Meyers Konversations-Lexikon

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Volumes of Meyer's Encyclopedic Lexicon (9th edition) and Meyer's Little Conversational Lexicon (1908)

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (most recently also Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon and Meyers Lexikon ) is an encyclopaedic work of general content in German. It was published in several editions by the Bibliographical Institute in the 19th and 20th centuries and is named after its founder Joseph Meyer . The further development was stopped in 1986 in favor of the Brockhaus Encyclopedia after the Brockhaus-Verlag and the Bibliographisches Institut were merged in 1984 to form the Bibliographisches Institut & F. A. Brockhaus .


The readers of Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon were able to get in contact with the editors at the Bibliographisches Institut. Each volume contains an appendix on the correspondence, the so-called correspondence sheet. The first editions already contain numerous drawings and plans.

“This encyclopedia of human knowledge includes: the portraits of the most important people of all time, the views of the strangest places, the plans of the largest cities, one hundred maps for old and new descriptions of the earth, for statistics, history and religion, etc. and many thousands of natural history pictures and commercial items. "

- Title page of the first edition

Chronicle of expenses

Ur-Meyer (1840-1852 / 1855)

Title page from the 1st volume of the great Meyers

The first lexicon project by Joseph Meyer (1796–1856), the founder of the Bibliographical Institute , was the “Large Conversations Lexicon for the Educated Estates”, published from 1840 to 1855. In connection with statesmen, scholars, artists and technicians ”, unofficially also Ur-Meyer , Wunder-Meyer or zero edition . With the encyclopedia, which was initially conceived of 21 volumes up to 1843, he wanted to address a broad audience in contrast to the encyclopedias that had been published up until then. With this lexicon, Meyer wanted to "contribute to overturning the oppressive monopoly of knowledge that has long been a burden on peoples", his motto was that "the intelligence of all [...] the strongest refuge of humanity and freedom [is] ". Instead of the planned 21 volumes, there have been 52 volumes, 46 volumes A – Z (1840–1852) and six supplementary volumes (1853–1855) with more than 65,000 pages of two-column text, 1200 pages of indexes and over 90 million words. This made it the largest German conversation lexicon of the 19th century and is considered one of the most important book publications of this time. The addition of tables and text illustrations to a German lexicon was innovative. With this scope, the innovations and the wealth of keywords Meyer set new standards in the history and development of the encyclopedia .

1st edition (1857–1860 / 1861)

After Joseph Meyer's death in 1856, his son Herrmann Julius Meyer (1826–1909) took over the further development of the lexicon. He deliberately did not have it appear as the 2nd edition of the “great conversation lexicon for the educated classes”, but as a new edition under the title “Meyer's New Conversations Lexicon for All Stands” (from Volume 2: “New Conversations Lexicon for All Stands ”). Unlike his father, Hermann Julius had no enlightenment or educational intention, but mainly wanted to provide correct and objective information. This new self-image was also expressed in the reduction in the overall scope. The 15 volumes of the basic lexicon were published between 1857 and 1860, plus a word and subject index, an atlas volume and a plate / steel stitch volume until 1861. All together had around 19,000 pages (for comparison: “The large conversation lexicon for the educated stands” had 52 volumes with more than 65,000 pages). The structure and scope of the “New Conversation Lexicon for All Stands”, which has already been printed in two columns, formed the basis for all further editions.

2nd edition (1861–1867 / 1875)

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 2nd edition, with the first volume of the supplementary sheets

The second completely revised edition appeared between 1861 and 1867 in 15 volumes under the title: "New conversation lexicon, a dictionary of general knowledge". There was also a register and supplementary volume (Volume 16, 1868) and a special supplement (1872). For this edition, seven volumes of supplementary sheets for knowledge of the present (1866–1871) were published. In the same context as a supplementary work, the nine volumes Deutsche Warte appeared from 1871 to 1875 . Look around the life and work of the present .

3rd edition (1874–1878 / 1884)

The 3rd edition of "Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. An Encyclopedia of General Knowledge ”appeared in 15 volumes between 1874 and 1878, with around 15,600 pages, around 70,000 key words, almost 400 plates in steel engraving, wood engraving or lithography as well as almost 1,500 text illustrations specially drawn for this lexicon. In 1880 a supplementary and register volume (16th volume) was published, and between 1879 and 1884 five annual supplements were published. In 1879 a special edition of this edition was published in calf leather with a wide margin and in an enlarged format. It is one of the most sought-after editions today. The 3rd edition is the last thread-sewn and the first edition produced on rotary letterpress machines. In this edition, most of the illustrations are incorporated directly into the lexicon and not, as in previous editions, in separate illustration volumes. It also contains numerous illustrations from Brehm's animal life . Another innovation was the pronunciation of foreign and technical terms. The 3rd edition was very successful: 130,000 copies of the normal version alone were sold, three times as many as the 2nd edition.

