|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 51 ° 11 ′ N , 14 ° 25 ′ E
|Height :||204 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||66.67 km 2|
|Residents:||38,425 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||576 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||02625|
|Primaries :||03591, 035935 (Kleinwelka, Lubachau) , 035937 (Bloaschütz)|
|License plate :||BZ, BIW, HY, KM|
|Community key :||14 6 25 020|
|LOCODE :||DE BAU|
|City structure:||25 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Alexander Ahrens ( SPD )|
|Location of the district town of Bautzen in the district of the same name|
Bautzen , in Upper Sorbian Budyšin , officially Budissin until June 3, 1868 (see also under place name ), is a large district town in eastern Saxony . The city lies on the Spree and is the seat of the district of Bautzen named after it . With around 40,000 inhabitants, Bautzen is also the largest city in the district and the second largest in Upper Lusatia and its historic capital.
Although only a Sorbian minority of 5 to 10% of the population lives in the city in the Sorbian settlement area , it is the political and cultural center of the Sorbs .
The city on the Spree is located about 50 kilometers east of Dresden at the transition from the Lusatian mountains to the lowlands in the north in the natural area of the Upper Lusatian region . The Bautzen dam, completed in 1974, is located north of the city . The villages of Malsitz (Małsecy) and Nimschütz (Hněwsecy) in the Spree Valley used to be in their place . About eight kilometers south of the city, the Spree emerges from the Lusatian mountainous region between the Drohmberg (Lubin) in the east and the Mönchswalder Berg ( Mnišonc ) in the west.
Geology and soil
The Lusatian granodiorite forms the basement base in the area of the city of Bautzen . Partly this is near the surface in the area of knolls and hills, in the valley cut of the Spree it emerges in the form of open rock formations. During the Elster and Saale Ice Age, meltwater sands covered the basement. Gravel and sand therefore occur close to the surface, particularly in the salt forest area. Lusatian granodiorite as well as gravel and sand are used for mining in the city of Bautzen.
The soils in the urban area have mainly developed from the loess loam. Moisture-free loess parabroun earths dominate. The average number of fields is between 50 and 60.
The 219 m above sea level. NN, the highest point of the historic city area, is on the meat market between the cathedral and town hall . This elevation was formerly known as the Irrenberg . The highest elevation of the entire present-day urban area is at 268 m above sea level. NN the Chorberg near the village of Salzenforst . The 163.4 m above sea level. NN lowest point of the urban area is on the Niederkainaer Dorfstraße.
Expansion of the urban area
The old town of Bautzen extends on the rock plateau above the Spree, the top of which is the Ortenburg . It is limited by the city wall. The newer districts built later in the east of the city are enclosed by the city wall. After its demolition, the city initially expanded further to the east and to the other bank of the Spree in the west. West of the Spree, however, is only a small part of the closed urban development. In the 1970s, the new development areas Gesundbrunnen and Allendeviertel (both in the east) were built. Since 1990 several neighboring villages have been incorporated (see section incorporations ).
The city is bordered by Radibor , Großdubrau and Malschwitz in the north, Kubschütz in the east, Großpostwitz , Obergurig and Doberschau-Gaussig in the south and Göda in the west . All neighboring communities belong to the Bautzen district .
Since 2007, Bautzen has consisted of 25 districts. The actual core city with almost 35,000 inhabitants consists of the districts
- Downtown (Nutřkowne Mesto) - The historic town center of Bautzen delimited by the (former) the course of the outer walls; includes the area of the historic city center (expansion area of the city from the 14th century, largely delimited by the course of the outer city wall still existing in large sections in a razed shape) in the east and south of the actual old town - 5,352 inhabitants
- Nordostring (Sewjerowuchodny wobkruh) - Adjoins the old town to the north and east and consists in large parts of town houses from the 19th and early 20th centuries. According to city council resolution No. 192/11/06 of November 29, 2006, the former city center district was combined with areas north of the old town and is the most populous district of Bautzen - 10,505 inhabitants
- Gesundbrunnen (Strowotna studnja) - new building area in the northeast of the city from the 1970s. According to city council resolution No. 192/11/06 of November 29, 2006, parts of the area north of the old town of Bautzen, which had previously been part of the Gesundbrunnen district, were spun off and merged with the city center district to form the “Nordostring” district. The Gesundbrunnen district is no longer the most populous in the city - 6,825 inhabitants
- Südvorstadt (Južne předměsto) - Connects to the city center south of the Görlitz – Dresden railway line - 1,865 inhabitants
- Westvorstadt (Zapadne předměsto) - Represents the part of the actual city west of the Spree; often referred to as "Neustadt"; According to the official structure of the city administration of Bautzen, the historic village of Seidau, immediately north of the city center and Ortenburg on the Spree, belongs to the Westvorstadt - 3,308 inhabitants
- Ostvorstadt (Wuchodne předměsto) - adjoins the city center to the south-east and consists mainly of town houses from the 19th and early 20th centuries as well as some settlements from the 1930s, the Strehla (Třělany) settlement and the "Allendeviertel" development area - 5,773 inhabitants
The following districts are rural and are located on the outskirts:
- Teichnitz - Consists of the incorporated villages Teichnitz (Ćichońca) , Neuteichnitz (Nowa Ćichońca) , Neumalsitz (Nowe Małsecy) and Oehna (Wownjow) in the north of the urban area; 362 inhabitants.
- Nadelwitz - district in the east of the city, which consists of the village Nadelwitz (Nadźanecy) and larger arable and forest areas; 313 inhabitants.
- Burk (Bórk) - village in the northeastern urban area on the banks of the Bautzen dam ; 323 inhabitants.
- Oberkaina - district in the south of the city, consisting of the villages Oberkaina (Hornja Kina) and Boblitz (Bobolcy) ; 798 inhabitants.
- Niederkaina - district in the northeast of Bautzen; consists of the villages of Niederkaina (Delnja Kina) and Basankwitz (Bozankecy) , both located on the Albrechtsbach; 475 inhabitants.
- Stiebitz - Consists of the villages Stiebitz (Sćijecy) and Rattwitz (Ratarjecy) in the western part of the city; 567 inhabitants.
The following districts were combined to form the Kleinwelka district until 2007:
- Kleinwelka (Mały Wjelkow) - Formerly an independent municipality in the north of the urban area; 764 inhabitants.
- Großwelka (Wulki Wjelkow) - Immediately to the west of Kleinwelka; 254 inhabitants.
- Lubachau (Lubochow) - village west of the Bautzen dam; 91 inhabitants.
- Kleinseidau (Zajdow) - south of Kleinwelka, structurally connected to it; 155 inhabitants.
These districts in the north-west of the urban area belonged to the municipality of Salzenforst-Bolbritz until 1994 and were combined into the district of the same name until 2007:
- Bloaschütz ( Błohašecy , 118 Ew.) - Location of the industrial area Bautzen-Salzenforst
- Bolbritz ( Bolborcy , 132 Ew.)
