Juba , has a runoff of less than 2% with more than a third of the land area. In addition to the rain-rich south-west, the Mount Kenya massif is the country's “ moated castle ”. Almost a quarter of the country drains into basins without drainage, such as that of Lake Turkana .
National parks and nature conservation
There are a large number of national parks in Kenya that represent an important pillar for tourism. The largest national park is the Tsavo National Park, which is divided into Tsavo East and Tsavo West . The well-known Masai Mara , the northern foothills of the Serengeti , is formally not a national park, but a nature reserve. Due to the herd migration of wildebeest , zebras , antelopes , buffalo and impalas , you will find a great wealth of animals here, especially in the months of July and August. Other important national parks are Amboseli , Lake Nakuru and Meru . Also worth seeing is the national park in Nairobi , a smaller animal-rich reserve in the middle of the capital. Nowhere else can you see giraffes and zebras so close to a big city skyline. The Watamu Marine National Park is located on the coast of Kenya , about 120 kilometers north of Mombasa . The national park consists of a coral reef with many different fish species.
The total fertility rate in 2008 was 4.9 children per woman. One of the reasons for this value could be that only 32% of Kenyan women had modern contraceptive methods available. In 2017, the number had dropped to 3.9 children per woman.
With around 46.7 million inhabitants (2016), Kenya ranks 34th among the most populous countries in the world. The average life expectancy at birth is given as 62.1 years for 2015. At the height of the AIDS epidemic in 2000, it was only 50 years. Over 42% of the population is younger than 15 years.
Source: UN, figures for 2030 and 2050 are forecasts
Altogether there are more than 40 different ethnic groups in Kenya who speak more than 50 different languages and dialects.
Most of the residents of Kenya belong to Bantu-speaking ethnic groups. These include the Kikuyu (with around 22% of the population the largest ethnic group in Kenya), the Luhya (14%), the Kamba (11%), the Kisii (6%), the Mijikenda (5.1%) and the Meru ( 4.3%).
Furthermore, there are Nilotic ethnic groups such as the Kalendjin (with 12.9% the third largest group), the Luo (with 10.5%), the Turkana (2.6%), the Maasai (2.2%) and live in the north-west of Kenya the Samburu (0.6%).
Non-African population groups (Europeans of predominantly British origin, Asians, Arabs) make up around 1% of the population.
The Kenyan government currently recognizes (as of 2017) 43 peoples as entitled to citizenship. There are also a number of peoples and communities who presumably lived in Kenya before independence but are considered stateless - a total of around 18,500 people. These include the Shona , the Shirazi, the Galja'el and the Pemba.
In 2017, 2.2% of the population was born abroad. Most of the foreigners are refugees from Somalia, Uganda and South Sudan.
Languages and dialects
According to the current constitution, Swahili and English have been one of the official languages of Parliament since 1992 , and every candidate must prove knowledge of the language. However, all resolutions of the parliament are to be made in English. At the lower level of the courts, Swahili is permitted as the language of negotiation, but records and judgments must be made in English. Public administrations are allowed to use English and Swahili in their dealings with citizens. In the draft of the new constitution, English and Swahili are envisaged as the two official languages of the state, and Swahili as the national language. The most important languages of a total of 52 ethnic groups (the linguists list exactly 61 language variants including Indian languages and dialects) are:
- As a legacy of British colonial times, English is one of the two official languages in Kenya and is particularly widespread through its use as the language of instruction in schools.
- Swahili is the second official language. It is on the coast around Mombasa z. B. spoken by the Giriama and taught in schools. At the same time, Swahili is the lingua franca in all of East Africa. In Kenya it is the most widely spoken language, especially in rural areas.
- Kikuyu : language of the largest ethnic group (22 percent of the total population), especially around Nairobi; famous Kikuyu: Jomo Kenyatta , Mwai Kibaki , Wangari Maathai , Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o and Uhuru Kenyatta.
- Kamba : related to Kikuyu, spoken by 11 percent of the population east of Mount Kenya.
- Luhya : Language of the second largest ethnic group of the same name (14 percent) in the west around Kakamega (provincial capital) comprising several languages e.g. B. Bukusu , Maragoli , Tiriki .
- Luo : The language of the third largest people (13 percent), is spoken on Lake Victoria around Kisumu . Famous Luo: Jael Mbogo , Oginga Odinga , Raila Odinga and Tom Mboya .
- Kalendjin : Is a multilingual language group (11 percent), e.g. B. Pokot or virtue , the language of the people from which the second president Daniel arap Moi comes. Most of the Kenyan “miracle runners” are Kalenjin, especially from the Nandi people .
- Turkana : language of the Turkana people ; about 340,000 speakers.
- Maa : Language of the Maasai and related peoples such as the Samburu and Njemps .
- Indian languages and dialects of the Indians called "Asians" in the country.
- Sheng is the current youth language .
- Ki-Settler was the Swahili-based lingua franca of the white colonial rulers and their servants, similar to the Fanakalo in South Africa or the Chilapalapa in colonial Rhodesia . The prefix Ki- stands for “language” in Swahili, so it means “language of the settlers”.
According to the 2009 census, 82.6 percent of the population are Christians, of which about 26% are Anglicans , 23.3% Catholics , 2.5% Orthodox and followers of the numerous African churches . A total of 47.4% of the population are Protestants.
Just under 1.6% of Kenyans are classified as part of the traditional African religions . There are also especially on the coast Muslims of the Sunni direction, which account for about 11.1% of the population and live mainly in the southeastern coastal areas. In the eastern quarter of the country Muslim Somali dominate, who make up about half of all Muslims in Kenya. Exact figures are controversial as it is difficult to distinguish between Kenyan Somali and between half a million and one million refugees from Somalia. Therefore, they could now make up up to 20% of the population. In addition, 0.1% of the population are Hindus and 2.4% of the population are non-denominational .
The area of today's state of Kenya was settled more than four million years ago by early pre-humans such as Australopithecus and Kenyanthropus and is one of the regions of Africa in which the genus Homo developed.
Prehistoric sites that can be visited are e.g. B. the Olorgesailie Prehistoric Site or Kariandusi near Gilgil . However, many paleoanthropologists ' excavation sites , such as Orrorin , cannot be visited. The anthropological research of Kenya is inextricably linked with the name of the Leakey family.
