The Intercity-Express ( ICE ) is the fastest type of train operated by Deutsche Bahn AG. The Intercity-Express is the flagship of the long-distance passenger rail transport of Deutsche Bahn AG and is the successor to the Intercity (IC). It serves almost 180 ICE train stations in Germany and five neighboring countries (Austria, Switzerland, France, Belgium and the Netherlands) in a largely synchronized line network .
Are also referred to as "ICE" which around 280 from 1990 to 2019 produced high speed - multiple units that originate from different manufacturers. The multiple units are divided into five main variants - 60 ICE 1 (delivery from 1991 to 1993), 44 ICE 2 (delivery in 1996 and 1997), 91 ICE with tilting technology (including 71 electric multiple units (ICE T) with delivery from 1999 to 2006 and 20 diesel-powered ICE (ICE TD) with delivery in 2001), 84 ICE 3 (67 multiple units of the series 403 and 406 with delivery between 2000 and 2006 plus 17 of the series 407 (Velaro D) with delivery between 2014 and 2017) and around 25 The latest generation of ICE 4 multiple units (delivery status 2018), which began in 2017 and will not be completed until 2020 and 2025. Around 60 ICE multiple units run abroad.
They reach top speeds of between 200 and 300 km / h in passenger service (in France 320 km / h). In 2012, 76.6 million passengers were on the ICE. The average travel distance on the ICE was 335 kilometers in 2019. In 2019, the trains carried around 99 million passengers, which corresponds to a daily average of around 270,000 travelers. This corresponds to around 66 percent of long-distance travelers on Deutsche Bahn. With 33.2 billion passenger kilometers, the trains provided 75 percent of the total traffic volume .
The basic research and development of track-guided high-speed traffic (bike / rail and magnetic levitation train ) was funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology until 1990 with a volume of 450 million D-Marks. Of this, around 70 million D-Marks went to the development of the ICE.
The ICE forerunner InterCityExperimental was presented to the public on November 26, 1985. On the same day, the train between Gütersloh and Hamm set a new world record for three-phase rail vehicles at 317 km / h. In the following years, the newly developed components were tested in their interaction at speeds not previously achieved in Germany. From the extensive results of the test program, it should finally be possible to develop needs-based vehicles for the express transport designed from the 1990s onwards. In addition, the vehicle was used in numerous presentation trips to check passenger acceptance of future high-speed trains, including in regular intercity traffic with travelers. The vehicle was also used for numerous special trips, including Mikhail Gorbachev taking a trip on the new train during a state visit . As part of the ICE world record run on May 1, 1988 , what was later called the ICE test train (ICE / V) set a new world speed record for wheel / rail vehicles with 406.9 km / h between Fulda and Würzburg .
In the early 1980s, locomotive-hauled trains ( class 120 ) were planned, which should run at a maximum of 200 km / h on the new routes. In the course of lengthy discussions between the Federal Railroad Management and the Federal Ministry of Transport, the concept of the first generation of ICEs emerged. A key milestone was the HGV project , which was resolved in May 1984 and envisaged an accelerated start of high-speed traffic at 250 km / h. After specifying the equipment, wagon length and width and the number of trains, the first series vehicles (41 units) were ordered from 1987 . On January 13, 1987, Minister of Transport Werner Dollinger first announced that the federal government had secured funding for ten ICE trains . Previously, it was partly assumed that the cabinet was not prepared to finance the trains necessary for a sensible use of the high-speed lines designed for Tempo 250. According to the planning at the time, a total of 40 to 50 ICE units should be available for operation on the routes in 1991. On August 1, 1987, the Minister gave formal approval for the procurement of 41 series ICEs and the necessary maintenance facilities.
In a letter of intent , the railway ordered a total of 82 power cars in September 1987, and a total of 482 intermediate cars in July 1988. In mid-July 1988 the Federal Ministry of Transport approved the procurement. The contract was awarded late. According to Deutsche Bahn, the first series should have been fully commissioned at the end of 1987 in order to have 25 multiple units available by mid-1991 according to the original production plan. In view of this late award of the contract, the schedule had to be tightened.
