Gerhart Hauptmann


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Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann (born November 15, 1862 in Ober Salzbrunn in Silesia , † June 6, 1946 in Agnieszków , German: Agnetendorf in Lower Silesia) was a German playwright and writer . He is considered the most important German exponent of naturalism , but has also integrated other styles into his work. In 1912 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature .

Gerhart Hauptmann, photograph by Nicola Perscheid (1914)
Hauptmann Signature.jpg

Life

Childhood and youth

Hauptmann's birthplace in Obersalzbrunn , 2005
Father Robert Hauptmann with his son Gerhart

Gerhart Hauptmann was born in Obersalzbrunn, Lower Silesia, in 1862. His parents were the married couple Robert (1824–1898) and Marie Hauptmann, née Straehler (1827–1906), who ran a hotel on site. Hauptmann had three older siblings: Georg (1853–1899), Johanna (1856–1943) and Carl (1858–1921). In the neighborhood, the young captain was known to be fabulous . He later changed his nickname Gerhard to Gerhart.

From 1868 he attended the village school, from April 10, 1874 the secondary school in Breslau , for which he had barely passed the aptitude test. Hauptmann had difficulty getting used to the new surroundings of the big city; Together with his brother Carl, he first lived in a shabby school boarding house before they found accommodation with a pastor. In addition, the Prussian school life caused him problems. He was particularly bothered by the harshness of the teachers and the better treatment of the noble classmates. A resulting aversion and numerous illnesses, because of which he could not attend classes, meant that Hauptmann had to repeat the first year. He joined a “youth union” that developed utopian plans . A new social order should be created with nudity and freedom of love, far from the constraints and prejudices of the Wilhelmine present. "The motto that has always accompanied us was: return to nature". An alternative settlement was to be established overseas, of the kind that was free-spirited as it emerged years later on Ascona's Monte Verità . Over time, however, he came to appreciate Breslau for the opportunity to visit the theater.

In the spring of 1878, Hauptmann left secondary school to become an agricultural trainee on the estate of his uncle Gustav Schubert in Lohnig (today Łagniewniki Średzkie near Udanin ), and from autumn in the nearby Lederose (today Różana ). After a year and a half, he had to quit the apprenticeship. He was not physically up to the work and had contracted a lung disease that put his life in danger several times over the next twenty years.

Studying and being a sculptor

Hohenhaus in Zitzschewig, today Radebeul (museum association)
Gerhart Hauptmann (right) and Marie Thienemann, 1881

After his attempt to pass the “ one-year exam” had failed , Hauptmann entered the sculpture class at the Royal Art and Trade School in Wroclaw in October 1880 . Here he met Josef Block , with whom he had a deep friendship throughout his life. After a temporary exclusion due to "bad behavior and insufficient diligence" and soon resumption (on the recommendation of Professor Robert Härtel ) Hauptmann left the college in 1882. For the wedding of his brother Georg with the Radebeul merchant's daughter Adele Thienemann, he wrote the small festival of love spring , which took place on bachelorette party was premiered at Hohenhaus . At the wedding he met the bride's sister, Marie Thienemann . He secretly became engaged to her, and from then on Marie supported him financially, and that enabled him to begin studying philosophy and literary history at the University of Jena in the winter semester of 1882/83 , which he soon dropped out of.

Marie then financed a trip to the Mediterranean for him, which he took with Carl. He decided to settle in Rome as a sculptor, but he did not succeed. His attempts to gain a foothold in the German community of Rome failed, and his larger than life clay sculpture of a Germanic warrior collapsed. Hauptmann returned to Germany disappointed and began studying drawing at the Royal Academy in Dresden , which he did not finish, nor did a subsequent study of history at the University of Berlin . He was more interested in the theater than studying.

Marriage to Marie Thienemann - beginning as a writer

The Villa Lassen in Erkner (museum association)
Captain, 1898

After his engagement in autumn 1881, Gerhart Hauptmann finally married Marie Thienemann vom Hohenhaus from Radebeul on May 5, 1885 in the Johanneskirche in Dresden . In July, together with Hauptmann's brother Carl and his wife Martha (another sister of Marie, married in 1884), they made their honeymoon to Rügen . They visited the island of Hiddensee for the first time , which was to become a popular travel destination for Hauptmann in the future. Because city life gave him lung problems, Hauptmann and his wife lived in Erkner in the Villa Lassen for the next four years . Her three sons Ivo (1886–1973), Eckart (1887–1980) and Klaus (1889–1967) were born there. In 1889, Hauptmann moved to Schlüterstrasse 78 in Charlottenburg near Berlin. There he made contact with the naturalistic literary association Durch , which included Karl Bleibtreu and Wilhelm Bölsche .

During a stay in Zurich at Whitsun 1888 he met the nature preacher Johannes Guttzeit , who became the model for him for the story The Apostle . Under his influence and that of the psychiatrist, brain researcher and alcohol opponent Auguste Forel , Hauptmann turned into a life reformer and abstainer for a while. This theme went into the figure of Loth in his drama Before Sunrise , which gave him his breakthrough as a playwright. The theatrical scandal surrounding this naturalistic piece made him known in Berlin and beyond.

In 1891 Hauptmann moved into the house he had bought together with his brother Carl in Schreiberhau in the Silesian Giant Mountains . Today there is a museum in the house, a branch of the Giant Mountains Museum in Jelenia Góra . Contemporary Polish art from the Giant Mountains is shown there. A small exhibition commemorates the Hauptmann brothers. The museum is a member of the Gerhart Hauptmann Museum Association .

On the title page of Modern Poetry, Volume II, Issue 1, July 1, 1890

From 1890 onwards, Hauptmann's other dramas were created: Das Friedensfest (1890), Einsame Menschen (1891) and Der Biberpelz (1893). He also wrote comedies such as his colleague Crampton (1891), but only with Der Biberpelz did he “successfully and convincingly incorporate the social concerns of naturalism”.

In his drama Die Weber , which he wrote for the most part in Schreiberhau , Gerhart Hauptmann processed the uprising of the Silesian weavers of 1844. The social accusation he formulated in his drama triggered a tremor in 1892. The drama helped Hauptmann - in the performances of Otto Brahms " Free Stage " - to achieve a breakthrough and was lively welcomed by Theodor Fontane .

In 1893 Margarete Marschalk became Hauptmann's lover. In order to gain some distance, Marie and her sons went on board the Fürst Bismarck to Alfred Ploetz in the United States of America in January 1894 . Hauptmann prepared the French premiere of Hanneles Himmelfahrt in Paris and traveled after his family without waiting for the premiere and returned - apparently reconciled - with Marie in May 1894. The crack could no longer be bridged. After several years of separation, the couple divorced in July 1904. In the same year he married Margarete Marschalk, with whom he had a son. His name is Benvenuto (1900–1965, father of Anja Hauptmann ). Despite the divorce, Marie lived until 1909 in the Villa Rautendelein in Dresden- Blasewitz, which was built by Hauptmann in 1899 . His second marriage to Margarete Marschalk lasted until his death and only briefly, in 1905/06, got into a serious crisis due to his liaison with the 16-year-old actress Ida Orloff.

Honors and engagement for the world war

Caricature by Arpad Schmidhammer (around 1900)
The Wiesenstein House in Agnetendorf (museum association)
Gerhart Hauptmann, painting by Lovis Corinth (1900)

In 1905 Hauptmann was one of the first of 31 members of the Berlin section in the Society for Racial Hygiene of Alfred Ploetz .

In 1905 Gerhart Hauptmann was made an honorary member of the Berlin Secession . The letter from Hans Baluschek was signed by Fritz Rhein, Ludwig Stutz, Leo von König, Hans Dammann, Max Liebermann, Heinrich Hübner, Fritz Klimsch, Georg Kolbe, Robert Breyer, Ulrich Hübner, Walter Leistikow, Ernst Oppler, Jacob Alberts, Käthe Kollwitz and August Endell.

Official honors started around the turn of the century. Hauptmann received the Austrian Grillparzer Prize three times , as well as an honorary doctorate from the University of Leipzig (1909) and from Worcester College at the University of Oxford (1905). In 1912 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature “primarily in recognition of his fruitful and varied work in the field of dramatic poetry” .

Kaiser Wilhelm II did not appreciate the “social democratic” poet. He vetoed the award of the Schiller Prize to Hauptmann (for Hanneles Ascension ) in 1896. At the instigation of his son, Crown Prince Wilhelm , Hauptmann's festival in Wroclaw was canceled in German rhymes in 1913 , because the centenary of the wars of liberation was not celebrated with cheer patriotism, but with pacifist accents. The same Gerhart Hauptmann, however, who literally buried the bogeyman of militarism at the festival , was one of the many a year later who affirmed the First World War . He signed the manifesto of 93 and published corresponding occasional verses (which read like involuntary satires and which he later crossed out in the manuscript with his own hand). In 1915 Wilhelm II awarded him the Red Eagle Order IV class - the lowest level of this order.

Representative poet of Germany

Gerhart Hauptmann with his wife Margarete, 1932
The Seedorn House on Hiddensee, acquired and expanded by Hauptmann in 1929 (museum association)

Hauptmann's war euphoria soon changed. He took part in a declaration signed by numerous intellectuals, which was published in the Berliner Tageblatt on November 16, 1918 and expressed solidarity with the republic . The fact that Hauptmann was considering a candidacy for President of the Reich was denied in 1921, but the office of Reich Chancellor was offered to him. In the following year he was the first to be awarded the eagle shield of the German Empire . At that time the demand for Hauptmann's works was already declining, so that he made films and serial novels in order to maintain his standard of living . Nevertheless, he enjoyed great popularity. Abroad he was regarded as the ultimate representative of German literature. In 1932, because of the Goethe Year, he went on a lecture tour through the USA , on which he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Columbia University . He also received the Goethe Prize from the city of Frankfurt am Main. On the occasion of his 70th birthday, he received several honorary citizenships; there were numerous exhibitions and, above all, many performances of his works with well-known actors. Max Reinhardt designed the world premiere of Before Sunset .

During the summer months from 1926 to 1943, Hauptmann lived with his family in Kloster on Hiddensee.

From 1922 to 1933 Elisabeth Jungmann was secretary, administrator and translator (Hauptmann simply called her “helper”) and confidante of the Hauptmann household. When Jungmann switched to Rudolf G. Binding , Erhart Kästner took over the position.

Work in the time of National Socialism

After the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists , on March 16, 1933, Hauptmann signed a declaration of loyalty to the German Academy of Poetry, section of the Prussian Academy of the Arts . In the summer of the same year he applied for membership in the NSDAP , but his application was rejected by the local party offices. During the same period, Hauptmann's extensive examination of Adolf Hitler's book Mein Kampf falls ; his copy, which is rich in markings, notes and comments, is now in the Hauptmann Library of the Berlin State Library .