4th edition (1885–1890 / 1892)

The 4th edition of "Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. An Encyclopedia of General Knowledge ”appeared from 1885 to 1890 in 16 volumes, with about 17,000 pages, 3,000 illustrations and 556 maps, plans and tables. In 1890 a supplementary and register volume followed (Volume 17) and between 1891 and 1892 two annual supplement volumes. The quality of the reproductions could be significantly improved by using wood-free paper. In addition to black-and-white boards, 80 color boards were used for the first time in this edition, which were produced using chromolithography . It is also the first issue to be wire stapled . 200,000 copies of the 4th edition were sold.

5th edition (1893–1897 / 1901)

The 5th edition of "Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. A reference work for general knowledge ”appeared in 17 volumes (1893–1897) and comprises 17,800 pages with around 100,000 articles and 10,500 illustrations. In addition, a supplement was published (1898) and three annual supplements (1899–1901). With 233,000 copies sold, another increase was achieved compared to the previous edition. This edition was available in a great number of different cover variants. In particular, from an aesthetic point of view, the splendid editions are rated as highlights of German lexicon history.

6th edition (1902–1908 / 1920)

Spine, 7th edition

The 6th edition of "Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon. A reference work for general knowledge ”appeared between 1902 and 1908 in 20 volumes and comprised around 150,000 articles and references on more than 18,500 pages as well as 16,800 illustrations, maps and plans in the text and 1522 illustration panels. From 1905 new editions of the first volumes appeared. In addition, a supplement and supplementary volume (1909), three annual supplements (1909–1912) and three war supplementary volumes (1916–1920) were published. For the first time, the Bibliographical Institute waived a booklet delivery. In addition, for the first time in the 6th edition of a German-language lexicon, the publisher's covers were elaborately produced and designed with decorative Art Nouveau ornamentation.

The 6th edition is considered the highlight of the publishing history and - along with the 14th and 15th edition of the Großer Brockhaus - the highlight of the popular encyclopedia in German. This edition was published in five editions - Art Nouveau Library, Art Nouveau Magnificent, War, Eichenlaub and Eierstab edition - the latter two being the rarest of this edition. During the war, the work on the lexicon had to be interrupted and the new edition planned for 1920/1921 failed.

7th edition (1924–1930/1935)

The 7th edition of “Meyer's Lexicon” appeared in a completely new version in twelve main volumes from 1924 to 1930 and comprised around 10,500 pages with around 7,900 text images. There are more keywords than in the previous edition; however, the articles are shorter. The reduction in size was due to inflation (1914–1923) . In addition, three alphabetical supplementary volumes were published between 1931 and 1933, as well as an atlas supplementary volume in 1933 and a local and transport dictionary of the German Reich, the Free City of Danzig and the Memel area in 1935 . The 7th edition was also the first machine-thread-sewn edition of the Bibliographisches Institut.

8th edition (1936–1942)

Magnificent edition of the 8th edition (1936–1942)

The 8th edition of “Meyers Lexikon” (1936–1942) was supposed to appear in twelve volumes by 1941. Due to the Second World War and the destruction of the Leipzig publishing house in 1942, it was only completed up to the 9th volume and an atlas ribbon and was an economic failure. A brown standard and a beige-white luxury edition were issued. The salary had to be agreed with the PPK censorship office of the NSDAP before it was made. This party official examination commission produced the content of entire lemmas itself, so the result was very tendentious and oriented towards National Socialism. For example, it was necessary to state whether a person was - according to Nazi diction - "Jewish". People who were viewed by the National Socialists as "enemies" - such as the important writer and Nazi opponent Thomas Mann  - were only mentioned earlier in a shortened and distorted form. Due to the presentation and such substantial changes, this edition is also referred to as "Brauner Meyer" or "Nazi Meyer". After the end of World War II , the 8th edition was confiscated by the Allies , so surviving copies are rare today.