The history of Kenya as a colony begins in 1885 with a German protectorate over the Witu estate on the coast of the Sultanate of Zanzibar . In 1888 the Imperial British East Africa Company came to Kenya and administered British East Africa until 1895. Germany handed Witu over to the British in accordance with the so-called Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty of 1890.
In 1895 the British government proclaimed British East Africa a protectorate and in 1902 released the fertile mountains as a settlement colony for whites. In 1920 Kenya officially became a crown colony . Kenya lived through colonial history and was in the hands of the British for a long time.
On October 20, 1952, the then British governor declared a state of emergency in Kenya after the top African representative of the colonial administration had been murdered. Then uprisings began (also known as the Mau Mau War ). The first general election took place in March 1957 . The Kenya African National Union ( KANU ) formed the first government. On June 1, 1963, Jomo Kenyatta became Prime Minister. On November 10th, KANU and KADU merged; Kenya became a one-party system . On December 12, 1963, Kenya gained independence and Kenyatta became the first President of Kenya .
The Supreme Court invalidated the August 8, 2017 presidential election due to a hacking attack.
According to UNAIDS , 5.9 to 6.3% of the adult population (15–49 years) are HIV positive. Young people are particularly often affected. AIDS has contributed to a decrease in life expectancy in Kenya. In recent years, however, progress has been made in the fight against the epidemic and average life expectancy has increased again. According to the World Bank, in 2015 it was one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa at 66.6 years.
In 2002, the Childrens Act in Kenya enshrined modern child protection legislation. According to this, genital cutting of girls under the age of 17 is prohibited by law and is made a criminal offense in Article 14. It is not known whether this article has ever been used in court.
The Kenyan government has drawn up a “National Action Plan for the Abolition of Genital Circumcision 1999 to 2019” (a program against female genital cutting). This plan suggests that circumcision of women and girls - such as those of B. is practiced again by Mungiki - cannot yet be successfully prevented everywhere.
Homosexuality in Kenya is taboo in parts of society and homosexual acts between men are punishable. However, there have been no criminal convictions on this basis for several years. In addition, there is no anti-discrimination law in Kenya and no recognition of same-sex couples.
Hunger and floods
In January 2006, the northeast of the country suffered from the effects of a drought and the resulting food shortages. The 2006 hunger crisis in the Horn of Africa also threatened millions of people in neighboring countries.
At the beginning of April 2006, after record-breaking rainfall (Nairobi: 54.5 mm), flooding occurred throughout the country. Many people died in the floods. Several places in the north were cut off from the outside world, so the army used helicopters to supply the population.
In 2015, 19.1% of the population were malnourished. In 2000 the rate was 32.2%.
The curriculum is based on the so-called 8-4-4 system, which replaced the colonial school system with its Eurocentric content, i.e. eight years of elementary school, four years of high school and four years of college.
Every year there is a competition between the schools for the highest scores in the national competition. The media report extensively and with home stories about the winners. The best students in the country receive prizes from the president, such as an ox or a university scholarship.
The literacy rate in Kenya was 78.0% in 2015. In Kenya, the mean school attendance of over 25s increased from 3.7 years in 1990 to 6.3 years in 2015. The educational expectation of the current generation is already 11.1 years.
Kindergartens and preschool education are predominantly limited to the cities and are subject to a charge. They are usually required by well-educated and wealthier homes. Some of the kindergartens work e.g. B. according to Montessori pedagogy . The US-British company Bridge International Academies (BIA) operates a number of preschools.
Eight year elementary school
In rural areas in particular, many primary schools were run according to the Harambee principle, which means that the parents financed them themselves through donations. These schools were poor in every respect. This situation only improved when the Kibaki government redeemed its election promise in 2003 and abolished tuition fees for the "primary schools". In doing so, it made it possible for children from poor families to have access to education for the first time. 1.7 million more children went to school within one year. However, there has been no investment in the education sector and the school system is barely able to cope with the increasing number of students.
The teacher-student ratio has deteriorated to 1: 100, so high-quality teaching is hardly possible. In addition, the number of teachers is steadily decreasing. And those who want a reasonably acceptable teacher-student ratio for their children with the resulting better learning success and are not satisfied just to move their children up one class according to paper, are still forced to put their children in one for a corresponding school fee of the many private schools. They include numerous BIA schools . The operation of these schools is controversial.
Secondary schools (grades 9–12) are comprehensive schools with costs. They are supported by the state, large organizations such as B. the churches or private entrepreneurs. The latter two are commonly referred to as private schools. Due to the cost, these schools are inaccessible to large parts of the population, even if the private schools offer scholarships. Some schools only accept gifted children from the slums for free.
A vocational training as it is known nationwide in Germany, for example under the dual system or in vocational schools, does not exist in Kenya. There is some kind of training in the company (in-service training) or at one of the numerous private institutes in the cities. Car mechanics, hairdressers and computer specialists are trained there. All of these training courses cost money. For example, a hardware specialist is trained in Nairobi for 2,000 euros in 18 months. Such training increases the chances on the free market enormously.
Kenya today has seven state comprehensive universities and a large number of colleges. Only the best students receive free study places at the state universities. Those who are less “good” are dependent on the fee-based (international) private universities. The universities often lack the necessary funds, which is why lecturers and students strikes are frequent.
The country's elite (or communities that raise the money through Harambee ) still prefer to have their children study in the UK or the US . Some also come to Germany to study . Studying abroad usually gives you a head start in your career search. Some courses cannot be taken in Kenya.
Kenya is a presidential republic under the 2010 constitution. The President has extensive executive powers. Both the government and the armed forces are subordinate to him. Following the peaceful adoption of the new constitution by a large majority in the referendum of August 2010, important changes will take place with the implementation of the catalog of fundamental rights, the reforms in the fields of security and justice, and the decentralization of political responsibilities. Since the general elections on March 4, 2013, Kenya has been a decentrally structured and administered country, which is divided into 47 "counties". In addition to the President and Vice-President, governors and parliaments were elected at the district level for the first time.