Hauptmann was "not a party man", but he was definitely "receptive to the fascination that Hitler emanated", whom he publicly elevated to the title of "Star Destiny Bearer of Germany" in 1942. It was not until "the final phase of the war, in January 1945" that Hitler became for him the "apocalyptic demon of the times". Overall, his relationship to Nazi politics is characterized by ambivalence. He calls the victory over France the "greatest moment in modern world history". He criticizes anti-Semitism, but not publicly. Hauptmann seems to tend to suppress practical anti-Semitism, for example, he ignored the political pressure that forced Jewish acquaintances to emigrate in his letters and wrote in his diary in 1938 about the 'Anschluss' of Austria: "I finally have this sentimental 'Jewish question' for myself completely dismiss: There are more important, higher German things at stake - and you can feel the size and strength of the organization. "

Hauptmann enjoyed a high reputation among the population, which is why the National Socialists did everything to keep the writer in the country and to use him for their own purposes, despite the emigration of numerous professional colleagues. Nevertheless, a distance between National Socialism and Hauptmann cannot be overlooked. The Rosenberg office wrote in a statement in 1942: “Despite all recognition of Hauptmann's artistic creative power, the ideological stance of most of his works must be viewed critically from the National Socialist point of view.” The censorship of Reich Propaganda Minister Goebbels also watched over Hauptmann's work. So Goebbels banned a new edition of The Shot in the Park because it featured a black woman. Hauptmann, however, was told that a new print was not possible due to lack of paper. In addition, the film adaptations of The Beaver Fur and Before Sunrise were censored and the film adaptation of Schluck und Jau was prohibited. Nevertheless, on Hauptmann's 80th birthday, there were honors, anniversary celebrations and performances with the participation of representatives of the National Socialist regime. Hauptmann was presented with the first copies of the 17-volume complete edition of his works by his publishers Peter Suhrkamp and CFW Behl , which - after Goebbels refused to print - was presented by Suhrkamp Verlag. S. Fischer ( S. Fischer Verlag / Suhrkamp Verlag ) had been printed in Haarlem on paper obtained in Holland.

In 1944 his great old work, the Atriden-Tetralogie , on which he had worked for four years and which included Iphigenia in Delphi , Iphigenia in Aulis , Agamemnon's death and Elektra , appeared. In August 1944, Adolf Hitler not only included him in the God-gifted list , but also as one of the six most important writers in the special lists of irreplaceable artists, which freed Hauptmann from all war obligations.

During the air raid on Dresden on February 13, 1945, Hauptmann and his wife Margarete stayed in Weidner's sanatorium in the Wachwitz district (on the outskirts of the city at the time) because he had to cure severe pneumonia. About the inferno he said: “Anyone who has forgotten how to cry will learn it again when Dresden went down. [...] I stand at the exit gate of life and envy all my dead comrades who were spared this experience. "Hauptmann experienced the end of the war in his house" Wiesenstein "in Agnetendorf in Silesia.

Death and conviction

After the war, Silesia came under Polish administration; Hauptmann's stay was temporarily made possible by a letter of protection from the Soviet cultural officer, Colonel Sokolov. Exactly one year later, on April 7, 1946, Captain von Sokolow was personally informed that the Polish government was now also insisting on his resettlement. Before being evicted, however, he fell seriously ill and died on June 6th of bronchitis. His last words are said to have been: “Am I still in my house?” Against his will in his will, Hauptmann was not buried in his homeland. An official letter from the Soviet administration in favor of the writer, who was highly revered in the Soviet Union, also proved ineffective. The family was only allowed to take their belongings with them. Just an hour after his death, members of the Polish militia had gathered in front of the windows of the Wiesenstein and expressed their satisfaction directly below the death room.

Hauptmann's body was kept in a zinc coffin and placed in the study of his house. The approval for the guaranteed departure in a special train was a long time coming. Over a month after the death, representatives of the Soviet administration asked the Polish administration to transfer the remains, also because of the hygienic conditions. A few days later the coffin was then taken to Germany. The journey of the train is reconstructed in the documentary Hauptmann-Transport by Mathias Blochwitz.

Hauptmann's gravestone in Kloster on Hiddensee, 2008

Wilhelm Pieck , the poet Johannes R. Becher and the Soviet cultural officer Tjulpanow spoke at a funeral service in Stralsund . On the morning of July 28th, before sunrise and 52 days after his death, Hauptmann was buried in the Inselfriedhof in Kloster auf Hiddensee. The poet's widow mixed a bag of Giant Mountains soil with sand from the Baltic Sea.

Shortly after his death there were numerous funeral ceremonies, where many intellectuals of the time spoke up, including Ivo Hauptmann , who said the following in the Hamburg City Hall on July 4, 1946: "According to his wishes, he is lying in a pine coffin, dressed in the monk's robe that a Franciscan gave him 40 years ago in Soana. Before his death he often had it handed to him to familiarize himself with it. Home earth, a small New Testament, in his possession from childhood, his poetry The great dream and the hymn of praise of St. Francis of Assisi lie in his coffin. "

In 1951 a granite block was unveiled as a tombstone. According to Hauptmann's request, it only bears his name. In 1983 the urn of Margarete Hauptmann, who died in 1957, was buried in her husband's grave.

plant

In a speech to the Imperial Academy of Sciences in Vienna on March 24, 1905, Hauptmann stated: “There were always many voices inside me, and I saw no other way of creating some degree of order than polyphonic sentences: Dramas too write. ”(Centenar edition, vol. 6, p. 689). The drama forms the center of his work; but other genres are also continuously present in all epochs of life: poetry and verse as well as narrative, autobiographical and essayistic prose. The generic boundaries are sometimes fluent - both formal (some stage works are verse dramas, "dramatic poem" so to speak) and thematically: the complex of ideas Pippa - When - Merlin - Galahad was processed alternately dramatic and narrative with strong changes to Eulenspiegel -Stoff In addition to the verse epic there are also scene fragments, the novel Atlantis was temporarily planned as a drama, etc.

Influences

In the Berlin avant-garde association Durch, from 1885 onwards, Hauptmann met various representatives of naturalism who had a decisive influence on him. The association relied on historical models from Sturm und Drang , which the group around the Hart brothers in particular used as a guide, up to Vormärz . Aesthetic issues, idealism , realism and naturalistic movement were discussed at the sessions . Gerhart Hauptmann gave a lecture on Georg Büchner, who was largely forgotten at the time . This also explains his naturalistic tendency. In addition, an influence of the work of Friedrich Nietzsche , with which Hauptmann (on the advice of the Danish literary critic Georg Brandes ) dealt intensively from November 1889, is discussed (especially in Die versunkene Glocke ) .

At the end of the 1880s he was confronted with the incipient persecution of the Socialists. The law against the endangering efforts of the Social Democrats was passed in the Reichstag in 1878 at Bismarck's efforts, but was tightened again in 1887. Hauptmann was summoned as a witness before the Breslau court in 1887, as he had been a supporter of the Icarians during his student days , the idea of ​​which goes back to the French communist Étienne Cabet . In 1888 he sought refuge in his brother Carl's house in Zurich so as not to be prosecuted by the courts. There he met the psychiatrist Auguste Forel , whose lectures he attended together with his medical friends Ferdinand Simon (1861-1912), Alfred Ploetz and his brother Carl, and who was crucial for Hauptmann's literary preoccupation with the human psyche, and the nature preacher Johannes Guttzeit , whose life reform ideas were reflected in Before Sunrise . Hauptmann's early dreams of a utopian socialist community were further nourished by visits to the dropout colony Monte Verità near Ascona in 1919.

naturalism

Hauptmann's naturalistic work began in Zurich. From here he sent the manuscript for his first naturalistic work Bahnwärter Thiel in Munich, where the critic Michael Georg Conrad was supposed to examine it. With his drama Before Sunrise , which premiered in 1889 , he caused one of the greatest scandals in German theater history. The bourgeois audience was shocked because Hauptmann's play portrayed sexuality and alcoholism frankly. However, it also met the demands of a socially critical drama of that time. According to Franz-Josef Payrhuber , Hauptmann's Before Sunrise is an epoch-making work, but it is not a representative example of naturalistic drama. The Selicke family from Arno Holz and Johannes Schlaf would have received this title . Hauptmann, however, has an important role to play because, with the support of Otto Brahms, he established naturalistic dramas on German stages. For example, 17 Hauptmann premieres took place under Brahms' leadership of the Free Stage , the German Theater and the Lessing Theater. Due to the numerous performances on various stages throughout Germany, naturalism first and foremost received a broad impact and socially critical impetus.

Poster for Die Weber , color lithograph by Emil Orlik (1897)

With his most important drama Die Weber (1891/92), the realization of which he had already thought about during his stay in Zurich, Hauptmann achieved world fame and reached the climax of his naturalistic creative phase. The weavers were based on the weaving revolts of 1844. Hauptmann undertook long journeys through the Giant Mountains to research . At the end of 1891 he completed the work, initially in the Silesian dialect , in which it is called De Waber . The version approximated to Standard German was completed in March 1892. The Prussian censors forbade the staging by the "Free Stage" because they believed they saw the play as a call to class struggle and in Breslau - in the dialect version - they had had bad experiences with its extremely powerful effect. In order to enable a production at the Deutsches Theater , Hauptmann had his lawyer explain that the drama should not be understood as a social-democratic party script, but as a poetic appeal to the pity of the haves. Social democratic circles were enthusiastic about the play - after the performance ban was lifted on October 2, 1893 - but Kaiser Wilhelm II resigned from his box in the Deutsches Theater.

With the drama The Peace Festival. A family catastrophe (1890) annoyed Hauptmann allegedly Frank Wedekind , who thought he recognized allusions to events from his own life in the play about which he had reported to the author. Wedekind's reply consisted of the appearance of a poet named Franz Ludwig Meier, who was constantly recording what his friends said, in his comedy Die Junge Welt .

On a Christmas Eve in the 1880s, Wilhelm Scholz returned to his parents' house for the first time in years. A quarrel with his father, Fritz Scholz, drove him out of the house years ago. His fiancée, Ida Buchner, and her mother persuaded him to visit. The father, who has been missing for years, appears to be surprising, as he looks shabby and scarred by illness and alcohol. Wilhelm doesn't want to see his father. Nevertheless, he tries to make the evening forgiving. But his cynical brother Robert thwarted his plans. Fritz Scholz dies. Ida is desperate. Wilhelm turns away from her. Even so, she doesn't give up hope of making a happy person out of him.

According to Konstantin Stanislawski , Hauptmann had a strong influence on Anton Chekhov and Russian drama with the drama Einsame Menschen (1891) . Hauptmann resorted to a conflict between his brother Carl, whose relationship with a young Polish woman upset the whole family. Marie Hauptmann, b. Thienemann was the role model for the character of Käthe Vockerat, even if the author's marriage was not in crisis at the time.

The play takes place around 1890 in a country house on Lake Müggelsee . The young scholar Johannes Vockerat and his wife Käthe had their first child. Johannes is not making progress with his scientific work as hoped. When his friend, the painter Braun, receives a visit from the Russian student Anna Mahr, Johannes is entranced by the intelligent, self-confident young woman and invites her to stay with him and his family for a few weeks. For the first time he found an equal interlocutor in Anna. His family is concerned about the increasing intimacy between Johannes and Anna. Kathe suffers because she feels inferior to the clever Anna. Her parents, who are very pious, express moral concerns. Johannes and Anna confess their love to each other, but have to recognize that this love has no future. Anna leaves, Johannes rows out on the lake to kill himself.

The beaver fur received bad reviews. Hauptmann then turned away from the naturalistic representation and devoted himself to mythical-religious and fairy tale subjects . Hanneles Himmelfahrt , Die sunken Glocke and Und Pippa tanzt fall into this creative period .

In 1901 he wrote a sequel to Beaver Fur : The tragic comedy The Red Rooster is set in the same milieu. In comparison to the beaver fur , however, the playful elements take a back seat in favor of sharper criticism. Mother Wolffen became a widow and remarried. Her name is now Fielitz. She is no longer a native proletarian, but a petty bourgeoisie. Her rising mentality stops at nothing - and again she is not punished for her cheating.

Mother Wolffen is widowed and has married the "master shoemaker and police spy" Fielitz. She married her daughter Adelheid to the builder Schmarowski. The second daughter, Leontine, has an illegitimate child, but Ms. Fielitz already has a husband in mind for her - even if he is still married at the moment. Ms. Fielitz's own house is too small. Several houses have recently burned down in the village and the “inconsolable” owners have collected substantial insurance sums. While the Fielitz couple are running errands in Berlin, their house burns down to the ground. The smith and syringe master Langheinrich can only determine the total loss. However, he does not mention that he has found a piece of fuse. The suspicion falls on Gustav, the mentally handicapped son of the retired gendarme Rauchhaupt. The gendarme doesn't want to let that sit on his son, who is locked in an institution, but can't prove anything. Schmarowski can design a spacious new building, which Ms. Fielitz does not see to be completed.