- Döberkitz ( Debrikecy , 37 Ew.)
- Löschau (Lešawa) - the smallest district of Bautzen; 30 Ew.
- Oberuhna (Horni Wunjow) - district consisting of Ober- and Niederuhna ( Delni Wunjow ); together 89 inhabitants
- Salt forest ( Słona Boršć , 272 Ew.)
- Schmochtitz ( Smochćicy , 55 Ew.)
- Temritz ( Ćemjercy , 68 Ew.)
The district Auritz (Wuricy) in the southeast of the city was reclassified from Kubschütz to Bautzen in 1999 and is now a district with 446 inhabitants consisting of the village Auritz and a part of Jenkwitz (Jenkecy) .
In the area of the city of Bautzen there is a distinct continental inland climate with maritime influences. Typical are cool and humid spring and summer, a long warm autumn and a winter with very frequent but rather short snow periods (just over 50 snow days ). With an annual mean temperature of 8.5 ° C and an average annual precipitation of 600 to 650 mm, Bautzen has a moderately dry climate . The urban area is located in the area of the warmest landscapes in summer in southern Saxony.
In the Bautzen Spreetal, especially in winter, strong winds from the south often prevail. This is due to the fact that cold air flows from the Bohemian Basin into the Spreetal and accelerates through the narrowing of the valley there. This effect is even more pronounced in certain alleys in the old town. A Bautzen proverb says: “If the wind doesn't know where, it blows over Budissin.” On the other hand, Bautzen was famous for its good air, especially in the Middle Ages, as the wind greatly reduced the classic street smells.
On August 7, 2010, the highest flood in more than 100 years occurred on the Spree and numerous other bodies of water in Bautzen and the surrounding area . The Bautzen dam , located directly downstream of the city, was able to delay the outflow so that the flood at the water level behind it did not reach the level of summer 1981.
Bautzen was first mentioned in 1002 as the civitas Budusin , capital of the Sorbian tribe of the Milzener . There are several interpretations of this name. Some scientists assume the designation “Bud”, “Bod” or “Budetzsch” means “Grenzort” . Another common variant says that the settlement was named after the Slavic prince Budissentius (or Budestaus ), who is said to have founded it in the 9th century. The name could also be derived from the female personal name Budiša (for "the alarm clock") or from "Budy" ("hut settlement"). A Bautzen legend, on the other hand, reports that a traveling pregnant duchess stopped at the place where Bautzen is today and surprisingly gave birth to her child. The husband rushing up is said to have asked: “Bude syn?” (“Will it be a son?”).
Up into the 15th century, the following variants of the Sorbian term Budissin can be found almost exclusively in written documents : Bawdysen, Baudyssen, Paudescheyn, Baudissyn, Budessen, Baudissin, Bauwdiczen, Buditcynn and Bawdycyn . Even today this name lives on in the Sorbian ( Budyšin; Lower Sorbian Budyšyn ), Czech (Budyšín) and Polish ( Budziszyn ) names for Bautzen.
From the middle of the 15th century Germanized variants were used more frequently, such as Bucen (1450), Boytzen (1512), Pautzen (1519) and Bautzen for the first time in 1523 . The names Budissin and Bautzen were used in parallel by the population until well into the 19th century , with only Budissin being used officially. On June 3, 1868, Bautzen became the city's official name through a Saxon ministerial ordinance.
In the Upper Lusatian dialect , which is not spoken in Bautzen itself , the city name is Bautzn , formerly Budisse .
The name Bautzen was also given to an asteroid in honor of the city . It was also on 2 June 2004 in Dresden Neustadt an intercity express in the name of Bautzen / Budyšin baptized .
Prehistory and the Early Middle Ages
The area of today's city was settled in the Stone Age. For example, prehistoric remains were found in the Burk district in the northeast and near Niedergurig. In the 3rd century there was an East Germanic settlement here. For the year 1002 the Ortenburg in Bautzen was named for the first time as budusin civitatem by Thietmar von Merseburg as the central place of Upper Lusatia and the tribal center of the Milzener . After repeated fights, it fell to the Polish prince Bolesław Chrobry that year and remained in Polish hands until 1031. In 1018 the peace treaty between the Holy Roman Empire and Poland was signed at the Ortenburg ( Peace of Bautzen ). In the period that followed, the city of Bautzen developed east of the castle , benefiting significantly from its location at the Spree crossing of the Via Regia , an important transport link between the Rhine and Silesia , and also being on the Frankenstrasse . In 1031 Bautzen came back to the Holy Roman Empire. King Heinrich IV gave the state of Bautzen in 1081 after his victory over the Saxons as an imperial fiefdom to Duke Vratislav II of Bohemia, who gave it as a dowry to Wiprecht von Groitzsch , who married his daughter. When Wiprecht's son Heinrich von Groitzsch died childless in 1135, Bautzen fell back to the Bohemian king. From 1143 to 1156 the area was under the Wettin margrave Conrad I of Meissen . Between 1158 and 1243, the Bohemian kings ruled the country again as a subsidiary of the crown. Land Budissin was the name of Upper Lusatia until the 15th century. Bautzen received city rights by 1213 at the latest (some researchers speak of 1157, presumably the gradual granting of various (city) rights), and in 1240 the Franciscan monastery was founded. After the wedding of the Brandenburg margrave Otto III. With the daughter of the Bohemian King Wenceslaus I in 1243, Upper Lusatia came to the Ascanians as pledge and was converted into a direct imperial fief in 1283. In 1268 the Brandenburg margraves named an old mint of Bautzen , which was supplemented in the same year by a newly founded Görlitz mint, with which it was to be minted alternately every year.
Bautzen under Bohemian rule
In 1320, the Brandenburg line of the Ascanians died out, and Bautzen fell back to Bohemia. In 1326, Johannes de Boudissin , the ministerial dynasty of Baudissin who served at the castle , was mentioned for the first time. In 1346, under the leadership of Bautzen, the Upper Lusatian Union of Six Cities was founded, which played an important role in the history of the area in the centuries that followed. In 1405 there was a craftsmen's revolt against the city council of Bautzen, which could only be suppressed by the intervention of the Bohemian King Wenceslaus IV . In 1429 and 1431, Bautzen was unsuccessfully besieged by the Hussites . The Archangel Michael supposedly saved the citizens, after which the Michaeliskirche was built in his honor. Between 1469 and 1490 Bautzen belonged to Hungary together with the other Bohemian neighboring countries, fixed by the Peace of Olomouc in 1479 . A relief on the east side of the Matthias Tower still reminds of this today , showing the Hungarian king and the Bohemian counter-king Matthias Corvinus , who was elected by the Catholic estates . After his death, Lusatia came back to the Kingdom of Bohemia . The Ortenburg was under Bohemian rule until 1635 the official seat of the Upper Lusatian bailiff . The Sorbian Citizens' Oath ("Burger Eydt Wendisch") is the oldest written document in Upper Sorbian from the early 16th century . The Reformation prevailed between 1520 and 1525 . The collegiate chapter of St. Petri , like the Bohemian sovereign, remained Catholic and had been the Catholic diocese administration for the two Lusatia and the diocese of Meissen since 1567 at the latest . In 1547 Bautzen was hit by the Upper Lusatian Pönfall . In Bautzen, 1599–1604 witch hunts were carried out: three people were involved in witch trials , two women were beheaded. During the Thirty Years War , the city was besieged several times by the troops of Wallenstein , Saxony and Sweden . On May 2, 1634, the imperial colonel von der Goltz , who had captured Bautzen in November, had the remains of the suburbs burned down. The fire also spread to the city, killing 700 residents. In 1635 Bautzen came to Saxony with the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia. In 1638 the first hospital was built as a so-called Neuhaus on today's Behringstrasse.
