|የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ|
yä-Ityop̣p̣əya Federalawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripäblik
|Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia|
|Form of government||Parliamentary Federal Republic|
|Government system||Parliamentary system|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
Abiy Ahmed Ali
|Population density||95 inhabitants per km²|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.470 ( 173. ) (2018)|
Wädäfit Gäsgeshi Wudd Ennate Ityop'ya
|National holiday||28th of May|
|Time zone||UTC + 3|
|ISO 3166||ET , ETH, 231|
Ethiopia [ ʔɛˈtʰi̯oːpʰi̯ən ] ( Amharic ኢትዮጵያ Ityop̣p̣əya , from ancient Greek Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia ) is a landlocked country in northeast Africa . At the time of the Abyssinian Empire , the country was also known as Abyssinia (more rarely also Abyssinia). The country in the Horn of Africa borders Eritrea , Sudan , South Sudan , Kenya , Somalia and Djibouti .
With over 80 ethnic groups and several languages, Ethiopia is a multiethnic state and the most populous landlocked state in the world. In the 2019 Human Development Index , Ethiopia was ranked 173 out of 189 countries rated. A major obstacle to development is the very rapid population growth in a traditionally rural environment in which there is often a lack of elementary infrastructure . The capital Addis Ababa , on the other hand, is one of the largest metropolises in Africa. By urbanization and other growing cities like Gondar , Mek'ele , Adama , Awassa , Bahir Dar and Dire Dawa .
Ethiopia is considered one of the countries of origin of modern man and the country of origin of coffee . It looks back on around 3000 years of uninterrupted history . It was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy only once in its entire known history, shortly before and during the Second World War , and was able to successfully defend itself against all other attempts at European colonization . This long period of almost undisturbed development of culture and civilization from outside makes the country, which has nine UNESCO World Heritage sites, a popular tourist destination .
After the Second World War, Emperor Haile Selassie partially modernized the country. In 1974, the more than 800-year-old monarchy ended with a coup , which was followed by a socialist one-party dictatorship. In 1991, the rebel alliance EPRDF came to power after a civil war . The EPRDF has since established itself as a ruling party and governs largely authoritarian in a federal system . From around 2005, the Ethiopian economy began to grow at a rapid pace (see list of countries by economic growth ).
In 2019, the country was ranked 125th out of 167 in the democracy index, even though the BTI report from 2020 noted cautious successes in political and economic transformation.
Ethiopia is located in East Africa and is the tenth largest country in Africa in terms of area, around three times the size of Germany . In terms of population, the country ranks second behind Nigeria . Its borders are 5328 km long and separate the country for 349 km from Djibouti , 912 km from Eritrea , 861 km from Kenya , 1600 km from Somalia , 883 km from South Sudan and 723 km from Sudan .
Between 1952 and 1993, Ethiopia had access to the sea , which was lost with the independence of Eritrea.
The national nature of Ethiopia has a special role within Africa. Along with Lesotho, Ethiopia is the highest country on the continent: 50 percent of its area is higher than 1200 meters, more than 25 percent over 1800 meters, and more than 5 percent even reach heights of over 3500 meters. Nevertheless, most of the highlands have the character of a low mountain range . The climate here is temperate. The edges of the highlands and the cuts of the rivers ( Blue Nile , Omo , Tekeze ) are very steep.
Most of Ethiopia is occupied by the highlands of Abyssinia ; The capital Addis Ababa ( ) is also located in these extensive high mountains . The highest mountain in the highlands is Ras Daschän ( ); other four-thousand-meter peaks are the Talo ( ), the Guma Terara ( ) and the Guge ( ). The Great African Rift Valley (also called the Abyssinian Rift ) runs through the middle of the country in a northeast-southwest direction . On the southeast side of the Somali highlands with the Deemtu ( ). The deepest part of the state is in the Koba depression (or Afar depression ) on Lake Karum west of the border with Eritrea.
In terms of natural resources, gold , tantalum and precious stones are the most common in Ethiopia . In addition, the country has proven deposits of platinum metals , niobium , nickel , copper , chromium , manganese , lime , sandstone , gypsum , clay , lignite , opal , oil shale , laterite , iron ore , bentonite , perlite , diatomite , potash and rock salt . Oil and gas deposits are suspected in Gambela and Somali , among others .
There are three different climatic zones : the tropical hot zone up to 1800 m, the warm temperate zone from 1800 to 2500 m and the cool zone above 2500 m. In the capital Addis Ababa, which is at an altitude of around 2400 m, the average daytime temperature at noon is between 8 and 24 ° C.
In the tropical hot zone ( Qolla ) it is on average 27 ° C warm with an annual rainfall of less than 500 mm. The warm temperate zone ( Woyna Dega ) is 22 ° C warm with 500 to 1500 mm of precipitation per year. In the mountain area ( Dega , over 2500 m) only 16 ° C are measured, and the amount of rain rises to 1800 mm of precipitation. The main rainy season is between mid-June and September, and there is a small rainy season between February and March.
Ethiopia has a long history of extreme weather events. Precipitation is very often very concentrated as convection storms. In the last three decades there have been countless local droughts and seven major droughts, some of which have resulted in famine. With regard to future changes as a result of global warming , the situation is expected to deteriorate, which could exacerbate soil erosion , desertification, loss of biodiversity and recurrent flooding. According to the National Action Program for Adaptation (NAPA), agriculture, water resources and human health will be most adversely affected by climate change.
The largest lake is the Tana lake . In large African grave breach , there are many mostly volcanic lakes. The Shala is the largest crater lake and the deepest in the country. The Langano is because of its high content of sodium one of the few lakes where you can swim because it free of Bilharzioseerregern is.
Ethiopia is hydrologically dominated by the Nile. The Blue Nile, which flows from Lake Tana, donates 80% of the water of the Nile at its mouth. The source rivers of the Sobat, which flows into the White Nile, represent another large inflow of the Nile (about 10%). Ethiopia may not be the source of the Nile, but it is the source of most of the water that eventually flows through it into the Mediterranean. In addition, the endorhean rivers Awash and Omo, following the rift valley, have their source in the East African state; likewise the headwaters of the Juba, which drain on the other side of the rift valley towards the Indian Ocean.
The main rivers in Ethiopia are the Blue Nile , the Akobo , the Awash , the Juba , the Ganale , the Omo , the Tekeze-Setit and the Wabi Shebelle . The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam has been under construction on the Blue Nile since 2011 .
Flora and fauna
Due to its varied topography, diverse geological layers and different climatic conditions, Ethiopia is home to a diverse flora and fauna. From the savannah to evergreen wet forests to regions with an alpine climate, many habitats have established themselves here.
Ethiopia is one of the eight gene centers on earth. The Ethiopian flora includes approximately 7,000 higher plant species, approximately twelve percent of which are endemic . Ethiopia is the country of origin of coffee and various types of grain, such as teff , as well as the ornamental banana (ensete). Over 20 different cultivated plants come from this country.
The umbrella acacia, baobab , juniper and sycamore fig tree are typical tree species in the country. One of the great environmental problems of Ethiopia is the deforestation , which led to the fact that many of these species were considerably weakened in their populations at the beginning of the 20th century. Afforestation with fast-growing eucalyptus trees in 1905 meant that these now make up the majority of the trees in Ethiopia. The settlement of Prosopis Juliflora in parts of the Afar region , which began in the 1970s, has developed into a similar problem . The extremely invasive plant is seen by the local population as a threat to their agriculture.
Among the numerous animal species are 30 mammal species (12 percent) (including the Ethiopian wolf , the Ethiopian ibex , the summer ring gazelle , the Dschelada and the mountain nyala ), 23 bird species (2.6 percent) (including the ore raven , the blue-winged goose , the Rougets Ralle and the Klunkeribis ), three reptile (3.9 percent) and 17 amphibian species (31.5 percent) are endemic.
