German National Library

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German National Library
- DNB -

founding 1912 (German library)
1946 (German library)
Duration 36.1 million media units (2018)
Library type National Library
place Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main
management Frank Scholze

The German National Library ( DNB ), formerly Die Deutsche Bibliothek (DDB), is the central archive library for all media works in German from Germany and abroad and the national bibliographic center of Germany.

The German National Library has two locations: Leipzig (formerly the German Library , since 2010 also the German Music Archive ) and Frankfurt am Main (formerly the German Library ).

It fulfills the tasks of a national library from the year of publication 1913. Its most urgent task is to collect, record and make the media works freely available to the public. It is the largest library in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the German-speaking area and one of the largest libraries in the world .


German National Library Leipzig
German National Library, Frankfurt am Main
The General Director of the German National Library from 1999 to 2019, Elisabeth Niggemann

Legal basis

The legal collection mandate of the German National Library has since 1913 published in Germany media works (on the basis of legal deposit ) and published abroad media works in German, translations of German media works into other languages and foreign language media works on Germany. The publications are indexed , archived and made available for reference . In addition, the library compiles the German National Bibliography and maintains some special collections ( German Exile Archive 1933–1945 , Anne Frank Shoah Library , German Museum of Books and Writing ).

With the new version of the law on the German National Library (DNBG), which came into force on June 29, 2006 , the library, which has been known as "The German Library" since 1990, was renamed the "German National Library". It is a legally competent federal institution under public law and is subject to the legal supervision of the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media .

Headquarters, locations and management

The library is based in Frankfurt am Main.

The library has two locations:

  1. Leipzig (formerly German Library )
  2. Frankfurt am Main (formerly German Library )

Until 2010, the location of the German Music Archive was in Berlin.

According to § 5  DNBG, the organs of the library are :

The administrative board decides by resolution in "all matters that are of fundamental or significant economic importance for the library and its development" ( § 6 Paragraph 4 DNBG).

The general director conducts the business of the library insofar as these are not assigned to the board of directors by formal law or statutes or are incumbent on the highest service authority. He or she represents the library in and out of court and is a superior or employer in terms of labor law or civil service law ( Section 7 DNBG). The general director of the library has been Frank Scholze since January 2020 . His predecessors were Elisabeth Niggemann and Klaus-Dieter Lehmann . Permanent representatives are Ute Schwens , who succeeds Kurt Nowak, director in Frankfurt am Main, and Michael Fernau , director in Leipzig.

The board of directors appoints up to twelve experts as advisory board to advise the board of directors and the general director, half of them at the suggestion of the Börsenverein. There is a special advisory board for the German Music Archive ( § 8 DNBG).

As a federally direct and legally competent institution under public law, the German National Library regulates its own affairs through statute law, which the administrative board resolves with a three-quarters majority ( Section 4 (1) DNBG).


The designation German National Library , which was introduced by the law on the German National Library in 2006, has been criticized. In contrast to national libraries in other countries, the area of ​​collecting essentially begins with the year of publication 1913; older German-language literature would have been acquired by several libraries as part of the Collection of German Prints program ; Foreign-language literature from abroad is collected in a representative manner, above all by the special collection area libraries , including the central specialist libraries . Classically, this task also lies with the national library, which is why the specialist literature has spoken of a distributed national library up to now.

In particular, the two large universal libraries of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Berlin State Library and the Bavarian State Library , rated the name change rather negatively because they had the impression that it would not sufficiently appreciate their role in the field of literature supply. According to a joint declaration by the heads of the German National Library and the State Libraries in Berlin and Munich, the renaming "does not change anything in the division of labor in the performance of national librarianship tasks in the sense of the tried and tested model of a virtual national library, which only gains its efficiency and reputation from the joint performance of tasks".

With a gap of ten years, the copyright lawyer Eric W. Steinhauer described the debate about the renaming of the library as "hardly understandable". The subject has since "completely settled."


At the end of 2016, the total holdings of the German National Library comprised around 32.7 million media units. Together with the Collection of German Prints and the Special Collection Areas , the German National Library forms a distributed national library for Germany.

Staff and budget

At the end of 2016, the library had 633 employees. With a budget of 52.3 million euros in 2016, it is financed by the Federal Republic of Germany with an annual contribution of 51 million euros.