This was followed by the social drama Rose Bernd (1901), the tragic comedy Die Ratten (1911) and the play Before Sunset (1932).

Further tendencies

The sunken bell , illustrated by Heinrich Vogeler , 1898

After the weavers, Peter Sprengel sees three main tendencies in Hauptmann's work . The first tendency is a break with naturalism and a turn to neo-romanticism . The fairytale drama The Sunken Bell (1896) fits in with this direction . The drama, written in verse, was a great success at the time of its publication and the most-performed play during Hauptmann's lifetime. With the play Der arme Heinrich (1902), also written in verse, Hauptmann entered the realm of legends and adapted the Middle High German verse epic of the same name, Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von Aue . Kaiser Karls Geisel (1908) and Griselda fall into the same category. Greek mythology provided a further basis , as shown in the play The Arch of Odysseus (1913).

In the latter, the viewer experiences one of the most tragic moments of the Odyssey . After many years of wandering, Odysseus finally returns to his home island of Ithaca. He now wants to spend his life as a farmer and shepherd. His wife Penelope , who has been waiting for him for so many years, does not appear - but is constantly present in his struggle against their suitors who want to take over his royal office, and in a certain way is also held responsible for the decline in moral order during the Absence of Odysseus. The entire action takes place on the farm of the swineherd Eumaios. Here four suitors have gathered for a feast at which Odysseus, exhausted from his wanderings of many years, appears disguised as a beggar. Odysseus seems confused, haphazard. Only in the fourth act does he regain his strength with the help of the shepherd god Pan and can begin to take revenge on the suitors.

In Sprengel's second tendency, Hauptmann combined the naturalistic with the non-naturalistic. The connection would be created by contrasting the two directions. The dream play Hanneles Himmelfahrt (1893) shows both social accusation and the draft of a romantic fantasy world. Also in And Pippa is dancing! (1905) showed a real and an ideal sphere.

According to Sprengel, the third tendency does not provide for a break with naturalism and includes all other Hauptmann dramas of a naturalistic character. You belong u. a. the historical revolutionary drama Florian Geyer. The tragedy of the Peasant War (1896), Fuhrmann Henschel (1898) and the dramas Herbert Engelmann (1962) and Christine Lawrenz (1990), which were first listed from the estate .

Florian Geyer (1490–1525) was a leader in the German Peasants' War of 1525. The play did not go over well with the audience.

During and after the First World War , Hauptmann created a number of theater pieces that featured stylistic phenomena other than those mentioned. He designed mythical images with the Winter Ballad (1917) and in the White Savior . He made attempts at symbolic design in the dramas Die goldene Harfe (1932) and Ulrich von Lichtenstein (1939). The Shakespeare adaptation Hamlet in Wittenberg (1935) contains just as historical representations as Magnus Garbe , which ended in 1915, but which was not premiered until 1956.

With his late work, the Atriden Tetralogy , Hauptmann adapted ancient dramas. However, he reinterpreted them after the experience of a trip to Greece.

reception

Monument in Groebenzell

Hauptmann's early work was judged differently. The conservative circles and the government of the empire were not very enthusiastic about his socially critical dramas, which was also expressed through censorship and disparaging awards. His opposition position, however, increased his reputation in the circles of progressive intellectuals, who appreciated precisely these traits in his dramas. After numerous naturalistic embossed works, captain changed work and his works increasingly found favor with the ownership and educated middle class . He was widely criticized for this about-face , for example by Franz Mehring , who wrote on the occasion of the performance of Hanneles Himmelfahrt : “I'm sorry about Gerhart Hauptmann, but when he has fallen among the thieves of bourgeois criticism, when the stock market press cheers him certifies that he is turning into the gate of genuine and true poetry, he has amply deserved this fate. [...] We have never been condemned to see such a great abuse of such a great talent with our own eyes. "

Nevertheless, he was still a sought-after writer and was considered a representative German poet abroad. The Hungarian philosopher and literary critic Georg Lukács, on the other hand, later called Hauptmann the “representative poet of bourgeois Germany”, which, however, did not underline Hauptmann's prominent position. Rather, he expressed his displeasure with Hauptmann's fickleness and low roots in his "revolutionary beginnings". Despite his high reputation, the sale of his works steadily declined because other poets and playwrights pushed themselves into the spotlight. Hauptmann had adopted an expensive lifestyle, lived in expensive hotels, often received guests in the Wiesenstein and traveled to Italy. He spent the summers in his big house on Hiddensee, which Günter Kunert called "Do-it-your-self-Olympus". Thomas Mann let himself be carried away to a derisive criticism of Hauptmann regarding this lifestyle when he described him in 1922 as "King of the Republic". In addition, Thomas Mann processed some of Hauptmann's character traits in the person of Mynheer Peeperkorn in his book The Magic Mountain .

The fact that Hauptmann was still living in Germany after the “ seizure of power ” in 1933 was something the National Socialists wanted to take advantage of and use the respected poet to their advantage. Various plays that the party leadership disliked because of their rebellious character were banned, but Hauptmann works were still performed. On Hauptmann's 80th birthday in 1942, festive performances and honors were carried out, which he accepted without reservation.

After his death, Hauptmann's fame, which he had enjoyed during his lifetime, began to fade. His reputation was further lowered by his uncritical behavior towards the Nazis. On the occasion of his 100th birthday in 1962, festive events were held in numerous German cities. Hauptmannwerke were repeatedly performed on West German theaters up until the 1970s, with Der Biberpelz and Die Ratten in particular being welcomed . However, Hauptmann's work was now viewed more critically. In the course of this, some weak aspects within his work came to light that had previously been covered up by "unobjectionable loud praise". In addition, Hauptmann's works became increasingly meaningless with regard to the political culture of the late sixties and early seventies, as one could do little with the "traditional image of the seer from Wiesenstein".

Hauptmann's literary reputation lived on in the GDR . His social criticism met with approval in many places and was an example of the lively, continuing tradition of bourgeois German humanism .

Commemorations and honors

Berlin memorial plaque on Hauptmann's house in Berlin-Charlottenburg, 2007
Memorial plaque at the Gerhart Hauptmann Museum in Erkner

Awards

Captain as a director

Gerhart Hauptmann co-directed the early premieres of his pieces, which were designed by the ensemble around Otto Brahm . He later directed the following productions:

Captain in the visual arts

Arno Breker : Gerhart Hauptmann (1988)
Memorial stone in Berlin-Wilmersdorf

Gerhart Hauptmann, who by his own admission would have liked to become a sculptor, was himself an interesting motif for artists throughout his life. Portraits created among other things

  • Lovis Corinth :
  • Benno Elkan :
    • Cast bronze medal, 1922, 138 mm. Front: 1922 / GERHART HAUPTMANN - head portrait to the right. Back: A buck devil sits on a skull that is entwined by a snake. Literature: Menzel-Severing no.237, Fig. 152
  • Max Liebermann :
    • Pastel picture (1892; 1st prize at the International Art Exhibition in Venice 1895)
    • Oil painting (for his 50th birthday in 1912)
    • Lithograph (1922)
  • Arno Breker : bust (for his 80th birthday in 1942; several versions in bronze and marble; graphic)
  • Walter Wadephul:
    • Bust (on his 70th birthday in 1932 on behalf of the city of Breslau for the Thalia Theater)

Postage stamps

Works

Poetry and verse

  • Promethidless. A poem (iambic epic in 13 sections). Berlin (Wilhelm Issleib) 1885. Made 1884–1885
  • The colorful book. Poems . Beerfelden (Meinhard) 1888. Made 1880–1887. - Part 1: Lyrical and Epic Form. Part 2: Legends and Fairy Tales
  • Anna. A rural love poem (hexameter epic in 24 songs). Berlin ( S. Fischer ) 1921. Made 1919–1921
  • The blue flower (Little iambic epic). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1927. Made in 1923
  • The great fighter pilot, country driver, juggler and magician Till Eulenspiegel adventures, pranks, jokes, stories and dreams (hexameter epic in 18 adventures). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1928. Made 1920–1927
  • Harvest. Smaller seals . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1939. - Contents: small poems - sonnets - larger poems - scenic poems - Hans Wursten's resurrection. Dialogue with a small wooden doll - poetry of opportunity - small rhymes - glossary . - Also included: Mary (small hexameter epic; created 1923–1936) and The Blue Flower
  • The great dream (Iambic Terzinen-Epic in 22 songs). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1942 (last edition, vol. 16). Made 1914–1942. Paralipomena from the estate (with the so-called other part in 12 songs): Berlin (Propylaea) 1964 (Centenar edition, vol. 4)
  • New poems . Berlin ( construction ) 1946 (last book publication during his lifetime). - Review of poetry (1875-1946): Berlin (Propylaen) 1974 (Centenar edition, vol. 11)

prose

  • Carnival. A study. In: Siegfried (magazine), August 1887. Created in 1887
  • Railway attendant Thiel . Novellistic study from the Brandenburg pine forest. In: Die Gesellschaft (edited by Michael Georg Conrad ) 1888. Created in 1887
  • The apostle . Novella. In: Modern Poetry (edited by Eduard Michael Kafka), July 1890. Created 1890
  • Greek spring (travelogue). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1908. Created 1907
  • The fool in Christo Emanuel Quint . Novel . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1910. Made 1901–1910
  • Atlantis. Novel . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1912. Made 1909–1911
  • Grail fantasies :
    • Lohengrin . Berlin ( Ullstein ) 1913. Made 1911–1912
    • Parsival . Berlin (Ullstein) 1914. Made 1911–1912
  • The Heretic of Soana (working title: The Syrian Goddess ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1918. Made 1911–1917
  • Phantom. Former Convict's Notes . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1923. Created 1915–1921 (preliminary stages: Dünnebeil. 1888; Karl Henning , 1912).
  • The island of the great mother or The miracle of Île des Dames. A story from the utopian Archipelagus . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1924. Made 1916–1924
  • Wanda . Novel . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1928. Made in 1927. Pre-print (under the title The Demon ): Vossische Zeitung 1928
  • Book of Passion . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1929. Made 1905–1929
  • The pickaxe. A fantastic experience . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1931. Made in 1930
  • The wedding on Buchenhorst. Novella . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1932. Composed in 1927
  • About people and spirit. Speeches . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1932. - Extended collection of speeches, feature articles, essays and notes: Berlin (Propylaea) 1965 and 1974 (Centenar edition, Vol. 6 and 11)
  • The sea wonder. An unlikely story . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1934. Created 1933–1934
  • In the vortex of calling. Novel . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1936. Made 1924–1935
  • The adventure of my youth (autobiography). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1937. Created 1929–1935 (preliminary stage: The abbreviated chronicle of my life. 1919; working title: The path of blood , growing and becoming , changeable and unchangeable of a youth , essence and shape of a youth , everything transient is only a parable ). - Review of the autobiography: Berlin (Propylaen) 1974 (Centenar edition, vol. 11)
  • About Tintoretto. Comments before his pictures (essay). In: Die Neue Rundschau (edited by Peter Suhrkamp ) 1938. Created in 1938
  • The shot in the park. Novella . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1941. Made 1938–1939
  • The tale. In: Die Neue Rundschau (edited by Peter Suhrkamp) 1941. Created in 1941
  • To sunbathe. Meditations . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1942 (last edition, vol. 15). Made 1912–1938
  • Mignon. Novella . Berlin Suhrkamp 1947. Made 1938–1944
  • Narrative fragments - Berlin (Propylaea) 1970 (Centenar edition, vol. 10):
    • The Venetian (1903). - Publication of a preliminary stage (under the title Der Schatzgräber ): European Review, July / August 1944
    • The Anabaptists. Roman (approx. 1904–1942)
    • Berlin war novel (1928–1929)
    • Siri. Self-confessions of a young humanist (1938–1939)
    • Winckelmann (1939). - Editing by Frank Thiess : Winckelmann. Doom . Gütersloh (Bertelsmann) 1954
    • The new Christophorus. Roman (1917–1944; variant title: Merlin ). - Partial publication: Weimar (Society of Bibliophiles) 1943