In the 2019 Democracy Index of the British magazine The Economist, Kenya ranks 94th out of 167 countries and is therefore considered a “hybrid regime” of democratic and authoritarian elements. In the country report Freedom in the World 2017 by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system is rated as “partially free”.
Ten ministers were dismissed in 2005/06 because of corruption allegations or resigned themselves because of major financial scandals ( Anglo-Leasing scandal and Goldenberg scandal ). Ministers dismissed in 2006 for a lack of loyalty to President Kibaki's government included Building Minister Raila Odinga and Foreign Minister Kalonzo Musyoka .
On March 22, 2006, President Kibaki's parliament, which was on leave (after the referendum on the new constitution failed for the government), convened for the ninth term. Kibaki commented on the new constitution and positively on the fight against corruption. He affirmed the freedom of the press (here he was referring to the " storming of the standard "), but at the same time urged the press to take responsibility.
On November 28, 2006, an internal party coup succeeded in the KANU , in which a new party leadership was elected by a conference of delegates in Mombasa that was not convened by the party leadership and was probably registered with the help of the government and ex-president Moi. Despite loud protests with Uhuru Kenyatta, almost the entire old party leadership was disempowered and Nicholas Biwott was the new party leader. At the same time, he became the official leader of the opposition in parliament, who was granted numerous privileges.
The Supreme Court overturned this decision on December 29, 2006, until the main issue would be decided on February 11, 2007. With that Uhuru was again party and opposition leader - for a while.
President Mwai Kibaki (of the Kikuyu tribe ), Raila Odinga (of the Luo tribe ) and Kalonzo Musyoka ran as candidates in the December 2007 presidential election. The elections took place on December 27th. Kibaki was confirmed in office with a narrow majority of 300,000 votes. The opposition and international election observers speak of massive election fraud. After the announcement of the swearing-in of Mwai Kibaki as President, serious clashes broke out between security forces and demonstrators across Kenya . The violent clashes focused on the capital Nairobi , Kisumu , and the cities of Nakuru , Naivasha and Eldoret in the Rift Valley Province . Up to 1,500 people were killed and more than 600,000 people displaced. The situation was fueled by ethnically motivated acts of violence in several parts of the country, which voted for a change at the top of the political system. These were directed primarily against Kikuyu, a member of President Kibaki's ethnic group.
On August 4, 2010, a new constitution was voted on in a referendum , which was approved by a majority of the population.
The reference points of Kenyan foreign policy traditionally lie within Africa, increasingly also within the framework of the United Nations and regional organizations. The Republic of Kenya has been characterized by political stability since independence in 1963 and is therefore also trying to achieve regional stabilization in the East African region.
In East Africa, Kenya claims a regional leadership role for itself. The country acts as a mediator in regional conflicts. Proof of this is the Kenyan peace efforts in Burundi, South Sudan and Somalia, as well as participation in all initiatives that are important for the region. Kenya is a driving force in the East African Community (EAC), the regional economic cooperation community with the long-term goal of becoming a political union modeled on the EU. Furthermore, Kenya works with the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD).
In the IGAD framework, Kenya had contributed to progress in the peace process for Sudan and was an important pillar of the independence of South Sudan. This also applies to the stabilization of the fragile neighboring country Somalia. Refugee movements from Somalia and the critical security situation, especially on the Kenyan-Somali border, remain reasons for Kenya's active involvement in this area. Kenya is trying to close the world's largest refugee camp, Dadaab, in the foreseeable future and is encouraging its residents to return to Somalia voluntarily. A tripartite agreement with UNHCR and the Somali government forms the basis for this.
Kenya maintains close ties to the USA and the former colonial power Great Britain, particularly in the security area, and participates in cooperation against international terrorism. Through its military deployment in South Somalia as part of AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia), Kenya is helping to combat the Islamist Al-Shabaab militia there. With the attacks against the US embassy in Nairobi in 1998, against a holiday hotel in Mombasa in 2002, with the attack by Al-Shabaab on Westgate Mall in September 2013, and the attack on Garissa University in April 2015, Kenya became itself multiple target of massive acts of terrorism.
Kenya is also a key partner in international efforts to combat piracy in the Indian Ocean and cooperates with the EU's Atalanta mission to combat piracy off the Somali coast by prosecuting suspected pirates in Kenyan courts .
Elections 2013 and 2017
In the general elections on March 4, 2013, the President, the National Assembly, the Senate as well as governors and representatives of the counties were newly elected.
Eight candidates ran in the presidential election. On March 9, Uhuru Kenyatta , eldest son of Kenya's first president Jomo Kenyatta, was declared the winner by the electoral commission . As a result, the election result was contested by several losing parties, above all Raila Odinga , before the highest court. On March 30, all appeals were dismissed. According to the official final result published on July 18th, 6,173,433 valid votes were cast for Uhuru Kenyatta, with 50.51% of all valid votes, the necessary absolute majority was achieved. Raila Odinga achieved 43.70% with 5,340,546 valid votes.
In August 2017, Kenyatta again won the presidential election against Odinga, but it had to be repeated due to irregularities. Odinga called for a boycott of this election. Kenyatta won with around 98% of the vote, with a turnout of around 39%.
In its 2010 annual report, Amnesty International criticized the Kenyan government's lack of political will to bring the people responsible for human rights abuses in the violent clashes after the 2007 elections to justice and to ensure that the victims receive adequate compensation to care. Neither has changed the state of impunity for state security personnel responsible for unlawful killings and torture, the report said. Other human rights organizations such as the Kenya National Commission of Human Rights (KNCHR) continue to complain about a “culture of impunity” in Kenya, as it has so far not been possible to find a local criminal court to try the perpetrators and backers of the violent clashes after the elections on Set up December 27, 2007. A final decision as to whether the ICC in The Hague will officially take on the Kenya case is still pending.
Human rights defenders faced threats and great personal risks. Human rights violations occur again and again in pogrom-like clashes between individual ethnic groups. Thousands of people have already been forcibly evicted from their homes. Sex crimes such as rape and forced circumcision of women and girls remain widespread. In March 2010, a study by the International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA) was published which found that women and girls with disabilities in Kenya are three times as likely to be victims of gender-based violence as non-disabled women. The study also found that incidents of this kind are practically never reported.