9th edition (1971–1979 / 1985)

Since the publishing house of the Bibliographical Institute was destroyed by an air raid in 1942 and its entire index was lost, the fundamental basis for a new edition was initially lacking. It was not until the 150th anniversary of the publisher that the 9th edition appeared from 1971 to 1985 under the title “Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon”, which was the first post-war edition and at the same time the last major edition. The basic encyclopedia comprises 25 volumes with more than 22,000 pages and around 250,000 key words, 40,000 of which are personal articles and 100 signed special articles. In volumes 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22 firmly bound supplements are added which contain the updates to the previous volumes that occurred during the eight years of printing. A supplementary volume (volume 26), a large-format atlas volume (volume 27), a register of persons (volume 28), a picture dictionary German / English / French (volume 29) and a German dictionary in three volumes (volumes 30-32) were published by 1985 ) as well as a total of ten additional volumes starting in 1974. "Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon" was the most extensive German-language lexicon of the 20th century. The 9th edition was only surpassed in scope in 2005 by the 21st edition of the Brockhaus Encyclopedia .

10th edition (1981–1986)

Shortly before the merger of the Bibliographical Institute with FA Brockhaus in 1984 to form the Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus AG , the 10th edition, "Meyers Grosses Universallexikon", was published in 15 volumes between 1981 and 1986. Each volume had over 650 pages with numerous, often colored illustrations. As in the previous 9th edition, there were also special articles signed by name. A three-volume dictionary that was still planned has not been published.

Other issues and offers

Meyer's Hand Lexicon of General Knowledge

As an inexpensive and compact variant, the 1st edition of Meyer's Hand-Lexikon des Allgemeine Wissen was published in one volume between 1870 and 1872 . In the following years several new and expanded editions of this lexicon appeared.

Meyer's Small Conversation Lexicon

Meyer's Kleines Konversations-Lexikon , also known as "Kleiner Meyer", was conceived as a smaller and more cost-effective variant in several editions and to different extents.

Meyer's New Lexicon

Meyers Neues Lexikon is a Marxist-Leninist lexicon with the scope and depth of a conversation lexicon. It was produced in 8 volumes by the GDR counterpart publishing house VEB Bibliographisches Institut between 1961 and 1964. A supplementary volume followed in 1969. In the significantly expanded 2nd edition, it was published in 15 volumes between 1971 and 1977. In addition, three additional volumes appeared in 1978.

Meyer's Blitz-Lexikon

Meyer's Blitz-Lexikon is a compact, one-volume reference work that appeared in several editions between around 1928 and 1940. The name refers to the need for very quick (“lightning”) information.

Meyer's pocket dictionary

Meyers Taschenlexikon was a cheaper and more compact alternative to the representative editions. Meyers Taschenlexikon was published in editions of various sizes, namely in one volume, in twelve volumes and as Meyers Großer Taschenlexikon in 24 to 26 volumes. Among them, for example, the six-volume Meyers Taschenlexikon Geschichte published by Werner Digel .

Meyer's memo

Meyers Memo is a one-volume encyclopedia that appeared in Mannheim in 1991 and is based on the experience gained in the development of encyclopedias by the Bibliographical Institute & F. A. Brockhaus. The work is a German translation of the French Mémo Larousse published in 1989by the French publisher Éditions Larousse, which specializes in encyclopedias and dictionaries. Texts specially tailored to the French reader were replaced by more suitable texts for German readers.

Online offer (2006–2009)

In the years 2006-2009, the publisher offered Bibliographical Institute & FA Brockhaus in the Internet about 150,000 items from Meyers Big Taschenlexikon in 24 volumes under the name of Meyers Lexikon online for free. According to the publisher, the offer was accessed 14 million times a month. Despite an extensive revision of the online lexicon on September 23, 2008, this offer was discontinued on March 23, 2009. The reason given was that the contents of the online version of Meyer's Lexicon corresponded strongly with those of the Brockhaus Encyclopedia and that they would completely withdraw from the dictionary business.

Overview of all requirements

Edition Period Volumes Pages A – Z Copies
Great Meyer 1840-1852 / 1855 46 + 6 66,643 up to 70,000
1st edition 1857-1860 / 1861 15th 19,144 approx. 40,000
2nd Edition 1861-1867 / 1875 15 + 2 17,559 63,500
3. Edition 1874-1878 / 1884 15 + 6 20,790 160,000
4th edition 1885-1890 / 1892 16 + 3 19,571 200,000
5th edition 1893-1897/1901 17 + 4 22.307 233,000
6th edition 1902-1908 / 1920 20 + 7 23,953 approx. 240,000
7th edition 1925-1933/1935 12 + 3 + 1 + 1 12,455 > 50,000
8th edition 1936–1942 (unfinished) 9 (AS) + 1 approx 14,500
9th edition 1971–1979 / 1985 25 + 7 + 10 22,210
10th edition 1981-1986 15th approx. 9,750

All page references always with all supplements of the respective edition.