Bautzen under Saxon rule
In 1678, due to the great importance of the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, an electoral post office was set up in the city. The rank of Bautzen as the capital of the margravate within Saxony was made clear, among other things, by the location of this electoral upper post office, a privilege that, apart from Bautzen, only Leipzig had. On April 22nd, 1709, there was the second big fire in the history of Bautzen, which destroyed large parts of the city and permanently changed the cityscape. It was not until 1780 that the “Voluntary Citizens Fire Compagnie” was founded, which is still one of the oldest in Saxony today. During the Wars of Liberation in 1813 the battle of Bautzen (which took place in the municipality of today's Bautzen and the neighboring villages to the east; called Bataille de Wurschen at the Arc de Triomphe ) between the anti-Napoleonic coalition and the French ended with the victory of Napoleonic troops. The Sparkasse was founded in December 1832 . In 1868 the city was officially renamed from "Budissin" to Bautzen. The construction of the Saxon state penal institution ( Bautzen I ) was completed in 1904 and operated as intended. The institution is popularly known as “Gelbes Elend” because of the yellow bricks used. Around the same time, the Bautzen II remand prison, which belongs to the district and regional court, was built . Around 1900 the Israelite religious community, which was established around the same time, set up a Jewish cemetery on Muskauer Strasse in front of the city . Their services took place in rented rooms. In 1915, the city of Saxony left the administrative authority of Bautzen and became a district free until it was reintegrated into the Bautzen district in 1946.
Bautzen around 1650 from the Topographia Germaniae
1918 to 1945
In 1921 Bautzen became the seat of the bishopric of Meißen .
In the week of Pentecost in 1933, a 1000th anniversary of Upper Lusatia belonging to the German Reich was celebrated in Bautzen . This celebration was based on Heinrich I's ride in Lower Lusatia around 932. A loose bond with Upper Lusatia is said to have been entered into.
During the time of National Socialism , many political opponents, socialists and communists , as well as Jehovah's Witnesses were imprisoned in the city . In March 1933, the copper and aluminum, rolling, wire and hammer mill CGTietzens Eidamm (copper hammer) in Talstrasse served as a protective custody camp for 500 German and Sorbian opponents of Hitler. The union building at today's Dr.-Maria-Grollmuß-Strasse 1 and the house at Äußere Lauenstrasse 33 served the same purposes . Ernst Thälmann was imprisoned in Bautzen I in 1943/44 until he was transported to the Buchenwald concentration camp . Numerous political prisoners, such as the well-known Czech journalist Julius Fučík, were also interned in Bautzen II prison . In the south of the city - directly on the Spree - there was also a satellite camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp , in which 1,000 to 1,500 prisoners, mostly Jews , worked in the armaments production of the wagon construction and machine factory. Busch (Wumag) of the Flick group performed forced labor . In the interwar period, Bautzen was also the seat of the so-called Wenden department set up for the state surveillance of the Sorbian people , which was used for this purpose both in the Weimar Republic and under the National Socialists.
During the Second World War , the city suffered great damage, especially between April 19 and 26, 1945. The domes of the Lauenturm and Michaeliskirche were destroyed, almost all bridges were blown up, the railway viaduct, however, only after May 4th. There were many fatalities. On April 26, 1945, the last major German tank attack of the Second World War took place in the Battle of Bautzen ; the city was recaptured and remained in German hands until the surrender.
History since 1945
With the end of the Second World War, the Bautzen State Penitentiary became one of the special camps of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) of the Soviet occupying power , more precisely: Special camp No. 4 (from the end of 1948: No. 3). Those convicted by the Soviet military tribunal were housed in the buildings, while the so-called "internees", prisoners without conviction, were housed in wooden barracks outside. With a total occupancy of 27,300 prisoners and an average occupancy of around 6,500 prisoners, at least 3,000 people perished there between 1945 and 1950, according to the registration in the camp cards of the Soviet camp administration. Their names are listed in the Bautzen Book of the Dead published by the Bautzen Memorial . There are estimates that are far higher. According to research by the Bautzen Committee , every third prisoner died in the camp. The prisoners died of starvation and disease due to the conditions in which they were detained. According to eyewitness reports, the dead are said to have been buried on the "Karnickelberg". During search excavations after the political change in 1992, only the skeletal parts of 247 dead were found in the vicinity of the camp. At least 4,000 Bautzen prisoners were deported to Soviet forced labor camps.
During this time, numerous opponents of the regime, for example the writers Walter Kempowski and Erich Loest , were imprisoned in Bautzen prisons . In 1992, Bautzen II was closed. Today the Bautzen Memorial is located here .
After the war, Bautzen developed into a science and industrial city in the GDR . Among other things, the large companies " VEB Waggonbau Bautzen " (today Bombardier Transportation ), the cutting machine factory "Perfecta", a telecommunications plant , a building materials combine, a technical college for mechanical engineering, the Sorbian teacher training institute and the institute for Sorbian folk research as a branch of the Academy of Sciences GDR settled.
The “Internationale Solidarität” cultural center, which existed from 1953 to 1963, was an institution for the cultural and general care of Western deserters .
Until 1990, Bautzen was the location for the Otto Lilienthal Officers College .
The Catholic bishopric was moved to Dresden in 1979 . On September 1, 2002, Bautzen celebrated its first mention a thousand years ago with a parade.
During the refugee crisis in 2016, Bautzen attracted nationwide attention through right-wing violence against refugees . At the end of 2015, the Office for the Protection of the Constitution in Saxony said the Bautzen district was a focus of right-wing extremist activity in Saxony . On February 21, 2016, the former hotel "Husarenhof", which was intended as accommodation for asylum seekers , was set on fire by strangers. Some onlookers expressed "undisguised joy". On the night of September 15, around 80 violent right-wing men and women and a group of around 15 to 20 young asylum seekers clashed. On December 13, 2016, five Molotov cocktails were thrown on the grounds of an asylum seeker accommodation.