According to a UNICEF report, child prostitution in the East African country has assumed dramatic proportions. Almost a third of all girls between the ages of 12 and 18 have had sex for money or gifts. No condoms were used in around 36% of all sex acts with child prostitutes. According to the report, up to 15,000 girls between the ages of 12 and 18 on the Kenyan coasts are occasionally offering sex for money or material goods. That is up to 30% of this age group in the region. Two to three thousand boys and girls regularly prostituted themselves there. In addition to the human rights situation in Kenya, the Human Rights Report 2009 of the United States of America mentions human trafficking and the recruitment of child soldiers.
In Kenya there is a climate of social rejection, discrimination and violence against people based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. In 2007 the Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya publicly condemned homosexuality and opposed the legalization of same-sex marriages.
The penal code criminalizes and prohibits homosexual acts in general and has a maximum sentence of 14 years. A special clause explicitly mentions homosexual acts among men and provides for a maximum sentence of 21 years. In February 2010, three gay men were chased, ill-treated and nearly killed by a crowd instigated by a bishop in the coastal town of Mtwapa .
In the Turbi massacre, which involved cattle theft, pasture land and water rights, 90 people were killed in fighting between rival ethnic groups in 2005.
On April 10, 2006, a plane crash occurred near Marsabit in which 14 people were killed. Three inmates survived the crash of a Harbin Yunshuji Y 12 II Turbo Panda (Chinese development of the Ukrainian Antonov An-26 ), which raced into a hill in stormy weather and fog. The plane immediately burned out completely. The 14 people included high-ranking politicians. There were four (assistant) ministers, six parliamentarians, an Anglican bishop and other government employees. The group was on its way to hold peace talks with warring nomadic clans. Three of the politicians involved in the accident represented the clans that had settled there and had long been enemies. MP Dr. Bonaya Godana was a Gabbra , MP Abdi Sasura was a Borana, and Vice-Minister Titus Ngoyoni was a Rendille . Only recently had they agreed to work together for peace in the region. Since almost all of the dead on the plane came from this area, the province suddenly lost a large part of its political elite.
President Kibaki ordered three days of national mourning ; Parliament suspended its work for a week. The five by-elections required by the death brought three relatives of those killed to parliament on July 24, 2006. In Nakuru , William Kariuki Mirugi, the 28-year-old son of the late Mirugi Kariuki, won. He belonged to the then new NARC-K party - favored by former President Kibaki.
Corruption can be observed in Kenya in all terms of office of the three previous presidents Kenyatta, Moi and Kibaki. In Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI ) , Kenya ranks 145th out of 178 countries. One estimate is that the average Kenyan city dweller bribes 16 times a month, e.g. B. Police officers at road blocks. Certainly most of these bribes are small and not always to be found in the political arena. In the major corruption cases, be it bribery, waste or the diversion of funds in completely overpriced transactions, not only business people, but also government agencies, sometimes on a large scale, were involved.
Two of the most important corruption scandals were the Goldenberg scandal , in which Kenya lost 700 million euros in the early 1990s through counterfeit gold and diamond exports, and the Anglo leasing scandal .
Current politics is heavily preoccupied with the battle over corruption. In addition to the press and social groups, two bodies are officially fighting corruption:
- The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) - a committee of parliament - is headed by Uhuru Kenyatta .
- The Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (KACC) is headed by a director, since 2005 by the judge Aaron Ringera . This commission is the successor to the dissolved KACA. It is criticized that she only has investigative powers, but no criminal prosecution powers. At the same time, the former journalist John Githongo had been the President's independent anti-corruption advisor since 2003. He feared for his life because of threats and went into exile in London in 2005 . After four years in exile, Githongo returned to Kenya in 2009 to continue his fight against corruption.
The Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. They were formed from parts of the King's African Rifles in 1963, after Kenya gained independence . The KDF currently has a staff of 24,120 men, with 20,000 soldiers making up the largest share of the land forces ( Kenya Army ). The main task of the KDF is to secure the border to the neighboring country Somalia , where it has provided a contingent for AMISOM since 2007 . In 2017, Kenya spent just under 1.2 percent of its economic output, or $ 964 million, on its armed forces.
The state of Kenya has been divided into 47 counties since the constitutional reform in 2010:
|code||county||Capital||Population 2009||Population 2019|
|43||Homa Bay||Homa Bay||963.794||1,131,950|
Up until then, Kenya was divided into seven provinces and one capital district:
|map||No.||province||Area (km²)||Population 2015||Capital|
The largest cities are (as of 2009 census):
Kenya's gross national product has grown above average in the last few decades compared to other African countries. Since the population growth was also above average, this did not result in a significant improvement in the living conditions of most Kenyans. The unemployment rate was given in 2008 at around 40%, the inflation rate was around 26%. In 2019, however, the unemployment rate was 9.3%. Kenya's GDP per capita was US $ 1,512 in 2016, ranking 147th out of 188 countries in the world. In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Kenya ranks 91st out of 137 countries (as of 2017/2018). In 2017, it was ranked 135th out of 180 countries in the Economic Freedom Index .
Far more than half of Kenyans make a living from agriculture, but only about 20 percent of the country's surface is usable. The rest is mostly fallow or mountainous land due to poor soils or insufficient rainfall . In addition to coffee and tea , sisal and pyrethrum are also grown , which are used as the basis for many insecticides.
In the livestock industry, beef cattle and dairy cattle are predominant. The larger farms in the highlands of Kenya have reached a good level of development. Large herds of cattle , sheep , goats and even camels have to be fed with the country's meager resources.
The particularly species-rich Dakatcha tropical forest in the south-east of the country was threatened in 2011 by the planned construction of a Jatropha plantation by the company Kenya Jatropha Energy for the production of agricultural energy . The large-scale plantation would also have had an impact on the traditional agriculture of the more than 20,000 indigenous smallholders living in the area, which is why the project was generally controversial and was eventually stopped.
Kenya has very little mineral resources. A significant amount of sodium carbonate (e.g. in Lake Magadi) and salt is extracted , along with small amounts of gypsum , lead , gold , silver , copper , asbestos , limestone , graphite , fluorspar , diatomite and soapstone .