There are 13 national parks in Ethiopia (as of 2012). The National Park Simien Mountains (Engl. Simien Mountains) is part of the World Heritage of UNESCO .
The protected area system is supplemented by around 100 other national protected areas with different protection status.
The vast majority of paleoanthropologists call eastern Africa the cradle of humanity . Long before there was writing or a tradition to which we can refer today, there were pre-humans and early representatives of the homo genus in the area of present-day Ethiopia . Numerous remains of such pre-humans (for example Australopithecus afarensis ) were found in Ethiopia (" Lucy " 1974 in Hadar ; DIK 1-1 (called "Selam") 2000 in Dikika ).
Ancient empire of Aksum
The northern Ethiopian empire of Aksum (also Axum), which was one of the first Christian kingdoms in the world, is considered to be one of the important "world empires" (according to the prophet Mani ) in the period of late antiquity . It also ruled (but only for a short time) parts of the southern Arabian Peninsula and northern Sudan, but not parts of what is now southern Ethiopia. How long parts of today's Sudan south of Atbara were under Aksumite rule is disputed; This rule, which was established for a short time in the 4th century, was probably limited to temporary tribute payments. With the expansion of Islam in the 7th century ( Islamic expansion ), Ethiopian Christianity was geographically isolated.
Contacts to modern Europe
From the 14th century on, the Ethiopian rulers sought contacts and alliances with the Christian empires in late medieval Europe. European soldiers of fortune made repeated appearances at the court of the Negus , and European art was in vogue in Ethiopia .
In 1493 the Portuguese Pêro da Covilhã reached the court of the Negus. He was supposed to promote a Portuguese-Ethiopian alliance, since it was at this time that Portugal began to establish its rule in the Indian Ocean . In 1543 Portuguese auxiliary troops under the son of Vasco da Gama , Cristóvão da Gama , supported the Ethiopians at the Negus' appeal for help against the troops of Ahmed Graññ of the Sultanate of Adal , who they inflicted a crushing defeat. However, their plan to convert the country to Catholicism failed.
In the course of colonialism , Ethiopia repeatedly had to resist the influence of European powers, first under Emperor Tewodros of the British Ethiopia expedition of 1868 , then at the end of the 19th century the influence of the Italians and their colony Eritrea . Despite the modern weapons of the Italian army, the Ethiopians fought back the Italian invaders in 1896 under Emperor Menelik II - who had also provided modern weapons and artillery in good time ( Battle of Adua ). This result is considered to be an important victory for an African against a European army and in the following years it became an integral part of the Ethiopian national consciousness.
Securing independence was followed by conquests in the south, east and west of today's national territory. The newly conquered areas fell under an archaic-feudal system of land grabbing.
In 1931 Emperor issued Haile Selassie , the first constitution of the country . In the interwar period , Ethiopia joined the League of Nations . On October 2, 1935, Mussolini, the Duce of the fascist Kingdom of Italy , declared war on Ethiopia and began the War of Abyssinia . There was a massive and systematic use of poison gas on the part of Italy . Although the Italian army tried to destroy the country's upper class with mass shootings, it never succeeded in controlling the entire country. Emperor Haile Selassie was temporarily expelled. Between 1935 and 1941, between 350,000 and 760,000 Ethiopians fell victim to the Italian urge to expand, that is, between five and ten percent of the total population. During their brief rule in Ethiopia, the Italians introduced a system of racial segregation that bore certain similarities to apartheid in South Africa. Italian rule over the colony of Italian East Africa , which consisted of occupied Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea , Italian Somaliland and Oltre Giuba , ended in World War II. Ethiopia was liberated from British and local troops, and the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Addis Ababa in May 1941. The right to vote for women was introduced in 1955: the constitution of November 4, 1955 guaranteed general active and passive suffrage for adults, including women .
At the beginning of the 1970s, the empire fell into a serious crisis. The impoverished peasants suffered from the taxes paid to the large landowners, and the aspiring bourgeoisie of Addis Ababa saw its opportunities for political development restricted. The inflation due to the drought of 1973 and the oil crisis sparked mass demonstrations by students and strike waves from. Finally, at the beginning of 1974, parts of the Ethiopian army also revolted . Haile Selassie was overthrown on September 12, 1974.
Socialist military dictatorship 1974–1991
The military quickly seized the revolution, and a military administrative council under the leadership of Major Mengistu Haile Mariam took power. On March 21, 1975 the monarchy was abolished, which, according to the tradition in the national epic Kebra Negest, refers to the foundation by Menelik I in the 10th century BC. The declining empire ended and the country became a socialist people's republic.
Military clashes with neighboring countries soon followed. In 1977/1978 an invasion of Somalia was repelled during the Ogaden War with the support of the Soviet Union and Cuba . Due to the excessive repression against the civilian population, separatists in Eritrea gained increasing support. In Tigray was Tigrayan People's Liberation Front active, and also in the south and east of the country there was armed resistance against the government.
In 1984, Ethiopia came under the Ethiopian Labor Party in the spotlight of the world through a report on BBC television. Years of lack of rainfall in the Sahel zone led to crop failures and famine in twenty African countries. Because of the ongoing civil war, Ethiopia was hardest hit by this disaster. The famine in Ethiopia in 1984–1985 claimed between half a million and one million victims.
In 1991 the regime finally collapsed. A political coalition of different liberation movements, the Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian Peoples , took power and introduced a federal system with autonomous regions for the largest peoples. This coalition, led by the Tigray People's Liberation Front, democratized the country and has been in power ever since.
Tensions with Eritrea 1998–2018 and internal conflicts
Under the new interim government of Meles Zenawis , Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in May 1993 after almost 30 years of war. However, border disputes and presumably economic disputes again led to war between the two countries in 1998 . After the Ethiopian air force bombed the Eritrean capital Asmara and an invasion by Ethiopian ground troops, the Ethiopian ground forces withdrew shortly before Asmara. Thus, no conflicting party emerged victorious from the war. The conflict ended with the Algiers Agreement in December 2000, according to which the blue helmet soldiers of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) monitor the (fragile) peace. On April 13, 2002, the Independent Boundary Commission issued a final recommendation to resolve the dispute ( Eritrea Ethiopia Boundary Commission , EEBC). A year after the announcement, however, Ethiopia rejected it on the grounds that the city of Badme , which had been the starting point of the war, should, contrary to what the Commission had proposed, continue to belong to Ethiopia. Since then there has been an uneasy peace between the two warring parties.
In 2015, as a result of an extreme drought followed by massive floods and simultaneous social inequality, protests developed. These were partly put down by police forces from the government of Hailemariam Desalegn , with several hundred people dead by October 2016.
On June 5, 2018, the Ethiopian government declared its readiness to accept the provisions of the 2002 border agreement. This also includes handing Badme over to Eritrea. On July 8, 2018, Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that Ethiopia and Eritrea would resume diplomatic relations . At the same time a peace treaty was concluded between the two countries. Abiy was honored with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019 for this reconciliation policy in particular .
Protests developed in October 2019, in which at least 67 people died after Jawar Mohammed , a media owner , political activist and leader of the 2016 protest movement, suspected and announced an impending killing. After the murder of the Ethiopian Oromo musician Hachalu Hundessa and a mourning meeting that was broken up by the police with tear gas, protests broke out across the country at the end of June 2020, in which more than 160 people died within a few days.