Issues 1840 to 1942

  • The big conversation lexicon for the educated stands. 46 volumes (the so-called "Wunder-Meyer" =  0th edition ). Bibliographical Institute, Hildburghausen 1840–1852. 6 supplementary volumes. 1853-1855. Reprinted in 52 volumes. 1858-1859.
  • New conversation lexicon for all stands. 15 volumes. (= 1st edition ). Bibliographisches Institut, Hildburghausen 1857–1860.
  • New Konversations-Lexikon, a dictionary of general knowledge. 2nd, completely revised edition . 15 volumes. Bibliographisches Institut, Hildburghausen 1861–1867; Register (and supplements). Volume 16. 1868.
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. An encyclopedia of common knowledge. 3rd, completely revised edition . 15 volumes. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1874–1878; Supplements and registers. Volume 16. 1878; 5 year supplements. Volumes 17-21. 1880-1884; Key 1880. Note: There is an edition of the 3rd edition, which consists of 23 numbered volumes: All tables and maps are not incorporated into the basic dictionary as in the other editions, but separately in 2 volumes of illustrations 22-23 (without the year) released.
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. An encyclopedia of common knowledge. 4th, completely revised edition . 16 volumes. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1885–1890. Register, supplements and supplements. Volume 17. 1890; Annual supplements. Volumes 18 and 19. 1891, 1892. (See also below.)
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. A reference book of general knowledge. 5th, completely revised edition . 17 volumes Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1893–1897. Supplements, supplements and registers. Volume 18. 1898. Annual Supplements. Volumes 19-21. 1899, 1900/01, 1901.
  • Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon. A reference book of general knowledge. 6th, completely revised and enlarged edition . 20 volumes. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig / Vienna 1902–1908. Supplements and supplements. Volume 21. 1909. Annual Supplements. Volumes 22-24. 1910, 1912, 1913. War supplements. 3 parts. 1916, 1917, 1920. (This edition is also free of copyright. The 20 main volumes are available at . )
  • Meyer's Small Conversation Lexicon . (7th edition in 6 volumes) Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1906/1909. For this, too, the war supplements appeared, which are identical in content to those of the 6th edition.
  • Meyer's Lexicon. 7th edition . In completely new processing. 12 volumes. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1924–1930. Supplementary volumes Volume 13–15. 1931, 1932, 1933. Atlas supplementary volume. 1933. Local and traffic lexicon of the German Reich, 1935.
  • Meyer's Lexicon. 8th edition . In completely new processing and illustration. 12 volumes Bibliographisches Institut AG., Leipzig 1936–1942. Volumes 1-9 (rocket to Soxhlet) and volume 12 (Atlas volume) have been published, while volumes 10 and 11 have not been published due to the destruction of the publishing house in 1942. The content of this edition is strongly ideological (propagandistic) (see the section on the history of the conversation lexicon ).

Issues after 1945

After the end of the Second World War, the Meyer appeared both in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the GDR .

  • Meyer's Encyclopedic Lexicon in 25 volumes. 9th, completely revised edition for the 150th anniversary of the publisher . Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim , Vienna , Zurich 1971–79. Supplements A – Z. Vol. 26. 1980. World Atlas. Vol. 27. 1974. Register of persons. Vol. 28. 1981. Picture dictionary German-English-French. Vol. 29. 1981. German dictionary. Vol. 30-32. 1979-81.
  • Meyer's Great Universal Lexicon in 15 volumes. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim, Vienna, Zurich 1981–86. A three-volume dictionary that was still planned no longer appeared.

The two editions that continued to appear in Leipzig after the Second World War do not directly follow up on the first eight editions. The edition of the “Meyers Neues Lexikon” published in Leipzig is strongly ideologically influenced in terms of content.

  • Meyer's New Lexicon. (=  1st edition ). 8 vols., VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1961–1964; Additions to subject terms and geographical proper names. Vol. 9, 1969.
  • Meyer's New Lexicon. 2nd edition in 18 volumes . VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig; Lexikon Vol. 1-15, 1971-77; Register A – Z. Vol. 16, 1978; Atlas (maps). Vol. 17, 1978; Atlas (register). Vol. 18, 1978.