Kenya lives from the export of coffee and tea , from industry (machine and vehicle construction, textiles and clothing, food and luxury foods) and from tourism ( national parks and game reserves). The ivory trade and the shooting of elephants are prohibited, largely due to Richard Leakey's dedication .
Towards the end of the 1990s, as coffee lost its importance, the flower industry gained ground. In 2003, Kenya replaced Israel as the world's largest flower exporter and in 2005 was able to expand its market share of the European flower market to 31%.
Butter, meat, hides and hides from the livestock industry are exported.
Kenya has a large trade deficit due to a lack of productivity. In 2016, imports were more than twice as high as exports. The most important trading partners are now India and China.
|Change in gross domestic product (GDP)
in% compared to the previous year (real)
|Change in% yoy||6.9||0.2||3.3||8.4||6.1||4.6||5.9||5.4||5.7||5.8|
|Source: World Bank|
|Development of the inflation rate
in% compared to the previous year
|Development of the budget balance
in% of GDP
("minus" means deficit in the national budget)
|inflation rate||5.7||6.9||6.6||7.0||Budget balance||−5.1||−4.8||−5.2||−7.2|
|Development of foreign trade
(foreign trade in billion US $ and its change compared to the previous year in%)
|Billion US $||% yoy||Billion US $||% yoy||Billion US $||% yoy|
|Export (in percent) to||Import (in percent) of|
|United Kingdom||7.9||People's Republic of China||12.9|
|Tanzania||7.7||United Arab Emirates||8.3|
|United States||6.3||South Africa||5.0|
|United Arab Emirates||4.8||United Kingdom||3.4|
|other countries||49.5||other countries||42.1|
The national debt in 2016 was $ 37.4 billion, or 54.4% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
The sector of microfinance and cooperative banks is highly segmented in Kenya and incoherent. According to a 2007 report by the World Bank , it consists of more than 5,000 institutions. Many of them, such as the Kenya Women Finance Trust (KWFT) and the National Association of Self-Employed Women of Kenya , are specifically focused on women. Most of these institutions lack the capital to diversify their offerings, so they limit themselves to individual market niches .
In Kenya there is a multitude of different landscapes, all of which are characteristic of the African continent. Beautiful coastal areas and a long coral reef, wide savannas with large game animals, snow-capped peaks, desert and a small jungle (rainforest). All of this is essentially developed for tourism, both in terms of mass tourism - mostly on the coast - but also individual tourism - rather inland, e.g. B. when climbing Mount Kenya - is concerned. In addition to the white beaches on the coast, the main elements of tourism are the large national parks (see above).
In 2015 just under 1,114,000 tourists visited the country. Tourism income totaled $ 824 million in 2016 and is a major source of foreign currency.
Due to its proximity to the equator, Kenya is conveniently located for orbit rocket launches. With the San Marco Platform ( San Marco Equatorial Range - SMER, Centro Spaziale Luigi Broglio ) a rocket launch site was built off the coast of Kenya to launch solid fuel rockets from two former oil platforms and two supply ships off the Malindi coast . From 1964 to 1988 a total of 18 sounding rockets and nine Scout launch vehicles were launched. For example, the X-ray satellite Uhuru ("freedom" in Swahili) was brought into orbit from the San Marco platform in 1972 with a scout rocket . On February 16, 1980, some sounding rockets were launched from this platform to observe a total solar eclipse . The approval of the platforms expired in 2014.
There are a total of 3,000 kilometers of railway lines and almost 65,000 kilometers of roads in the Kenyan transport network; there is left-hand traffic . Road traffic is considered to be very unsafe. In 2013 there were a total of 29.1 road deaths for every 100,000 inhabitants in Kenya. For comparison: In Germany there were 4.3 deaths in the same year. A total of around 13,000 people were killed in traffic. The rate of road deaths is much higher when compared to the country's low motorization rate. In 2010 there were 24 motor vehicles for every 1000 inhabitants in Kenya (in Germany there were over 500 vehicles).
Trains have been running on the new Mombasa – Nairobi line since May 2017. This route was financed almost entirely by China.
The airline Kenya Airways employs nearly 3,000 workers and operates a route network. In Kenya there are two international airports, Nairobi and Mombasa, in addition to many small airports. Over 30 airlines fly to Nairobi.
The most popular means of transport in Kenya include Matatus and buses (e.g. Akamba, Easy Coach).
In the Logistics Performance Index , which is compiled by the World Bank and measures the quality of the infrastructure, Kenya ranked 68th out of 160 countries in 2018. Of all the countries in Africa, Kenya ranks third behind South Africa and Rwanda .
At the beginning of the 21st century, the number of mobile phone connections has increased significantly. There are around 19.4 million mobile phone connections and around 664,000 landline connections (as of 2009). Due to the increasing spread of internet cafes and the use of the cellular network, internet is available in many places . Almost 45% of the population used the internet in 2016. Kenya has one of the most developed digital infrastructures on the African continent. Payments in Kenya are now often processed using the M-Pesa payment system .
In 2010 only around 13% of Kenyan households were connected to the public electricity grid. The government plans to increase coverage to 22% by 2012, 65% by 2022 and finally to 100% by 2030. Accordingly, a sharp increase in peak load from around 1,300 megawatts el in 2010, over 2,500 MW in 2015 to 15,000 MW in 2030 is expected.
The installed capacity is to be increased to 19,200 MW by 2030, with 5110 MW from geothermal energy , 1039 MW from hydropower , 2036 MW from wind energy , 3615 MW from oil , 2420 MW from coal , 2000 MW from imports and 3000 MW from other energy sources become.
About 65% of Kenya is dependent on hydropower. However, long periods of drought since 2009 and extensive deforestation reduced the availability of hydropower plants to around 30%, which makes the increased use of oil-fired power plants necessary and thus leads to increased dependence on imports.
|Energy source||2011||Share 2011||Planned for 2030||
planned for 2030
|regenerative part||973||67.5%||approx. 11,000||approx. 60%|
Because of the low security of supply of the hydropower plants, Kenya is increasingly relying on other renewable energy sources.
