1946

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1946
The dock in the Nuremberg trial
The Nuremberg trial of the main war criminals ends on September 30th with the pronouncement of the verdicts.
US poster establishing the United Nations
The first General Assembly of the United Nations will take place in London on January 10th .
Rubble women in Berlin
Rubble women at work.
1946 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2699
Armenian calendar 1394-1395
Ethiopian calendar 1938-1939
Badi calendar 102-103
Bengali calendar 1352-1353
Berber calendar 2896
Buddhist calendar 2490
Burmese calendar 1308
Byzantine calendar 7454-7455
Chinese calendar
 - era 4642-4643 or
4582-4583
 - 60 year cycle

Wood Rooster (乙酉, 22) -
Fire Dog (丙戌, 23)

French
revolution calendar
CLIV - CLV
154-155
Hebrew calendar 5706-5707
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2002-2003
 - Shaka Samvat 1868-1869
Iranian calendar 1324-1325
Islamic calendar 1365-1366
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 21
 - Kōki 2606
Coptic calendar 1662-1663
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4279
 - Juche era 35
Minguo calendar 35
Modern Olympics XIII
Seleucid calendar 2257-2258
Thai solar calendar 2489

1946 , the first year after the end of the Second World War , is still largely under the impression of the joint creation of a post-war order for the world by the victorious coalition of the four allies . The clearest expression of this is the United Nations , whose General Assembly and Security Council begin their work at the beginning of the year.

overview

Germany

Some of the defendants in the Nuremberg Trial

In Germany, the denazification agreed in the Potsdam Agreement reached its first climax in the Nuremberg trial of the major war criminals , which ended with several death sentences and a number of prison terms for the greats of the Nazi state. The famine winter of 1946/47 claimed victims.

Post-war order and beginning of the Cold War

The Iron Curtain in Europe during the Cold War from 1945 to 1990

The first differences that arose between Stalin and the Western Allies initially appeared to be less serious and unbridgeable. In the Nuremberg trial, for example, the Soviets demanded significantly higher penalties; however, the Anglo-American view of the fairest possible trial had prevailed. Even the first Soviet veto in the UN Security Council - which was later to be followed by well over 100 - concerned a marginal issue with the withdrawal of France and Great Britain from Lebanon and Syria . On other issues, such as the restoration of the Republic of Austria , the Tokyo war crimes trials and the treatment of Italian colonial property, there was broad agreement.

More significant was the disagreement over the question of a possible German central government and an economic order for Germany; these questions were initially postponed until later. The US government under Harry S. Truman ( Truman's cabinet ) relied on its strong position as the sole nuclear power , which it demonstrated with two nuclear tests in the Pacific ( July 1946 ), and the British Labor government of Attlee , which was politically committed to the nationalization of the Key industries and the health service (→ National Health Service ) continued, distanced itself from Churchill's war rhetoric. Churchill warned of the future danger in Europe from the Soviet Union, which would establish a system of totalitarian satellite states behind the Iron Curtain it had erected . Churchill's thesis - Stalin dismissed it as dangerous warmongering - turned out to be correct.

On September 6, 1946, US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes gave a highly acclaimed speech in Stuttgart, the so-called " Hope Speech ", in which he discussed some important changes in American policy towards Germany. On December 2, 1946, the Americans and British signed the amalgamation of their two zones of occupation to form the Bizone on January 1, 1947.

reconstruction

Initially, the focus was also on eliminating people's immediate needs. The food supply reached a critical low point worldwide; In Germany there were hunger strikes by workers who receive daily rations of 1,500 kcal or less per day and who are often infected with tuberculosis, whereupon the Allies point out that bread must also be rationed in Great Britain and that there are real famine in India. Meanwhile, the population makes do with coal theft and shops on the black market , where American cigarettes are developing into a kind of shadow currency. The dismantling policy of the Soviet Union in particular is helping to slow down reconstruction, but at least the most important transport routes, such as the bridges over the Rhine, will soon be restored.

Europe

In other European countries, the restoration of a constitutional order is in the foreground. The Fourth Republic is being established in France , against the will of Charles de Gaulle , who criticized the President's weak position.