The formal act of awarding the contract to the consortia by the Federal Railroad Central Office followed on January 20 ( power cars) and February 20, 1989 (intermediate car). The purchase price of the first 41 multiple units ordered was around 1.8 billion Deutschmarks . A powered end car cost 8.7 million D-Marks, a dining car four, a service car three and the first and second class cars each 2.7 million D-Mark (price as of 1990).
In the summer of 1990, the Deutsche Bundesbahn ordered 19 additional sets worth around one billion Deutschmarks. The first intermediate car (first class, second class, service car) were delivered in late summer 1990, the first dining car in autumn.
The first advertising campaigns for the ICE began as early as 1985, six years before the scheduled operation began. This took place as part of extensive marketing measures on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the railway in Germany. From this year onwards, the railways advertised - also due to the planned ICE trains - in passenger and freight transport for several years under the umbrella slogan “The new railway”. The 1985 plan envisaged that the new trains would initially run on two lines from 1991, between Hamburg and Munich and between Hamburg and Basel via Frankfurt am Main.
The series train to be derived from the InterCityExperimental (ICE) was originally intended (according to the planning status from the beginning of 1985) to be referred to as the high-speed train (HGZ). The name InterCityExpress emerged from a lengthy discussion. The term should be understood in both German and English. The E , for Experimental in the ICE forerunner InterCityExperimental , was given the new meaning Express . A later renaming to InterCityEuropa was considered. In 1983 the IC successor project was also known as Intercity 2000 . The short form ICE had already been awarded on September 6, 1982 when the order was placed for the IntercityExperimental test train . As early as the mid-1970s, class 403 express railcars operated as an intercity express between Munich and Bremen .
Special features of the ICE
With the introduction of the ICE, travel time between Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main, for example, was reduced by 62 minutes, and between Hamburg and Stuttgart - using both new lines - travel time was even reduced by 115 minutes. In contrast, the train achieved little or no travel time savings in the existing network. The travel time on the Filstalbahn between Ulm and Stuttgart was reduced by just five minutes compared to trains in the TEE and Intercity system.
In addition to the high travel speed (250 compared to 200 km / h), the comfort of the ICE has also been significantly improved compared to the Intercity . Compared to the most modern IC cars at the time, the cars were widened by 20 centimeters, making them the widest passenger cars ever to have been in service with the DB. In addition, the seat spacing has been increased by around 8 centimeters, and the number of seats in the second class coaches has been reduced from 88 to 66 while maintaining the same length. The seat spacing in the second class (row seating) was 1025 millimeters. the backrests of the seats can be adjusted up to 40 degrees. The backrest was just as infinitely adjustable as the seat and pillow. Further comfort features were a particularly wide entrance, wide aisles, automatically opening interior doors and exterior doors that open at the push of a button. Additional comfort features included air conditioning with indirect ventilation, cloakrooms , lockers , telephone booths in first and second class, an audio system with eight channels at all seats and video screens in some seats in both classes. A passenger information system based on screen text provided information on , among other things, travel speed, intermediate stops and rail offers. Service call buttons enabled first class passengers to call a train attendant from their seat. Passengers could also be reached during the journey via the Euro signal of the European radio paging service and a train answering machine.
For the first time, pure smoking and non-smoking cars were created on German rails with the ICE, without the previously common separation within one car. The train formation was based on the InterCity trains: a dining car was lined up between the first and second class cars . Operationally, the ICE trains were treated as inseparable block trains. A fundamental innovation was the time-saving maintenance of the trains in the newly built ICE depot in Hamburg-Eidelstedt . This took place on three levels simultaneously, with technical faults being reported in advance by radio.
With the ICE, a number of technical innovations also found their way into railway operations, for example the three-phase drive developed by Bombardier in Mannheim (from the 120 series ), electronic travel and brake control and internal data transmission via fiber optic cables .
One of the innovations in the service was the issue of vouchers to travelers if ICE trains were more than 30 minutes late.
On May 29, 1991, the ICE was inaugurated with a rally from Bonn , Hamburg , Mainz , Stuttgart and Munich to the new Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe station . After the trains had entered the station at the same time, Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker symbolically set the exit signal to "Drive" at 12:00 noon and said: "High-speed traffic in the Federal Republic of Germany is now open." Handed over to the driver of the scheduled premiere ICE he symbolically holds the key to the train. On June 2, 1991 the first regular ICE left at 5:53 a.m. in Hamburg-Altona in the direction of Munich, in the opposite direction it departed from Munich at 6:41 a.m.