- Geothermal energy
Kenya was the first African country to build a geothermal power plant in 1981 . The Olkaria I – III power plants owned by the state-owned energy producer KenGen as well as the privately owned Olkaria IV power plant in the Rift Valley Province cover 13.2% of Kenya's electricity requirements with a total output of 198 MW - Kenya is among the best in the world. By 2017, the capacity is to be expanded by 576 MW and cover around 35% of the total demand. Geological investigations showed a potential for geothermal energy between 7000 and 10,000 MW distributed over 14 deposits.
Kenya plans to expand its geothermal power plant capacity to 750 megawatts.
- Wind energy
In the Lake Turkana region was created with the Lake Turkana Wind Power Station is the largest wind farm in sub-Saharan Africa with a total capacity of 310 MW. The construction work on the 617 million euro project, in which a total of 365 wind turbines are used, began in 2015 and ran until 2017. By eliminating oil power plants, up to 700,000 tons of CO 2 emissions should be avoided each year.
- Nuclear energy
In September 2010, Energy Minister Patrick Nyoike announced that a nuclear power plant with a capacity of 1000 MW should be built by 2017 . The power plant was to be built using South Korean technology and cost around 2.6 billion euros (3.5 billion US dollars). After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, the start of construction was repeatedly postponed, but the general decision in favor of nuclear power did not change.
- solar power
In January 2014, the British daily The Guardian reported that Kenya plans to get more than half of its energy production from solar energy by 2016. The investment volume is measured at almost 885 million euros (1.2 billion dollars). By the end of 2013, around 370 million euros (500 million US dollars) had been invested in solar projects in Kenya. The country expects the expansion of solar energy to cut electricity prices by up to 80%.
In Kenya, only about 70% of the urban and only 48% of the rural population have clean drinking water. The Kenyan cities of Mombasa and Nairobi are supplied with water from the Mzima Springs. 200 million liters of drinking water gush out of the spring of Mzima Springs in Kenya's largest national park. The spring water comes from underground passages and is filtered through the surrounding lava rocks.
In the 2018 press freedom ranking published by Reporters Without Borders , Kenya was ranked 96th out of 180 countries. According to the non-governmental organization, there are "recognizable problems" with the situation of press freedom in the country. Again and again there are threats and attacks by local politicians and the police on investigative journalists. Somali journalists in exile are harassed by Kenyan Islamists as well as by official security agencies. Another problem is a controversial legal reform from 2013. If the media code is violated, journalists have faced ruinous fines and other drastic sanctions, which can lead to self-censorship.
In March 2006 there was a rather mysterious attack by a special police unit on the daily newspaper The Standard and its television station KTN . The usual surveillance cameras continued to run during the police operation. The special unit had forgotten to turn off the cameras or at least confiscate the videos. These images were broadcast on television the next day and could be downloaded worldwide from the Standard's website. The attack was carried out by a rapid reaction force called the Kanga Squad , commanded by officers from the CID secret police and the General Service Unit (GSU) paramilitary unit . The Kanga Squad were armed with Soviet Kalashnikovs and German G3 rifles. The attack took place simultaneously on the offices of the Standard and the KTN broadcasting rooms in Nairobi . At the same time, the printing facilities in the industrial area were shut down and stacks of freshly printed newspapers were set on fire. Equipment such as computers and documents were confiscated from the offices. The TV broadcast was interrupted immediately. As a later reason for the attack, the Interior Minister John Michuki gave a suspicion of alleged anti- subversive activities by the newspaper office. The newspaper had previously published that Kibaki was supposed to have secretly met with Kalonzo Musyoka , one of his strongest political opponents, in the presidential palace. The opposition protested.
On May 12, 2006, there was a similar attack on Radio Hope FM, a Christian station of the Nairobi Pentecostal Church , in which armed gangsters stormed the broadcasting rooms, shot a security guard and injured two other people, and then set the rooms on fire.
The Media Council of Kenya (MCK) then founded an ethics team on June 2, 2006 under the leadership of veteran journalist Mitch Odero , in order to be able to settle all allegations against the press themselves.
Several Kenyan authors are known worldwide, in particular Ngugi wa Thiongo (* 1938), who became known in 1964 with Weep not Child and is considered a candidate for the Nobel Prize in literature . Other well-known writers include Grace Ogot (1930–2015), Meja Mwangi (* 1948) and Binyavanga Wainaina (1971–2019).
Museums and Archives
Most of the Kenyan museums, which are spread across the country, are managed by the National Museums of Kenya (NMK).
- Nairobi National Museum ; there, interdisciplinary natural history, zoological, anthropological, cultural and historical aspects are dealt with.
- Fort Jesus in Mombasa
- Gedi ruins , in Gedi near Malindi
- Hyrax Hill at Nakuru
- Jumba la Mtwana , in Mtwapa near Mombasa
- Kabarnet Museum in Kabarnet
- Karen Blixen Museum in Nairobi
- Kapenguria Museum in Kapenguria
- Kariandusi Museum near Gilgil
- Kisumu Museum in Kisumu
- Kitale Museum in Kitale
- Koobi Fora in the Sibiloi National Park
- Lamu Museum in Lamu
- Meru Museum in Meru
- Mnarani ruins in Kilifi
- Narok Museum in Narok
- Olorgesailie near Lake Magadi
- Siyu Fort on Pate Island
- Takwa on Manda Island
- Thimlich Ohinga 45 km west of Migori
music and dance
Nairobi in particular offers frequent national or international music, dance and acrobatics shows, be it in large hotels, theaters, schools or cultural centers. The Gonda Traditional Entertainers , the Bomas of Kenya and the Original Zengala Band are dedicated to tradition .
The most famous bands from Kenya are the Safari Sound Band and Them Mushrooms , both of which have recorded traditional Swahili songs in modern versions. They are among the representatives of hotel pop, bands that make music in hotels for foreign tourists.
Kenya has a rich choral music scene with a heavy emphasis on religious singing. One of the best-known choirs is the Muungano National Choir under the direction of Boniface Mganga, who also sings the well-known Congolese Missa Luba .
Well-known Kenyan singers are: Susan Awiyo, Merry Johnson, Alex and Merry Ominde, Kim4Love, Necessary Noize (singer: Nazizi), Longombaz and Redsan, Juacali.