The following villages were incorporated over time:
- In the north: Seidau (Sorb. Židow ) 1922; Teichnitz (Ćichońca) on July 1, 1950
- In the east: Burk (Bórk) 1973, Niederkaina (Delnja Kina) with Basankwitz (Bozankecy) 1994, Nadelwitz (Nadźanecy) 1994, Auritz (Wuricy) with Jenkwitz-West (Jenkecy) 1999, Strehla (Třělany) 1913.
- In the south: Oberkaina (Hornja Kina) with Boblitz (Bobolcy) 1974.
- In the west: Stiebitz (Sćijecy) with Rattwitz (Ratarjecy) 1994, Bloaschütz (Błohašecy) , Oberuhna (Horni Wunjow) , Niederuhna (Delni Wunjow) , Bolbritz (Bolborcy) and Salzenforst (Słona Boršć) 1999, Schmole (Smolicy) 1922.
- In the north-west: Kleinwelka (Mały Wjelkow) and Kleinseidau (Zajdow) 1999, Neumalsitz (Nowe Małsecy) , Oehna (Wownjow) 1973.
Main article: Population development of Bautzen
Bautzen was one of the largest cities in Central Germany in the early Middle Ages . Development stagnated around the 15th century. The relatively late onset of industrialization brought new impulses. Even in GDR times, Bautzen was able to record population gains. Since the political change in 1990, the population has decreased from 52,000 (1989) to around 40,000 due to emigration and the low birth rate. However, since around 2000 the downward trend has slowed noticeably. Today Bautzen is the eighth largest city in Saxony in terms of population.
As of December 31, 2011, 98.3% of Bautzen's residents were German; 6.1% had a migration background.
Famous historical criminal cases
The most famous historical criminal case of Bautzen was that of the Oberlausitz robber captain Johannes Karasek (1765-1809), who was imprisoned from 1800 to 1803 in the castle water tower of the Ortenburg. His fate provided material and inspiration for numerous works and representations. He was also called the "Saxon Rinaldo", an association with the bestselling novel "Rinaldo Rinaldini" by Christian August Vulpius (1762–1827). In recent times he has u. a. Egon Erwin Kisch is shown again in his “Prager Pitaval”.
Alexander Ahrens (SPD) has been Lord Mayor of the city since August 2015 . He succeeded Christian Schramm ( CDU ), who had served as mayor since the political change in 1990 and as mayor since 1995. Ahrens, at that time still non-party, prevailed in the second round of the Mayoral elections in 2015 as a joint candidate of SPD, LINKE and Bürger Bündnis Bautzen with 48.1% against the CDU candidate Matthias Knaak (35.3%). The long-time incumbent Christian Schramm did not take up office after 25 years in office. Furthermore, Mayor Robert Böhmer (economy, finance, education and social affairs) and Mayor Juliane Naumann (construction) are responsible for separate areas of responsibility.
See also: List of the mayors of Bautzen
The Bautzen City Council consists of 34 members. It meets either in the town hall or in the Gewandhaus . There are also four local councils (Niederkaina, Stiebitz, Kleinwelka, Salzenforst-Bolbritz), whose voluntary members are elected for five years. The 2019 local elections resulted in the following distribution of votes and seats in the city council:
|Parties and constituencies||2019||2014||
Local elections 2019
Turnout 61.2% (+ 14.8% p)
Gains and losses
|Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU)||8th||13|
|The Left (LEFT)||3||7th|
|Citizens' Alliance of Bautzen (BBBz)||6th||4th|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)||2||4th|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||2||2|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens (GREENS)||2||1|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||7th||0|
As a comparison, the 2014 municipal elections showed the following distribution of votes and seats in the city council:
|Parties and constituencies||2014||2009||
Local election 2014
Turnout 45.4% (+ 1.1% p)
Gains and losses
|Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU)||13||13|
|The Left (LEFT)||7th||7th|
|Citizens' Alliance of Bautzen (BBBz)||4th||3|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)||4th||3|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||2||3|
|National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD)||0||1|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens (GREENS)||1||1|
coat of arms
The coat of arms is allegedly based on the banner of Count Wiprecht von Groitzsch in the 11th century (around 1080), but the origin is not clearly established. It consists of the shield (sometimes only this is used as a coat of arms), the helmet, the helmet ornament (a wing-like decorative element in which the motif of the shield is repeated) and the helmet cover, which frames the shield like a tendril. From the 13th century, a three-leaf crown can be found between the ornament and the helmet. The use of this coat of arms as a banner is documented for the year 1378.
The core element and oldest part of the coat of arms is the shield. A golden or yellow battlement wall, probably the Bautzen city wall, takes up half of the shield and has three battlements. The blue sky is shown above.
Due to the special importance of Bautzen in the early Middle Ages, elements of the coat of arms in particular were incorporated into various other coats of arms of the region. In the time of the Upper Lusatian Six-Cities Association , it was also its coat of arms. This coat of arms was also used in historical times for the entire Upper Lusatia, among other things when the crown lands of the Bohemian crown were represented. Examples of this can be found in Prague , among others . Today it is the unofficial coat of arms of the region. Examples of regional coats of arms, some of which are based on that of Bautzen, are the coats of arms of the two Upper Lusatian districts of Bautzen and Görlitz , the city arms of Niesky and the coats of arms of numerous municipalities.
The seal image of Bautzen at the time of the Six-City League included the wall as well as two towers, a gate with portcullis and the Bohemian lions.
Due to the fact that the Bautzen I prison, including the prison wall, is built from yellow bricks (Gelbes Elend), a reference to the Bautzen city coat of arms was occasionally made in colloquial language.
Upper central city association
Since 1994, together with Görlitz and Hoyerswerda , Bautzen has formed one of the six regional centers in Saxony as the “ Upper Central City Association ” (OZSV) . The association was created through a normative stipulation in the state development plan and deals with the expansion of the infrastructure, with the economic stabilization of the region and with regional marketing .
There are town partnerships with:
- Worms , Rhineland-Palatinate (1990)
- Heidelberg , Baden-Württemberg (1991)
- Dreux , France (1992)
- Jablonec nad Nisou (Gablonz), Czech Republic (1993)
- Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg), Poland (1993)
Culture and sights
- see also: List of cultural monuments in Bautzen
Protestants predominate among the devout residents of the city. A third of the population has no religion.
The largest Protestant community in Saxony is located in the city, the parish of St. Petri. The Bautzen-Gesundbrunnen parish emerged from it and became an independent evangelical parish in Bautzen in 1994. The Catholic parish of St. Petri is one of the largest in the Dresden-Meißen diocese . Both parishes share the Petridom , the oldest and one of the largest simultaneous churches in Germany.
Of the total of seven churches in the historic city area, five are still used for church services (cathedral, Michaeliskirche , Maria-und-Martha-Kirche , Taucherkirche , Liebfrauenkirche ), two are ruins ( monk's church and Sankt-Nikolai-Kirche ).