In the German-speaking area, due to the federal structure and historical development, there was no library until 1912 that centrally supervised the national librarianship. The tasks were taken over by several large nationally important libraries for their respective countries. For Bavaria this was the Bavarian State Library and for Prussia the Prussian State Library, today the State Library of Berlin - Prussian cultural property . Other national libraries acted accordingly.

Before 1912

An early proposal to establish a German national library was brought to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in October 1843 and rejected. Karl Bernhardi , who succeeded Jacob Grimm as the librarian in Kassel , proposed the establishment of a German national library with legal deposit rights , since the regional libraries at that time were only accessible to scholars in their immediate vicinity. The first attempt by a German national library is the Paulskirchenbibliothek, now known as the Reichsbibliothek , whose imperial librarian was the sinologist Johann Heinrich Plath . The collection of several thousand volumes was originally made available by German booksellers to the St. Paul's Church Assembly in 1848/49 as the basis of a parliamentary library. It is now in the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig. Finally, Councilor Erich Ehlermann worked out a design for an imperial library for the German Book Trade Association.

1912 to 1945

Main entrance of the main building in Leipzig

On October 3, 1912, the "Deutsche Bücherei" was founded in Leipzig as an archive library. The founder was the Exchange Association of German Booksellers in Leipzig , supported by the Kingdom of Saxony and the City of Leipzig. The "Deutsche Bücherei" was to collect and archive the national literature from 1913 and function as an archive for German literature. Their task was to collect all German and foreign language literature published in Germany from January 1, 1913, as well as foreign literature in German, to record it in a national bibliography and to make it freely available to everyone free of charge.

In 1921, the "Deutsche Bücherei" was assigned the task of editing the "Daily Directory of New Releases" and the "Weekly Directory of the Published and Prepared News from the Book Trade" by the German Booksellers Association. In 1931 the "Deutsche Nationalbibliographie" appeared for the first time in the series A (new publications in the book trade) and B (new publications outside the book trade). Editing of the "Half-yearly directory of new publications of the German book trade" and the "German book directory" has now been taken over by the "Deutsche Bücherei".

In 1933 the "Deutsche Bücherei" was subordinated to the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda . The National Socialist measures for cultural and intellectual conformity were monitored in Leipzig by an office of the NSDAP . Politically unpopular writings or writings by exiles were no longer allowed to be displayed in the national bibliography . From 1939 to 1944, the “List of the publications placed under lock and key in the German library” appeared. As early as 1935, an order from the Reich Chamber of Culture obliged the associations, publishers and individuals subordinate to it to submit their writings to the Deutsche Bücherei; this led to the first statutory deposit regulation for the German-speaking area. During the Second World War, the "Deutsche Bücherei" outsourced around 1.6 million volumes. Despite fire damage, the "Deutsche Bücherei" suffered only minor war losses.

1945 to 1990

German Library, Frankfurt am Main, around 1959
Beginning of the collection after the Second World War in the magazine in Frankfurt am Main

The Deutsche Bücherei was reopened in November 1945. When Germany was divided into four zones of occupation, the "Deutsche Bücherei" lost its status as the central archive library. In the western zones of Germany, the rebuilding of the bookselling and library institutions in Frankfurt am Main developed. This led to the split in the national bibliography and the establishment of the "German Library" in Frankfurt am Main. First, the "German National Bibliography" appeared again in Leipzig. At the same time, however, the establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt am Main was initiated. The newly established library was officially named "German Library" on November 4, 1946. On December 12, 1946, the "Bibliography of the German Library, Frankfurt am Main" appeared for the first time. Now there were two libraries in divided Germany, which performed the tasks and functions of a national library separately for the East (later GDR) and the West (later Federal Republic of Germany). The national bibliographic registers that appeared were almost identical in content. In 1955 the "Deutsche Bücherei" was granted the right to deposit copies by order and in 1969 the "Deutsche Bibliothek" by law.

After 1990

Magazine of the German National Library in Frankfurt / Main

With the reunification of Germany , the “Deutsche Bücherei” and the “Deutsche Bibliothek” were merged to “Die Deutsche Bibliothek” with locations in Leipzig and Frankfurt and headquarters in Frankfurt. At that time the Deutsche Bücherei had 8.8 million and the German Library (including the German Music Archive in Berlin) 4.5 million media units. On January 3, 1991, the first joint issue of the "German National Bibliography" appeared. In both houses, the literature was collected and made available in parallel, but agreements existed for cooperative acquisition and development. In May 1997, the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt moved into a new building on Adickesallee . In 2006, “The German Library” was renamed “German National Library” by the “Law on the German National Library”. It is the central archive library and national bibliographic center of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 2010 the German Music Archive was relocated to Leipzig.