Ethiopia has a large and rapidly growing population. At the beginning of the 20th century, about 11 million people lived in Ethiopia, by 1960 the population doubled to about 22 million people, by 1987 about 44 million people lived in the country and for 2016 it was estimated to be 100 million. Between 1994 and 2007, the population grew by 2.6 percent annually, which is due to the rapidly increasing life expectancy and high fertility at the same time . In 2040, the population will be around 136 million if fertility falls rapidly or around 161 million if it falls slowly. By 2050 it is expected to be one of the ten most populous countries in the world. Fertility reached 6.6 children per woman in the 1980s and has since declined to about 4.6 children per woman. The number of children is still high in the countryside, while it has fallen sharply in the cities. Addis Ababa is the only city in Africa where it is 1.3 below the substitute level of 2.1 children per woman. Since the urban population only accounts for 16 percent of the total population of Ethiopia, population growth will persist at around 2.5 percent per year. With the slight decrease in fertility, the dependency quotient also fell from 1.12 in 1984 to 0.91 in 2007.
It is therefore controversial whether Ethiopia is already at the beginning of the demographic transition and can benefit from it, or whether the high population growth will also have a negative impact on the country's economic development in the future.
Due to the rapid growth, 45 percent of Ethiopians are under 15 years old while only 3.1 percent of the population are older than 65 years. In 2020, almost 750,000 refugees, mainly from neighboring countries, were registered in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with 120 ethnic groups, ranging in size from several million to a few hundred. Although geographically sub-Saharan Africa is included, large parts of the country are strongly influenced in their historical and cultural development by influences from the Middle East.
The country has been dominated by the Amhars on the political and cultural level since the end of the 19th century . Although they officially represent only about 27 percent of the population, their language is Amharic , the official language and especially in the cities as a lingua franca widespread. Together with the Tigray , who make up about six percent of the Ethiopian population, they traditionally settled as farmers in the northern highlands, the heartland of the historic Ethiopian Empire. Amharen and Tigray can be summarized under the Ethio-Semitic term Habescha (Abyssinian), both languages belong to the Ethiosemitic languages . Most of them are followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church .
The Oromo , however, form the numerically largest ethnic group . They were previously known as "Galla", which in Amharic also means "pagan" or "non-Christian"; today this term is considered pejorative and out of date. The Oromo live in the south, east and west of the country and officially make up 34 percent of the population. Many Oromo are Muslims, but there are also Ethiopian Orthodox and Protestant Christians among them. The Oromo belong to the Cushitic language group . This also includes the Somali (6.2 percent) and Afar (1.7 percent) in the lowland areas in the east of the country, the Agau (various subgroups in the northern highlands, together more than 1 percent) and the Sidama (4 percent) , Hadiyya (1.7 percent) and others in the southern highlands.
In the west of the country, in the border areas with Sudan and South Sudan, there are also smaller minorities who speak Nilo-Saharan languages , such as Berta (0.25 percent), Gumuz (0.22 percent), Anuak (0.12 percent), Nuer (0.2 percent) and Majangir (0.03 percent). Some of these ethnic groups also live in Sudan and South Sudan. They used to be pejoratively called Shanqella by the highland Ethiopians . They are usually of darker skin color and are therefore considered black Africans , from whom the highland inhabitants distinguish themselves.
In 2017, 1.2% of the population was born abroad. Most of them are refugees from Eritrea, Somalia and South Sudan.
Over 80 languages are spoken in Ethiopia. The official language at the federal level is Amharic , which belongs to the (South) Semitic branch of Afro-Asian and is spoken as a mother tongue by around 19.8 million people and as a second language by another 4 million Ethiopians. With around 25.5 million speakers, the Cushitic Oromo is the language with the most speakers. However, the number of speakers in individual languages is often a political issue and information on this should therefore be treated with caution. English is the language of education and is used as the language of instruction in high schools. In individual states, whose borders were drawn along language borders, the regional languages Oromo, Tigrinya , Somali , Afar and Harari serve as the working language of the authorities; In addition to the Amhara region, Amharic is also the working language in the ethnically and linguistically mixed regions of Gambela , Benishangul-Gumuz and in the region of the southern nations, nationalities and peoples . Other languages such as Sidama and Kafficho are used locally in primary schools.
In 2020 the cabinet decided to approve Oromo, Tigrinya, Somali and Afar as further official languages at the federal level.
The languages of Ethiopia belong - very unevenly - to two large language families: Afro-Asian (formerly called Semito-Hamitic) and Nilo-Saharan . Almost 99 percent of this is Afro-Asian, which is represented in Ethiopia with its branches Semitic (predominantly in the northern half of the country), Omotic (in the southwest) and Cushitic (in the south, west and east). The Nilo-Saharan languages (in western Ethiopia, with the branches Nilotic , Surmish and Komuz ) only make up between 500,000 and 1 million speakers.
The Ethiopian Sign Language is spoken by between 250,000 and 1 million people. The basis of this language is likely to be the American Sign Language , which belongs to the family of French sign languages .
As different as the ethnicity is also the religious one. The most important religious communities are the Ethiopian Orthodox Christians , the Sunni Muslims and various Ethiopian Evangelical churches. Small minorities are the followers of traditional religions , Catholics and Jews . The Ethiopian Jews ( Falascha , Beta Isra'el) were almost completely evacuated to Israel in three air missions .
There are contradicting statements about the religious composition of the population in Ethiopia. The provisional results of the last census from 2007 give the following figures: 62.8 percent Christians - of which 43.5 percent Ethiopian Orthodox (1994 census: 50.6 percent), 18.6 percent Protestants (1994: 10.2 percent) and 0.7 percent Catholics - versus 33.9 percent Muslims (1994: 32.8 percent), 2.6 percent followers of traditional religions (1994: 4.6 percent) and 0.6 percent others (e.g. atheists, 1994 : 1.8 percent). In various encyclopedias and reference works, on the other hand, numbers are given that sometimes differ greatly from these official figures. The proportion of Christians is between 40 and 55 percent and that of Muslims varies between 40 and 50 percent. The comparatively low proportion of Muslims in the population in the official figures is also viewed with skepticism on the part of academics:
“The 1994 CSA census put the percentage of the Muslim population of Ethiopia at 32.8%, however, this number is doubted by Muslims and many scholars alike. A percentage of approx. 45% Muslims in Ethiopia […] is believed to be a more realistic estimate. "
For the Rastafarian religious community , Emperor Haile Selassie and the country itself are of central importance. A very small group of followers of this religious movement lives in Shashemene south of Addis Ababa (in Oromia), since African returnees first from the USA , later from Jamaica and then from all over the world settled there.
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Christianity spread in Ethiopia at the beginning of the 4th century . Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, which is particularly widespread among the Amhars and Tigray , is the country's most historically significant religion. Together with Armenia and Georgia, Ethiopia is one of the oldest Christian states on earth.
In contrast to the Greek Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant churches , the Ethiopian Church is Miaphysite , which means that it split off from Western Christianity at the Council of Chalcedon and is therefore not an Orthodox Church in the sense of the Dyophysite Russian or Greek Orthodox Church can be seen. She is therefore close to the Indian Thomas Christians , the Armenians , the Aramaeans or the Egyptian Copts . The religious division goes back to the definition of the nature of Christ. The Miaphysite churches advocate the teaching that Jesus had only one divine-human nature, while the Dyophysites believe that he had a divine and a human nature. The Ethiopian round churches are typical of this denomination .
Protestants and Catholics
Evangelical missionaries have been in Ethiopia since 1830; From 1855 to 1868, the St. Chrischona pilgrimage mission from Basel worked in collaboration with the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem with mostly German missionaries in Ethiopia. Among other things, a Protestant movement among the Jewish Beta Isra'el (so-called "black Jews") can be traced back to this. The Hermannsburg Mission tried to evangelize the Oromo from 1853 to 1857 , but only became really active in 1927; the first German-Swiss mission among the Oromo existed as early as 1840 (in Shewa ), later in 1867 ( Benishangul / Gubbe ) and for a long time with some success at the mission station in Balli , south of Shewa, from 1872 to 1886, led by Germans Missionaries of the St. Chrischona pilgrim mission from Basel. There are also missions from Sweden , Norway , the USA and Denmark . The Seventh-day Adventist Church has around 145,000 members.