Dramas

  • Jugendwerke - Berlin (Propylaea) 1963 (Centenar edition, vol. 8):
    • Love spring. A lyric poem (with roles assigned). Private print 1881. UA September 24, 1881 Hohenhaus (for the wedding of Georg Hauptmann and Adele Thienemann). Made in 1881
    • Teutons and Romans (verse drama in 5 acts). Made 1881–1882
    • The wedding procession (poem with assigned roles). UA 6 October 1884 Hohenhaus (for the wedding of Carl Hauptmann and Martha Thienemann). Made in 1884.
  • Before sunrise . Social drama (5 acts; working title: The Sower ). Berlin (CF Conrads Buchhandlung) 1889. Created 1888–1889. ( Digitized and full text in the German text archive ); Premiere October 20, 1889 Berlin ( Free Stage , Lessingtheater ; Director: Hans Meery ; Dramaturgy: Otto Brahm ; with Else Lehmann [Helene], Gustav Kadelburg [Hoffmann])
  • The peace festival . A family disaster (3 acts; working title: The Father ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1890. Created 1889. Premiere June 1, 1890 Berlin (Free Stage, Ostendtheater; Direction: Hans Meery ; Dramaturgy: Otto Brahm ; with Emanuel Reicher [Robert], Josef Kainz [Wilhelm])
  • Lonely people . Drama (5 acts; working title: Martin and Martha. The child prodigy ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1891. Created 1890. Premiere January 11, 1891 Berlin (Free Stage, Residenztheater; Direction: Cord Hachmann ; Dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Emanuel Reicher [Johannes])
  • Colleague Crampton . Comedy (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1892. Made 1891. Premiere January 16, 1892 Berlin ( Deutsches Theater ; with Georg Engels [Crampton])
  • The weavers . Play from the forties (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1892. Written from 1888–1892 (first entirely in Silesian dialect: De Waber , then in a version that approximates written German). Premiere February 26, 1893 Berlin (Free Stage, New Theater ; Director: Cord Hachmann; Dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Hermann Nissen [Thirties], Rudolf Rittner [Moritz Jäger], Rosa Bertens [Luise])
  • The beaver fur . A thief comedy (4 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1893. Made 1892–1893. Premiere September 21, 1893 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; with Georg Engels [Wehrhahn], Else Lehmann [Frau Wolff])
  • Hanneles Ascension . Dream poetry (2 acts, each ending in verse). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1894. Created 1893. Premiere November 14, 1893 Berlin ( Königliches Schauspielhaus , under the title Hannele ; Direction: Max Grube ; Music: Max Marschalk ; with Adalbert Matkowsky [Gottwald]))
  • Florian Geyer . The tragedy of the peasant war (prelude and 5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1896. Made 1891–1895. Premiere January 4, 1896 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; Director: Emil Lessing ; Dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Emanuel Reicher [Florian Geyer], Max Reinhardt [Rector Besenmeyer], Rudolf Rittner [Schäferhans])
  • Elga. Drama (6 scenes, loosely based on the novella Das Kloster bei Sendomir by Franz Grillparzer ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1905. Created 1896. Premiere March 4, 1905 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Rudolf Rittner [Starschenski], Irene Triesch [Elga])
  • The sunken bell . A German fairy tale drama (verse drama in 5 acts; working title: Rothändel ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1897. Made 1891–1896. Premiere December 2, 1896 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Cord Hachmann; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Josef Kainz [Heinrich], Agnes Sorma [Rautendelein])
  • Carter Henschel . Drama (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1899. Created 1897–1898 (in dialect; Otto Pniower created a version approximating written German in 1898). Premiere November 5, 1898 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Rudolf Rittner [Henschel], Else Lehmann [Hanne], Oscar Sauer [Siebenhaar])
  • Gulp and Jau . Comedy (prologue and 6 events; verse and prose mixed). S. Fischer, Berlin 1900. Made in 1899 (preliminary stages: A Flemish guy. Im Rautenkranz , 1897–1898). Premiere February 3, 1900 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Else Heims [Sidselill], Else Lehmann [Frau Adeluz], Rudolf Rittner [Jau], Hanns Fischer [Schluck])
    • Interpretation of this by Kurt Bräutigam, ed. And author of the chapter: European comedies, represented by individual interpretations. Diesterweg, Frankfurt 1964, pp. 133-154
  • Michael Kramer . Drama (4 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1900. Made in 1900 (preliminary stage: Marcus Hänel , mid-1890s). Premiere December 21, 1900 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Max Reinhardt [Kramer], Louise Dumont [Michaline], Friedrich Kayssler [Arnold], Oscar Sauer [Lachmann])
  • The red rooster . Tragic comedy (4 acts; continuation of the beaver fur ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1901. Made 1900–1901. Premiere November 27, 1901 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Max Reinhardt [Fielitz], Albert Bassermann [Langheinrich], Rudolf Rittner [Rauchhaupt], ​​Oscar Sauer [Wehrhahn], Friedrich Kayssler [Dr. Boxer])
  • Poor Heinrich . A German saga (verse drama in 5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1902. Made 1897–1902. Premiere November 29, 1902 Vienna ( Burgtheater ; Director: Hugo Thimig ; with Josef Kainz [Heinrich], Lotte Medelsky [Ottegebe])
  • Rose Bernd . Drama (5 acts; working title: Rose Immoos ; Anna Golisch ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1903. Made 1903. Premiere October 31, 1903 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Oscar Sauer [Bernd], Else Lehmann [Rose Bernd], Rudolf Rittner [Flamm] , Paula Conrad [Mrs. Flamm])
  • Kaiser Maxens bridal trip. Idyll (scene in verse). In: Ährenlese. Berlin (S. Fischer) 1939. Made in 1905. Premiere January 14, 1924 Leipzig ( Schauspielhaus )
  • And Pippa is dancing! A glassworks fairy tale (4 acts; partly in verse). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1906. Made in 1905. Premiere January 19, 1906 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Ida Orloff [Pippa], Rudolf Rittner [Huhn], Willy Grunwald [Hellriegel], Oscar Sour [when])
  • The maidens from the Bischofsberg. Comedy (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1907. Created 1904–1906 (preliminary stage: Golden Times. A Spring Morning. 1892). Premiere February 2, 1907 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Rudolf Lenoir [1863–1952]; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Else Lehmann [Sabine], Ida Orloff [Ludowike], Albert Bassermann [Nast], Hans Marr [vagabond])
  • Gabriel Schilling's escape. Drama (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1912. Created 1905–1906. Premiere June 14, 1912 Bad Lauchstädt ( Goethe Theater ; Director: Paul Schlenther ; Set Design: Max Liebermann ; with Willy Grunwald [Schilling], Rosa Bertens [Eveline], Otto Fee [Mäurer], Helene Thimig [Lucie], Tilla Durieux [ Hanna])
  • Christiane Lawrenz (5 acts). Berlin (Propylaea) 1963 (Centenar edition, vol. 8). Made 1905–1907. Premiere April 12, 1990 Zurich ( Schauspielhaus ; director: Peter Palitzsch ; with Katja Paryla [Christiane], Friedrich-Karl Praetorius [Beck])
  • Emperor Charles hostage. A game of legends (verse drama in 4 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1908. Created 1906–1907. Premiere January 11, 1908 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Hans Marr [Karl], Ida Orloff [Gersuind])
  • Griselda. Comedy (12 scenes). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1909 and (extended) 1942 (last edition, vol. 5). Made in 1908. Premiere March 6, 1909 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Else Lehmann [Griselda], Albert Bassermann [Ulrich]) and Vienna (Burgtheater; director: Hugo Thimig; with Lotte Medelsky [Griselda ], Georg Reimers [Ulrich])
  • Peter Brauer. Tragic comedy (3 acts; working title: The Button ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1921. Created 1908–1910 (preliminary stage: Der Maler , 1898). Premiere November 1, 1921 Berlin ( Lustspielhaus ; Director: Heinz Saltenburg, with Jacob Tiedtke [Brauer])
  • The rats . Berlin tragic comedy (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1911. Made 1909–1910. Premiere January 13, 1911 Berlin (Lessingtheater; director: Emil Lessing; dramaturgy: Otto Brahm; with Emanuel Reicher [Hassenreuter], Hans Marr [John], Else Lehmann [Mrs. John])
  • The bow of Ulysses. Drama (verse drama in 5 acts; working title: Telemach-Drama ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1914. Made 1907–1912. Premiere January 17, 1914 Berlin (German Art Theater; director: Rudolf Rittner; with Hans Marr [Odysseus], Theodor Loos [Telemach], Emanuel Reicher [Laertes], Else Lehmann [Eurykleia])
  • Festival in German rhymes . In memory of the spirit of the wars of freedom of the years eighteen hundred and thirteen, fourteen and fifteen (one-act play in verse). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1913. Made 1912–1913. Premiere May 31, 1913 Breslau ( Jahrhunderthalle ; director: Max Reinhardt ; stage design: Ernst Stern [1876–1954])
  • Magnus Sheaf . Tragedy (3 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1942 (last edition, vol. 8). Created 1914–1915 (preliminary stage: The resurrection of Felicia, believed to be dead. 1909). Premiere February 4, 1956 Düsseldorf ( Schauspielhaus ; director: Karl-Heinz Stroux ; with Alfred Schieske [Garbe], Hilde Mikulicz [Felicia])
  • Winter ballad . Tragedy (verse drama in 7 scenes, based on the story of Mr. Arnes Schatz by Selma Lagerlöf ; working title: blood ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1917. Made 1912–1916. Premiere October 17, 1917 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Max Reinhardt; with Wilhelm Diegelmann [Arne], Helene Thimig [Elsalil], Paul Wegener [Archie])
  • The white savior . Dramatic fantasy (verse drama in 11 scenes). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1920. Made 1912–1917. Premiere March 28, 1920 Berlin ( Großes Schauspielhaus ; Director: Karlheinz Martin ; with Alexander Moissi [Montezuma], Emil Jannings [Cortez])
  • Indipohdi . Dramatic poetry with incidental music by Arthur Chitz (verse drama in 5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1921. Created 1913–1919 (preliminary stage: Die Insel , based on Shakespeare's Sturm ). Premiere February 23, 1922 Dresden ( Staatliches Schauspielhaus , under the title The Sacrifice ; Director: Gerhart Hauptmann, with Paul Wiecke [Prospero], Melitta Leithner [his daughter Pyrrha], Antonia Dietrich [Tehura])
  • Veland. Tragedy (verse drama in 3 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1925. Made 1898–1923. Premiere September 19, 1925 Hamburg ( Deutsches Schauspielhaus ; director: Gerhart Hauptmann; set design: Ivo Hauptmann ; with Reinhold Lütjohann [Harald])
  • Ceremonial act for the opening of the Deutsches Museum in Munich (scene in verse). Munich (Knorr & Hirth) 1925. Made 1925. Premiere May 7, 1925 Munich ( Deutsches Museum ; Director: Kurt Stieler [1877–1963])
  • Dorothea Angermann . Drama (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1926. Composed in 1925 (preliminary stages: Bahnhoftragödie. Peter Hollmann , 1897–1908). Premiere November 20, 1926 Vienna ( Theater in der Josefstadt ; Director: Max Reinhardt; with Ernst Stahl-Nachbaur [Angermann], Dagny Servaes [Dorothea], Oskar Homolka [Mario]), Munich ( Kammerspiele ), Leipzig (Schauspielhaus), Hamburg ( Thalia-Theater ), Barmen-Elberfeld ( United City Theater ), Braunschweig ( Landestheater ) a. a.