The shorter successor currently available in bookshops is

  • Meyer's Large Pocket Lexicon in 24 volumes plus DVD-ROM , 10th revised and expanded edition, Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim, 8,868 pages, 150,000 headwords, around 4,000 photos, 80 complexes of images, 300 tables, over 1,000 graphics, around 500 maps, with DVD -ROM for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux with a complete stock of keywords and approx. 1400 illustrations, ISBN 978-3-411-10060-6

In 1991 Meyers Lexikonverlag / Mannheim published Meyers Memo , in which the encyclopedic material was not broken down alphabetically but according to nineteen areas of knowledge and subject areas:

  • Meyers Lexikonredaktion: Meyers Memo - The knowledge of the world according to subject areas , Meyers Lexikonverlag, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-411-07311-X

Retro digitization

The following editions of the early Meyer's encyclopedias are retro-digitized and accessible online .

Ur-Meyer: Bavarian State Library (Google Books)

First edition: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Google Books)

Second edition: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Google Books)

Third edition: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Google Books)

Fourth edition: The Retro Library and BHL

Volumes of the fourth edition
tape from to
1 Aa Atlantids
2 Atlantis Scarab beetle
3 Leaf beetle Chimbote
4th China distance
5 Distance business Faidherbe
6th Faidit mate
7th brain Hainichen
8th Hainleite Iriartea
9 Irides Royal green
10 Koenigshofen Luzon
11 Luzula Nathanael
12 Nathusius Phlegmon
13 Phlegon Rubinstein
14th Rapeseed oil soda water
15th heartburn Uralit
16 Uralsk Currently
17th Supplementary volume
18th Supplement 1890-1891
19th Supplement 1891-1892
99 Key (3rd edition)

The fourth edition, published in 16 volumes from 1885 to 1890, is free of copyright. The rights holder Bibliographisches Institut & F. A. Brockhaus AG has approved the project and funded it. All volumes are now freely accessible on the internet as scanned images and as OCR full text. Together with a register, the annual supplements 1891 and 1892 and most of the large picture tables (mostly DIN A3), around 20,400 pages are digitized . With the exception of the supplementary volumes 17 and 19, all texts have already been checked and corrected at least in a first pass. The cross-references in the text ("see ...") are linked to the corresponding key words by hyperlinks .

This offer is available as full text at .

Canadian digital copies of the original volumes are available in the Biodiversity Heritage Library.

Fourth edition: Wikimedia

At Wikimedia Commons , the media database of the Wikimedia projects, all 16 volumes of the 4th edition were put online in 16,600 image files (text set + illustrations). This image material is made available in text form on the sister project Wikisource .

Wikimedia Commons search key:

Volume 5, page 967 is therefore file: Meyers b5 s0967.jpg . A volume has about 1020 pages.

Sixth edition: Directmedia and

The 6th edition (1905–1909) was published by Directmedia as volume 100 of the digital library in an edition with facsimiles and a full-text version without facsimiles called the study edition. This edition is also accessible via the project and is available there both in text form and as a facsimile (webrepro) of the 6th edition. It is also linked to a common search mask and cross-references with the following lexicons:

Fourth edition article as the basis for Wikipedia articles

In the first years of the German-language Wikipedia, numerous articles from the fourth edition in the public domain were placed on Wikipedia in order to "quickly replenish the stock of articles and fill in gaps, especially in the areas in which no authors with the appropriate previous education were active". Most of these so-called “Meyers Articles” have now been revised in terms of language and content. But to this day there are still almost 2000 “Meyers articles”, the basis of which is the fourth edition published from 1885 to 1892 (status: beginning of October 2019). They are marked at the foot of the respective article with a note (“This article is based on a public domain text from Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon, 4th edition from 1888–1890.”).

See also


(in chronological order)