There are currently the following Protestant churches in Ethiopia:
The Ethiopian Catholic Church is an Eastern Church united with the Roman Catholic Church . It was elevated to the state church in 1622 and banned again in 1636 because the patriarch Alfonso Mendez, sent from Rome, replaced the native rite with the Latin one. An Ethiopian Catholic Archdiocese of Addis Ababa has existed again since 1961 . The mass is celebrated in the Alexandrian rite and in the Amharic language.
The history of Islam in Ethiopia goes back more than a thousand years. Its cultural and historical significance is thus comparable to that of Christianity.
Islam's first contact with Ethiopia took place during the lifetime of the Prophet Mohammed , when a group of Muslims fled to Ethiopia in 615 and found refuge there for several years. About 20 of the Muslims died in Ethiopia. The friendly reception of the Muslim refugees by the Ethiopian ruler is said to have induced the prophet to pronounce the commandment that the Christian Ethiopians be the only non-Muslims to be spared from jihad . This event still has an identity-forming meaning for the Muslim Ethiopians. From the 9th century onwards, several Islamic principalities and states emerged, especially in the east and south-east of the country. Through the conquests under Menelik II at the end of the 19th century, large regions that are predominantly Islamic became part of the modern Ethiopian state.
Sufi brotherhoods ( tariqas ) played an important role in the development of Ethiopian Islam and founded centers of Islamic learning, especially in Harar , Wällo and Jimma . While Muslims in modern Ethiopia under Haile Selassie were suppressed for a long time, they achieved equality from the Derg period. Since then, for example, the important Islamic festivals have been celebrated as national holidays.
Today, large parts of the country are dominated by Islam, such as the Somali and Afar, Bale , Arsi , parts of the Gurage region, the eastern Wollo, the Harar region, the Jimma region, Ilubabor and Beni Shangul . At least 34 percent of Ethiopians are Muslims, especially the Afar , Gurage and Somali peoples and a large part of the Oromo .
The Falashes are Ethiopians of Jewish faith who consider themselves descendants of the Dan tribe and practice an archaic form of Judaism. They lived in the regions of Begemder and Sämen north and northeast of Lake Tana and were shunned by the Amhara and Tigray as craftsmen . They were evacuated to Israel in the three airlifts Operation Moses 1984, Operation Salomon 1991 and Operation Taubenflügel (2011) .
The Kemant populate the area north of Lake Tana and are historically and ethnically closely related to the Falashes . They gave up their Jewish religion in favor of Ethiopian Christianity. They are critically endangered and have shrunk to a community of fewer than 300 members.
The Falaschamura do not belong to the real Falashes, but are regarded by the Israeli Chief Rabbinate as Ethiopians who were forced to Christianize and originally of Jewish faith . They are of various origins, but claim to ultimately descend from the Beta Israel . Since the Israeli state only allows their immigration to a limited extent, there were still 8,000 falaschamura in 2010 waiting in Ethiopia to emigrate to Israel.
Despite great progress in the 21st century, Ethiopia is still one of the poorest countries in Africa and the world in 2019. An estimated 49 percent of the population is undernourished (2001), and even in “good” harvest years , millions of Ethiopians still depend on food aid. Hunger is caused by drought and floods, exacerbated by widespread deforestation and erosion .
Between 1960 and 2012, forest cover decreased from 37 to 3 percent of the area of Ethiopia. Most of the people in Ethiopia are subsistence farmers . Due to the strong population growth, however, it was no longer possible for them to feed their families on the available arable land, which has led to clearing. However, the forest protected the land from soil erosion, so that in the long term an even greater loss of arable land is to be feared.
A population growth of two million people annually in the previous ten years, but also the fall in coffee prices, led to an increase in hunger in some parts of the country in 2003. While periods of drought had previously occurred at intervals of 25 to 30 years, the intervals had shortened to 4 to 5 years.
Food aid is mostly imported from abroad, while food from areas with surpluses in Ethiopia can only be transported with difficulty to hunger-stricken parts of the country because of the inadequate infrastructure. The dependence on external aid and its problematic consequences also contribute to the hunger problem and should be reduced with longer-term development strategies of the Ethiopian government and international aid organizations.
As of 2017, the rate of malnutrition had fallen to 20.6% of the population despite the existing problems, which is mainly due to the positive economic development of the country.
Child labor is widespread: 58.1 percent of boys and 41.6 percent of girls between the ages of 5 and 14 work regularly, the vast majority (95 percent) in family farming. Hundreds of thousands of street children live in the big cities. According to the World Bank in December 2012, the strong economic growth of the previous five years enabled 2.5 million Ethiopians to emerge from poverty. Accordingly, the poverty rate fell from 38.7 percent in 2004/05 to 29.6 percent in 2010/11.
In the 2018 Democracy Index of the British magazine The Economist, Ethiopia ranks 128th out of 167 countries, making it one of the authoritarian states. In the country report Freedom in the World 2020 by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system is rated as “not free”.
In 1991 the historic provinces were dissolved and Ethiopia was re- divided into regions or states according to ethnic criteria (ethnic federalism). The province of Eritrea came after a war of independence to 1991 peacefully in 1993 from the State Union of. Since 1998 there have been nine independent regions and two independent cities ( Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa ). Six of the regions each have a single ethnic group as their titular nation ( Tigray , Amhara , Oromia , Somali , Afar and Harar ), the other three are ethnically mixed and therefore assigned to several indigenous ethnic groups ( Benishangul-Gumuz , Gambela and the region of the southern nations, nationalities and peoples ).
According to an estimate by the Central Statistics Agency for 2016, the largest cities are: Addis Ababa with a population of 3,352,000, Gonder with a population of 341,991, Mek'ele with a population of 340,859, Adama (previously: Nazret) with a population of 338,940, Awassa with a population of 318,618, a population of Bahir Dar with a population of 297,794 and Dire Dawa 285,000 inhabitants. The cities of Mek'hele, Awassa and Gonder doubled their population between 2005 and 2016, while Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa and Adama grew significantly less strongly.
After the overthrow of the emperor, the military seized the revolution, and a military administrator called Derg took power under the leadership of Major Mengistu Haile Mariam . In 1975 the monarchy was abolished and the country was converted into a socialist people 's republic with Soviet help . Political opponents and religious communities were persecuted.
Ethiopia has been a federal republic since 1991 (confirmed by the Constitution in 1995). The head of state is elected by the parliament ( Shengo ) as president and has mainly representative tasks. The head of government is the prime minister, who appoints the members of the Council of Ministers and is usually the representative of the strongest party in parliament. The parliament consists of two chambers: the Federal House ( Yefedereshn Mekir Bet ) with 198 seats and the House of Representatives ( Parlama for short ) with 548 seats (members are directly elected by the people for a term of five years). The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court in the capital Addis Ababa, and the Constitutional Council also monitors compliance with the Federal Constitution.
The Abyssinian Imperial Army had a long history, going back to the legendary founding of the state in 980 BC. The new communist regime ( Derg ) eliminated the old armed forces after the 1974/1975 revolution and founded a completely new army with financial and military help from the Soviet Union . These armed forces of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia were replaced by the Ethiopian National Defense Forces after the victory of the Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian Peoples in 1991 . In 2005 they were 162,500 strong, making them one of the largest armies in Africa . According to US figures, there should have been around 180,000 soldiers in 2012.
In 2018 the army comprised 135,000 active soldiers and more than 461 battle tanks. The Air Force has largely intact and relatively new equipment from Ukrainian and Russian production, for example Sukhoi Su-27 fighter-bombers . Since the independence of Eritrea (1993), the country no longer has a navy .
