|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||108.40 km²|
|Geographic location :||50 ° 54 ′ N , 15 ° 44 ′ E|
|Height :||350 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||58-500 to 58-588|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 75|
|License plate :||DJ|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||E 65 Szklarska Poręba - Legnica|
|Rail route :||Jelenia Góra – Szklarska Poręba – Kořenov|
|Zgorzelec – Wałbrzych railway line|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||731 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0261011|
|Administration (as of 2018)|
|City President :||Jerzy Łużniak|
|Address:||pl. Ratuszowy 58
58-500 Jelenia Góra
jɛˈlɛɲa ˈgura ] (GermanHirschberg, from 1927 to 1945Hirschberg in the Giant Mountains;MountainSilesian HerschbrigorHerschbrich; CzechJelení Hora, alsoHiršperk) is a town in thePolish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia.[
The city is located in Lower Silesia in the Hirschberg Valley at the confluence of the Zacken in the Bober at the foot of the Giant Mountains , which form the border with the Czech Republic , at 342 m above sea level. NHN , around 90 km southwest of Breslau and 70 km east of Görlitz . It belongs to the Neisse Euroregion and is the seat of the Karkonoski Park Narodowy ( Krkonose National Park).
The municipality of Jelenia Góra covers an area of 109 km², around 85,000 inhabitants and is divided into the following districts ( dzielnice ):
- Śródmieście - downtown
- Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój , also Cieplice Zdrój (Bad Warmbrunn)
- Czarne , (Schwarzbach)
- Goduszyn (Gotschdorf)
- Grabary (Hartau)
- Jagniątków (Agnetendorf) - district
- Maciejowa (Maiwaldau)
- Sobieszów (Hermsdorf under the Kynast , 1935–1945 Hermsdorf (Kynast))
- Strupice (Straupitz)
and the settlements ( osiedle ): Osiedle Orle, Osiedle Pomorskie, Osiedle Skowronków, Osiedle Widok, Osiedle XX-Lecia, Osiedle Zabobrze I, Osiedle Zabobrze II, Osiedle Zabobrze III and Osiedle Żeromskiego.
Among the Silesian Piasts
The city was probably founded on ducal soil shortly before 1281. At that time it belonged to the Duchy of Schweidnitz and was the center of a German clearing district. It was first mentioned in 1281 as "Hyrzberc" in a document with which Duke Bernhard I von Löwenberg († 1286) gave the Johannites von Striegau a reason on the upper reaches of the Zacken River . Another mention was made in 1288 in a document from Duke Bolko I , in which this "our citizens of Hyrzberc" ( nostrorum civium Hyrsbergensium ) allowed the establishment of a tavern in Warmbrunn . For the year 1299 Hirschberg is documented as a city ( civitas ).
Under Duke Bolko II , Hirschberg received the mile law in 1338 , the salt and mining law in 1355, as well as the freedom from taxes in trade with Bohemia, in 1361 the weighing and coinage law and in 1366 the mutual freedom from customs duties with Wroclaw. After the death of Duke Bolko II in 1368, his widow Agnes von Habsburg received a lifelong usufruct over the duchy, which at the same time fell to the Crown of Bohemia as a settled fief . In 1377 the city acquired the bailiwick from Duchess Agnes.
Under the bohemian crown
From 1395 to 1406 Hirschberg was owned by the Bohemian castle count Johann Kruschina von Lichtenburg . During the Hussite Wars , the castle on Hausberg, which had been occupied since 1291, was destroyed at the behest of the governor. In 1502 the Bohemian King Vladislav II granted the city the right to freely elect a council, his successor Ludwig II granted a fair in 1519 and Emperor Ferdinand II granted a second market in 1532. With the introduction of the Reformation in 1524, Hirschberg developed into an important Protestant center. Evangelical preaching was held in the town church and a Protestant schoolhouse was built in 1566.
Since the 17th century the Hirschberg Valley and Jau were centers of linen production, especially fine veils, the production method of which had been imported from Holland in 1570 and for which the city was granted a privilege by Ferdinand II in 1630. The linen was produced as a sideline for small farmers, women and children working at home. In the trading offices near the waters, they were then bleached and stored in storage vaults. During the Thirty Years' War Hirschberg was besieged several times and obliged to pay contributions . In 1658 a merchant's society was founded , which had a monopoly on the linen trade and controlled the quality of the goods, which contributed significantly to the upswing after the Thirty Years' War. Initially, the buyers mainly worked on behalf of foreign wholesalers, but some of the veil gentlemen were soon able to set up their own branches abroad. The main buyers of the goods were England, Italy, Spain, Holland, France, Russia and the Habsburg Empire. The merchants had elaborate trading houses built and also bought estates in the area.