Centenary 2012

A ceremony to mark the 100th anniversary of the founding took place in Leipzig on October 2nd, 2012. The anniversary program included events in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main. It was also possible to take part in the “We're a vintage!” Campaign online.

On the occasion of the anniversary, the HUNDERT magazine was published in four issues . However, only a small part of this was devoted to the history of the German National Library and gave a very sketchy picture in terms of external perception. As a result, in 2014 the General Management arranged for two science historians not belonging to the house, Sören Flachowsky for the period 1912 to 1945 and Christian Rau for the period 1945 to 1990, to write comprehensive library-historical studies on the history of the house, which in 2018 were in three volumes with a total of over 2000 pages were published.


Stand of the DNB at the 106th German Librarians' Day 2017 in Frankfurt

In its function as an archive library, the “German National Library” has the task of “collecting an inventory of the media works published in Germany from 1913 and the German-language media works published abroad from 1913, translations of German-language media works into other languages ​​and foreign-language media works about Germany in the original , to develop and to record bibliographically, to secure permanently and to make usable for the general public as well as to provide central library and national bibliographic services, the German Exile Archive 1933–1945, the Anne Frank Shoah Library and the German Museum of Books and Writing to operate, to work together with specialist institutions in Germany and abroad and to participate in national and international specialist organizations ”. The “German National Library” shares the classic tasks of a national library with the Berlin State Library and the Bavarian State Library .

Collection and acquisition

Two copies of every publication published in Germany must be sent to the library ( deposit copy ). However, there are numerous exceptions to this basic obligation, which are regulated in the law itself and, based on corresponding authorizations, in an ordinance and in the so-called collective guidelines. For example, if the focus is not on music, film works and printed works that are only of temporary importance but may still have an ISBN (order catalogs, leaflets, advertising material, railway timetables, bound or folded, as well as their reprints and Similar). One copy each of the printing works that are required to be submitted is collected in Leipzig and one in Frankfurt am Main. For very elaborately produced media that are published in small numbers, the publishers can receive a subsidy towards the production costs of the deposit copies. Normally, the National Library has the right to free media. The library also collects (but only in one copy that is kept in Leipzig) in German-language works published abroad, translations from German and foreign publications about Germany (Germanica). Donations of bibliographic units are gladly accepted, but contact should be made beforehand to reduce the effort.

Extended delivery obligation

Anyone who publishes within the scope of German law must hand in two copies of their works to the German National Library. Until June 28, 2006, this only applied to “physical works” (books, CD-ROMs, etc.); Since June 29, 2006, this obligation also applies to “media works in immaterial form”, that is, publications on the Internet. Sections 14 and 16 of the DNB Act regulate the details of the delivery obligation.

Online publications

In March 2002, “Die Deutsche Bibliothek” and the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels reached an agreement on the delivery, collection, archiving and listing of their online publications . It provides for the voluntary submission of the publishers .

The law on the German National Library of June 22, 2006 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1338 ) regulates a significant expansion of the collective order, which now goes beyond the incorporeal media works (online publications) only from the publishers .

At present (as of October 2006), however, it has not yet been clarified how this new regulation is to be complied with, in particular with regard to interactive, non-physical publications such as weblogs, homepages and forums. In such unresolved cases, the relevant publications will be reserved by the German National Library and only requested when archiving is technically possible. According to the German National Library, there is currently no need for action by the authors of such online publications.

Standardization work

The German National Library participates in the further development of library regulations and metadata formats and works on authority files ( personal name file , joint corporate body file , subject headings authority file ) for bibliographic data. In April 2012, she introduced the Common Authority File (GND).

"Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany"

Between 1997 and 2006 the German Library (DDB) digitized Jewish periodicals from Nazi Germany and exile journals from the DDB collections in two projects with the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These collections from the period 1933 to 1945 consist of around 30,000 and 100,000 pages, respectively. The digitized version was available in 2004 and published on the Internet.