There are repeated armed conflicts over land use rights and legal disputes between the numerous ethnic groups of Ethiopia. The violent resolution of conflicts is favored by the widespread use of firearms across the country, which has its origins in the civil war. The conflicts between the Afar and the Somali , namely the Issa , should be emphasized here , who have contributed significantly to the reduction of the Afar's resistance to catastrophic drought. In the west of the country, in the Gambela and Benishangul-Gumuz regions, there are conflicts between various indigenous ethnic groups and highland Ethiopians, who were settled there mainly in the 1980s.
Parliamentary elections were held on May 15, 2005 . The winner was the coalition of the Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian Peoples (EPRDF) , which has been in power since 1991 . The opposition was mainly organized in two electoral alliances, the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (Qinijit) and the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF). While the Qinijit claims that federalization is damaging to nation-building and intensifying hatred between peoples, the UEDF accuses the government of actually continuing to govern centrally and that the federalization enshrined in the constitution has hardly been implemented.
In 2007, the conflict between the separatist Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) and the Ethiopian army intensified during an uprising in the Ogaden in the Somali region . The Ethiopian government has been accused of temporarily "blocking" trade and humanitarian aid for the region. According to a report by Human Rights Watch , the Ethiopian army killed, ill-treated and raped civilians, destroyed villages and subjected the entire population in the rebel areas to collective punishment. The Ethiopian government rejected these allegations as ONLF propaganda.
In the parliamentary elections in 2010 , the government alliance EPRDF together with the regional government parties received a total of 99.6 percent and thus 545 of the 547 parliamentary seats in the House of Representatives. The opposition under the party coalition Forum for Democratic Dialogue ( Medrek ) received only one seat, while independent candidates could also only get one seat. On the occasion of the election fraud accused by the opposition, the EPRDF was accused of governing authoritarian and suppressing the opposition. In the 2015 general election, the opposition and independent candidates lost the last two seats; the governing parties received 100% of the seats.
Relations with neighboring countries in the Horn of Africa and with international donor countries, especially the USA and EU member states, have priority in Ethiopian foreign policy. China and India are playing an increasingly important role. The country is also looking for good relations with the Arab states as well as Turkey, Russia and Japan. Ethiopia has assigned a total of around 7600 soldiers to the UN missions UNAMID (United Nations Assistance Mission in Darfur), UNISFA (United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei) and UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan), making it the fourth largest and largest UN troop provider UN troop contributor of Africa. If you add the 4400 soldiers deployed to AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia), Ethiopia is by far the largest provider of peacekeeping troops worldwide.
Membership in organizations
Ethiopia is a member of various international organizations and groups. The most important are the memberships in the United Nations (founding member 1945) and its sub-and special organizations, with the ECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa) having its seat in Addis Ababa , the African Union (until 2002 Organization of African Unity, whose The country was a founding member in 1963; based in Addis Ababa) and in the World Bank Group and the IMF . Furthermore, in regional organizations such as the IGAD ( Intergovernmental Authority on Development ), the COMESA (Common Market of South and East African States) and the Cotonou Agreement (partnership agreement between the European Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries). The country has observer status in the WTO .
Ethiopia is involved in two bilateral conflicts with neighboring countries. On the one hand, there are disagreements with Eritrea about the border in the northwest of the Tigray province, which led to the Eritrea-Ethiopia war in 1998 . On the other hand, there were repeated conflicts with Somalia, as Somali nationalists want to incorporate the Somali region ( Ogaden ) in eastern Ethiopia into a Greater Somalia . The Union of Islamic Courts , which gained control over large parts of Somalia in mid-2006, also pursued this goal. On December 24, 2006, Ethiopia officially declared war on the Union on the grounds that Ethiopia feared the capture of its east and the Islamist appropriation of its own Muslim population. Ethiopian troops have been stationed in Somalia since then and, together with the Somali interim government, pushed back the Union of Islamic Courts. Indications that Eritrea was supplying weapons to opponents of the Somali transitional government and that an Eritrean-Ethiopian “proxy war” would be waged in Somalia were denied by the Eritrean side.
At the beginning of July 2018, after a meeting with Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki in Asmara , Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that after decades of hostility, the resumption of diplomatic relations had been agreed. It is planned to reopen embassies and borders, to re-establish flight connections and to make ports accessible. The newly elected Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed at the beginning of April 2018, who is a member of both the EPRDF and the OPDO , had already sought a peace solution with the neighboring country at the beginning of his term of office. At the beginning of June 2018 he announced that he would "fully" implement the resolution of an international arbitration commission supported by the United Nations on the border between the two countries in 2002 and withdraw from the disputed areas.
According to a report published by Human Rights Watch (HRW) in June 2008, the Ethiopian army targeted executions, tortured and raped in Ogaden as part of a large-scale counter-insurgency campaign.
According to Amnesty International, the anti-terrorist laws enacted in 2009 severely restrict the rights to freedom of association, freedom of expression and human rights groups in the country. The acts of terrorism , which are vaguely defined in the legal text , also include property damage and disruption of public order. The sentence is up to 15 years in prison and the death penalty is also possible.
At the beginning of 2014, the Citizen Lab of the University of Toronto published research results that the satellite TV ESAT, operated by the Ethiopian diaspora, was attacked in late 2013 by remote control spy software that the Milan-based company HT Srl, better known as the Hacking Team , sent to an Ethiopian Government organization sold.
In 2014, Amnesty International reported on the targeted detention and torture of Oromo. Between 2011 and 2014, over 5000 demonstrating students, opposition members or simply people who emphasize their identity as Oromo were arrested. In April and May 2014 there were demonstrations against the "Addis Ababa Framework for Integrated Development", which provides for the urban area to be expanded into the surrounding areas of the Oromia region. According to the government, this should benefit the Oromia region and the more distant regions. The Oromo, on the other hand, see their interests threatened and fear extensive evictions.
Amnesty International writes in the International Report 2014/2015 that peaceful demonstrators, journalists and members of the political opposition are being arbitrarily arrested. Amnesty also draws attention to the Zone 9 bloggers and journalists arrested in April 2014 . According to a report by the organization Reporters Without Borders, four journalists were in custody at the end of 2017.
The traditional marriage of underage girls and the mutilation of female genitals are officially prohibited, but continue to be practiced, especially outside of larger cities. Homosexuality is illegal. The sentence is between one and ten years. Stigmatization, taboos, marginalization and discrimination against sexual minorities are widespread. People who openly show their homosexuality are detained and subjected to severe corporal punishment and torture while in detention. In December 2008, several church leaders called for the prohibition of homosexuality to be included in the constitution. Church leaders of the Roman Catholic, Ethiopian Orthodox and Protestant Churches passed a resolution in Addis Ababa to outlaw homosexuality, which has been described as the "highest form of immorality". Violence and assaults against homosexuals are not punished; the violence often comes from the state. Human rights defenders receive anonymous threats and are threatened by the police if they try to file a complaint.
According to the non-governmental organization Reporters Without Borders , the press in Ethiopia is "in a difficult position". In the 2017 press freedom ranking, Ethiopia was ranked 150th out of 180 countries, but had climbed 40 ranks to 110th by 2019.