There is also the small monastery church of St. Clara the Poor Clares with a modern interior designed by Friedrich Press , an institutional church in Bautzen I, a community center with a bell tower in Gesundbrunnen, two chapels and smaller church buildings in some districts, for example in Kleinwelka.
- Museum Bautzen
- The Sorbian Museum (Serbski muzej) is located in the former salt house on the Ortenburg. The museum's exhibitions provide information about the origin, language, history, art and literature, way of life and customs of the Sorbs .
- The St. Petri Cathedral Treasury is located in the St. Petri Cathedral Abbey directly behind the cathedral. It shows works of religious art that were mainly collected in the area around the cathedral and for its liturgy or by the canons.
- Old water art
- Bautzen memorial
- Historical mustard exhibits are shown in the mustard museum and the history of mustard production in Bautzen is traced.
Libraries and Archives
The largest public library is the Bautzen City Library on Schloßstraße with 250,000 media. The children's and youth library is located in the former community school on Buttermarkt. In addition to the city library, the city archive of Bautzen and the state branch archive are housed. With the Sorbian Central Library (Serbska centralna biblioteka) in the Sorbian Institute on Bahnhofstrasse with 110,000 media, the largest Sorbian library is also based in Bautzen. The Sorbian Culture Archive (Serbski kulturny archiw) is located in the same building .
The old town of Bautzen is often described as worth seeing. The city-independent Kommunalentwicklung Sachsen GmbH (KES), regional office in Leipzig, describes Bautzen in its elaboration on the Integrated Urban Development Concept Bautzen (InSEK) from February 2002 as a city that has an above-average potential for city tourism due to the interplay of binational culture and “impressive city silhouette” and has "significant architectural monuments".
Above the city today by perched Oberverwaltungsgericht used Ortenburg , whose white Renaissance gable particularly noticeable. The Sorbian Museum and the puppet theater with the Rietschel gable are located in various outbuildings in the courtyard of the Ortenburg . The court judge's house on the northern city wall with a filigree chimney from the Renaissance is particularly emphasized by architecture experts.
At the southwest corner of the old town, easily visible from the Friedensbrücke , is the city's most striking ensemble, consisting of the old water art and the Michaeliskirche . The most important church building in the city, however, is the Petridom , which has been used as a simultaneous church by both Catholics and Lutherans since the Reformation. In the church, the two denominations are separated by a grid.
The Bautzner Domstift is located north of the cathedral . The main features of the current shape were found around 1500. At the end of the 17th / beginning of the 18th century, the one- and two-story building was extended and expanded in a regular U-shape. The south closure and the magnificent baroque portal were built in the middle of the 18th century. The portal shows the coat of arms of the cathedral monastery and underneath that of the then reigning cathedral dean Jakob Wosky von Bärenstamm surmounted by the depiction of the Trinity (father, son, holy spirit). There are also angels and figures of saints. Today the building houses the cathedral treasury of St. Petri as well as the diocesan archive and library of the Dresden-Meißen diocese.
To the south of the cathedral is the city's baroque town hall ; From the main market you can see the different clocks of the town hall tower. The city's most important baroque ensemble is located on the main market with various well-preserved town houses in the Dresden Baroque style . Entire streets with richly designed facade decorations have survived here, for example on the main market, on Innere Lauenstrasse and Reichenstrasse. The town houses on the western side of Lauenstrasse between the Lauenturm and the town hall are in the Saxon high baroque style, as in Dresden's old town until it was destroyed on February 13, 1945. For the building Innere Lauenstrasse 6 (facade with four allegorical figures) is after 1720 Balthasar Permoser's creative influence is documented. The Gewandhaus is also located on the main market . The late Gothic Ratskeller has been preserved under the historicizing new building from 1882; the star vault rests on a single granite central pillar. This is where the Inner Lauenstrasse begins, once a trade route to Prague via Rumburk , Česká Lípa and Mělník .
The Neue Wasserkunst is located south of the city center. Because of its castle complex and the striking city panorama, Bautzen has also been known as the “Saxon Nuremberg” since the 19th century.
Bautzen is also known as the “city of towers”. One of the most famous towers is the Reichenturm , which is also known as the "Leaning Tower of Bautzen". The Saxon post distance columns in front of the city gates are no longer preserved, but the remainder of a Saxon full mile column from 1725 from Poststrasse on Via Regia from the Schmole district is now on the Kornmarkt .
To the east of the old town are the inside in a purely Protestant style diving church and the diving cemetery with its baroque crypt street, which is rarely found north of the Alps. The cemetery is named after the diver , a forest near Uhyst am Taucher . Further south, in a residential area, is the Villa Weigang, built in 1902/03 by Alwin Louis Christoph Anger from Kurort Hartha for the industrialist Eduard Weigang, with Art Nouveau facades and interior decoration in various styles of historicism. Close to the villa is the Art Nouveau judicial building in Lessingstrasse, which houses the district court, regional court and public prosecutor's office. The Bautzen Memorial was set up in the rear wing of the building, reminding of the former Bautzen II prison there .
The "Johannes Franz" school observatory in Bautzen is one of the oldest and largest school observatories in Germany.
Along the former city wall , which separated the city center from the eastern and southern parts of the city, there is an extensive park with trees from different parts of the world. The Bautzen Nature Park is located in the southeast of the city .
Five kilometers from the historic city center is the Kleinwelka district with Germany's largest maze including adventure and puzzle labyrinth, the dinosaur park and dinosaur garden and the miniature park Kleinwelka with the Klein- Ossi -Land .
The dinosaur park also contains a dinosaur cinema, an excavation site and a planetary playground. The park was created by the Großwelkaer Franz Gruß , who in 1978 began to model dinosaurs and great apes in his own garden in Großwelka. From 1981, Gruß also designed the community-owned dinosaur park, which has been expanded by Thomas Stern since 1994. The park has had around five million visitors since it was founded.
- King Albert monument by sculptor Walter Hauschild on the south side of the Lauenturm , erected in 1913
- Memorial and meeting place for all victims of political tyranny in the Bautzen prisons at Weigangstrasse 8a
- Memorial complex from 1950 in the Jewish cemetery Muskauer road for concentration camp prisoners of the subcamp of Gross-Rosen concentration camp
- Memorial stone with information board in front of the premises of Waggonbau Bautzen on Neueschen Promenade for 300 prisoners and forced laborers who did not experience their liberation
- Collective grave and memorial stone from 1961 in the complex on Ziegelwall at the corner of Muskauer Strasse for 92 prisoners of war from the Soviet Union and Poland who were victims of mass murder in Neuwuischke .
- The Sonnentor, which was set up on the Kornmarkt in 2014 , recreates the solstice at Teufelsstein near Pließkowitz .
Bautzen is the seat of numerous institutions of the Sorbian people.