Virtual exhibitions

As of 2013, the German National Library has initiated several virtual exhibitions on different aspects of its collection:

  • Arts in Exile, published on September 18, 2013, is an Internet portal about artists who fled into exile for political reasons. The exhibition, which is supervised by the German Exile Archive 1933–1945 of the DNB, is intended to bring together archived documents on emigration and exile worldwide and thus make them available to interested parties. The focus will initially be on the period from 1933 to 1945 and later also include emigration from the GDR and communist Eastern Europe.
  • Signs - Books - Networks: From Cuneiform to Binary Code, the second virtual exhibition, published on May 18, 2014, is a media history offer from the German Museum of Books and Writing of the DNB. In various themed modules, it tells cultural history from the perspective of writing and books through to the digital world of the Internet, spanning a time span from early history to the present day.
  • The World War I collection , a collection of documents on the First World War , which was started in 1914 by the Deutsche Bücherei , was re-indexed for the commemorative year 2014, partly digitized and presented in a virtual exhibition in June 2014. It is intended to make media history in connection with the war tangible. There is a strong reference to the Deutsche Bücherei, its collecting and exhibition activities as well as individual media genres and media works.


Terms of use

The German National Library is purely a reference library . The holdings may only be used in the reading room . Anyone who has reached the age of 18 and presents an official ID receives a library card. Since September 1, 1997, a user fee has to be paid to enter the reading rooms. This fee is waived for two years from March 1, 2020. There is a limit to the number of works that can be viewed at the same time. Individual articles or chapters can also be ordered as (digital) copies for a fee. Works that serve to convey elementary knowledge (such as school books) or for entertainment (such as fiction or pornographic literature) can only be viewed if there is evidence of a scientific, professional, technical or official interest. In 2017, the German National Library counted around 180,000 users of the reading rooms. In 2008 there were 481,000.

Criticism of "digital instead of printed"

On November 7, 2016, the German National Library introduced a change to the usage rules under the motto “digital instead of printed”. Printed books, for which online versions are also available on the screen, are generally no longer issued for use in the reading room.

This change, which affected 300,000 books in 2016, sparked debate. Thomas Thiel commented: "Report from a library that no longer wants to be"; and Hans von Trotha spoke of a “farewell to the printed book”. Tilman Spreckelsen understands screen as the preferred provision of parallel e-book editions as well as Joachim Güntner ("In the analog world, security and use bite each other") or Hans-Joachim Wätjen, library director at the University of Oldenburg, as implementation of the order national archival library. The library emphasized the advantages of online use for fulfilling its role as an archive library. Ute Schwens , the director of the Frankfurt office, said: “With expanded functionalities and faster availability, we are meeting the needs of our users.” The head of the municipal literature archive in Munich Monacensia , Elisabeth Tworek, on the other hand, advocated the establishment of the printed book and explained: "Especially in times of a culture break: You cannot withdraw access to the generations who are used to the book."

As a result of the public debate, the user regulations were adjusted again in January 2017 and put under the corrected motto “digitally pre-printed”. Since December 2016, printed books can be ordered without a reason, but an additional order process must be initiated by phone, in person or by e-mail. These books are marked in the catalog with the note “Use only after consultation” and are listed as “blocked media”.

This process was further simplified in April 2017, so that since then there has been an equal choice. Furthermore, attention has been drawn to the fact that reading printed books endangers the library's archiving mission.

The library management is thus drawing the conclusions from the results of the 2016 user survey. Among other things, this revealed that 82.7% of the users surveyed prefer printed works, only 7.1%, however, prefer digital offers, while 6.8% remained undecided and 3.4 % did not provide any information on this question. The authors of the extensive study note the four most important results: “The vast majority of users still prefer to read books and magazines in printed form. A trend towards the digital medium is most likely to be seen among the DNB's online users. Classic laptops and computers with screens are predominantly preferred as reading devices for digital media. "

Online catalog

You can search online in the catalog of the German National Library. In addition to bibliographical data, biographical data and availability of the works in bookshops are also documented. In particular, the announcements of publisher's publications are taken from the Directory of Deliverable Books (VLB).


  • The book tower - 100 years of the German National Library. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 30 min., Script and director: René Römer, production: MDR , first broadcast: October 2, 2012.