Education and health
With the help of international donors, the Ethiopian government has taken important steps in recent years to alleviate the educational deficit in the country. In Ethiopia, the median school attendance increased from 1.5 years in 2000 to 2.6 years in 2015. 84.1 percent of girls and 87.7 percent of boys attend primary school (government figures 2013), but only around 53 percent of pupils finish it. For several years, the government has endeavored to involve the regions more closely in higher education. The establishment of 15 universities (by GIZ International Services) are an expression of these efforts. The strategic plan of the Ethiopian government, which is binding for the now 30 universities, provides for a ratio of 70:30 between students in the natural sciences, medicine and mechanical engineering and those in economics and the humanities. This means a massive increase in the number of students, which will put a strain on the quality of education, since neither the academic teaching staff nor qualified students (due to insufficient quality of education in schools) could grow with it. The shortage of young lecturers is currently being bridged with around 1200 Indian professors. These challenges will accompany Ethiopia for the foreseeable future, because the new five-year plan from July 2015 provides for the establishment of 11 more universities.
In Ethiopia, around 65 percent of adults were illiterate between 2000 and 2007 . This proportion was higher for women than for men. The compulsory education is not consistently enforced. In 2016, 51 percent of Ethiopians were illiterate (59 percent of women and 43 percent of men). For people between 15 and 24 years of age, the illiteracy rate was 31 percent. Ethiopia has achieved success in the fight against illiteracy in recent years.
The infection rate of HIV in 2006 was around 6.6 percent of the adult population. Around three million people in Ethiopia are infected with it. The infection rate in urban areas is 13.7 percent, significantly higher than in rural areas with 3.7 percent. The 15- to 24-year-olds are most affected. According to UNICEF, around 800,000 children had been orphaned or fully orphaned by the disease by 2006. The high AIDS rates can be explained, among other things, by the fact that sexuality in Ethiopia is still a taboo subject that is not discussed in the family.
More than half a million children have been orphaned by AIDS. According to UNICEF, at least 300,000 children live on the streets of Ethiopia. There, girls in particular are at risk of assaults and rape. The risk of drug abuse and AIDS is high.
Between 2010 and 2015, the life expectancy of women was 65.5 years and that of men 61.9 years, making it one of the higher in Africa. The infant mortality per 1,000 births was 51 and the maternal mortality per 100,000 births was 353. Only six percent of the births could receive medical care. Life expectancy has increased significantly in recent years, while maternal and child mortality has decreased.
|Period||Life expectancy||Period||Life expectancy|
A significant part of the population lives below the absolute poverty line (according to current World Bank data from January 2015, 30.7 percent lived on less than USD 1.25 per day in 2011, compared to 39.0 percent in 2005).
Ethiopia's foreign trade essentially consists of the export of coffee . Germany is the largest importer of Ethiopian coffee. Ethiopia, as one of the African countries, was canceled most of its debts by the Group of Eight Meetings in 2005. In terms of foreign trade, the country remains vulnerable as a result of high current and trade deficits, a heavy dependency on food imports and low foreign exchange reserves. Ethiopian imports totaled $ 14.7 billion in 2016; exports were only $ 2.4 billion. Ethiopia thus suffers from a structural trade deficit, which amounted to 12.3 billion US dollars in 2016. China is Ethiopia's most important trade and economic partner and is financing a number of infrastructure projects in the country.
The gross domestic product per capita in 2016 was 795 US dollars, adjusted for purchasing power at 1,946 PPP- $. In the period from 2004 to 2015, Ethiopia achieved very high annual growth rates of between eight and twelve percent of its gross domestic product . This enabled progress to be made in the fight against poverty and in the expansion of infrastructure. According to the World Bank , 56 percent of the population lived on less than $ 1.25 in 2000, whereas in 2011 only 31 percent had an income below this threshold.
In 2015, Ethiopia had the highest economic growth in the world at 10.2 percent . In 2019, economic growth was 8.97 percent.
The unemployment rate in 2012 is given as 17.5%. Most employment relationships are informal and underemployment is widespread. In 2013, 72.7% of all workers worked in agriculture, 19.9% in the service sector and 7.4% in industry. The total number of employees is estimated at 52.8 million for 2017, 47.3% of them women. Trade unions are allowed, but the state union, the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions, dominates working life in the country.
The share of agriculture in the gross domestic product fell from 52 percent (as of 2001) to 38 percent in 2016 in favor of a rapidly growing service sector. Due to the ecological diversity, there are different agricultural use systems in Ethiopia.
- Nomadism : It exists in all deserts and semi-deserts in the lower elevations. Most of the time, the families drive their herds of cattle back and forth between different grazing areas depending on the season. Nomadism in which long distances are covered over years is rare. The pastures are now becoming scarcer. This is due to the increasing population, but also to the spread of commercial farms such as in the Danakil plain . There the Afar lost their best grazing areas along the Awash in the 1950s and 1960s . These farms were nationalized in 1975 and partially enlarged. Many Afar now work on these farms or farm themselves.
- Semi-nomadism or transhumance : This land use was once widespread among many Oromo peoples . Fields are worked with a hand hoe in order to grow grain. Today this form of land use still occurs in some parts of Bale. In the last 100 years, more people migrated from the north to the south after Menelik II had conquered the south. The plow became more and more popular because it made more intensive land use possible.
- Slash and burn : This type of land use occurs in the border areas with Sudan . The bush is cleared and / or burned. Large trees usually remain standing. The soil is then plowed or tilled with a hoe. The land is used for three to five years. If the natural soil fertility is exhausted, a rest period of 15 to 25 years follows, during which the soil is again overgrown by natural vegetation. The increasing scarcity of land forces the population to till their fields at ever shorter intervals. Long-term use is no longer guaranteed without the necessary measures to protect resources . In many areas a similar process is taking place today as it was decades and centuries ago in northern Ethiopia, which has led to tremendous destruction of the ecology.
- Agriculture : In the northern highlands, humans began to settle in agriculture 7000 to 8000 years ago. The soil is worked with the plow , which is mostly pulled by oxen . The seeds are sown widely and incorporated with the plow. Plants that reproduce generatively are typical . These include grains , legumes, and oilseeds . The most important crops are teff (mainly used for human consumption in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti), sorghum , corn , wheat , barley , finger millet , rapeseed and sesame . The soil fertility is maintained by crop rotation with legumes and fallow land for several years . In fields close to the farm, animal manure is used .
All values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
GNI per capita
(purchasing power parity)
|GDP growth per year|
Ethiopia is on the big leap forward in terms of the development of the country (with a rapidly growing population). This includes building an infrastructure as quickly as possible and expanding the energy industry as one of the important preconditions for rapid economic growth .
Due to the favorable external conditions for energy generation in many places , Ethiopia has the option of largely doing without the fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas that are abundant in the country . Instead, the focus is on renewable energies : hydropower , wind power , solar energy and geothermal energy . The external conditions in Ethiopia are favorable to make the country a major exporter of clean and inexpensive renewable energy. The long-term goal is the construction of hydro and wind power plants with a capacity of more than 20,000 MW each in addition to the existing stock.
However, the planning is in stark contrast to reality. In the period of five years from 2009/10 to 2014/15, the installed capacity from hydropower alone should be increased fivefold from approx. 2000 to 10,000 MW. In contrast, the total installed capacity (including hydropower) in 2015 was 2267 MW, and the planned expansion of hydropower was only achieved by 3.9%. The reason was a tight financial framework that prevented and delayed projects. Since the start of construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) with a planned 6450 MW in 2011, the financial framework has been tightened again significantly. The GERD project, a national prestige project, has to be paid for by the Ethiopian government alone due to international differences and in 2015 devoured around 15 percent of the GNP or 60 percent of the state budget. In 2016, the largest completed power plant in Ethiopia, Gilgel Gibe III with 1870 MW installed capacity , brought relief .
In contrast, electrification is only progressing gradually within Ethiopia. While less than 25 percent of the population was connected to the power grid in 2010, it should be 75 percent by 2015, a target that was missed by around 15 percentage points. By 2020 it should be 90 percent. The delayed construction program for power plants and the increasing electrification of the country lead to electricity shortages in the economy. Especially in the drought year 2015/16, there were repeated power outages because the reservoirs were partially dry and the number of consumers had increased significantly. Here, the Gilge Gibel III hydropower plant, which was partially commissioned prematurely, with its water and electricity reserves prevented a partial collapse of the Ethiopian economy.