The market launch of the ICE product, as the successor to the Intercity as the top rail product , took place under the slogan “twice as fast as the car, half as fast as the airplane”. An advertising campaign accompanying the start of the ICE highlighted the speed, comfort and other special features of the new trains and emphasized the revolutionary character of the new top product. In the print advertising, among other things, power cars, bow sections, intermediate cars (inside and outside) were shown, accompanied by texts such as: “156 years ago, traveling by train was considered exciting. Now it's that time again. "," 250 tip. Relaxation as standard. ”,“ A new feeling for time, space and comfort. ”Or - alluding to the modern-looking interior design of the train -“ The Deutsche Bahn's space program starts on June 2, 1991. ”In addition, six commercials were shown on television . In 1991 the Federal Railroad spent around 18 million D-Marks on the advertising campaign for the ICE - more than for any other campaign before.
The ICE was subject to a surcharge from the start . The ICE surcharges were based on the gain in travel time compared to IC trains. When the ICE was introduced, the surcharge on IC fares was between 3.40 and 24.00 D-Marks in the second class and between 4.00 and 40.00 D-Marks in the first class. Compared to the IC, the tariffs rose by an average of 14 percent.
According to railway information, 2.5 million travelers used the trains in the first 100 days of operation, 25 percent more than in the previous year on the routes used. A fifth of the travelers were new customers, the average occupancy was 54 percent (Intercity: 48 percent). The 26 ICE units achieved a punctuality of 82 percent.
With the introduction of the ICE between Dresden, Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main at the end of May 2000, the ICE network had grown to seven lines with a total length of around 5000 kilometers. The busiest ICE hubs in Frankfurt am Main and Hanover recorded up to six ICEs departing per hour.
Types / versions
The ICE 1 multiple units, which went into service in 1989, were the first ICEs to run. These drove from the largest timetable change in the history of the Federal Railroad on June 2, 1991 on the route from Hamburg-Altona via Hanover-Göttingen-Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe-Fulda-Frankfurt (Main) -Mannheim-Stuttgart-Augsburg to Munich as the new ICE Line 6 . The first two high-speed lines opened in the same year ( Hanover – Würzburg and Mannheim – Stuttgart ) were integrated into the ICE network from the start. The trains of the first ICE line left Munich every hour, between 5:41 am and 4:41 pm, for Hamburg (opposite direction analogous). The timetable change was also accompanied by new special and pass offers. By mid-1991, 270 train drivers, 300 train attendants and 60 on-board technicians had been trained for the new trains. The average travel speed on the first line was 127 km / h.
In 1992 29 multiple units were delivered, the fleet grew to 43 multiple units. This enabled IC line 4 (from Hamburg-Altona and Bremen via Hanover-Göttingen-Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe-Fulda-Würzburg-Nuremberg-Augsburg to Munich) to be completely converted to ICE multiple units on May 31, 1992. Since March 1st, nine Intercity round trips on this line had been replaced by newly delivered ICE units and were still operating as normal Intercity trains. From the 1992 summer timetable, the locomotive-hauled trains on IC line 3 could be supplemented with additional vehicles. From the timetable change on September 27, 1992, the ICE "Panda" was the first ICE train to travel abroad as scheduled, from Hamburg via Frankfurt am Main and Basel to Zurich.
Another year later, the ICE line 3 was set up again for the timetable change on May 23, 1993 , now every hour again and from Hamburg-Altona via Hanover-Göttingen-Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe-Frankfurt (Main) -Manheim to Karlsruhe, after the old Intercity -Line from June 2, 1991 only two hours and operated between Berlin and Karlsruhe. In the course of 1992 this had already been compressed by individual trains from Hamburg-Altona to an almost hourly cycle, including three pairs of ICE trains. In this way, the ICE trains that were gradually being delivered were quickly integrated into the cycle schedule. At the end of 1993, 50 trainsets were available, with 21.9 million passengers and 23.9 million train kilometers, the share of the ICE in long-distance traffic was 26.8 percent.