  • Shakespeare's tragic story of Hamlet Prince of Denmark. In German republication and newly furnished (5 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1928. Created 1927–1928. Premiere December 8, 1927 Dresden (Staatliches Schauspielhaus; directed by Gerhart Hauptmann; with Felix Steinböck [Hamlet], Erich Ponto [Polonius], Paul Paulsen [Horatio], Paul Hoffmann [Laertes], Antonia Dietrich [Ophelia])
  • Spooky . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1930:
    • The black mask. Drama (one-act act). Made 1928. World premiere on December 3, 1929 Vienna (Burgtheater; director: John Brahm ; with Paul Hartmann (actor) [Schuller], Else Wohlgemuth [Benigna], Georg Reimers [Löwel Perl])
    • Witch ride. A satyr play (one act). Made 1928–1929. Premiere December 3, 1929 Vienna (Burgtheater; director: Hans Brahm; with Hans Marr [Lars], Albert Heine [Lerch])
  • Before sunset . Drama (5 acts; working title: Privy Councilor Bernhard Ackermann ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1932. Made 1928–1931. Premiere February 16, 1932 Berlin (Deutsches Theater; director: Max Reinhardt; with Werner Krauß [Privy Councilor Clausen], Mathias Wieman [Wolfgang], Käthe Haack [Ottilie], Oskar Sima [Klamroth], Eduard von Winterstein [Steynitz], Helene Thimig [Inken])
  • The golden harp. Drama (15 scenes). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1933. Made in 1933. Premiere October 15, 1933 Munich (Kammerspiele; director: Otto Falckenberg ; with Käthe Gold [Juliane], Oskar Dimroth [Friedrich-Alexis], Eberhard Keindorff [Friedrich-Günther]))
  • Hamlet in Wittenberg. Dramatic poetry (verse drama in 5 acts; as a prelude to Shakespeare's Hamlet ). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1935. Made 1924–1935. Premiere November 19, 1935 Leipzig (Altes Theater; directed by Jobst von Reiht; with Raimund Bucher [Hamlet], Albert Matterstock [Fachus], Hansi Knoteck [Hamida]), Altonaer Stadttheater , Osnabrück (German National Theater)
  • Ulrich von Lichtenstein. Comedy (verse drama in 4 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1939. Created 1910–1937. Premiere November 11, 1939 Vienna (Burgtheater; director: Lothar Müthel ; with Ewald Balser [Ulrich], Felix Steinböck [Blondel], Käthe Dorsch [Maria])
  • The eclipses. Requiem (5 scenes). New York (Hammer Press) 1947 (edited by Walter A. Reichart). Made in 1937. Premiere July 5, 1952 Göttingen (studio; director: Helmut Wiemken). - First broadcast as a radio play: December 20, 1947, British radio
  • The daughter of the cathedral. Dramatic poetry (prologue and 5 acts; verse and prose mixed). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1939. Made 1935–1938. Premiere October 3, 1939 Berlin ( Staatliches Schauspielhaus ; director: Wolfgang Liebeneiner ; set design: Rochus Gliese ; with Käthe Haack [Heurodis], Hannsgeorg Laubenthal [Peter], Franz Nicklisch [Paul], Maria Koppenhöfer [Ermelinda], Lola Müthel [Geralda] , Käthe Gold [Gerlind / Frene])
  • Herbert Engelmann. Drama (4 acts). Munich (CH Beck) 1952. Created 1924–1941. WP (arrangement: Carl Zuckmayer ) March 8, 1952 Vienna (Burgtheater in the Akademietheater ; director: Berthold Viertel ; with OW Fischer [Herbert], Eva Zilcher [Christa], Curd Jürgens , Josef Meinrad , Hans Thimig ). WP (original version) November 12, 1962 Putbus auf Rügen (former residence theater; director: Jan-Franz Krüger; with Heinz Berlau [Herbert], Marianne Bauer [Christa])
  • The atrid tetralogy (verse drama):
    • Part 1: Iphigenia in Aulis . Tragedy (5 acts). Berlin (Suhrkamp) 1944. Made 1940–1943. Premiere November 15, 1943 Vienna (Burgtheater; director: Lothar Müthel; with Ewald Balser [Agamemnon], Käthe Dorsch [Klytämnestra], Käthe Braun [Iphigenie], Helmuth Krauss [Kalchas])
    • Part 2: Agamemnon's death . Tragedy (one act). Berlin (Suhrkamp) 1948. Made 1942. Premiere November 10, 1947 Berlin (Deutsches Theater, Kammerspiele; director: Heinz Wolfgang Litten (1905–1955); music: Herbert Baumann (1925–2020); with Walther Süssenguth [Agamemnon], Gerda Müller [Klytämnestra], Fritz Rasp [Aigisthos], Horst Drinda [Orest], Ingo Osterloh [Pylades], Käthe Braun [Elektra], Eduard von Winterstein [Thestor]). - First broadcast as a radio play: July 28, 1946, DIAS Berlin
    • Part 3: Elektra . Tragedy (one act). Berlin (Suhrkamp) 1948. Made in 1944. Premiere November 10, 1947 Berlin (Deutsches Theater, Kammerspiele; director: Heinz-Wolfgang Litten)
    • Part 4: Iphigenia in Delphi . Tragedy (3 acts). Berlin (S. Fischer) 1941. Made in 1940. Premiere November 15, 1941 Berlin (Staatliches Schauspielhaus; director: Jürgen Fehling ; set design: Rochus Gliese; music: Mark Lothar ; with Hermine Körner [Iphigenie], Maria Koppenhöfer [Elektra], Bernhard Minetti [Orestes], Gustav Knuth [Pylades], Friedrich Kayssler [Pyrkon], Franz Nicklisch [Proros], Ullrich Haupt [Aiakos])
  • Dramatic fragments - Berlin (Propylaea) 1963 and 1969 (Centenar edition, Vol. 8 and 9; titles in quotation marks are from the editors) - and Lost (based on CFW Behl, Felix A. Voigt : Chronicle of Gerhart Hauptmanns Leben und Schaffen) :
    • Helene (approx. 1877/78; scenes in verse)
    • Amor and Hermes (approx. 1877/78; scene fragment in verse)
    • Frithiof's courtship (after Esaias Tegnér , 1879; scene fragment preserved in verse)
    • Falconer (1880; 2 songs preserved)
    • Konradin (1880; scenes in verse)
    • Athalaric (after Felix Dahn , 1880; scene fragment in verse)
    • Lycophron (1882–1944; scene fragments in verse and prose)
    • Pericles (1883–1942; scene fragments)
    • Das Erbe des Tiberius (1884; verse drama, not accepted for performance by Otto Devrient ; individual scene preserved)
    • Christ Dramas : Leben-Jesu-Drama (approx. 1885–1886; scenario) and Jesus of Nazareth. Social drama (1894–1898; scene fragments in verse)
    • Anna. Love and comedy (approx. 1890; scene fragments; title variant: Junglicht ). - Variants of the same material: Die Rose von Dromsdorf (1891; fragments of two nudes), Hilde (1892–1923; scene fragment; title variant: Jubilate ), “Visiting the Kurnick family” (approx. 1908–1910; 3 nudes and fragment a fourth)
    • The topping-out ceremony (approx. 1891–1943; scene fragments; title variants: The hostile brothers. Hinz and Kunz , brotherly love - brotherly hatred , for the sake of dear peace )
    • The Mother's Curse (1894; scene fragments in verse and prose)
    • Helios. Mythical poetry for the stage (1896–1915, scenes and scene fragments in prose and verse). - Partial performance: November 24, 1912 Munich (Kammerspiele)
    • Sittulhassan (1897–1916; scene fragments in verse and prose; title variants: The Caliph. Alaeddin and the magic lamp )
    • Antony and Cleopatra (1898; scene fragments in prose and verse)
    • Links to the Pippa fabric:
      • Valenzauber , plan of a trilogy (1898):
        • 1.  Kynast (1897–1918; scenarios and scene fragments in prose and verse)
        • 2.  The Abendburg (1898; note)
        • 3.  Galahad (1898–1914; scene fragments in verse; title variant: Die Gaukelfuhre ). - Plan for a sequel: The New Faust (1942; scene fragment in verse)
      • Whale magic , plan of a tetralogy (1908):
        • 1.  And Pippa is dancing! (1905)
        • 2. "The Pegnitz females" (ca. 1905-1908; scene fragments; title variants: A Spukmärchen. Nuremberg tales , Nuremberg farce , Nuremberg Shrovetide play , mermaids fairy tale , Nuremberg Hexentanz , The godless painters , The nightmare )
        • 3.  Alp Cortez (1908; note)
        • 4.  Wann's death (1907-1908; fragment)
    • The Shepherd's Song (1898–1899; scenes and scene fragments in verse; title variant: Patriarch's air ) - partial performance: December 25, 1906 Vienna ( Theater an der Wien )
    • Musical drama (1898–1901; scenario for Eugen d'Albert ; abandoned in 1902)
    • Thumpsahütte. Comedy (1899; destroyed)
    • The Nibelungs , plan of a trilogy (1899):
      • The Prelude (1899; one-act play in verse)
      • 1.  The first court feast - 2.  Rüdiger von Bechlaren - 3.  The second court feast (1899; note)
    • The Anabaptists (1901–1916; scene fragments in verse; title variants: Jan von Leyden. The Holy People )
    • The ship (1904–1917; title variant: Elbe. Approaches to a dramatization of the Atlantis material)
    • Apollonius of Tire : scene fragment in verse (1905); Film scenario (1923, not realized)
    • The bass violin (1905–1944; scenarios; title variants: Bettelarm. Dorfmusikanten )
    • At Bertramshöhe (1906; scenario)
    • Bismarckhaar (1911; 6 scenes from act 1)
    • Dachrödenshof (1914; fragments of a 1st act)
    • Political party. Political Comedy (1914; scene fragment)
    • The General (ca.1915; fragments of a 1st act)
    • With the old Hartmanns (between 1915 and 1922; fragment of a 1st act)
    • The Citizen (1915–1918; scene in verses and notes for a sequel; title variant: The Seer )
    • Kosmus (1915; scene fragment in verse)
    • In the country house of the Carstens brothers (1916; scene fragment)
    • The dream of Cain and Abel (1917; scene fragments in verse; title variants: Paradise lost. Mystery play , Cain and Abel )
    • The cathedral. Mystery play (approx. 1917–1941; scene fragments in verse; single title: Lucifer. Fausti Buchdruckoffizin , Der wilde Jäger , In der Bauhütte , Der Paraklet , Gotische Walpurgisnacht , Das Gasthaus zum Pilgerstab , Unter an old linden tree , Luther cell on the Wartburg , In the torture cellar , Dies irae )
    • Greenland Tragedy (1917–1944; 2 acts in verse and fragment of a third)
    • When the deer screams (1918–1939; title variants: Stolberg tragedy. The forest ; also as a narrative fragment: Jannowitz-Roman , 1929)
    • Adolf Grieshauer (after 1921 [?]; Scene fragment)
    • Der Flieger (1918–1940; fragments of a 1st act)
    • The New World (1923; film scenario, not realized)
    • Theatre. Conversation (1929; scene fragment)
    • Alexander Hettenbach (1929; scene fragment)
    • Demeter. Mystery Poetry (1935–1944; scene fragments in verse)
    • The High Lily (1937-1944; fragments of two nudes in prose and verse)

Editions

Works

  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Complete works. Centenar edition for the 100th birthday of the poet. Edited by Hans-Egon Hass . Continued by Martin Machatzke (vol. 10/11) and Wolfgang Bungies (vol. 10). Vol. 1-11. Frankfurt a. M., Berlin: Propylaeen, 1962–1974

Diaries and notebooks

  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Note calendar 1889 to 1891. Edited by Martin Machatzke. Propylaen Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin / Vienna 1982, ISBN 3-549-05346-0 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Diary 1892 to 1894 . Edited by Martin Machatzke. Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-549-05330-4 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Diaries 1897 to 1905 . Edited by Martin Machatzke. Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-549-05767-9 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Italian journey 1897. Diary entries . Edited by Martin Machatzke. Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-549-05572-2 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Diaries 1906 to 1913. With the travel diary Greece-Turkey 1907 . After preliminary work by Martin Machatzke ed. by Peter Sprengel . Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-549-05839-X .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Diaries 1914–1918 . Edited by Peter Sprengel. Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 978-3-549-05775-9 .
  • Gerhart Hauptmann: Diary 1917 to 1933 . Edited by Martin Machatzke. Propylaea, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-549-05358-4 .