A structural expansion of the electricity infrastructure will remain necessary. Increasing electrification and economic growth mean that the demand for electricity is increasing by 30% annually. After the commissioning of Gilgel Gibe III in 2016, there was initially enough electricity available. However, this immediately resulted in a deficit in the number of substations and transmission lines, which were insufficiently available and quickly overloaded and provoke numerous and long-lasting power outages over days. To fix this, you may need to a. an extensive provision of new public substations is planned, which should be completed by 2018. Private substations are also built by companies (such as steelworks) in order to bypass energy rationing and to be able to use the energy provided.
Despite the relative bottleneck in energy generation, Ethiopia exports electricity in order to refinance the power plants and, above all, to secure the rapidly growing East Africa energy market as fully as possible due to the very cheap electricity . The country has been exporting electricity to Djibouti since June 2011 and to Sudan and Kenya since 2012 - close to the cost price. Strategically, Ethiopia is aiming for a comprehensive supply of all of East Africa (Kenya, Uganda , Tanzania , Rwanda , South Sudan and other countries); the low prices are to be adjusted as soon as a comprehensive supply is available. A milestone was recorded here in 2016 when Ethiopia and Kenya began jointly building a 500 kV high-voltage direct current transmission line over 1045 km, which is to be commissioned at the end of 2018. This line is intended to supply the whole of East Africa with up to 2000 MWe of transmitted power. An energy corridor to Europe is to be created in the medium to long term.
Traveling has a long tradition in Ethiopia, so there are (mostly modest) accommodations everywhere, the standard of which is often far removed from European standards. In Northern Ethiopia, on the “Historic Route”, which is very popular with tourists, there is a hotel belonging to the state hotel chain in every city that meets western standards. All major cities are served by Ethiopian Airlines . Sights include Bahir Dar on Lake Tana , (Blue) Nile Fall, Gondar / Gonder (Palace of Emperor Fasilides ), Simien National Park , Axum (cathedral, stele fields), Lalibela (rock-hewn churches), Awash National Park (Awash waterfall) , Langano Lake, Dire Dawa . Also worth seeing 500 km east of Addis Ababa is the small city of Harar, declared a World Heritage Site (90 mosques, Arthur Rimbaud's home ).
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditures equivalent to US $ 11.85 billion , which was offset by revenues equivalent to US $ 10.07 billion. This results in a budget deficit of 2.4 percent of GDP . National debt in 2015 was $ 39.73 billion, or 54.8 percent of GDP.
In 2006 the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was in the following areas:
Import and export traffic
Ethiopia is a landlocked country with no access to the sea, so it has no ports of its own. 87 percent of Ethiopia's import and export traffic and 97 percent of imports pass through the port of Djibouti in Djibouti City . Port Sudan is also used to a lesser extent in Sudan , mainly for the export of coffee . In 2016, an agreement was reached on the use of the port of Berbera in Somaliland . After massive investments in infrastructure, Berbera is to take over up to 30 percent of foreign trade.
Due to the importance of Djibouti for imports and exports, Ethiopia attaches importance to the development of good connections (rail, road) to Djibouti.
The transport infrastructure is underdeveloped. However, all major cities are already (as of 2018) accessible on good asphalt roads. In 2003, Ethiopia had a total of 33,856 kilometers of roads, which more than tripled to 113,213 kilometers by May 2016 due to a massive road construction program. In contrast, the proportion of asphalt roads in the total length of all roads was around one eighth in both years and thus remained largely constant. Every year around 11 percent of new roads are added (as of 2011).
Road traffic is considered unsafe. In 2013 there were a total of 25.3 road deaths for every 100,000 inhabitants in Ethiopia. For comparison: In Germany there were 4.3 deaths in the same year. In total, more than 23,800 people were killed in traffic. The road death rate is much higher when compared to the country's low motorization rate. In 2017 there were 8 vehicles for every 1,000 inhabitants in the country (in Germany there were over 500 vehicles).
Due to centuries of subsistence farming and isolation, the country has little focus on foreign trade and only to a limited extent on domestic trade and therefore had only a few roads for transport . For economic development, there is therefore a very high need for new construction and expansion in road construction , especially for all-weather roads, which will not be covered even with the high annual new construction efforts. In the two rainy seasons , many transport routes become impassable and people are often cut off from markets and medical facilities for weeks.
The route between Addis Ababa via Adama to the seaport of Djibouti is particularly important for foreign trade, although the section between Addis Ababa and Adama, which is also important for intra-Ethiopian traffic, is heavily frequented. Since August 2016, Ethiopia has had its first fully commissioned 85 km long motorway with three lanes in each direction from the cities of Addis Ababa via Modjo to Adama. There are six connection points between the two end points . A continuation over 202 km from Modjo along the East African rift valley south to Awassa is under construction (status: 2018).
There is a single, 756 km long (656 km in Ethiopia) standard-gauge and fully electrified railway line , which runs from Sebeta directly west of Addis Ababa via Awash to Dewele on the border with Djibouti and from there to the container port of Djibouti City on Gulf of Tadjoura is about. This railway line, officially opened at the end of 2016, serves as an economic lifeline in Ethiopia, which itself has no access to the sea. Between Sebeta and Adama, the 115 km stretch is two-lane, otherwise single-lane. In 2015, the foundation stone was laid for a second single-track railway line from northern Ethiopia over 268 km from Mek'ele to Weldiya , which will later be extended to Djibouti City. As of 2018, a 391 km long single-track connecting line between the two railway lines between Awash and Weldiya is also under construction.
The telecommunications network in Ethiopia is now well developed. There are public telephones in all regional centers and often internet cafes, cafes and telephone shops. The prices for telecommunications, especially for calls abroad, are very high and are around 15 birr / minute for a call to Germany. Internet connections are often very slow, so that they can hardly be used or only with a great deal of patience. A cellular network already exists in some parts of the country. So far there are roaming agreements with the operator E-Plus and Telekom. An Ethiopian SIM card costs around 60 Birr (as of August 2011) and can also be purchased by foreigners in telecommunications shops, hotels or directly from Ethiopian Telecom . The area code for Ethiopian mobile phone numbers consists of the digits 091, followed by another number for the region. In 2016, 11.6 percent of the population used the Internet.
Out of a total of 58 airports in Ethiopia, only 15 are regularly served by domestic flights. Only two are international airports, Dire Dawa airport with a single international destination (Djibouti) and Bole International Airport in the capital Addis Ababa with 85 international destinations in scheduled air traffic. The airport in Addis Ababa, which operates beyond its capacity limits (6–7 million PAX ), is to be expanded to a capacity of 22 million PAX by 2018/19.
Due to its Christian traditions and historical isolation, it differs culturally from other countries in sub-Saharan Africa . This is expressed in the architecture and art of the country, including the Ethiopian cuisine .
Ethiopia has a society with an old, tradition-conscious culture. In the current phase of intensive reforms, questions of cultural policy are increasing. The striving for independence of ethnic groups, who are given greater leeway within the framework of regionalization policy, also have an impact in the field of education. The central state withdraws to a framework competence in cultural matters. It is up to the regions to decide whether the lessons are generally held in Amharic or a regional language, as was previously the case.
The painting, which is atypical for sub- Saharan Africa, and the production of fine handicrafts (such as the jewelry worn by Ethiopian women) have their roots in the old North African-Near Eastern cultural area. They have held up to this day, embedded in the country's unbroken Christian tradition. With a history of two and a half millennia of high civilization, Ethiopia is the only “offshoot” of the ancient Mediterranean civilization in Africa that is still alive today .