At the same timetable change, ICE trains went to Berlin for the first time. Due to the lack of electrification and further construction work at Berlin Zoo station , the trains served Berlin-Lichtenberg station in the eastern part of the city, with a stop in Michendorf . A shuttle service with diesel trains has been set up to the “zoo”. The ICE line 6 was relocated every two hours from the terminus Hamburg-Altona to the Berlin Zoologischer Garten station (via Magdeburg, then from 1998 on the high-speed route Hanover-Berlin ), which gave Berlin its first scheduled ICE stop. The previously set up shuttle traffic from the provisional ICE station in Michendorf to the provisional terminus in Lichtenberg was thus eliminated . Individual trains of the two lines 4 and 6 - different from the respective final stop in Hamburg-Altona or Berlin - formed a two-hour cycle to and from Bremen Hbf from the 1992/1993 timetable, which also became a regular ICE stop for the first time after it Network reform in mid-1985 had no passing IC trains from Bremen to Göttingen and on. From September 25, 1994, Dresden (via Berlin) was served by one pair of ICE trains a day, and since September 1995 several pairs of ICE trains have been running to Kiel .
On May 23, 1993, the Munich ICE plant began operations as the second ICE depot. The ICE has been running between Cologne and Berlin since March 8, 1994.
In 1993 all 60 sets of the first generation were delivered, 44 half trains of the second generation were ordered. In the first three years of operation, 66.7 million passengers had used the ICE. In 1993, the 658 seats on the trains were on average 47 percent full. In the same year, the ICE achieved sales of 1.139 billion D-Marks, an increase of 42 percent year-on-year.
In June 1993, an eight-car ICE multiple unit was shipped to the United States as part of the ICE Train North America Tour . The train, which was technically adapted for overseas, made numerous presentation trips to 25 major cities in the United States and Canada and was used in scheduled service on the New York City - Washington, DC ( Northeast Corridor ) route at the end of 1993 . The train had been adapted for the power system of this route and was pulled by diesel locomotives on numerous other trips. Siemens and AEG - Westinghouse were hoping to win an order for 26 trains from Amtrak . When it was awarded to GEC-Alsthom in April 1994, Siemens' attempt to sell ICE train and line technology to Korea finally failed. Already at the end of May 1991, shortly before the start of scheduled ICE traffic in Germany, a consortium led by Siemens was defeated by a rival group led by Alstom in the award of a contract for a high-speed traffic system in Texas . These and other attempts to sell the first generation ICE abroad were unsuccessful.
From 1995 two ICE-1 trains operated as so-called idea trains between Hamburg and Basel and Stuttgart . Among other things, mobile phone amplifiers , the use of returnable bottles in the dining car and concepts for internet access on the train were tested on the trains . The trains ran later than regular ICE trains, without testing.
From May 1995, the ICE trains on ICE line 3 reached their scheduled top speed of 280 km / h for the first time.
At the beginning of 1997 the hundred millionth ICE passenger was welcomed. The average number of ICE travelers a day was 65,000.
The use of specially adapted ICE-1 multiple units as ICE-G for particularly fast freight traffic was examined in detail, but not implemented.
traveler km. (1)
train km. (2)
(1) domestic only, including free riders
(2) commercial offer, domestic
(3) total mileage
On August 17, 1993, Deutsche Bahn ordered 60 second-generation ICE trains at a price of 2.2 billion Deutschmarks ; 44 were later delivered. From October 1996, the ICE-2 multiple units went into operation, which, among other things , should improve the utilization control through the concept of interconnectable half-trains . From December 1996 the first ICE 2 multiple units were put into regular service as planned.
These trains were also used from the 1997 summer schedule on the newly established ICE line 10 between Berlin and Cologne (on the edge of the day to Frankfurt am Main), and from the 1997/98 winter schedule to Bonn every two hours. However, since the control cars had not yet been delivered or approved from the start, the railway initially put two half-trains together on this line to form a permanently coupled long train. It was not until May 24, 1998 - after the acceptance of all control cars - that wing train operations could be realized with the operation of the ICE half-trains from Hamm via Dortmund-Essen-Duisburg-Düsseldorf on the one hand or via Hagen-Wuppertal-Solingen on the other to Cologne or Bonn.