  • Armin Human: Carl Joseph Meyer and the Bibliographical Institute of Hildburghausen - Leipzig. A cultural-historical sketch. In: Writings of the Association for Saxony-Meiningen History and Regional Studies. 23rd issue. Kesselring'sche Hofbuchhandlung, Hildburghausen 1896, pp. 59-136 ( digitized version ).
  • Alfred Wilhelm Dove : Brockhaus and Meyer. In: Alfred Wilhelm Dove: Selected writings primarily historical content. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1898, pp. 548-554 ( digitized in the Internet Archive ).
  • Johannes Hohlfeld : The Bibliographical Institute. Festschrift for its centenary. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1926.
  • Gerhard Menz : One Hundred Years of Meyer's Lexicon. (= Festschrift on the occasion of the centenary of Meyer's Lexicon on August 25, 1939). Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1939.
  • Gert A. Zischka: Index lexicorum - bibliography of lexical reference works. Brothers Hollinek publishing house, Vienna 1959 (new print, Hollinek, Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-85119-165-X ).
  • Karl-Heinz Kalhöfer (Ed.): 125 years of Meyers Lexicon 1839–1964. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1964.
  • Friedrich Schultheiss: Bibliographical notes on an encyclopedia and four lexicons of the 19th and 20th centuries. In: The scientific editors. Articles, articles, lectures from the Bibliographical Institute. Issue 6. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim 1971, pp. 33–48.
  • Günter Gurst: On the history of the conversation lexicon in Germany. In: Hans-Joachim Diesner, Günter Gurst (Ed.): Lexica yesterday and today. VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1976, pp. 137–188.
  • Heinz Sarkowski : The Bibliographical Institute - Publishing History and Bibliography 1826-1976. Bibliographical Institute, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1976, ISBN 978-3-411-01368-5 .
  • Hugo Wetscherek (Ed.): Bibliotheca Lexicorum - Annotated Directory of the Otmar Seemann Collection . Antiquariat Inlibris, Vienna 2001, ISBN 978-3-9500813-5-0 .
  • Thomas Keiderling: “Meyer” or “Herder”? The productive competition of German lexicon editions in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In: Thomas Keiderling (Ed.): FA Brockhaus 1905-2005. Brockhaus, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 978-3-7653-0284-8 , pp. 77-87.
  • Anna Kochanowska-Nieborak: Conversation Lexica from the perspective of historical stereotype research: Using the example of the German image of Poland in Meyer's Konversationslexika. In: Hans-Albrecht Koch (Hrsg.): Older conversation encyclopedias and specialist encyclopedias - contributions to the history of knowledge transmission and mentality formation. (= Contributions to the history of text, transmission and education. Volume 1). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2013, ISBN 978-3-631-62341-1 , pp. 181-214.

Web links

Commons : Meyers Konversations-Lexikon  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ "Wunder-Meyer" or zero edition (1840-1852 / 1856). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  2. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1st edition (1857-1860 / 1861). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  3. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 2nd edition (1861-1867 / 1875). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  4. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 3rd edition (1874-1878 / 1884). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  5. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 4th edition (1885-1890 / 1892). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  6. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 5th edition (1893-1897 / 1901). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  7. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 6th edition (1902–1908 / 1920). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  8. Sarkowski 1976, p. 128 considers Meyer-6 not only to be the "best made" Meyer, but also the "most extensive German lexicon of the 20th century" Cf. also Martin Peche, Hugo Wetscherek: Bibliotheca Lexicorum . Vienna 2001, p. 382.
  9. See Sarkowski 1976, p. 138.
  10. ^ Meyers Lexikon 7th edition (1924-1930 / 1935). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  11. Thomas Keiderling: Encyclopedists and Lexica in the Service of the Dictatorship? The publishers FA Brockhaus and Bibliographisches Institut ("Meyer") during National Socialism . In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte , 1/2012, Munich, pp. 69–92
  12. ^ Meyers Lexicon, 8th edition (1936–1942). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  13. Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon 9th edition (1971–1979 / 1985). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  14. Meyer's Grosses Universal-Lexikon (1981–1986). In: Lexikon und Enzyklopä Retrieved June 28, 2016 .
  15. Meyers Hand-Lexikon des Allgemeine Wissen in one volume: With many cards ... (1871) .
  16. Start date for online Brockhaus postponed . In: from April 1, 2008.
  17. Brockhaus changes saddles., September 25, 2008, accessed April 2, 2008 .
  18. We are completely withdrawing from the lexical look-up business . In: of December 17, 2008.
  19. retro library: main page
  20. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon , DVD-ROM, ISBN 3-89853-500-2
  21. Frank Schulenburg, Achim Raschka, Michail Jungierek: The "McDonald's of information"? A look behind the scenes of collaborative knowledge management in the German language Wikipedia . In: library. Research and Practice , Vol. 31, 2002, No. 2, pp. 225–229, here p. 227.
  22. Number of integrations of the template “Meyer's Note 1888–1890” in Wikipedia. In: Retrieved October 19, 2018 .
  23. See: List of Wikipedia articles with the template "Meyer's note 1888–1890"