Correspondence

literature

Bibliography and estate catalog

  • Sigfrid Hoefert: International bibliography on the work of Gerhart Hauptmann. Vol. 1–4 - Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1986–2012 (publications of the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Gesellschaft 3, 4, 12 and 15)
  • Rudolf Ziesche: The manuscript legacy of Gerhart Hauptmann. - Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1977–2000 (Berlin State Library, Prussian Cultural Heritage: Catalogs of the Manuscript Department, Series 2, Vol. 2, T. 1–4)

Biographies and general presentations

Other secondary literature

Books
  • Adrian von Arburg, Wlodzimierz Borodziej, Jurij Kostjaschow: When the Germans were gone. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-499-62204-5 .
  • Neville E. Alexander: Studies on the change of style in the dramatic work of Gerhart Hauptmann. Metzler, Stuttgart 1964 (dissertation, University of Tübingen 1961)
  • Jean Améry : Gerhart Hauptmann. The eternal German . Stieglitz-Verlag, Mühlacker 1963.
  • Ruth Bauer: The image of man in Gerhart Hauptmann's drama. Dissertation, University of Freiburg / B. 1950.
  • Carl F. Behl: Ways to Gerhart Hauptmann (Gerhart-Hauptmann-Schriften; 4). Publisher Deutsche Volksbücherei, Goslar 1948.
  • Carl F. Behl: Dialogue with Gerhart Hauptmann. Desch, Munich 1949.
  • Carl F. Behl et al. a. (Author), Mechthild Peiffer-Voigt (edit.): Chronicle of Gerhart Hauptmann's life and work. Bergstadtverlag Korn, Würzburg 1993, ISBN 3-87057-172-1 (reprint of the Munich 1957 edition).
  • Gisela Beissenhirtz: Studies on the concept of fate in Gerhart Hauptmann's late work. Dissertation, University of Kiel 1960.
  • Hans von Brescius: Gerhart Hauptmann. Current events and consciousness in unknown self-testimonies. 2nd, improved edition. Bouvier Verlag, Bonn 1977, ISBN 3-416-01221-6 .
  • Rüdiger Bernhardt: "... the advice of the gods is done!". Gerhart Hauptmann's Delphi was on Hiddensee. The poet from 1933 to 1945. Projekt-Verlag 188, Halle 2006, ISBN 3-86634-168-7 .
  • Edward Białek, Mirosława Czarnecka (eds.): Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann. Between regional appropriation and European perspectives. Neisse-Verlag, Dresden 2006, ISBN 3-934038-79-4 .
  • Christian Büttrich : Gerhart Hauptmann's "Till Eulenspiegel". Mythology and Mythical Imagery. Verlag Hahn, Hanover 1992, ISBN 3-7752-5500-1 (also dissertation FU Berlin 1972).
  • Franz J. Burk: Ancient sources and models of Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy . Dissertation, University of Marburg 1953.
  • Joseph Chapiro: Conversations with Gerhart Hauptmann. First complete text edition. Ullstein Verlag, Frankfurt / Main 1996, ISBN 3-548-35609-5 .
  • Roy C. Cowen: Captain Comment. 2 volumes. inkler, Munich 1980–1981.
  • Wolfgang Beutin: Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Award-Winning. Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-63297-0 , pp. 77-98.
  • Wolfgang de Bruyn , Antje Johanning, Association for the Promotion of Gerhart-Hauptmann-Houses e. V. (Ed.): Gerhart Hauptmann and his houses: Hiddensee - Erkner - Schreiberhau - Agnetendorf. Findling, 2007, ISBN 978-3-933603-39-5 .
  • Wolfgang de Bruyn, Stefan Rohlfs (ed.): Gerhart Hauptmann and the music. Quintus-Verlag, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-947215-10-2 .
  • Peter Delvaux: Ancient Myths and Current Events. Structure of meaning and time references in Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. Rodopi-Verlag, Amsterdam 1992, ISBN 90-5183-424-1 , (also dissertation, University of Amsterdam 1992).
  • Peter Delvaux: Suffering should teach. Historical connections in Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. Rodopi-Verlag, Amsterdam 1994, ISBN 90-5183-709-7 .
  • Klemens Dieckhöfer: Poetry and Medicine. On the personality structure, physical constitution in his poetic work and on the medical profession of the medical figures in Gerhart Hauptmann's works. Deutscher Wissenschafts-Verlag , Baden-Baden 2012 (= DWV-Schriften zur Medizingeschichte. Volume 13; Specialized prose research - Transgressions of boundaries. Supplement 2), ISBN 978-3-86888-051-9 (also Philosophical Dissertation Olomouc).
  • Gustav Erdmann: Gerhart Hauptmann. Experienced world and designed work. Dissertation, University of Greifswald 1957.
  • Ralph Fiedler: Gerhart Hauptmann's late dramas. Bergstadtverlag, Munich 1954.
  • Günther Fuhrmann: The Atrid Myth in Modern Drama. Captain, O'Neill , Sartre . Dissertation, University of Würzburg 1950.
  • Margarita Gieselberg: Formative forces of drama in Gerhart Hauptmann, examined in four works. Dissertation, University of Bonn 1955 ("The White Savior", " Michael Kramer ", " The poor Heinrich " and " The Rats ").
  • Hans-Joachim Hahn (Ed.): Gerhart Hauptmann and "The Jews". Constellations and constructions in life and work. Neisse-Verlag, Dresden 2005, ISBN 3-934038-40-9 .
  • Karl Hemmerich: Gerhart Hauptmanns Veland. Its origin and its interpretation. Dissertation, University of Würzburg 1935.
  • Monica Hensel: The figure of Christ in Gerhart Hauptmann's work. Dissertation, University of Berlin 1957.
  • Frederick W. Heuser: Gerhart Hauptmann. To his life and work. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1961.
  • Klaus Hildebrandt : Gerhart Hauptmann and the story. Delp, Munich 1968.
  • Klaus Hildebrandt: Gerhart Hauptmann's naturalistic dramas. "Die Weber", "Rose Bernd", "Die Ratten"; Topic, development, design principles, structure. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-486-85621-9 .
  • Klaus Hildebrandt (Ed.): Krzysztof A. Kuczyński (Ed.): Companions of Gerhart Hauptmann. Sponsors, biographers, performers . Würzburg: Bergstadtverl. Korn 2002, ISBN 3-87057-245-0 .
  • Klaus Hildebrandt (Ed.): Krzysztof A. Kuczyński (Ed.): Gerhart Hauptmanns Freundeskreis. International studies . Edition Expol, Włocwławek 2006, ISBN 83-921860-4-4 .
  • Sigfrid Hoefert: Gerhart Hauptmann and the film. With unpublished film drafts by the poet (publications by the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Gesellschaft; 7). Erich Schmidt publishing house, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-503-03728-4 .
  • Jenny C. Hortenbach: Striving for freedom and destructiveness: women in the dramas of August Strindberg and Gerhart Hauptmann (= Germanic series of Norwegian universities and colleges , No. 2: Scandinavian University Books ), Universitetsforlaget, Oslo 1965, DNB 363864148 (revised dissertation).
  • Gerhard Hurtig: The light symbolism in Gerhart Hauptmann's work. Dissertation, University of Marburg 1956.
  • Antje Johanning: Gerhart Hauptmann's collections from the property of Anja Hauptmann. Thelem Universitätsverlag, 2006, ISBN 3-939888-00-1 .
  • Ulrich Lauterbach (Ed.): Reality and Dream. Gerhart Hauptmann. Verlag Reichert, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-88226-399-7 (catalog of the exhibition of the same name).
  • Friedrich Leiner: The thought of rebirth in the life and work of Gerhart Hauptmann. Dissertation, University of Munich 1955.
  • Wolfgang Leppmann: Gerhart Hauptmann. A biography. Ullstein Verlag, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-548-36957-0 .
  • Cezary Lipiński, Edward Białek: … pardon (t) oh master, surrounded by glory and glamor… Explorations about Carl and Gerhart Hauptmann, Dresden 2009, ISBN 978-3-940310-73-6 .
  • Hans Mayer : Gerhart Hauptmann . Hahn publishing house, Velber near Hanover 1970.
  • Christel E. Meier: The motif of suicide in Gerhart Hauptmann's work. Ergon-Verlag, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-89913-425-7 (plus dissertation, University of Erlangen 2004).
  • Dietrich Meinert: Hellenism and Christianity in Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. Balkema Books, Amsterdam 1964.
  • Günter Metken: Studies on the speech gesture in Gerhart Hauptmann's dramatic work. Dissertation, University of Munich 1954.
  • Rolf Michaelis : The black Zeus. Gerhart Hauptmann's second way . Argon-Verlag, Berlin 1962.
  • Barbara Neymeyr : Intertextual Transformations: Goethe's “Werther”, Büchner's “Lenz” and Hauptmann's “Apostle” as a productive area of ​​tension. Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2012. ISBN 978-3-8253-6044-3 .
  • Eberhard Nitzsche: Gerhart Hauptmann. Greek culture and humanism. Dissertation, University of Berlin 1953.
  • Alexander M. Pfleger: Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. "... the Kere Strudel ..." Divinity and humanity in conflict. Kovač publishing house, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0868-6 .
  • Jörg Platiel: Myth and Mystery. The reception of the Middle Ages in Gerhart Hauptmann's work. Lang, Frankfurt / M. 1993, ISBN 3-631-44767-1 (also dissertation, Munich 1991).
  • Heiko Postma : A great classic a. D.? About the playwright, storyteller and epic poet Gerhart Hauptmann . jmb, Hannover 2009, ISBN 978-3-940970-11-4 .
  • Christa von Ravenstein: The Luciferic in Gerhart Hauptmann. Dissertation, University of Freiburg im Breisgau 1952.
  • Helge Ries: The return to myth in Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. Dissertation, University of Frankfurt / M. 1952.
  • Yong-Don Roh: Gerhart Hauptmann and the women. Studies on naturalistic work . Carl Böschen Verlag , Siegen 1998, ISBN 3-932212-11-8 .
  • Rainer Rosenberg: The structure of Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. Dissertation, University of Jena 1959.
  • Daria Santini: Gerhart Hauptmann between modernity and tradition. New perspectives on the Atriden tetralogy. Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-503-03792-6 .
  • Gregor Schmeja: Varieties of ambivalence. Self- and object images in the context of oedipal conflicts and the early mother-child relationship in Gerhart Hauptmann's text fantasies. Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3187-3 .
  • Walter Schmitz: The house on Wiesenstein. Gerhart Hauptmann's poetic living. Thelem, Dresden 2010, ISBN 978-3-935712-36-1 .
  • Peter Sprengel : The Reality of Myths. Investigations into the work of Gerhart Hauptmann based on the handwritten estate (publications of the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Gesellschaft; 2). Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 1981, ISBN 3-503-01689-9 (plus habilitation thesis, TU Berlin 1982).
  • Bernhard Tempel: Alcohol and Eugenics. An attempt on Gerhart Hauptmann's artistic self-image. Thelem, Dresden 2010, ISBN 978-3-942411-01-1 (also dissertation, Free University of Berlin).
  • Bernhard Tempel: Gerhart Hauptmann's story Mignon. With first printing of the first version and materials. Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-503-04951-7 .
  • Joachim Tettenborn: The tragic with Gerhart Hauptmann. Dissertation, University of Jena 1950.
  • Heinz Dieter Tschörtner: Gerhart Hauptmann. A bibliographic contribution on his 100th birthday. German Academy of Arts, Berlin 1962.
  • Heinz Dieter Tschörtner: Hoping for a tremendous amount. To Gerhart Hauptmann; Work and effect. Book publisher Der Morgen, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-371-00002-8 .
  • Heinz Dieter Tschörtner, Sigfrid Hoefert (Ed.): Conversations and interviews with Gerhart Hauptmann. Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-503-03088-3 .
  • Heinz Dieter Tschörtner: The sea blows incessantly. New Captain Studies. Bergstadtverlag Korn, Würzburg 1996, ISBN 3-87057-190-X .
  • Željko Uvanović: Ethical Individualism and Obedience to Authority. On a problem in the drama and life of Gerhart Hauptmann in the years 1914–1946. Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen 1998, ISBN 3-89712-065-8 (also dissertation, University of Zagreb 1998).
  • Felix A. Voigt: Gerhart Hauptmann and antiquity. Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 1965 (former title: Antike und antique attitude to life with Gerhart Hauptmann ).
  • Felix A. Voigt, Walter A. Reichart: Captain and Shakespeare . A contribution to the history of Shakespeare's survival in Germany (Gerhart-Hauptmann-Schriften; 3). Publishing house of the Deutsche Volksbücherei, Goslar 1947.
  • Felix A. Voigt: Gerhart Hauptmann Studies 1934–1958. Verlag E. Schmidt, Berlin 1999 ( Google reading sample ).
  • Peter-Christian Wegner: Gerhart Hauptmann's Greek dramas. A contribution to the relationship between psyche and myth. Dissertation, University of Erlangen 1968.
  • Wilfried van der Will: Requirements and possibilities for a symbolic language in Gerhart Hauptmann's work. Dissertation, University of Cologne 1962.
  • Werner Ziegenfuß : Gerhart Hauptmann. Poetry and social idea of ​​bourgeois humanity . De Gruyter, Berlin 1948.
Essays
  • Karl Voss: In Gerhart Hauptmann's footsteps in Berlin. In: The Bear of Berlin . 1989/1990 yearbook of the Association for the History of Berlin. Thirty-eighth and thirty-ninth episodes, 1989/1990. Edited by Gerhard Kutzsch. Westkreuz-Verlag, Berlin / Bonn: 1990, pp. 31-50.
  • Andrea Rudolph: The connection between text and space appears necessary as meaning and form. G. Hauptmann's " Bahnwärter Thiel " and " Before Sunrise ". In: Lubowitz Yearbook , 2006.
  • Eberhard Rohse : The "End of the Song"? To Gerhart Hauptmann's “Deutschlandlied” reception. In: Marek Halub and Kurt GP Schuster (eds.): Hoffmann von Fallersleben. International Symposium Wroclaw / Breslau 2003. Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld 2005 (= Braunschweiger Contributions to German Language and Literature, Volume 8), ISBN 3-89534-538-5 , pp. 267–284.
  • Alexander M. Pfleger: Thomas Mann's reception of Gerhart Hauptmann's verse dramas. In: Gerhart-Hauptmann-Blätter , Vol. 6 (2004), Issue I, pp. 4-8.
  • Elke Steinmeyer: "And please, (...) that nothing breaks my silence from now on." On the use of silence in Gerhart Hauptmann's atrid tetralogy. In: Asko Timonen u. a. (Ed.): The language of silence, Vol. 2 . Turum Yliopisto, Turku 2004, ISBN 951-29-2053-0 , pp. 164-172.
  • Heinz Dieter Tschörtner: Gerhart Hauptmann's last childhood friend Josef Block from Bernstadt (1863–1943). In: Yearbook of the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University in Breslau. Vol. 38/39 (1997/1998) [1998], pp. 773-781.
  • Marek Zybura: Advertisement for the "Olympian". Krakauer Zeitung and Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Ders .: lateral thinker, mediator, border crosser. Contributions to Polish and German literary and cultural history . Neisse-Verlag, Dresden 2007, ISBN 978-3-934038-87-5 .
Secondary fiction