In autumn 1998, the new line (Hanover–) Oebisfelde – Berlin opened the third new line in Germany, reducing the travel time of ICE line 10 on the Berlin – Ruhr area by one hour. After the Cologne / Bonn airport train station opened on June 12, 2004, the “Ruhr Wing” was extended there. Since then, both wing trains have met on different levels in the tower station in Cologne-Deutz .
The ICE 1 and 2 trains are slightly wider and heavier than the international rail association UIC prescribes for international trains.
In June 1997 the first ICE driving simulator for training around 800 ICE train drivers went into operation in Fulda . ICE simulators are now in operation at twelve locations.
An attempt by a consortium of Siemens, GEC-Alsthom and local companies to sell a combination of ICE and TGV technology as a Eurotrain to Taiwan ( Taiwan High Speed Rail project ) surprisingly failed at the end of December 1999. An ICE concept between the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo was also not implemented .
In order to be able to use the ICE all over Europe in the future, the vehicle gauge has been reduced in the new generation . An underfloor drive distributed over the train ensures lower axle loads on the wagons in accordance with the UIC specifications, with traction motors , transformers and other components being distributed over the length of the train, making it possible to dispense with power cars . Two test vehicles were put into service to test this distributed drive : In the ICE D , a powered intermediate car was lined up in a composition of ICE 1 cars and ICE 2 power cars. Other components were tested in the newly built ICE S , which is now used as a measuring and test vehicle for high-speed traffic.
The ICE 3 generation of vehicles ordered in 1994 and put into operation from 1999 onwards was developed in a domestic version ( 403 series ) and a multi-system version ICE 3M ( 406 series ) for the direct current networks in the Netherlands and Belgium. They are approved for 330 km / h and reach speeds of around 300 km / h in regular operation. As the ICE 2 trains, the new units were as halfmoves designed and thus allow outflanking the train through various routes.
The multi-system ICE 3M has been operating to Amsterdam ( Netherlands ) since October 23, 2000 , and to Brussels ( Belgium ) since December 2002 . The technical planning for the ICE-M called multi-system train was by the since 1987 Federal Ministry of Research has been promoted. Since June 2007, ICE 3 MF trains that have been upgraded for French traffic have been running between Frankfurt am Main and Paris ( POS ) at speeds of up to 320 km / h.
In 2000, supported by the Expo traffic , the transport performance of the ICE increased by 2.3 to 13.9 billion passenger kilometers year-on-year. This year, the ICE was the strongest type of train with a share of almost 40 percent of DB Fernverkehr's transport performance.
Since the ICE 3 and ICE 3M are the only high-speed trains operated by Deutsche Bahn AG that can cope with the maximum gradients of 40 ‰ on the new Cologne-Rhein / Main line, which opened in 2002, they are used on the lines that run over this route. For the first time, the ICE 3 was used as a special "ExpoExpress" (EXE) for the Expo 2000 world exhibition .
The new Nuremberg – Ingolstadt line was opened in May 2006 and fully integrated into the ICE network in December. Along with the new Cologne-Rhine / Main and Nuremberg-Erfurt-Halle / Leipzig lines, it is the only high-speed line in Germany that allows speeds of up to 300 km / h. Most of the ICE trains run every half hour between Nuremberg and Munich.
Tilting technology trains for ICE-T, ICE-TD upgraded routes
Simultaneously with the ICE 3, the tilting technology trains ICE T (electric, in five- and seven-part variant) and two years later the ICE TD (diesel-electric, four-part) were developed. They were specially designed for use on routes that have not been developed for high-speed traffic, for example on the winding routes in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia. The trains lay up to 8 ° in the curves like a motorcyclist, which means they can be driven through up to 30% faster (so-called arc-fast driving). The electric variant is approved for 230 km / h. The trains were originally intended for IC traffic, but were later upgraded to the ICE rank due to the shorter travel times and the high standard of equipment. Originally, the trains had bicycle compartments, which were replaced by additional seats as part of the introduction to ICE traffic. Due to the shortened inspection intervals due to axle problems, the availability of the trains was limited from October 2008 to June 2009. Locomotive-hauled IC trains operated as a replacement. Since then, the trains have no longer been going as fast as an arc, which means that travel times have become significantly longer. Plans to allow trains to run at arc speeds again by installing more robust axles have not yet been implemented.