Italy decides with a narrow majority for the introduction of the republic, so that the last king, Umberto II. , Who after the abdication of his father Viktor Emanuel III. reigned for just a month, now has to resign himself.

In view of the general anti-fascist world opinion, the Spanish Franco regime finds itself exposed to international isolation without this being able to endanger its continued existence.

In Eastern Europe the states declare themselves to be people's republics. Where there previously existed monarchies, such as Romania , Bulgaria or Albania , the kings are forced to abdicate. At the same time, special courts are responsible for the trial of politicians and the military who are guilty of war crimes alongside the Germans.

Colonial areas

Meanwhile, in the colonial territories of the European powers, the first clear impulses of independence strivings can be seen.

In British India, the colonial power is heading towards the liberation of the subcontinent into independence, which is, however, initially delayed by the sometimes bloody clashes between Hindus and Muslims.

At the same time, the Indochina War begins with a massacre in Hải Phong , in which Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam leads the resistance against French colonial rule.

In Africa, meanwhile, the fact that a majority of black Africans are now represented in the parliament of the Gold Coast colony is symptomatic of the gradual change here as well.

Iran

The Iran crisis is considered to be one of the triggers of the Cold War . Stalin refused to withdraw the Soviet troops invading Iran in 1941 as part of the Anglo-Soviet invasion . Instead, he supported separatist movements of the Kurds and Azeris who, with the proclamation of the communist republic of Mahabad and the autonomous republic of Azerbaijan , pursued the establishment of their own states separated from Iran. After intensive negotiations with the Iranian Prime Minister Ahmad Qavām , in the course of which the Soviet Union was granted oil production rights in Northern Iran, and under pressure from US President Truman, Stalin withdrew the Soviet troops. On December 12, 1946, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi invaded Azerbaijan. On December 16, 1946, the Mahabad Republic came to an end.

Events

Politics and world events

January

United Nations flag

February

Logo of the Partij van de Arbeid
  • February 9th: The Partij van de Arbeid is founded in the Netherlands .
  • February 15: The British military government sets up a German zone advisory council to advise them.
  • February 15: After the cipher expert at the Soviet military attaché in Canada , Igor Gouzenko , handed over a list of 1,700 suspected espionage to the Canadian authorities, 23 of them, including employees of the Canadian nuclear research program, were arrested.
  • February 16: For the first time puts the Soviet Union in a debate in the UN Security Council a veto one. Britain and France planned to come up with a timetable for their withdrawal from Lebanon and Syria, but Andrei Janievich Vyshinsky insists on the immediate withdrawal.
  • February 17: The steel workers' strike in the USA is ended. General Electric and General Motors workers will continue their strike until March 13th.
Juan Domingo Perón

March

Winston Churchill
World Bank logo

April

Emblem of the SED
  • April 21 to 22 April: KPD and the SPD agreed in East Berlin the merger to the Socialist Unity Party (SED). Since a survey of the Social Democrats in West Berlin showed a majority against a merger and the SPD leadership in the western zones also speaks out against a merger, the SED's sphere of activity remains limited to East Berlin and the Soviet zone.
  • April 25: The first criminal trial against former members of the camp team of the National Socialist Stutthof concentration camp begins in Gdańsk .
  • April 25: The foreign ministers of the four victorious powers meet in Paris for a conference. The conference was postponed to June 15, due to the numerous differences of opinion between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.
  • April 29th: The Tokyo trials against Japanese Army executives begin .

May

  • May 6: Camille Gutt , Belgium , becomes first director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • May 9: Victor Emmanuel III. resigns as King of Italy ; He is succeeded by his son Umberto II.
  • May 9: A three-day party congress of the SPD with 500 delegates from the western zones takes place in Hanover . Kurt Schumacher is elected chairman, the union of the SPD and KPD to form the SED in the Soviet zone is condemned.
  • May 10: Jawaharlal Nehru is elected Chairman of the Indian Congress Party.
  • May 11: Arturo Toscanini conducts the first concert “for Italy” (Concerto della Ricostruzione) after 5 years in exile in the rebuilt La Scala in Milan .
  • May 12: In the parliamentary elections in the Netherlands , the Catholic People's Party with 32 seats becomes the strongest force ahead of the Labor Party (29). Louis Beel becomes head of government .
  • May 13: A US military tribunal sentences 58 Mauthausen concentration camp guards to death.
  • May 13: Order No. 4 of the Allied Military Government orders the destruction of all Nazi monuments in Germany by January 1, 1947.
  • May 15: Sicily becomes an autonomous region within Italy.
  • May 16: The Malmedy trial against German war criminals begins in Dachau , in which, according to the American chief prosecutor Ellis, the accused SS men were tortured.
  • May 22: United Kingdom dismisses Transjordan into the independence
  • May 25th: Independence of Transjordan. Emir Abdallah accepts the title of king.
  • May 26: In the parliamentary elections in Czechoslovakia , the CP becomes the strongest party with 38 percent.