- The Foundation for the Sorbian People (Załožba za serbski lud) supports the preservation and development, promotion and dissemination of the Sorbian language, culture and traditions as an expression of the identity of the Sorbian people as a joint instrument of the federal government and the states of Brandenburg and Saxony .
- The Domowina (Sorbian poetic for "home", actually Zwjazk Łužiskich Serbow zt , Association of Lusatian Sorbs eV), based in the House of the Sorbs on Postplatz, is the umbrella organization of Sorbian associations and associations.
- In Domowina publishing almost all Sorbian books, newspapers and magazines are published. There is also a bookstore with Sorbian literature and one of the two Sorbian restaurants in town.
- As " Sorbischer Rundfunk " (Serbski rozhłós) , the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR) broadcasts a five-hour program in Sorbian every day from the Bautzen studio on Postplatz .
- The German-Sorbian People's Theater (Němsko-Serbske ludowe dźiwadło) , Seminarstrasse 12, in the Schilleranlage. Since 2003 the theater has had a second theater for puppet and cabaret art, the Burgtheater (Dźiwadło na hrodźe) in the courtyard of the Ortenburg . The theater is run by the Bautzen district and is partly financed by the Foundation for the Sorbian People and the Upper Lusatia / Lower Silesia cultural area .
- The Sorbian Institute (Serbski institute) in Bahnhofstrasse 6 is the sorabistisch aligned -kulturwissenschaftliche research and the practical support for Sorbian language and culture in the Upper and Lower Lausitz. The Sorbian Central Library (Serbska centralna biblioteka) , which is open to the public, is also located at the same location .
- The Sorbian National Ensemble (Serbski ludowy ansambl) was founded in 1952 at the suggestion of Domowina. Supported by the Foundation for the Sorbian People , the three professional branches of ballet , choir and orchestra cultivate, preserve and develop the cultural tradition of the Sorbs.
- Association for authentic Sorbian folk music e. V. The aim of the association is to develop and present folk music almost as it was once heard throughout the bilingual Lusatia. The "Wendish dances", which have been known and loved for centuries in Lusatia, are a major focus.
- The Sorbian youth association " PAWK " (dt. "The Spider") has been active not only in Lusatia but also internationally since it was founded in 1995. He represents the Sorbs in the Organization of Youth of European Nationalities (YEN) and is a recognized partner of the Federal Union of European Nationalities (FUEN).
- The Sorbian Artists' Union (Zwjazk serbskich wuměłcow z. T.) Brings together almost 100 writers, composers, actors, dancers, musicians and painters. The association founded in 1990 is one of the most active within the Domowina.
The city is home to the football club FSV Budissa Bautzen , which played in the Regionalliga Nordost from 2014 to 2019 and competes in the sixth class Sachsenliga in 2019/20 . His home is the multifunctional stadium Müllerwiese , which is also equipped for athletics events and is located in the south of the city in the Spreetal .
A locally important association that is particularly active in youth work is SV Bautzen. The venue is the artificial turf field on Thrombergstrasse, which was used in 2004.
GDR times Bautzen was of a stronghold bowling sport , especially in bowling . In particular, the BSGs Motor Bautzen and Progress Bautzen were able to point to a large number of successes in the men's singles and men's teams. For example, from 1970 to 1990, a team from Bautzen was always among the top three at all GDR bowling championships, and often both teams. In these 20 years a team from Bautzen was GDR champion seven times.
The volleyball department of MSV Bautzen 04 already played in the Regionalliga Ost. Home games always take place in the Schützenplatzhalle.
The Bautzen toboggan run has existed since 1989, operated by the SG Bautzen Nord e. V., specialist department sledging. It serves as a training center.
The Steinhaus is a cultural center on Steinstrasse with a concert hall, café, theater stage, cinema, studio, gallery and many other offers, which is operated by Steinhaus eV. Today's largest socio-cultural center in East Saxony emerged from the FDJ youth center " Willy Mirtschin ", which was converted into an open youth center after 1990. The annual major events include the BEAT band competition and, in the past, the Battle of the East breakdance competition and the Bautzen skate contest. From 2012 to 2014 the house was completely renovated and expanded.
The “Bautzener Frühling” street festival takes place regularly in spring. The traditional Easter egg pushing on the Protschenberg on the western outskirts of the city is also of national importance . It is the largest children's festival in the region and has now become a national attraction. Bautzen is one of the starting points for Easter riding . The Bautzen Wenzelsmarkt is one of the oldest Christmas markets in Germany. The open-air performances of the Bautzen Theater Summer by the German-Sorbian People's Theater , which mostly take place in the courtyard of the Ortenburg, are also very popular . The “International Bautzen City Run” has been taking place every September since 1993 and is the largest running event in Upper Lusatia.
The Bautzner mustard is famous . In the Bautzen mustard shop there is a large selection of different types of Bautz'ner mustard and other products, such as Bautzen beers , which are intended as souvenirs.
In various restaurants you can try typical Sorbian dishes . At the time of the bird wedding on January 25, there are various special baked goods, for example in the form of nests and birds, as is the case in large areas of Lusatia.
Dishes like “ Teichlmauke ” are still regularly prepared in many old Bautzen families, although this dish is more typical for the southern district of Bautzen, for example in Schirgiswalde .
Economy and Infrastructure
In a study published annually by the Saxon State Chancellery on the economic strength of the Saxon cities, Bautzen has regularly occupied the top spot for several years. Various economic characteristics, for example tax revenue and the number of jobs subject to social security contributions, are related to the number of inhabitants.
Bautzen owes its relative economic strength (always based on East German, mid-town conditions) above all to the traditionally very mixed branch structure of the local economy. The structural diversity is based on companies, most of which have a long tradition at the Bautzen location. This diverse mix of industries causes the local economy as a whole to be relatively less susceptible to crises in times when individual branches of the economy come under great pressure.
Another important point is that Bautzen is a traditional administrative location (see, for example, Bautzen District Headquarters ) and therefore has an above-average rate of public employees (judicial administration, courts, penal system) and a correspondingly high number of lawyers and notaries.
Bautzen is the most important place of work in the Upper Lusatia-Lower Silesia region. With 24,009 employees subject to social insurance contributions, the city was well ahead of the more populous Görlitz with 17,496 employees in 2007 (source: State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony). 68% are commuters who come from the entire region and even from Dresden and work in Bautzen. In line with the high in-commuter surplus, the employment rate is very high and is 578 employees subject to social insurance per 1,000 inhabitants - the highest value in Saxony.
Due to the high central importance of the city for the region (according to the integrated urban development concept of the city of Bautzen, the direct catchment area of Bautzen includes over 200,000 people) and the associated high number of commuters from structurally weak rural areas is the number of unemployed within the city of Bautzen nevertheless very high and above the Saxon average.
- AFT Förderanlagen Bautzen GmbH - With around 80 employees at the Bautzen location (as of July 2014), the company provides conveyor systems such as B. floor transport systems for the assembly lines of the automotive industry.