Despite the prescribed re-Catholicization , due to the Altranstadt Convention , a Protestant Mercy Church was built at the gates of the city from 1708 to 1718 , which was largely financed by the Hirschberg merchant families.
The establishment of the Hirschberger Gymnasium was also started immediately after the Altranstadt Convention in 1707. The lyceum was founded in 1709 and converted into a school for scholars in 1712. A conversion to a humanistic grammar school began at the beginning of the 19th century.
After the First Silesian War , Hirschberg, like almost all of Silesia, fell to Prussia . The associated separation of the Bohemian and Austrian trading markets led to a considerable collapse in linen and veil weaving, which had flourished since the 16th century and helped the city to flourish and prosper. The import of cotton also contributed to the decline in home production, as did the Napoleonic continental barrier and the establishment of the Erdmannsdorf factory by the Prussian Sea Trade in 1840.
After the reorganization of Prussia, Hirschberg belonged to the province of Silesia from 1815 and from 1816 was the seat of the district of Hirschberg in the administrative district of Liegnitz .
As a result of industrialization in the 19th century, machine, paper and cement factories as well as flour and cutting mills were built alongside the linen industry. With the railway connection to Görlitz and Berlin in 1866 and a year later to Waldenburg and Breslau , Hirschberg developed into a popular excursion and tourist destination. In the 19th century, around 30 castles, some of them large, were built in the Hirschberg Valley, such as that of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia in Fischbach ( Karpniki ) and that in Schildau (once owned by Princess Luise of Prussia). At the beginning of the 20th century, Hirschberg had a Protestant church, four Catholic churches, a synagogue , a grammar school , an orphanage , a chamber of commerce and was the seat of a regional court .
Since April 1, 1922, the city of Hirschberg formed its own urban district in the Liegnitz administrative district of the Prussian province of Silesia of the German Empire . In 1924 the Hartau manor district and in 1928 the Schwarzbach manor district from the district were incorporated into the city. On July 9, 1927, the city of Hirschberg, which previously also had the addition i. Schles. wore the new name Hirschberg in the Giant Mountains , whereby the official spelling Hirschberg i. Rsgb. asserted. In 1934 a college for teacher training was relocated here from Halle (existing until 1941), which was initially housed in the new high school building in Kramstaweg, which had been in existence since 1931 (today: the college at ul. Nowowiejska 3). In 1934 four Jewish citizens were murdered near Half Mile. In 1936 a rayon factory was put into operation . During the Second World War , a satellite camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp was set up in Hirschberg and from February to May 1945 prisoners of the Night and Fog Decree were imprisoned in the Hirschberg regional court prison.
After the end of the Second World War
Towards the end of the war, Hirschberg was captured by the Red Army in April 1945 and a little later placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power, along with almost all of Silesia . The immigration of Polish migrants began, some of whom came from eastern Polish areas east of the Curzon Line . The city name was translated into Polish as Jelenia Góra . With a few exceptions , the German population was expelled and expropriated.
The city had not suffered any war damage, although numerous houses in the old town were abandoned to decay after 1945. After 1965 a simplified reconstruction of the ring development took place. From 1975 to 1998 the city was the capital of the Jelenia Góra Voivodeship . The Wroclaw University of Economics and Business ( Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu ) operates a branch here with a focus on regional economy and tourism.