Film adaptations

(Cf. Sigfrid Hoefert: International bibliography on the work of Gerhart Hauptmann . Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2003, pp. 115–130)

Radio plays

Original broadcast: September 27, 1926 (live without recording)

  • Hanneles Himmelfahrt (WEFAG (Münster / Cologne) 1926). Director: Hanns Ulmann.

Original broadcast: November 8, 1926 (live without recording)

Original broadcast: November 11, 1926 (live without recording)

Settings

Stage, radio play and film music

Setting of individual poems to music

  • Paul Graener : A Voice and a Cello make music op. 113 (1943). Texts from The Colorful Book
1. It  's such a quiet, holy day - 2.  Weltweh and heavenly longing ("Like a wind harp be your soul ...") - 3.  I came from the plow of the earth (=  Ms. Julie Schubert in the family book )
  • Seven songs (op. 27; 1897) for low voice and piano. Texts from The Colorful Book . Premiere November 6, 1897 Berlin ( University of Music )
1.  Worldache and longing for the sky (“Like a wind harp be your soul ...”) - 2. It  's such a quiet, holy day - 3.  Chasing screeching seagulls (from thunderstorm moods by the sea ) - 4.  Fog (“Where mine Looking through fog sees ... ") - 5th  evening (" Purple shimmer soaks the vine hills ... ") - 6.  A cricket song (" I am attracted by the scent ... ") - 7.  Gray fog covers lake and land
  • Five songs (op.40; 1903)
1.  Do not know where I'm coming - second  mica spark in the ashes smoke - 3.  Sidselills song - fourth  gloomy clouds rise - the fifth  rise
  • Gesang der Engel from Hanneles Himmelfahrt (op. 70,2; 1919), from: Drei Gesänge for three-part female choir with piano
  • Ulf Lachmund: Zwei Lieder (2004?) For voice and guitar. WP 2004 (?)
1.  The sea blows incessantly ( moonlight lark , from The Colorful Book ) - 2.  A black ship quietly cruises by
  • Max Marschalk : The sun on those hills . Text from Hanneles Himmelfahrt (1893)
  • Willy von Möllendorff : In the night train for male choir. Text from The Colorful Book . Premiere July 1914 Leipzig ( Paulinerkirche ?)
  • Paul Natorp (1854-1924): songs (title not determined)
  • Carl Prohaska : Five songs op. 7 (1901?) For a lower voice with piano accompaniment. Texts from The Colorful Book
1.  's is a quiet, heil'ger day - 2.  Where my eye sees through fog (=  fog ) - 3rd  hunt Screaming gulls - 4.  Purple shimmer together: water the vines hill (=  evening ) - 5.  Gray fog cover Lake and country
  • Arnold Schering (1877–1941): songs (title not determined)
  • Hermann Simon (1896–1948): songs (title not determined)
  • Otto Sprinzel (life data not determined): From Drei Lieder und Gesänge op. 7 for a voice with pianoforte
1.  Rautendelein am Brunnen - 2.  Rautendelein am Heerd
  • Fritz Lissauer (born October 20, 1874 Berlin; † March 7, 1937 Berlin): Reiterlied (op. 52,1; 1914), from: Three patriotic songs for voice and piano
  • Fritz Vogel (life data not determined): Gerhart-Hauptmann-Lieder op.7 (Berlin 1947)
1.  Consolation - 2.  Sing me the lullaby, O eternal sea

Concert pieces, program music

  • Adolf Becker: Nickelmann  / Rautendelein (1899). Illustrations for The Sunken Bell . Versions for piano / string quartet / string orchestra
  • Richard Mors (1874–1946): And Pippa Dances (1906). Symphonic poetry
  • Hubert Bath : The Visions of Hannele . Symphonic poem (1913, revised 1920)
  • Oskar von Chelius : And Pippa dances (op. 28; 1922). Symphonic poetry
  • Hermann Josef Ullrich (1888–1982): Hanneles Himmelfahrt (1922). Symphonic poetry

Musical theater

  • The sunken bell . Parodistic joke game. Libretto : Paul Kasten. Music: Walter Kollo . Premiere July 27, 1897 Königsberg (Tivoli)
  • The sunken bell . Music drama in 5 acts. Libretto and music (op. 80): Heinrich Zöllner . Premiere July 8th 1899 Berlin ( Theater des Westens )
  • The sunken bell . Opera in 4 acts. Libretto: Viktor Burenin (1841–1926). Music: Alexei Davidoff (1867–1940). Premiere 1903 Saint Petersburg . German premiere September 30, 1908 Mainz ( City Theater )
  • Roždestvenskaja ëlka ( The Christmas Tree ). Musical drama in one act. Libretto:? (after Fjodor Dostojewski , Hans Christian Andersen and Gerhart Hauptmann). Music (op. 21; 1900/01): Wladimir Rebikow . Premiere October 30, 1903 Moscow
  • And Pippa is dancing! Opera plan by Arnold Schönberg . Fragment (short score, 68 bars: prelude and recitative; August 1906 – March 1907)
  • Elga . Opera. Libretto:?. Music: B. Lowski. Premiere 1909 Düsseldorf
  • Hanneles Ascension . Opera plan by Giacomo Puccini (1911)
  • Hannele Mattern. Rêve lyrique in 5 acts (1911). Libretto: Jean Thorel and Louis de Gramont . Music: Camille Erlanger . Premiere January 28, 1950 Strasbourg ( Opera House )
  • La cloche engloutie . Opera plan by Maurice Ravel (sketches 1906–1912 / 13; not preserved). Original text: The sunken bell in the French translation by A. Ferdinand Hérold
  • Elga. Nocturnus in 7 scenes. Libretto: Martha von Zobeltitz (pseudonym Hans von Theruten ?). Music: Erwin Lendvai . Premiere December 16, 1916 Mannheim ( Court Theater ); Premiere of the 2nd version 1918 Leipzig ( Opera House )
  • The sunken bell . Opera in 4 acts (not listed). Libretto:?. Music (1915–1918): Fidelio F. Finke
  • The Sunken Bell . Libretto: Charles Henry Meltzer (1853–1936). Music (fragment, 1912–1923; sketches preserved): Carl Ruggles
  • Před slunce východem ( Before sunrise ). Opera in one act. Libretto: Bedřich Bělohlávek. Music: Emil František Burian . Premiere November 1925 Prague ( National Theater )
  • And Pippa is dancing! Opera plan by Alban Berg (1927)
  • Hanneles Ascension . Opera in 2 acts. Libretto: Georg Gräner . Music: Paul Graener . Premiere February 17, 1927 Dresden ( State Opera ) and Breslau (?)
  • La campana sommersa ( The Sunken Bell ). Opera in 4 acts. Libretto: Claudio Guastalla. Music: Ottorino Respighi . Premiere (in German translation by Werner Wolff) November 18, 1927 Hamburg ( State Opera ). Italian premiere: April 1929 Rome
  • Elga . Opera (1933/34). Libretto: D. Arbenini. Music: Artur Lemba . Premiere March 15, 1934 Tallinn
  • Tkalci ( The Weavers ). Opera in 5 pictures. Libretto (based on the Czech Weber translation by Jakub Rydvan and L. Janoušek): Vít Nejedlý (born June 22, 1912 Prague, † January 1/2 [?] January 1945 Dukla). Music: Vít Nejedlý (1939, fragment; supplemented by Jan Hanuš [1915–2004]). Premiere May 1961 in Pilsen
  • And Pippa is dancing! Opera in 4 pictures. Libretto:?. Music: Walter Schartner . Premiere June 13, 1948 Halle (Opera House); with Anny Schlemm (Pippa)
  • Gulp and Jau . Opera. Libretto:?. Music (1951): Friedrich Radermacher (* 1924). Premiere 1954 Cologne ( University of Music )
  • Elga . Opera. Libretto: Harald Kaufmann . Music: Rudolf Weishappel (born March 25, 1921 Graz, † January 2, 2006 Vienna). First broadcast November 12, 1952, ORF
  • (?) Florian Geyer . Opera. Libretto: Joseph Gregor (unclear whether based on a presentation by Hauptmann). Music: Hans Ebert (1889–1952). Premiere 1952
  • Michael Kramer . Opera (1957/58). Libretto:?. Music: Wolfgang Streiber (born November 25, 1934 Zurich, † January 5, 1959 Hanover).
  • (?) Florian Geyer . Opera in 6 pictures. Libretto:? (unclear whether according to Hauptmann's presentation). Music: Alfred Böckmann . Premiere 1959
  • Hanneles Ascension . Opera. Libretto:?. Music: Erich Urbanner . Premiere May 1962 Vienna
  • The winter ballad or the doppelganger . Opera in 3 acts (1966/67). Libretto and music: Jan Meyerowitz . Premiere January 29, 1967 Hanover
  • And Pippa is dancing! Opera in 3 acts (1982). Libretto:?. Music: Peter Richter de Rangenier (born March 25, 1930 in Prague). WP Leipzig (Opera) (?)
  • The black mask ( Czarna maska ). Opera in one act. Libretto: Harry Kupfer and Krzysztof Penderecki . Music (1984–1986): Krzysztof Penderecki. WP August 15, 1986 Salzburg ( Kleines Festspielhaus ); Director: Harry Kupfer, conductor: Woldemar Nelsson
  • And Pippa is dancing! Rock opera. Libretto: G. Theobald. Music: Otto Beatus. Premiere June 8, 1996 in Wuppertal ( Schauspielhaus ). Director: T. Mega
  • overburden . composition for music theater. Libretto: Jörg Milbradt (based on motifs from Und Pippa tanzt! ). Music (1996/1997): Jörg Herchet . Premiere 1997 Leipzig
  • Poor Heinrich . Opera in 3 scenes. Libretto:?. Music (op. 69; after 1995?): Raimund Schwedeler (1925–2011)
  • The sunken bell . Opera in 3 acts. Libretto:?. Music (op. 75; ~ 2002?): Raimund Schwedeler
  • Railway attendant Thiel . Opera in 8 pictures. Libretto: Julia Cloot and Enjott Schneider . Music: Enjott Schneider. Premiere February 28, 2004 Görlitz (theater); Director: Aron Stiehl , conductor: Eckehard Stier