The diesel-powered ICE TD, which came into service on the Nuremberg – Dresden and Munich – Zurich lines from June 2001, however, initially proved to be prone to failure and, according to Deutsche Bahn AG, to be too expensive to operate, which is why they were not in operation in the meantime. However, since Easter 2006 they have been used again as reinforcement and relief trains. Since December 9, 2007, they have also replaced some of the Danish MFs between Hamburg and Aarhus and on the Vogelfluglinie between Hamburg and Copenhagen . A two-part pair of trains is linked to and from Berlin. For this purpose, the train will be split for the two Danish destination stations at Hamburg Central Station or merged again in the direction of Berlin. With this connection there is a direct connection between Berlin and Copenhagen for the first time since autumn 1997 and at the same time two connections from Denmark directly to the German ICE network. This offer is to be discontinued in December 2016.
Since the end of 2004, 28 seven-car trains of the second series (ICE T2) have been added to the electric ICE tilting train fleet. Compared to the first series, among other things, the video / audio program has been removed and the footrests in the second class have been abolished.
Trial operation began on September 28, 2016 in passenger service. Initially, ICE 581 (Hamburg-Altona-Munich) and ICE 786 (Munich-Hamburg-Altona) will run with the new ICE-4 multiple units.
Later the busiest intercity lines (including line 30: Hamburg-Altona - Ruhr area - Cologne - Koblenz - Mannheim - Stuttgart) will be converted into ICE lines and ICE 4 multiple units will be used. Furthermore, from the end of 2017, the multiple units [obsolete] are to replace the intercity trains on the lines on which IC2s will not be used.
From February 2013, the first of 16 new multiple units (until 2015) of the 407 series were to add to the ICE fleet. Among other things, they should be used in cross-border traffic on the high-speed route Rhine-Rhône from Frankfurt via Strasbourg to southern France and from 2015 [obsolete] from Frankfurt via Cologne to London. After multiple delays, the first trains have been in service since December 2013. The rest of the fleet should follow by 2016 [obsolete] .
In 2015, Deutsche Bahn announced that it would expand the ICE fleet to 360 trains by 2030 and offer 150 additional trips per day. 150 journeys that take place today with IC trains are to be integrated into the ICE network. In 2030, around 120 million train kilometers should be covered. To this end, Deutsche Bahn awarded a framework contract for up to 300 trains in May 2011, which should initially replace the previous IC trains from 2016. Between 2020 and 2026, 80 to 120 new ICE trains should be put into operation. First of all, the trains presented on December 4, 2015 should now add the first 12-car ICE 4 to the existing stock from December 2017 and replace the locomotive-hauled ICs with 7-car trains from 2020. According to plans from 2016, all new ICE multiple units should be called up exclusively from the ICE 4 framework agreement for the foreseeable future. From around 2022, ICE 1 and from 2028also ICE 2 should be replaced by new vehicles.
In the future, vehicles with a speed of 300 km / h will be required to implement the German clock . In summer 2019, DB considered purchasing a new generation of high-speed trains based on the ICE 3. In July 2020, Deutsche Bahn finally announced that it wanted to order 30 trains based on the 407 series , with speeds of up to 320 km / h, which will be delivered between 2022 and 2026 under the name “The new ICE” . A total of 421 trains are to be in service by 2026. The total volume of the order corresponds to around one billion euros. The railway also keeps an option for 30 more trains open. The new trains are to be used primarily on the high-speed route Cologne – Rhine / Main and on the lines from Frankfurt (Main) via Nuremberg / Stuttgart to Munich. According to Deutsche Bahn, the final interior design of the trains will be presented in autumn.
In the case of future new tenders in long-distance transport, entry at ground level should be guaranteed.
In the following only accidents of special importance are shown. Further accidents can be found in the articles for the individual ICE vehicle variants.
The Eschede railway accident on June 3, 1998 was one of the worst railway accidents in the history of German railways and, according to the number of victims, the most devastating worldwide in which a high-speed train was involved. 101 people were killed and 88 seriously injured.
The trigger was the breakage of a worn and defective wheel tire . This wheel tire bored into one of the cars and then dragged the control arm of a switch with it. Due to the force of the impact, one of the wagon's wheels moved the switch tongue of a second switch. The following wagons derailed and tore away the central pillar of a 300-ton flyover , which caused the bridge to collapse. All the following cars hit the rubble.