|1825||6184||5,320 Protestants, 780 Catholics, 84 Jews|
|1840||7144||including 6004 Protestants and 130 Jews|
|1867||10,464||on December 3rd|
|1871||11,776||on December 1st, of which 9,07 Protestants, 2,400 Catholics, 29 other Christians, 336 Jews, four others|
|1890||16,314||thereof 12,206 Evangelicals, 3,526 Catholics and 388 Jews|
|1900||17,865||with the garrison (a No. 5 hunter battalion ), including 4118 Catholics and 335 Jews|
|1925||28,673||thereof 21,993 Evangelicals, 5776 Catholics, 122 other Christians, 266 Jews|
|1933||30,692||thereof 23,168 Evangelicals, 5860 Catholics, 66 other Christians, 240 Jews|
|1939||32,764||thereof 23,982 Evangelicals, 6422 Catholics, 224 other Christians, 70 Jews|
Politics and administration
At the head of the city administration is the city president . From 2010 to 2018 this was Marcin Zawiła ( PO ), who held the office from 1990 to 1994 and did not run again in the regular election in October 2018. The result was as follows:
- Jerzy Łużniak ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 45.6% of the vote
- Krzysztof Mróz ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 23.5% of the vote
- Paweł Gluza (Election Committee “Social Experts for Jelenia Góra”) 15.0% of the vote
- Hubert Papaj (election committee “Hubert Papaj - Let's take care of the city”) 14.8% of the vote
- Remaining 1.1% of the vote
In the runoff election that became necessary, Łużniak prevailed with 59.8% of the votes against the PiS candidate Mróz and became the new city president.
The city council has 23 members who are directly elected. The election in October 2018 led to the following result:
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 42.9% of the vote, 12 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 23.9% of the vote, 7 seats
- Election committee "Hubert Papaj - Let's look after the city" 12.2% of the vote, 3 seats
- Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) / Lewica Razem (Razem) 10.9% of the votes, 1 seat
- Election Committee “Social Experts for Jelenia Góra” 9.3% of the vote, no seat
- Remaining 0.8% of the votes, no seat
coat of arms
Description of the coat of arms : In silver on a green three - leaf clover, a red, black- hoofed standing twelve-pronged deer with a green and gold stylized, three- leaf clover in its mouth. It belongs to the speaking coats of arms.
An older coat of arms was split diagonally to the left in silver and blue and the stag was walking with a clover in its mouth.
- Bautzen , Germany
- Cervia , Italy
- Erftstadt , Germany
- Randers , Denmark
- Tequila , Mexico
- Tyler , USA
- Valkeakoski , Finland
- Vladimir , Russia
- The Catholic parish church of St. Erasmus and Pankratius ( Kościól par. ŚŚ. Erazma i Pankracego ) was first mentioned in 1288 and rebuilt in stone in 1303. From 1524 to 1629 it served as a Protestant church. In 1662 it was completely renovated at the instigation of the Jesuits. The interior of the three-aisled basilica with west tower and onion helmet is essentially baroque, for example the main altar, which was created 1713-1718 by the sculptor Thomas Weisfeldt (1670-1721) from Oslo and the carpenter David Hielscher, the main altar painting is by the Glogau painter Johann Kretschmer .
- The Marian column next to the church probably also comes from Thomas Weisfeldt, the Nepomuk statue (Nepomuk was the patron saint of Bohemia) probably Joseph Anton Lachel .
- The former Protestant Church of Mercy on the Holy Cross (Kościół Św. Krzyża) was built from 1709 to 1718 based on a design by the architect Martin Frantz from Reval and based in Liegnitz, based on the model of the Stockholm Katharinenkirche . The wall and vault paintings were created by Felix Anton Scheffler and Johann Franz Hoffmann . Around the church there is an extensive cemetery, the so-called Gnadenkirchhof . It is surrounded by a wall with 19 crypt houses belonging to the patrician families of the Hirschberg merchant association founded in 1658. All valuable grave slabs and monuments in the interior of the cemetery were destroyed after 1945. The magnificent epitaphs and tomb houses along the inside of the cemetery wall have been preserved and recently restored.
- The town hall was first mentioned in a document in 1361. The current baroque building dates from 1744 to 1747 and is still the seat of the city administration today. Around 1910 the town hall was connected to the neighboring “seven houses”.
- The town houses on the ring ( Plac Ratuszowy ) with arched arcades from the Baroque and Rococo were exposed to decay after 1945 and after 1965 simplifies reconstructed. The richest citizens of the city lived here. Depending on their purpose, there were furrier , cloth, twine, rope twister, white tanner, corn and butter arbors.
- The former Kaiser Wilhelm Tower (observation tower) from 1911 on the Hausberg (375 m), renovated in 2011.
- Ruins of the Chojnik Castle (Kynast) in the Sobieszów district.