- Bombardier Transportation (rail technology) - The former DWA as a rail division has traditionally produced in Bautzen for many years. The plant currently employs around 1200 people (as of July 2014), although 125 jobs are to be cut by 2016.
- DEBAG Deutsche Ofenbau GmbH - has been producing professional oven solutions for 90 years with currently 120 employees.
- The German Post AG operates in Bautzen one of its 82 mail centers in Germany.
- Develey Feinkostfabrik GmbH - The German market leader in the mustard business took over the brand in 1992 and invested in the production of Bautz'ner Senf, the German market leader since 2006 (22%) .
- Hentschke Bau GmbH - construction industry company, made a turnover of 140 million euros in 2010 with 670 employees.
- Hermann Eule Orgelbau Bautzen - Owned by the Eule family, one of the largest companies in Germany for the construction and restoration of organs
- Perfecta Schneidemaschinenwerk - produces industrial cutting machines.
- Sphairon Technologies GmbH - Was once one of the most important employers with over 200 high-tech jobs and one of the world's leading suppliers and manufacturers of products in the field of telecommunications and network technology . The origins of the company go back to the VEB Fernmeldewerk Bautzen . After the bankruptcy was averted in 2010 and production was discontinued at the Bautzen site in early 2012, the number of employees fell to less than 100.
- VD Ledermann & Co. GmbH (a company of edding AG) - took over parts of the Markant writing instrument production in 1993 and is now producing writing instruments and markers in new buildings.
- Wurst- und Fleischwaren Bautzen GmbH - 65 employees have been producing sausage and meat specialties since 2003.
- BIT.Group GmbH - founded in 2004 in Bautzen, has over 370 employees and provides SAP services to customers all over the world. The focus is on SAP Service & Support, SAP Consulting and Cloud Services. In 2016, the company was acquired by Itelligence AG, which also specializes in SAP services and operates several data centers in Bautzen.
The proximity to Dresden Airport also contributes positively to the economic power . The high-tech companies located in the area offer numerous building contractors qualified jobs. The administrative location of Bautzen is also an important supraregional place of work for public sector employees.
In addition, the largest thermal power station operated by the regional energy supplier ENSO is located in the northern part of the city. With a thermal output of 72 MW and an electrical output of 2 MW (each maximum), it uses the local raw material lignite and natural gas as fuel.
In Bautzen is the headquarters of the district office of the district of Bautzen. Bautzen is also the seat of the Bautzen District Court and a branch of the Görlitz Regional Court and the Saxon Higher Administrative Court . The administration of the regional planning association Upper Lusatia-Lower Silesia is also based in Bautzen.
Publishing has a long tradition in Bautzen. Around 1550, the Leipzig printer Nikolaus Wolrab set up a printing shop for the first time. The Wolrab printing works included writings by the Bautzen dean Johann Leisentrit .
In the summer of 1990 the advertising paper "Bautzener Bote" was founded. The city is also home to the editorial office of the Sorbian daily Serbske Nowiny , which is published by Domowina-Verlag, which today is the most important company of its kind in Bautzen.
The Sächsische Zeitung , WochenKurier and Oberlausitzer Kurier report on local events in and around Bautzen .
Bautzen is connected to the federal motorway 4 Dresden - Görlitz via the Bautzen-Ost, Bautzen-West and Salzenforst junctions . The federal highway 6 bypass of Goerlitz coming since the opening of the west bypass in December 2013, the downtown and the Peace Bridge , where especially in the afternoon were frequent jams before. The B 96 from Zittau to Berlin also runs from the south of the city via the west bypass into the west suburb before it leaves the city in the north-west. The B 156 from Weißwasser has bypassed the city area on a newly built route since 2003. Motorway access for the northern district and Hoyerswerda has also been improved by a feeder route since 2006.
The station Bautzen was found during the construction of the Saxon-Silesian Railway opened on 23 June. 1846 It is a stop for regional train and regional express lines of the Trilex of the Länderbahn . There are direct rail connections on the Görlitz – Dresden line and to Zgorzelec . The through trains to Berlin and Cottbus (via Hoyerswerda ), Zittau and Bad Schandau were shut down in the 1990s; thus the city has lost its status as a railway junction in Upper Lusatia. Until 1972, trains ran to Weißenberg on the Löbau – Radibor railway line .
Regionalbus Oberlausitz GmbH , part of the Rhenus Veniro Group , operates seven city bus routes in Bautzen . Furthermore, Bautzen and the surrounding area are connected with several regional bus routes. Long-distance buses run three times a week via Cottbus to Berlin (Fri / Sat / Sun) and back (Thu, Fri, Sun) and twice to Munich (Fri / Sun). Regional buses stop at the central bus station on August-Bebel-Platz , long-distance buses at the Schliebenstrasse commuter car park.
Bautzen airfield is located around 3 km east of the city . The closest commercial airport is Dresden Airport .
Bautzen has six primary schools, four secondary schools , five grammar schools ( Schiller grammar school , Philipp Melanchthon grammar school , Sorbian grammar school , two vocational grammar schools) and two special schools.
Building on the tradition of the former engineering school, more than 500 students study at the University of Cooperative Education in Saxony - Staatliche Studienakademie Bautzen , which offers a three-year dual course of study in the fields of financial management, public management, business informatics, electrical engineering, medical technology and industrial engineering. The job market opportunities for graduates of the vocational academy are good. In the past few years, 85 to 90% of the graduates have found a job after graduating.
People who are connected to the city as well as the honorary citizens of Bautzen and the mayors are listed in the list of personalities of the city of Bautzen .
- Karl Albert Hessler: The mild foundations of the city of Budissin. First issue, Bautzen 1847, 452 pages .
- Karl Albert Hessler: The mild foundations of the city of Budissin. Third issue, Bautzen 1850, 452 pages .
- Around Bautzen and Schirgiswalde (= values of the German homeland . Volume 12). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1967.
- Karl Wilke: Chronicle of the city of Budissin (Bautzen) from the construction of the city to the year 1830. edited according to the sources. Hiecke, Bautzen 1843 ( digitized version ).
- Hermann Knothe: On the oldest history of the city of Bautzen up to the year 1346. Baensch, Dresden 1884 ( digitized version ).
- Friedrich Reichel: Bautzen ( Art History City Books ), Leipzig 1961.
- German city atlas. Volume: IV; 3 part band. Acta Collegii Historiae Urbanae Societatis Historicorum Internationalis - Series C. On behalf of the Board of Trustees for Comparative Urban History e. V. and with the support of the German Research Foundation, ed. by Heinz Stoob †, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Jürgen Lafrenz and Peter Johannek. City folder Bautzen, author: Karlheinz Blaschke , ISBN 3-89115-033-4 ; Dortmund-Altenbeken 1989.
- Andreas Bensch: Chronology of the city of Bautzen 1002-2001. Bautzen 2001, ISBN 3-930625-31-8 .