See also

Web links

Wikisource: Gerhart Hauptmann  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Gerhart Hauptmann  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Helmut Scheuer: Gerhart Hauptmann, Der Biberpelz. Frankfurt am Main 1986, p. 46.
  2. Landkreis Görlitz, business office Umgebung (ed.): In love with the environment - landscapes, houses, people. / Překrásnou krajinou podstávkových domů - Krajina, domy, lidé . 2002, ISBN 978-3-929744-73-6 , pp. 98 ( Online ( Memento from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 7.0 MB ]).
  3. Klemens Dieckhöfer: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862–1946) and Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on Gerhart Hauptmann and his experience of nature. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015, pp. 123–128, here: p. 123.
  4. ^ Letter from Hans Baluschek, Fritz Rhein, Ludwig Stutz, Leo von König, Hans Dammann, Max Liebermann, Heinrich Huebner, Fritz Klimsch, Georg Kolbe, Robert Breyer, Ulrich Huebner, Walter Leistikow, Ernst Oppler, Jacob Alberts, Käthe Kollwitz, August Endell, Julius Klinger, Paul Baum, Lovis Corinth and August Kraus from the Berlin Secession to Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Europeana . November 3, 1905, accessed February 1, 2015 .
  5. “Today the people have taken their fate into their own hands. Nobody will stand back now, whose forces can be used in the national service. The new government may also count on us wherever it regards our work as fruitful. None of us will hesitate to do our utmost heartily and to the best of our ability in the welfare service of peace. ”According to Hugo Ball : Die Fingerfertigen . textlog.de
  6. The Gerhart Hauptmann House in the monastery on Hiddensee , Gerhart Hauptmann Museum Association.
  7. ^ A b Ernst Klee : The cultural lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945 . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , p. 223.
  8. Jan-Pieter Barbian: The perfect powerlessness? : Writer, publisher and bookseller in the Nazi state; selected essays . Klartext, Essen 2008, p. 42 f. Barbian refers to a reference in Harry Graf Kessler, Tagebücher 1918–1937, edited by Wolfgang Pfeiffer-Belli, Frankfurt am Main 1961, p. 729 (October 20, 1933), according to which Hermann Graf Keyserling reported this; see. Harry Graf Kessler: The Diary . 1926-1937. Ed .: Sabine Gruber and Ulrich Ott with the collaboration of Christoph Hilse. tape 9 . Cotta, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7681-9819-6 , pp. 610 ( full text in Google Book Search). . Compare also for the confirmation of the application made around August 1, 1933 by Felix A. Voigt 1961 Walter A. Reichart to Rüdiger Bernhardt : Gerhart Hauptmann: a biography . Verlag Atelier im Bauernhaus, Fischerhude 2007, p. 159; Bernhardt leads the negative decision of the application back to the membership ban of the NSDAP .
  9. Othmar Plöckinger: History of a book: Adolf Hitler's "Mein Kampf": 1922–1945 ; a publication by the Institute for Contemporary History. Oldenbourg, Munich 2006, p. 448.
  10. a b c d e "This is supported by the communication strategy that he pursues when dealing with emigrated Jewish acquaintances. It boils down to ignoring the political pressure that drove them abroad and assuming that those affected are free to choose a location was by no means given. " Peter Sprengel: The poet stood on the high coast. Gerhart Hauptmann in the Third Reich. Berlin 2009.
  11. a b Klaus Kreimeier: Cowardly looking away in the Hitler dictatorship. Retrieved June 9, 2020 .
  12. ^ Quotation from Ernst Klee: Das Personenlexikon zum Third Reich . Who was what before and after 1945 (= The time of National Socialism. Bd. 16048). 2nd updated edition. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-596-16048-8 , p. 232.
  13. Poetry / Hauptmann's legacy: Triumphant . In: Der Spiegel . No. 17 , 1962, pp. 59 ( Online - Apr. 25, 1962 ).
  14. Oliver Rathkolb : Loyal to the Führer and God-Grace. Artist elite in the Third Reich. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-215-07490-7 , p. 176; see also: Ernst Klee: Das Kulturlexikon zum Third Reich . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, p. 222.
  15. ^ Weidner's sanatorium. In: Dresdner-Stadtteile.de. Retrieved February 1, 2018 .
  16. ^ Centenar edition, Vol. 11, p. 1205.
  17. Martin Halter: The expulsion from the Silesian Kingdom of Heaven in Berliner Zeitung from 27/28. 01.2018 p. 8 (magazine)
  18. When the Germans were gone. What happened after the expulsion: East Prussia, Silesia, Sudetenland. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2007, ISBN 978-3-499-62204-5 .
  19. Flimclub in the Culture Forum: The captain transport. District Office Marzahn / Hellersdorf, Department of Culture, March 3, 2016, accessed on July 29, 2016 (press release).
  20. Ivo Hauptmann: Words of Remembrance. Spoken at the celebration in Hamburg City Hall. July 4, 1946. From Hans von Hülsen (Ed.): Seven speeches made in memory of him. Publisher Deutsche Volksbücherei, Goslar 1947.
  21. ^ Albert Rode: Hauptmann and Nietzsche. A contribution to understanding the "sunken bell". 2nd edition Hamburg 1897.
  22. Klemens Dieckhöfer: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862–1946) and Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on Gerhart Hauptmann and his experience of nature. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 123–128.
  23. ^ Ferdinande Nückel: Hauptmann and Nietzsche. Philosophical dissertation Munich 1923.
  24. Klemens Dieckhöfer: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862–1946) and Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on Gerhart Hauptmann and his experience of nature. 2015 (2016), p. 125.
  25. Klemens Dieckhöfer: Gerhart Hauptmanns view of psychiatry. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 11, 1993, pp. 341-349, here: pp. 342-345.
  26. ^ A b Franz-Josef Payrhuber: Literature Knowledge Gerhart Hauptmann. Stuttgart 1998, p. 20.
  27. Peter Sprengel: Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Hartmut Steinecke (ed.): German poets of the 20th century. Berlin 1996, pp. 31–42, here p. 33.
  28. a b c Letter of February 19, 1885 to the Danish literary critic Georg Brandes. Quoted from: Peter Sprengel: Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Gunter E. Grimm, Frank Rainer Max (Ed.): German poets. Stuttgart 1993, p. 525.
  29. Hans Schwab-Felisch: Gerhart Hauptmann: Die Weber. 3. Edition. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-24047-X .
  30. Kurt Rothmann: Small history of German literature. Stuttgart 1980, p. 212.
  31. ^ Verlag Felix Bloch Erben GmbH [1] . Retrieved March 5, 2011
  32. ^ Verlag Felix Bloch Erben GmbH [2] . Retrieved March 5, 2011
  33. ^ Verlag Felix Bloch Erben GmbH [3] table of contents. Retrieved March 5, 2011
  34. ^ Verlag Felix Bloch Erben GmbH [4] . Retrieved March 5, 2011
  35. ^ Verlag Felix Bloch Erben GmbH [5] table of contents. Retrieved March 5, 2011
  36. Reinhild Schwede: Wilhelmine Neo-Romanticism - Escape or Refuge? Frankfurt am Main 1987, p. 93. Peter Sprengel cites the quotation and Hauptmann's reply to it in The Reality of Myths (Berlin 1982) p. 101f (fn. 104) in the Google book search.
  37. ^ Georg Lukács: Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Hans Joachim Schrimpf (Ed.): Georg Hauptmann , Darmstadt 1976, pp. 82–95.
  38. ^ Günter Kunert: At the edge of the world: An island. In: Marion Magas: Hiddensee - Hidden Island in the Lost Land. GDR contemporary testimonies from island friends and bon vivants . Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-018132-0 , p. 200.
  39. ^ W. Vocke: Daten der Deutschen Literatur Gerhart Hauptmann
  40. ^ Gerhard Schulz: Gerhart Hauptmanns dramatic work. In: Walter Hinck (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Deutschen Dramas. Düsseldorf 1980, pp. 311–326, here p. 311.
  41. Peter Sprengel: Gerhart Hauptmann. In: Gunter E. Grimm, Frank Rainer Max (Ed.): German poets. Stuttgart 1993, p. 530.
  42. ^ Gustav Erdmann: Gerhart Hauptmann on Hiddensee. With an introduction to the life and work of the poet. Kloster auf Hiddensee 1991, p. 23.
  43. Honorary Members: Gerhart Hauptmann. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed March 10, 2019 (first name misspelled).
  44. Klemens Dieckhöfer: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862–1946) and Nietzsche. Nietzsche's influence on Gerhart Hauptmann and his experience of nature. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015, pp. 123–128, here: pp. 125 f.
  45. ^ Austrian award for Gerhart Hauptmann. In:  Neue Freie Presse , December 9, 1937, p. 5 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfp
  46. ^ Heinz Dieter Tschörtner: Gerhart Hauptmann. A bibliographic contribution on his 100th birthday. Berlin 1962, pp. 103-118.