As one of the consequences of the accident, Deutsche Bahn has since refrained from using wheel tires on high-speed trains.
Derailment in the Landrückentunnel
On April 26, 2008, an ICE 1 on the way from Hamburg to Munich drove into a flock of sheep on the high-speed line Hanover – Würzburg at around 8:58 pm when entering the Landrückentunnel south of Fulda . Both power cars and ten of the twelve cars derailed. The train came to a stop about 500 meters behind the tunnel entrance. Of the 148 inmates, 17 were injured. Damage to the train, route and tunnel amounted to around ten million euros. The section between Fulda and Burgsinn had to be closed for around two and a half weeks.
Broken axle in Cologne
On July 9, 2008, an ICE 3 derailed at the exit from Cologne Central Station , traveling at walking speed, in the switch area in front of the Hohenzollern Bridge . A wheel set in the front part of the train had broken, jumped out of the rails and damaged the rails and switches. Nobody was injured, all passengers were able to return to the platform. By decision of the Federal Railway Authority , 61 of 67 ICE-3 multiple units were temporarily withdrawn from service on July 11 for further investigations. As a result of the accident, the Federal Railway Authority ordered a drastic shortening of the wheelset inspection intervals, which has led to numerous train cancellations and further operational restrictions since then (as of February 2009).
Fires from ICE trains
According to the Mainz report, 39 fires on ICE trains were reported to the Federal Agency for Railway Accident Investigation between 2008 and 2018 , the last time on October 12, 2018, for an ICE-3 on the high-speed route Cologne-Rhine / Main near Dierdorf (see list of railway accidents in Germany ).
Used traction material
Around 280 high-speed multiple units of six different variants (ICE 1, ICE 2, ICE 3, ICE T, ICE TD, ICE 4) operate in the ICE system. In addition, the two sets of the former Metropolitan operate as an ICE between Berlin and Frankfurt and Düsseldorf (as of 2019).
The ICE product is defined, among other things, by a uniform color scheme, similar interior design and various comfort features. The trains are serviced in special ICE plants.
Until the timetable change on December 15, 2002, many of the ICE trains specified in the timetable bore the names of important personalities, landscapes or sights. Since then, the ICE multiple units have been named after cities and municipalities. Since October 2002, more than 180 ICE multiple units have been christened with the names of German and individual European cities (as of March 2009). The train names of the ICE Sprinter have been preserved. The first name was given on October 31, 2002, when a multiple unit was given the name "Berlin". The new trains of the ICE 4 should again bear the names of important German personalities. The plans were discarded in mid-2018.
Rail advertising with the “ICE” brand on a TUIfly aircraft
An important feature of the ICE is its color scheme, which has also been protected by Deutsche Bahn as a registered design . The light gray paintwork with traffic red stripes ( RAL colors 7035 and 3020) and the continuous black window band , interrupted by oval door windows, distinguish it from all other DB trains.
In the first and second generation of the ICE, the decorative stripe was initially still oriental red (RAL 3031) and was set off by a second, thinner stripe in pastel violet (RAL 4009) in accordance with the product colors of the Deutsche Bundesbahn at the time . This two-tone design ended with the repainting of all ICE 1 and 2 trains during a "general inspection with a paint job" between 1998 and the opening of Expo 2000 in Hanover.
The ICE lettering is agate gray (RAL 7038), the aprons and the frame are quartz gray (RAL 7039). The plastic parts of the interior cladding are all kept in the same light gray shade (RAL 7035). Inside, indirect light and wood decor enhance the overall picture. Originally, pastel tones such as mint green dominated the interior of the ICE 1, based on the DB design that was common at the time. During the general overhaul of the ICE 1 trains between 2005 and 2008, the interiors were completely renewed and the equipment and design were adapted to the third ICE generation.
For the 2006 World Cup , the World Cup logo was affixed to all ICE trains.
As of spring 2007, individual trains carried a new ICE logo in DB type with the DB lettering clearly visible as a test. At the end of 2007 it was clear that the rest of the fleet would not be wrapped.