June

Sir Archibald Wavell

July

August

  • August 2: Camille Huysmans becomes head of government in Belgium at the head of a social-liberal cabinet.
  • August 7th: The Soviet Union demands participation in the control of navigation through the Dardanelles . The Western powers reject this with reference to the 1936 Montreux Convention.
  • August 12: Great Britain imposes a ban on immigration to Palestine.
  • August 14: Mao's People 's Liberation Army starts a successful offensive against Chinese national troops near Kaifeng .
  • August 15: The Korean capital Gyeongseong (Kyŏngsŏng) is renamed Seoul (Sŏul).
  • August 16: The Kurdish Democratic Party KDP ( Kurdish پارتی دیموکراتی کوردستان Partiya Demokratie a Kurdistanê - PDK ) is founded by representatives of the Kurdish intelligentsia and the urban petty bourgeoisie. Despite his absence, Molla Mustafa Barzani was elected chairman.
  • August 19: 3,000 people are killed in fighting between Hindus and Muslims in Calcutta .
  • August 20: In the Control Council Act No. 34, the Allies dissolve the German Wehrmacht . In fact, with its unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945 , the army lost its importance.
  • August 23: The British military government dissolves the Prussian provinces in their zone of occupation and founds the states of North Rhine-Westphalia , Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein .
  • August 24: British Governor Archibald Wavell appoints Jawaharlal Nehru as head of India's executive government.
  • August 30th: The state of Rhineland-Palatinate is formed in the French occupation zone .

September

George II of Greece
  • September 1st: France votes against the political unity of the future Federal Republic of Germany in the three western occupation zones .
  • September 1st: In a referendum, the Greeks speak out in favor of the return of George II .
  • September 3: Dingtao campaign begins in the Chinese Civil War . The communist troops achieve a tactical victory in the area around Xuzhou .
  • September 4: Street battles between Muslims and Hindus in Bombay , killing over 100.
  • September 5: The military governors of the British and US zones, Brian Hubert Robertson and Lucius D. Clay , decide to create unified central offices for a bizone .
  • September 6: In his speech in Stuttgart, the American Secretary of State James F. Byrnes announces that he wants to unite the economy of the occupation zones in occupied Germany. Only Great Britain agreed to do so.
  • September 8: Bulgaria is declared a People's Republic after a referendum . The young Tsar Simeon II goes into exile.
  • September 12: Referendum in the Faroe Islands to separate the country from the Kingdom of Denmark . A slim majority of the population is in favor. Independence is proclaimed there on September 18th, but canceled by Denmark on September 20th.
  • September 12: US Secretary of Commerce Henry Agard Wallace warns of policies that could lead to war with the Soviet Union. He was released by Truman a little later and replaced by Averell Harriman .
  • September 13th: Persons of German nationality are excluded from the Polish national community in Poland by a Bierut decree .
  • September 15: The first local elections after the war take place in the French and British zones .
  • September 20: The US withdraws its troops from Iceland .
  • September 28th: ​​King George II returns to Greece .
Ostbau Justice Palace Nuremberg

October

November

UNESCO flag

December

economy

Flatbed truck from Magirus

science and technology

Project Diana antenna

Culture

Annie Get Your Gun

religion

Pius XII.