  • German National Library (Ed.): German National Library: Preserving for the future. Vlg. German National Library, Leipzig / Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-933641-89-2 (Principle compact publication on history, legal form and legal basis, tasks and goals of the German National Library, its collections and archives, focal points and Division of labor, national and international cooperation and alliances as well as statistical data and facts about the capabilities and contacts of this institution).
  • German National Library. Annual report. Appears annually.
  • The German Library. Complete archive and national bibliographic information center - central collection, indexing, communication . The German Library, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-922051-30-8 .
  • Sören Flachowsky: " Armory for the swords of the spirit". The Deutsche Bücherei during the Nazi era. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-8353-3196-9 . Online: urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-2020060316523309004183 .
  • Sebastian Götte, Selina Recke: User survey of the German National Library 2016. aproxima 2017.
  • Tanja Sophie Müller: "Inferior" literature and national integration. The Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig as a project of the bourgeoisie in the Empire and in the Weimar Republic , Göttingen: Wallstein 2019, ISBN 978-3-8353-3516-5 .
  • Christian Rau: "National library in a divided country". The German Library 1945–1990. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-8353-3199-0 . Online: urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-2020060409532263435358 .
  • Ute Schwens, Jörg Räuber: Two become one. Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main have been united to form the German National Library for 25 years . In: Dialogue with Libraries . tape 27 , no. 2 , 2015, p. 4–24 , urn : nbn: de: 101-2015100108 .
  • Frank Simon-Ritz; Jan-Pieter Barbian: 100 years - and not a bit quiet: From the “German Library” to the “German National Library” . In: BuB: Forum Library and Information. 64 (2012) 10, pp. 684-690.

Since 1989, the library has published a magazine twice a year at the book fairs in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main to provide information about its work:

For discussion about the name change in the specialist public:

To "digital instead of printed":

  • Lukas Bormann: a screen instead of a book? New rules in the German National Library. In: From the second-hand bookshop . Magazine for antiquarians and book collectors. Vol. 15, Issue 1 (2017), ISSN  0343-186X , pp. 23-25.