Typical media of Ethiopian painting used to be book illuminations , panel paintings , procession paintings and wall paintings . There are three different epochs: the early period (14th to the beginning of the 16th century), a second period (culminating in the 17th century) and the third period (from the end of the 17th century).
One of the most important modern Ethiopian painters is Afewerk Tekle (Afawarq Takle, 1932–2012), who designed large-format oil paintings, sculptures and practical art up to postage stamps. Alongside Gebre Kristos Desta (1932–1981), Ale Felege Selam (* 1929) and Alexander Boghosian (Skunder Boghosian, 1937–2003), he was one of the leading painters who brought modern art concepts to Ethiopia.
The pentatonic traditional music is very different from the music of the rest of Africa. It is played by singer-poets called Azmari , who travel through the country with songs in ballad form, spreading old stories and taking a stand on current issues. They usually accompany their price and humiliation songs in tej bets (restaurants where Tej honey wine is served) on the lyre krar , the single-stringed spit lute masinko or occasionally play the flute washint . The venerable great lyre Beganna is only played on solemn religious occasions.
Modern Ethiopian music
In addition to traditional forms of music, vital popular music developed from the 1950s, especially in the big cities, which combined western and local styles. In addition to traditional forms of music, the military music of the military orchestras that have been increasingly popular since the 1920s served as the basis. Among the best known and most successful were those of the army, the police and the imperial bodyguard. There were also soloists such as the saxophonist Gétatchèw Mèkurya , who transferred traditional singing styles to his saxophone playing and was often compared to free jazz saxophonists such as Ornette Coleman and Albert Ayler .
These combinations continued to develop in the 1960s, when western styles such as rhythm and blues and soul were integrated through musicians like Bizunesh Bekele , or through Mulatu Astatke jazz and Latin American music . Tilahun Gesesse , who is still considered the “voice of Ethiopia” and was accompanied by the orchestra of the Imperial Bodyguard in the 1960s, is also of outstanding importance .
In the 1970s, developed orchestras such as the Wallias band analogies to early radio a James Brown . With the fall of the emperor and the beginning of the military dictatorship, the majority of the established artists fled; through this bloodletting and the restrictive conditions of the dictatorship, Ethiopian popular music lost its high level. Well-known artists of this time were Ethio Stars , Roha Band and the singer Neway Debebe . Aster Aweke achieved great success abroad . She made her first recordings in Addis Ababa in the mid-1970s and then emigrated to the USA. Today she is Ethiopia's most internationally known musician.
Since 1994, the French label Buda Musique has released around twenty CDs of classical Ethiopian popular music, especially as part of its series Éthiopiques , and has thus introduced numerous artists in the West.
The oldest game boards (6th - 8th centuries AD) of the game Mancala were found in the northwest of Ethiopia, in Matara and Yeha . Richard Pankhurst described a total of 103 variants of this game in Ethiopia in 1971 . One is for example Lamlameta and is played by the Konso . Ethiopia has also produced its own variant of chess , Senterej . This game has been played for at least five hundred years. The biggest difference to the well-known chess is the opening called Werera , in which the players move as fast or as slowly as they want without waiting for the opponent.
Ethiopia has a long tradition of excellent long-distance runners. 20 athletes from Ethiopia won 53 Olympic medals (22 gold, 10 silver, 21 bronze; as of 2016). The best long-distance runners in the world come from just a few ethnic groups in Ethiopia and Kenya . Success is attributed to many factors: genetic selection (in the millennia-old tradition as shepherds and hunters in the savannah in the highlands), high maximum oxygen uptake , walking and running in the highlands (from home to distant school), high hemoglobin levels through life in the highlands, optimal running economy through barefoot running from an early age, nutrition with a lot of protein and carbohydrates and little fat, striving for sporting success as an opportunity to earn a living. Due to the European influence (also from Eastern Europe) and the European managers who organize the sport (e.g. Jos Hermens ), the training in Ethiopia is based on the most modern principles of training theory. Soccer and volleyball are among the most popular sports. The Ethiopian national soccer team was only able to achieve presentable successes in the 1960s (winning the African Championship in 1962 in their own country) and was long considered one of the weakest teams in the African soccer association . There was an upturn only in 2005, when the national team won the CECAFA Cup (the East and Central African Championship). This upswing continued in the following years, which is shown, among other things, in the qualification for the Africa Championship , which has been the first time since 1982 .
Also Gugs , an equestrian game, is a well known traditional sport in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia has its own calendar, the Ethiopian calendar . It is similar to the Coptic Calendar , but is 276 years ahead of it. Ethiopia is the country of 13 months ("13 months of sunshine"), twelve months of 30 days each and one month with five or six days (leap year adjustment). The calendar is almost eight years behind the Gregorian calendar . The Ethiopian New Year always begins on September 11th. Since Ethiopia is internationally linked in banking, air travel and communication, both calendars are used side by side. Everywhere in the country calendars are available that list both currently valid dates at the same time, for example August 7, 2005 corresponds to December 1, 1997 EC (Ethiopian Calendar). Ethiopia also calculates the respective time of day differently: the day begins at 6 am (European calculation), so in Ethiopia in the morning at 7 am "the first hour of the day" is over (1 am in Ethiopian counting), so midday is Ethiopian at 6 am Counting method, 12 p.m. according to the Ethiopian counting method is 6 p.m. according to European calculations (due to the time difference, however, only 3 p.m. CET ).
|Mäskäräm||Fulbaana||Does||September 11th or 12th||30 days|
|Ṭəqəmt||Onkoloolessa||Babah||October 11th or 12th||30 days|
|Həhdar||Sadassa||Hatur||November 10th or 11th||30 days|
|Tahsas||Tired||Kiyahk||December 10th or 11th||30 days|
|Ṭər||Amajjii||Tubah||January 9th or 10th||30 days|
|Yakatite||Guraandhala||Amshir||February 8th or 9th||30 days|
|Mägabit||Bitootessa||Baramhat||March 10th||30 days|
|Miyazəya||Ebla||Baramundah||9th April||30 days|
|Gbnbot||Caamsaa||Bashans||May 9||30 days|
|Sane||Waxabajjii||Ba'unah||8th June||30 days|
|Hamle||Adoolessa||Abib||8th of July||30 days|
|Sewing nose||Hagayya||Misra||August 7th||30 days|
|Pagumes||Qammee||Nasi||September 6th||5 or 61 days|
¹ before leap year in the Gregorian calendar
The holidays in Ethiopia are the New Year (September 11), the Christian Orthodox holidays at Easter and Christmas and the Islamic holidays at the end of Ramadan and the festival of the sacrifice.
|date||German name||Native name||Remarks|
|January 7th||Orthodox Christmas holiday||Genna|
|Islamic Festival of Sacrifice||'Īd ul-Adha||movable holiday according to the Islamic calendar|
|January 19th||Appearance of the Lord||Timkat|
|2nd March||Day of the Battle of Adua||Ye'adowa B'al|
|Birthday of the Prophet Mohammed||Mawlid an-Nabi||movable holiday according to the Islamic calendar|
|Orthodox Good Friday||Siqlet (crucifixion)||moving holiday|
|Orthodox Easter||Fasika||moving holiday|
|Easter Monday (public holiday)||moving holiday|
|1st of May||Labor Day|
|5th of May||Patriot Day||Arbegnoch Qen|
|28th of May||National holiday||End of the Derg regime|
|18th of August||Boo|
|September 11||Ethiopian New Year Festival||Inqut'at'ash|
|September 27th||Finding the Cross||Meskel||Commemoration of the Christianization of Ethiopia|
|End of ramadan||'Īd al-Fitr||movable holiday according to the Islamic calendar|
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