Theater life is strongly influenced by school theater. Competitions and festivals are held every year in the districts, provinces and nationally. The pieces that move around the genre of popular theater - and thematically z. B. frequently addressing AIDS or early pregnancy - are often shown on television.
There are few classic theater venues, such as the Kenya National Theater , which however does not have a permanent ensemble, but rather provides space for national and international troops and show events.
Well-known theater groups are Heartstrings Ensemble, Mbalamwezi Players, Tufani, Hearts Ablaze and Winds of Change. Well-known actors are Winnifred Gitao, Angel Waruinge, Antony Kinuthia and Benta Stephanie Ochieng. Mumbi Kaugwa is also a playwright and director.
The only permanent troupe with their own venue, mostly lay people with good acting quality, are the Phoenix Players Theater Company . The theater room is located in the Professional Center in downtown Nairobi. The troupe emerged under its founder James Falkland in 1984 from the colonial Donovan Maule Theater , run by the Maule family and no longer viable in modern Kenya. The Phoenix Players have dedicated themselves to the topic of anti-HIV with a special program. They live on their members and donors, but still fight for their existence.
Otherwise, the cultural centers of major nations in Nairobi offer theater groups and halls in which theater is played periodically, such as the French Cultural Center, the Alliance française or the Goethe-Institut .
Because of these conditions, a small but lively theater scene has developed. Authors like Cajetan Boy or Jimmy Makotsi write modern authentic pieces in English or Swahili.
Film life in the big cities is dominated by the US mainstream and Bollywood (due to the strong Indian minority in the country). The Alliance Française and the Goethe-Institut in Nairobi organize z. B. Children's film festivals.
A relatively large number of internationally awarded films are made in Kenya. B. Out of Africa (1986), Nowhere in Africa (2001), The White Maasai (2004), The Eternal Gardener (2005) or Africa, mon amour (2007).
For television, the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC), films are also produced in the country. B. Reflections or Naliaka from Brutus Serucho.
Public holidays were redefined in the 2010 Constitution. Holidays such as October 10 ( Moi Day , in honor of the former President Daniel arap Moi ) have been deleted. October 20th ( Kenyatta Day , in honor of the first President Jomo Kenyatta ) has been renamed Mashujaa Day - a day of remembrance for all heroes in Kenyan history. Idd ul-Azha and Diwali are only public holidays for members of the respective faith. If a public holiday falls on a Sunday, the next following working day becomes a holiday.
On certain occasions, individual days are repeatedly declared to be public holidays; however, these only apply in the corresponding year. For example, on the occasion of US President Barack Obama's election victory, November 6, 2008 was declared a public holiday as Obama Day .
|January 1st||New Years Day||New Year|
|March April||Good Friday||Good Friday||Date variable, depending on the appearance of the moon|
|March April||Easter Monday||Easter Monday||Date variable, depending on the appearance of the moon|
|1st of May||Labor Day||First of May|
|June 1st||Madaraka Day||-||see Jomo Kenyatta|
|September October||Idd ul-Fitr||Feast of Breaking the Fast||Date variable, depending on the appearance of the moon|
|the 20th of October||Mashujaa Day||Day of heroes||celebrated as Kenyatta Day prior to the 2010 constitution|
|October November||Diwali||Hindu festival of lights||Date variable, depending on the appearance of the moon|
|12th of December||Jamhuri Day||day of the Republic||National Day, Independence from Great Britain (1963)|
|25 December||Christmas Day||Christmas|
|December 26th||Boxing Day||Christmas Day|
|Idd ul-Azha||Islamic Festival of Sacrifice||Date variable, depending on the appearance of the moon|
Together with the African countries Ethiopia and Morocco , Kenya regularly provides the best long-distance runners in the world, especially in the Olympic disciplines of 5000 meters , 10,000 meters , obstacles and marathons . At the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Kenyan athletes were also able to win medals in shorter running distances (1500 m, 800 m and 400 m hurdles) and in the men's javelin. While the basis for long-distance running is usually already laid in elementary school, because the long distances to school are covered continuously, the best talents are discovered in joint training camps. Since the income situation in Kenya is limited, long-distance running is the main source of income. Since Title IX was initiated , American university sports programs have also specialized in recruiting young female runners in Kenya. Compared to the European training system, Kenya trains more often in large groups, with a selection of the best being made on the spot, because (almost) every training session is an elimination race. In the running culture , the traditional tribal culture of the shepherds of the savannah meets the post-colonial lifestyle of unlimited possibilities. Genetics , tradition , high-altitude training and an international market for endurance races favor runners from the Rift Valley in particular . The most famous athletes include a. Kipchoge Keino , Ben Jipcho , Abel Kirui , Catherine Ndereba , Samuel Kamau Wanjiru , Wilson Kipsang and Eliud Kipchoge .
- Charles Hornsby: Kenya: A History Since Independence . IB Tauris, New York City 2012, ISBN 978-1-78076-501-3 .
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office , the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and the Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs on Kenya
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in Kenya
- Anti-Corruption Commission
- Kenya Wildlife Service , responsible for national parks and animal welfare
- APRM - Country Review Report of the Republic of Kenya, May 2006 ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- CIA World Factbook: Kenya May 14, 2015 (English)
- 2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume I: Population by County and Sub-County
- Google Public Data Explorer. Google Inc. , accessed January 8, 2017 .
-  United Nations Development Program ( UNDP ),
- Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010 : 66 billion. Imf.org.
- Harenberg Country Lexicon. All 192 countries in the world at a glance. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1998, p. 521.
- National parks in Kenya. Retrieved August 19, 2018 .
- Country database of the German Foundation for World Population
- DWS data report 2017. Retrieved on May 1, 2018 .
- Life expectancy at birth, total (years) | Data. Retrieved August 3, 2017 (American English).
- Kenya - Country Profile. International Human Development Indicators - UNDP, archived from the original on October 31, 2011 ; Retrieved June 8, 2013 .
- Life expectancy: Life tables Kenya. who.int, accessed June 8, 2013 .
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
- Kenyan Census 2009. (PDF; 1.7 MB) Archived from the original on August 10, 2013 ; Retrieved November 2, 2011 .
- Rifts in the Rift, The Economist, January 23, 2016
- Stateless Persons - Kenya. UNHCR, accessed November 7, 2017 .