- City Archives Bautzen: From Budissin to Bautzen. Contributions to the history of the city of Bautzen. Lusatia Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-929091-91-7
- Karin Sczech: Archaeological studies on Bautzen in Upper Lusatia in Slavic times. Archaeological research at the GWZO. Reports and contributions from the Humanities Center for History and Culture of East Central Europe. V. 2003, 49-64.
- Grit Richter-Laugwitz: June 17, 1953 in Bautzen. ed. from the Bautzen City Archives, Bautzen 2004, ISBN 3-936758-04-2 .
- Tino Fröde: privileges and statutes of the Upper Lusatian six cities. A journey through the organization of urban life in Zittau, Bautzen, Görlitz, Löbau, Kamenz and Lauban in the early modern period. Oberlausitzer Verlag, Spitzkunnersdorf 2008, ISBN 978-3-933827-88-3 .
- Silke Kosbab, Kai Wenzel: Bautzen's missing churches. Bautzen 2008, ISBN 3-936758-48-4 .
- Kai Wenzel: Bautzen - architecture, art, history . Dresden 2018, ISBN 978-3-95498-413-8 .
- Bautzen in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Literature about Bautzen in the Saxon Bibliography
- Website of the city of Bautzen
- Interactive city tour through Bautzen
- ↑ Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- ↑ Population figures as of December 31, 2019; Statistical report of the city administration of Bautzen
- ↑ Event analysis : floods in August and September 2010 and January 2011 in Saxony. Published by the State Office for the Environment, Agriculture and Geology and the State Reservoir Administration of Saxony , 2013. Summary and download option (PDF; 50 MB).
- ↑ Protection against extreme floods. In: Lausitzer Rundschau . July 14, 2011, accessed on February 8, 2020 ("This system was designed to protect against a 500-year extreme weather event, such as the one that occurred in August 2010.").
- ↑ Johann Georg Theodor Grasse : The treasure of legends of the Kingdom of Saxony , 1855, No. 611 “The legend of the origin of the name Budissin” , pp. 454f .; 2nd edition 1874, 2nd volume, p. 117 f. ( Digitized on Wikisource ); Roger Rössing: Bautzen VEB FA Brockhaus Verlag Leipzig, 1st edition 1989, pp. 3-4.
- ↑ №. 83. Announcement regarding the designation of the city of Bautzen; dated June 3, 1868 . In Law and Ordinance Gazette for the Kingdom of Saxony from 1868. First Department , Meinhold, Dresden, p. 311
- ↑ www.oberlausitzer-woerterbuch.de
- ↑ Chronicon Thietmari Merseburgensis: Codex Dresdensis, fol. 113v
- ↑ See for example Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler : Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages. Erlangen 1863 pp. 157-164 .
- ^ Document of March 10, 1326 in the Saxon Main State Archives
- ↑ Manfred Wilde: The sorcery and witch trials in Kursachsen , Cologne, Weimar, Vienna 2003, p. 464
- ↑ Historical view from 1627 Illustration of the capital Bautzen, in Ober-Lausnitz, like the same from Ihr Churfürstl. Gn. conquered by Saxony in 1620 ( digitized version )
- ↑ Bautzen Hospital . Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- ↑ Karnickelberg burial site. Saxon Memorials Foundation , accessed on January 14, 2020 .
- ↑ J. v. Flocken, M. Klonovsky: Stalin's camp in Germany 1945–1950. Ullstein, 1991, ISBN 3-550-07488-3
- ↑ Peter Reif-Spirek, Bodo Ritscher (ed.): Special camp in the SBZ. Memorials with a double past. Ch. Links Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-86153-193-3
- ↑ Police are looking for witnesses for the attack in Bautzen. (No longer available online.) In: mdr.de. April 13, 2016, archived from the original on September 24, 2016 ; accessed on September 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Sebastian Kositz: More politically motivated crimes. In: sächsische.de. February 6, 2016, accessed November 29, 2018 .
- ↑ Press release ( memento of February 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) of the Saxony Police of February 21, 2016, accessed on February 22, 2016
- ↑ Investigators assume arson , Zeit Online, February 21, 2016, accessed on February 23, 2016
- ^ A fire to wake them up , Zeit Online, February 22, 2016, accessed February 23, 2016
- ↑ Doreen Reinhard: Bautzen: It had to escalate. In: zeit.de . September 16, 2016, accessed September 16, 2016 .
- ↑ Bautzen: Violence emanated from drunk asylum seekers. In: zeit.de . September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Arrests after the attack on asylum accommodation in Bautzen. MDR Saxony , December 28, 2016, accessed on December 31, 2016 .
- ↑ Final result of the mayoral election on June 28, 2015 ( Memento from November 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ According to their election results, the NPD was entitled to two seats. However, one NPD city councilor resigned from the NPD after the elections and joined the party “ Dierechte ”, which thus had its first municipal mandate in Saxony. She resigned in March 2016 and completely renounced her seat in the summer of that year. The remaining city council also resigned from the party in March 2015 and died in March 2016, after which the seat was not refilled.
- ↑ town twinning
- ↑ Website of the city library, accessed on September 28, 2018.
- ^ Website of the Sorbian Central Library, accessed on September 28, 2018.
^ City of Bautzen: Cathedral monastery. (No longer available online.) In: Oberlausitz travel guide. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016 ; accessed on March 16, 2014 . Color report / preliminary assessment by Jörg Freund, Doberschau
- ↑ Erhard hard floor, Manfred Thiemann, Bautzen, Tourist Verlag Berlin, Leipzig, 3rd edition 1985
- ^ Georg Dehio: Handbook of German Art Monuments , Saxony, Deutscher Kunstverlag Munich Berlin, 1965
- ^ Website of the school observatory "Johannes Franz". Association of the Bautzen School Observatory e. V., accessed on March 14, 2009 .
- ↑ The plan is to move the Bautzen studio from the Sorbs' house (Postplatz 2) to the post office building opposite (no. Roland Kaiser: MDR is pursuing relocation plans. In: alles-lausitz.de. April 2, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020 .
- ↑ Sport complete , 2007.
- ↑ Statistical Information No. I / 2006. ( Memento from July 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 200 kB), Saxon State Chancellery, 2006.
- ↑ Rica Sturm: High-tech from Upper Lusatia: Bautzen-based company gets cars rolling around the world. ( Memento from July 29, 2014 in the web archive archive.today )
- ↑ Bombardier cuts 125 jobs in Bautzen . In: Sächsische Zeitung , July 25, 2014
- ↑ Consul General of the USA visits Bautzen. In: Archive of the press releases of the Landtag member Marko Schiemann . June 11, 2008, accessed August 16, 2016 .
- ↑ Butcher Bautzen - Meat Products & Sausage Products - Sausage Manufacturers & Meat Products Wholesale Bautzen. Retrieved November 26, 2019 .