Sports

Disasters

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

Born

January

Diane Keaton
Wolfgang Stumph

February

March

April

Wolfgang Ischinger
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Carl XVI. Gustaf, 2009

May

John Watson
Daniel Libeskind
Udo Lindenberg
Cher, 2010

June

Tony Levin
Donald Trump, 2011
Xanana Gusmão

July

  • 0July 1st: Stefan Aust , editor-in-chief of the news magazine Der Spiegel
Stefan Aust
George W. Bush
Sylvester Stallone (2012)
Danny Glover
Mireille Mathieu (1971)

August

Elisabeth Guigou
Bill Clinton , 1993
  • August 19: Willi Lemke , German football functionary and politician
Willi Lemke
Hans Meiser, 2007

September

Freddie Mercury
Oliver Stone

October

Dave Holland
Georg Danzer, 2003
François Bozizé
Elfriede Jelinek, 2004

November

  • 0November 1: Ric Grech , British rock musician († 1990)
  • 0November 1st: Ingeborg Junge-Reyer , German politician
  • 0November 1st: Dennis Muren , American special effects veteran of American cinema
  • 0November 2: Giuseppe Sinopoli , Italian conductor, composer, physician and archaeologist († 2001)
  • 0November 3rd: Helmut Frommhold , German rock musician, composer
  • 0November 3: Reinhard Karl , German mountaineer, photographer and writer († 1982)
Tom Savini
Sally Field

December

Geert Mak
Steven Spielberg
Berti Vogts

Day unknown

Died

January

  • 0January 2: Eduard Kado , German painter, draftsman, sculptor and craftsman (* 1875)
Gustav Witt

February

Felix Hoffmann

March

April

John Maynard Keynes († April 21)

May

  • 0May 1: Edward Bairstow , English organist, educator, composer, choir director and conductor (* 1874)
  • 0May 3: Heinz Kükelhaus , German travel journalist, novelist and adventurer (* 1902)
  • 0May 3: Clara Lichtenstein , English pianist and music teacher (* around 1860)
  • 0May 5: Lothar König , German Jesuit, active in the resistance against National Socialism (* 1906)
  • 0May 6: Alcides Arguedas , Bolivian writer, politician and historian (* 1879)
  • 0May 6: Erhard Kutschenreuter , German composer (* 1873)
  • 0May 7: Gustav Robert Löscher , writer and educator (* 1881)
  • 0May 9: William Cabell Bruce , American politician (* 1860)
  • May 12: Germain Lefebrve , Canadian singer, choir director and music teacher (* 1889)
  • May 19: John Tener , American politician and baseball player (* 1863)
  • May 20: Emil Frey , Swiss composer, pianist and music teacher (* 1889)
  • May 24: Merritt Mechem , American politician (* 1870)
  • May 28: Carter Glass , American politician (* 1858)
  • May 29: Karl Janisch , German mechanical engineer and industrial manager, honorary citizen of Piesteritz (* 1870)
Karl Janisch

June

July

August

HG Wells († August 13)

September

  • 0September 3: Paul Lincke , German composer and Kapellmeister (* 1866)
  • 0September 5: John I. Cox , American politician, governor of Tennessee (* 1855)
  • 0September 6th: Alfred Körte , German classical philologist (* 1866)
  • 0September 6: Erich Sichting , KPD politician, anti-fascist and sports functionary (* 1896)
  • 0September 7th: Paul Zech , German writer (* 1881)
  • 0September 9: Violet Jacob , Scottish writer (* 1863)
  • September 13: Amon Göth , commandant of the Plaszow forced labor camp - Krakow (* 1908)
  • September 15: Elkan Nathan Adler , British lawyer and academic traveler (* 1861)
  • September 18: Charles O. Andrews , American politician (* 1877)
  • September 21: Itami Mansaku , Japanese director and screenwriter (* 1900)

October

  • 0October 1: Guy Park , American politician, governor of Missouri (* 1872)
  • 0October 2: Eduard Bass , Czech writer, journalist, singer, actor, reciter, cenferencier and lyricist (* 1888)
Gifford Pinchot

November

  • 0November 4: Josef Mesk , Austrian classical philologist (* 1869)
  • 0November 5: Arthur Liebert , German philosopher (* 1878)
Sigismond Stojowski

December

Day unknown

Nobel Prizes

Percy Williams Bridgman

Web links

Commons : 1946  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files