- Migration Report 2017. UN, accessed on September 30, 2018 (English).
- Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990-2017 . In: Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project . February 28, 2018 ( pewglobal.org [accessed September 30, 2018]).
- (NO Ogechi: On language rights in Kenya, p. 287)
- (Ogechi, p. 290)
- (Ogechi, p. 288)
- (Ogechi, p. 290 f)
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on Kenya Auswaertiges-Amt.de. Accessed May 26, 2014
- Martin Holland: Kenya: Court cancels presidential election after hacking accusation In: heise.de, September 1, 2017
- guardian.com: Kenyan supreme court annuls Uhuru Kenyatta election victory
- HIV and AIDS estimates (2011). on: unaids.org
- Life expectancy at birth, total (years) | Data. Retrieved January 6, 2018 (American English).
- The Children Act 2001 (PDF file, 1.6 MB) National Council for Law Reporting, accessed September 23, 2013 .
- Horn of Africa Drought Crisis: Situation Report No. 5. (PDF; 166.76 kB) reliefweb.int, July 21, 2011, accessed on June 8, 2013 .
- Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) | Data. Retrieved March 10, 2018 (American English).
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 12, 2017 (English).
- Human Development Data (1990-2015) | Human Development Reports. Retrieved August 2, 2018 .
- Domestic Policy. Retrieved July 12, 2017 .
- Democracy-Index 2019 Overview chart with comparative values to previous years , on economist.com
- Kenya. Retrieved January 2, 2018 .
- Loren B Landau / Jean Pierre Misago: Who to Blame and What's to Gain? Reflections on Space, State, and Violence in Kenya and South Africa Afrika Spectrum Vol. 44 N ° 1 (2009), Institute for Africa Studies of the GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies , Hamburg
- A deeply divided country votes on a new constitution. In: time online. 4th August 2010.
- Foreign Policy. Retrieved July 12, 2017 .
- Kenya: Text of Supreme Court Decision Upholding Election Results. allafrica.com, March 30, 2013, accessed September 22, 2013 .
- Kenya election results 2013. Kenya Today, July 18, 2013, accessed September 22, 2013 .
- Summary of results for member of national assembly. IEBC, July 18, 2013, accessed September 22, 2013 .
- Kenya: Election Commission reports almost 100 percent for Kenyatta. spiegel.de from October 30, 2017, accessed on November 1, 2017
- Human rights situation in Kenya. Federal Foreign Office, November 1, 2010, accessed on March 22, 2011 .
- Kenya Annual Report 2010 Amnesty International
- UNICEF report in English as PDF The Extent and Effect of Sex Tourism and Sexual Exploitation of Children on the Kenyan Coast
- 2009 Human Rights Report: Kenya BUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR (in English)
- Felix Wadewitz, Matthias Mengel: “I'm tired” in Die Zeit
- Süddeutsche Zeitung Homosexuals in Africa - Being gay as a crime (page visited on June 16, 2010)
- The Standard Church-instigated Mob Wanted to Lynch Homosexuals (page visited June 17, 2010)
- Corruption Perceptions Index 2016. transparency.org, accessed June 8, 2013 .
- David Bamford: Githongo reassured after meeting . In: BBC , February 13, 2006. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Home | SIPRI. Retrieved July 10, 2017 (English).
- Kenya: Administrative(Provinces and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map. Retrieved January 3, 2019 .
- Kenya - Major Cities
- Unemployment rate. ceicdata.com, accessed February 10, 2020
- At a Glance: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 . ( weforum.org [accessed December 6, 2017]).
- Ranking at heritage.org (English)
- Kenya: Save the Dakatcha Forest! www.salveaselva.org, accessed September 6, 2011 .
- Kenya: The forest has been saved. regenwald.org (2012), accessed December 6, 2017
- GDP growth (annual%) | Data. Retrieved July 29, 2017 (American English).
- Germany Trade and Invest GmbH: GTAI - economic data compact. Retrieved July 29, 2017 .
- Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved July 13, 2017 (American English).
- The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4 .
- Amanda Ellis, Jozefina Cutura, Nouma Dione, Ian Gillson, Clare Manuel, Judy Thongori: Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya: Unleashing the Power of Women . World Bank, Washington DC 2007, ISBN 978-0-8213-6919-7 , p. 42
- UNWTO 2017. World Tourism Organization, accessed August 14, 2018 .
- Global status report on road safety 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2018 (British English).
- Global Rankings 2018 | Logistics Performance Index. Retrieved September 14, 2018 .
- systems: Africa embraces mobile technology - manager magazin . In: manager magazin . ( manager-magazin.de [accessed on July 6, 2017]).
- Ministry of Energy - Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Program (English) May 2011.
- reuters.com - Kenya seeks sites for nuclear power plant (English) November 26, 2010.
- newstimeafrica.com - China Extends KSh 7.4 Billion Loan for Geothermal in Kenya (English) April 14, 2010.
- - Kenya is looking for investors for geothermal energy (German) January 14, 2014.
- reuters.com - Kenyan wind farm gets UN carbon credit approval (English) May 24, 2011.
- bloomberg.com - Kenya Aims to Build a Nuclear Power Plant by 2017 (English) September 20, 2010.
- - Kenya: Over 50 percent solar energy (German) January 17, 2014.
- GTZ.Wasser ( Memento of 8 January 2010 at the Internet Archive )
- Information and pictures of the Mzima Springs , safari-afrika.de. Accessed May 26, 2014
- Reporters Without Borders eV: Kenya. Retrieved July 15, 2018 .
- The Phoenix Players. phoenixtheatre.co.ke, accessed June 8, 2013 .
- Africa, mon amour in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Kenyan Holidays and Business hours (PDF file, English) January 10, 2011.
- Kenya makes November 6th a public holiday. spiegel.de
- Home of numerous top runners: Kenya. In Ö Runner's World. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- Arnd Krüger : Many roads lead to Olympia. The changes in training systems for medium and long distance runners (1850–1997). In: N. Gissel (Hrsg.): Sporting performance in change. Czwalina, Hamburg 1998, pp. 41-56.
- John Bale, Joe Sang: Kenyan running. Movement culture, geography and global change. F. Cass, London 2003.