Web links

Commons : German National Library  - Collection of Pictures

Individual evidence

  1. Annual report 2018 . German National Library, May 2019, ISSN  1864-2640 , DNB  1187664855 , p. 44 , urn : nbn: de: 101-2019052102 ( [PDF; accessed on June 3, 2019]).
  2. See also the discussion in the plenary session of the German Bundestag on January 19, 2006, plenary minutes 16/11 (PDF; 1.5 MB), pp. 769–776.
  3. For example in: Gisela von Busse u. a .: The library system in the Federal Republic of Germany . 3. Edition. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-447-03706-7 , p. 398 .
  4. ^ Rolf Griebel, Elisabeth Niggemann, Barbara Schneider-Kempf: The German National Library and the State Libraries in Berlin and Munich define their future performance of national librarianship tasks. In: Library Service. Vol. 40 (2006), ISSN  0006-1972 , H. 11, p. 1316; = Journal for Libraries and Bibliography (ZfBB). Vol. 53 (2006), ISSN  0044-2380 , H. 6, p. 304.
  5. Eric W. Steinhauer: 10 years of mandatory submission of online publications - a construction site is visited . In: Dialogue with Libraries . No. 2 , 2016, p. 31–36, 31 , urn : nbn: de: 101-20161006188 .
  6. German National Library (Ed.): Annual Report 2015 . 2016, ISSN  1864-2640 , DNB  1102219754 , p. 56–57 , urn : nbn: de: 101-2016052300 .
  7. ^ Reichsbibliothek from 1848. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  8. Gerhard Menz (ed.): The German book trade of the present in self-portrayals . Issue 1: Erich Ehlermann . Published by Felix Meiner, Leipzig 1925
  9. Erich Ehlermann: A realm library in Leipzig. Memorandum (1910). Society of Friends of the German Library Leipzig, Leipzig 1927, DNB 579329062 .
  10. Ute Schwens, Jörg Räuber: Two become one. Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main have been united to form the German National Library for 25 years . In: Dialogue with Libraries . tape 27 , no. 2 , 2015, DNB  1077077041 , p. 4–24 , urn : nbn: de: 101-2015100108 .
  11. ^ Law on the German National Library. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  12. Event calendar 100 years DNB . Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved on August 25, 2012.
  13. We are a vintage! ( Memento of March 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  14. Anniversary magazine . Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  15. Sören Flachowsky: " Armory for the swords of the spirit". The Deutsche Bücherei during the Nazi era . P. 33.
  16. § 2 Law on the German National Library (DNBG). In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  17. See also online publications. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  18. Arts in exile. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  19. Exile Network., accessed on August 16, 2017.
  20. Signs - Books - Networks: From Cuneiform to Binary Code. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  21. 100 years of the First World War. Virtual exhibition on the website of the German National Library. In:, accessed on August 23, 2014.
  22. Ute Schwens: 1997 to 2017 - 20 years Adickesallee 1 . In: Dialogue with Libraries . tape 29 , no. 1 , 2017, DNB  1127756591 , p. 61 , urn : nbn: de: 101-20170309182 .
  23. Use of the holdings. In:, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  24. Press release of December 5, 2019
  25. NN: Annual Report 2017. German National Library, 2018, accessed on December 21, 2018 .
  26. ^ NN: Annual Report 2008. German National Library, 2009, accessed on December 21, 2018 .
  27. dnb newsletter. In: November 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  28. Jochen Hieber: Forced digitization. In: November 18, 2016, accessed August 16, 2017.
  29. Thomas Thiel: Notes from the cellar hole. In: FAZ. November 30, 2016.
  30. ^ Hans von Trotha: Farewell to the printed book. In: deutschlandradio culture. DeutschlandRadio Kultur , November 29, 2016, accessed on August 16, 2017.
  31. ^ Tilman Spreckelsen: German National Library: Screen as protection . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . November 23, 2016, ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed December 21, 2016]).
  32. ^ Joachim Güntner: German National Library: Digital version instead of book . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . December 20, 2016, ISSN  0376-6829 ( [accessed December 21, 2016]).
  33. Nordwest-Zeitung : Media: The advance of the digital . In: NWZonline . ( [accessed December 21, 2016]).
  34. Michael Roesler-Graichen: Three questions for Ute Schwens, director of the DNB in ​​Frankfurt. In: bö December 2, 2016, accessed August 16, 2017.
  35. ^ Hannes Hintermeier : Literature Archive Monacensia. Thomas Mann as a spider in the web. In: December 11, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  36. Joachim Güntner: German National Library loosens digital pressure. Print remains more popular . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . January 24, 2017, ISSN  0376-6829 ( [accessed January 25, 2017]).
  37. Ordering media - ordering media from the holdings of the German National Library for use in the reading rooms. German National Library, January 9, 2018, accessed on June 26, 2019 .
  38. a b Michael Fernau, Elisabeth Niggemann, Ute Schwens: Library without books? Digital usage protects paper editions . In: Dialogue with Libraries . tape 29 , no. 1 , 2017, DNB  1127752146 , p. 15–17 , urn : nbn: de: 101-2017030936 .
  39. Information on the note "Use only after consultation". In:, accessed on April 3, 2017 (catalog help for blocked media).
  40. Lukas Bormann: Screen instead of a book? New rules in the German National Library. In: From the second-hand bookshop. Magazine for antiquarians and book collectors. NF 15, Issue 1, March 2017, ISSN  0343-186X , pp. 23-25.
  41. Sebastian Götte, Selina Recke: User survey of the German National Library 2016. aproxima 2017, p. 36 ( PDF; 13.5 MB , archive link, 2018).
  42. Sebastian Götte, Selina Recke: User survey of the German National Library 2016. aproxima 2017, p. 47 ( PDF; 13.5 MB ).
  43. Home page of the online catalogs of the German National Library, accessed on February 5, 2018
  44. Martina Propson-Hauck: The one book among millions of titles. Specialists at Haus des Buches have been maintaining the directory of available books for decades and use artificial intelligence to ensure that the book finds its readers even in the digital age. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . October 16, 2019, p. 36 .
  45. The Book Tower. 100 years of the German National Library. (Not available online.) In: . June 24, 2013, archived from the original on July 31, 2013 ; accessed on October 15, 2018 (table of contents; video no longer online).
  46. Sebastian Götte, Selina Recke: User survey of the German National Library 2016. aproxima 2017 ( PDF; 13.5 MB ).

Coordinates: 50 ° 7 ′ 52.3 "  N , 8 ° 40 ′ 59.8"  E