Jelenia Góra transmitter
In 1957 a radio transmitter for medium wave was set up in Jelenia Góra at ul. Sudecka 55 at 50 ° 53'51 "north latitude and 15 ° 44'34" east longitude, which until 1967 used a 47-meter-high wooden tower as an antenna carrier. This tower may have been the only wooden tower built for broadcasting purposes in Poland after 1945. In 1967 the wooden tower was replaced by a 72 meter high steel mast. Since medium-wave broadcasting was discontinued in 1994, this transmission mast has been used to broadcast VHF radio programs.
- Pancratius Sommer (14th / 15th century), traveling ophthalmologist in Silesia and Bohemia
- Johannes Unglaube (lat .: Frater Johannes Unglaube de Hirschbergk), (* around 1445 in Hirschberg, † around 1520 in Neisse, Principality of Neisse), worked from 1485 to 1500 as John VII, provost and master of the Knights of the Cross with the double red cross to Neisse, there.
- Pankratius Klemme (~ 1475–1546), Evangelical Lutheran theologian and reformer from Danzig
- Hieronymus Tilesius (1529–1566), Lutheran theologian and reformer
- Valentin Riemer (1582–1635), legal scholar
- Thomas Weinrich (1588–1629), Lutheran theologian
- Gottfried George Joseph Flade von Ehrenschild (born April 1640 in Hirschberg; † March 23, 1689 ibid), mayor of Hirschberg (since 1673) and merchant; Through his innovative business trips in 1676 and 1682 to the Netherlands, France and England, he was one of the initiators of the world trade in Silesian linen and veils through the Hirschberg merchants' association
- Melchior Süßenbach (* 1648 in Lissa; † July 7, 1721 in Hirschberg), doctor and city physician of Hirschberg
- Johann Gottfried Glafey (Glaffein), (born October 16, 1656 in Breslau, † November 24, 1720 in Hirschberg); Landowners; Merchant and patron of Hirschberg and the Protestant Gnadenkirche
- Christian Mentzel (Hirschberg) (born September 9, 1667 in Hirschberg; † February 23, 1748 there), the richest and most famous of the Hirschberg merchants, landowners, patrons of his hometown Hirschberg and the Protestant Church of Grace
- George Gottlieb Köhler von Mohrenfeld (1675–1748), Hirschberg doctor and nobleman
- Christian Michael Adolph (i) (1676-1753); Doctor, medical scientist and physical physician from Saxony-Naumburg
- Daniel von Buchs (* December 10, 1676; † Hirschberg, July 14, 1735); ennobled landowner; Merchant and patron of Hirschberg and the Protestant Gnadenkirche
- Martin Frantz (1679–1742), builder and architect, including the Hirschberger Gnadenkirche
- Gottlob Adolph (1685–1745), pastor at the Hirschberger Gnadenkirche; he was struck by lightning while preaching in the pulpit
- Johann Martin Gottfried (born February 13, 1685 in Großenhain / Saxony, † July 26, 1737 in Hirschberg); Merchant; Patron of Hirschberg and the Protestant Church of Grace
- Adam Christian Thebesius (1686–1732), doctor, medical scientist and Hirschberg city physician
- Friedrich Wilhelm Winckler (born August 4, 1693 in Leipzig, † February 27, 1742 in Hirschberg), came from the Leipzig patrician family of the Wincklers , landowners, merchants and patrons of the Hirschbergs and the Protestant Church of Grace
- Joseph Anton Jentsch (1698–1758), master builder
- Conrad Streit (* probably around 1700; † 1772); Merchant and patron of Hirschberg; Grandfather of Karl Konrad Streit
1701 to 1900
- Jonathan Krause (1701–1762), Protestant theologian and hymn poet
- Johann Balthasar Reimann (1702–1747 / 49), cantor, organist and composer
- Kaspar Gottlieb Lindner (1705–1769), poet, Opitz biographer, doctor and councilor in Hirschberg
- Philipp Gotthard Graf von Schaffgotsch (1716–1795), Prince-Bishop of Breslau and important patron of music
- Johann Ehrenfried Thebesius (1717–1758), doctor, medical scientist and author
- Jeremias Benjamin Richter (1762–1807), chemist, founder of stoichiometry
- Christian Jakob Salice-Contessa (1767–1825), wholesale merchant, local politician and romantic writer
- Karl Wilhelm Salice-Contessa (1777–1825), poet
- Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Buckow (1801–1864), organ builder
- Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander (1803–1879), educator and proverb collector
- Rudolf von Stillfried-Rattonitz (1804–1882), court official, historian and heraldist
- Gustav Wilhelm Körber (1817–1885), botanist
- Ottilie Bach (1836–1905), writer
- Georg Jungfer (1845–1919), member of the Reichstag and honorary citizen
- Guido von Matuschka-Greiffenclau (1847–1924), administrative officer, court official and landowner
- Maximilian Schwedler (1853–1940), flautist
- Karl Arthur Hartung (1859–1936), Lord Mayor of Hirschberg
- Hermann Hoppe (1865–1921), goldsmith and writer
- Max Fiedler (1868–1924), teacher, cantor of the Gnadenkirche, composer
- Fritz Warmuth (1870–?), Politician of the Free Conservative Party and the German National People's Party, member of the Reichstag
- Georg de Lalande (1872–1914), architect, royal building officer
- Paul Brühl (1876–1950), politician (SPD, USPD), member of the Reichstag
- Alexander Zweig (1881–1934), Jewish doctor murdered by the SS
- Hans Bonnet (1887–1972), Egyptologist
- Georg Heym (1887–1912), writer and representative of early expressionism
- Dietrich Niebuhr (1888–1963), naval officer and diplomat
- Günther Grundmann (1892–1976), art historian
- Walter Blume (1896–1964), fighter pilot and aircraft designer
- Kurt Schneider (1900–1988), marathon runner
- Werner Schmauch (1905–1964), Protestant theologian, professor for the New Testament and dean
- Hanna Reitsch (1912–1979), well-known aviator
- Udo Hein (1914–1971), lawyer and politician
- Rudolf Kirchner (1919–1984), trade union official, member of the People's Chamber of the GDR
- Siegfried Fiedler (1922–1999), officer, military writer and military researcher
- Wolfgang Schrade (1924–2010), Flotilla Admiral of the German Navy, author of maritime and geophysical topics
- Erle Bach (1927–1996), actually Hanna-Barbara Strehblow (née Rauthe), writer and dialect poet, founder of the working group Archives for Silesian Dialect (Wangen im Allgäu)
- Ernst Augustin (1927–2019), writer
- Siegbert Amler (1929–2019), sculptor and graphic artist
- Manfred Moch (1930–2011), jazz and entertainment musician
- Manfred Ebel (* 1932), German politician (CDU)
- Thomas Dieterich (1934–2016), lawyer and federal judge
- Dieter Pohl (* 1934), local history researcher and engineer
- Ludolf Herrmann (1936–1986), journalist and editor-in-chief
- Norbert Rücker (1936–2016), lawyer and local politician
- Jürgen Kross (1937–2019), poet
- Detlef Lorenz (1938–2019), cultural historical researcher and author
- Ferdinand Fellmann (1939–2019), philosopher
- Bernd Seidensticker (* 1939), classical philologist
- Gerd Wolter (* 1939), German rower, 1962 world champion in the four without a helmsman
- Reiner Schwarz (* 1940), painter, lithographer and draftsman
- Dieter Katte (1941–2016), clergyman, homileticist and publicist
- Ralf Jandl (* 1942), poet and satirist under the pseudonym Karl Napf
- Armin Nentwig (* 1943), politician (SPD), district administrator of the Amberg-Sulzbach district from 2002 to 2008
- Manfred T. Reetz (* 1943), chemist
- Friedrich Carl Janssen (* 1944), banker
- Michael Stiller (1945–2016), journalist
- Sławomir Czarnecki (* 1949), composer and music teacher
- Ryszard Skowronek (* 1949), track and field athlete
- Ryszard Zając (* 1951), sculptor and musician
- Marcin Zawiła (* 1958), politician, member of the Sejm
- Paweł HOME (* 1964), Lutheran theologian and bishop of the Masurian diocese
- Waldemar Glinka (* 1968), long-distance runner
- Prasqual (* 1981), composer
- Agnieszka Cyl (* 1984), biathlete
- Maciej Kurowski (* 1986), luge rider
In Hirschberg the Rübezahl saga Rübezahl plays as a wood cutter . According to the legend, a stingy baker lived in the village who took advantage of the plight of the farmers who supplied him with wood. Rübezahl offered the baker to chop the large amount of wood he had just acquired from a farmer for a hack of wood. The baker agreed. Rübezahl then pulled his own left leg from his hip and used it to chop the wood very short and small and finally loaded up the entire amount of wood. He threw the wood at the farmer's yard. The shocked baker no longer took advantage of the farmers.
- Günther Grundmann : Hirschberg. In: Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 189-193.
- Alder Bach: The old Hirschberg between trade and poetry. A 700 year old city in the heart of Europe reflected in its history. Husum Verlag 1992. ISBN 3-88042-619-8 .
- Dehio Handbook of Art Monuments in Poland Silesia . Munich · Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X , pp. 387-394.
- Gerhard Schiller : The Hirschberg Gnadenkirchhof with its crypt houses. Memory of its history and those who rest here . Jelenia Góra 2013, ISBN 978-83-64313-24-0 .
- Official website of the city
- Museum Karkonoskie (including film) muzeumkarkonoskie.pl
- e-riesengebirge.de about Jelenia Góra
- (MP3; 606 kB) Dialect example of former German residents (Baberhäuser, Lautdenkmal) (MP3; 606 kB) Dialect example of former German residents (Baberhäuser, Lautdenkmal)
- Private website on the historic Hirschberg (Polish)
- Website of the Freundeskreis Erftstadt-Jelenia Gora (Hirschberg) eV , partnership association for town twinning
- Paulinum Palace Park on the homepage of the Garden Culture Trail on both sides of the Neisse
- Historical measuring table sheet from 1893, Hirschberg and surroundings on a general staff map: 
- ↑ a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- ↑ Otto Miller: On the history of the Hirschberger Gymnasium. In: Royal. Protestant high school in Hirschberg in Silesia. Festschrift to celebrate the 200th anniversary. Hirschberg 1912, pp. 3-44.
- ^ Walter Schmidt : Oswald Friedrich Feyerabend (1809–1872). Evangelical pastor in the Silesian Oder town of Auras / Wohlau district from 1840 to 1857. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015, pp. 265–294, here: pp. 266 f.
- ^ Silesia - castles in the Hirschberg valley. PDF, 62 pages, 2007.
- ↑ a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 9, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, pp. 369-370 .
- ↑ Jelenia Gora. Retrieved July 9, 2019 .
- ↑ Wolfgang Benz , Barbara Distel (ed.): The place of terror . History of the National Socialist Concentration Camps. Verlag CH Beck, Munich (9 volumes; 2005–2009).
- ↑ Isabell Sprenger: Groß-Rosen . A concentration camp in Silesia. Böhlau Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-412-11396-4 .
- ^ Hirschberg State Court Prison / Frank Falla Archive
- ↑ Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 2: G – Ko , Halle 1821, p. 187.
- ↑ Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration. Melcher, Breslau 1830, pp. 939-940 .
- ^ Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 837-839.
- ^ A b Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the province of Silesia and their population. Based on the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Berlin 1874, pp. 248-249, item 1 .
- ↑ a b c d Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. hirschberg.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ^ City website, Miasto w statystyce - Ludność i powierzchnia , accessed on February 8, 2015
- ↑ population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2014. ( Memento of December 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF), accessed on February 8, 2015
- ↑ Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 17, 2020.
- ↑ Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 17, 2020.
- ↑ Author collective: Meyers Konversationslexikon. , Volume 8, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 567.
- ↑ Vladimir: Sister Cities
- ↑ Stacje radiowo-telewizyjne na Dolnym Śląsku ( Memento of March 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (Polish)
- ↑ see ophthalmology # history .
- ^ Article on the websites of the Digital Library of Jelenia Góra
- ↑ Article on the websites of dt-.pl. Association for the Care of Silesian Art and Culture V. (VSK)
- ^ Article on the websites of the Research Center for Personal Papers at the University of Marburg
- ↑ NDB 17 (1994), p. 96: deutsche-biographie.de
- ↑ August Hirsch: Adolphi, Christian Michael . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 121.
- ^ Winckler, (Friedrich Wilhelm). In: Johann Heinrich Zedler : Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 57, Leipzig 1748, column 502.
- ↑ NDB 10 (1974), p. 411 f .: deutsche-biographie.de
- ^ Colmar Grünhagen: Dispute, Karl Konrad . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 36, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1893, p. 564 f.
- ↑ NDB 21 (2003), pp. 401-402: deutsche-biographie.de
- ↑ E. Berger, Rübezahl and other mountain sagas. Bookstore Gustav Fock, p. 87 ff.