In the 1980s, Alexander Neumeister and his team developed the well-known ICE exterior design with the ICE predecessor, the InterCityExperimental (ICE V), which was used in all ICE series. The interior of the first ICE series trains was designed by Jens Peters from the BPR-Design team from Stuttgart. The same team also developed the design of the Interregio trains in the mid-1980s .
On September 10, 2019, Deutsche Bahn presented a revised exterior design in Berlin, which is intended to better illustrate sustainability on the end car by means of a green stripe that changes to a green plug symbol at the end.
External distinguishing features
|ICE (general)||light gray paintwork with red stripes and bellows transitions between the cars (in contrast to other DB trains) ,
continuous black window strip with oval door windows (in contrast to Intercity , Velaro-D, ICE-4 and former Metropolitan cars)
|ICE 1||two power cars and intermediate car ; On-board restaurant / bistro with high roof; Front flap with DB logo that interrupts the red stripe, indivisible long train with twelve passenger cars|
|ICE 2||a powered end car, intermediate car and a control car (with passenger compartment).
In contrast to the ICE 1: on-board restaurant / bistro same roof height as the rest of the cars; Front flap vertically divisible, large spar protrudes, detachable half-train with seven passenger cars
|ICE 3||no power cars , but multiple units : end car with a round windshield and lounge (passenger compartment with a view of the route), transformer car with pantograph (not powered); the red stripe is interrupted by the ICE lettering on the control car, runs down and over the front flap; The ribbon of windows converges and ends at the height of the middle of the windshield, detachable half-train with eight passenger cars|
|ICE T||like ICE 3, but: shorter "nose"; Pantograph or aerodynamic cladding of the braking resistors on end cars; The ribbon of windows and red stripe remain horizontal and parallel to the ribbon of windows, the ribbon of windows converges to a point, the red stripe ends in front of the lamps ; upper peak signal through the windscreen; detachable, five and seven parts|
|ICE TD||similar to ICE T , but only 4 cars & diesel instead of electric drive; since mid-2003 light-emitting diodes as lower headlights; detachable|
|ICE T2||Like ICE T series 1, but: no blind windows at the car crossings, no glass parts between the side windows, instead painted sheet metal, triple headlights with light-emitting diodes|
|ICE Velaro D ("new ICE 3")||Modified front section with horizontally opening front hatch and angular windows in the doors|
|ICE 4||Rounded angular, tapering front with angular instead of oval door windows|
|ICE V||wide purple stripe runs deeper and not over the bow hatch; Logo of the Deutsche Bundesbahn and temporary ICE logo; Outer bellows clad; Power heads higher than intermediate car and rounder "nose"; Front hatch since 1995 like ICE 2|
|ICE S.||"Old" pastel violet / oriental red stripes run on intermediate cars 1 and 3 in yellow / gray (train color yellow for railway service vehicles ); ICE lettering in gray with the addition “S” in white; dashed gray lines and yellow stripes form a curve diagram on car 2; Power lines at car crossings; Maximum speed (outside) 330 km / h instead of 280 km / h (Note: the composition of this train can change, features of the intermediate car do not have to apply)|
|ICE D||- Trial train for testing the ICE 3 -
based on the power cars of the ICE 2 as well as the intermediate car of the ICE 1 and a powered intermediate car
All trains are fully air-conditioned, have a dining car or bistro area, a passenger information system and a compartment for children. The backrests of most early generation seats are adjustable. In the ICE 4, the seating has been narrowed, which is why the backrest is no longer adjustable, but the depth of the seat cushion is still adjustable. Sockets are installed in all trains. In the trains of the 1st - 3rd generation, footrests and headphone sockets were also available, through which on-board music and language programs as well as radio stations could be heard. In the ICE 3 and ICE T (D), panorama compartments at both ends of the train allow the driver to look over the shoulder. Some places in the first class (originally also in the second) were equipped with video screens on which documentaries and films from Bahn TV were shown. Parking spaces for wheelchairs and a barrier-free toilet with a changing table are available on all trains .
The car of the ICE are divided into three areas: work areas with wireless amplifiers for improved cell phone reception, rest areas, where mobile phone use and loud conversations are not wanted and not designated areas. Cell phone and quiet areas can be reserved in a targeted manner, the carriages are marked in the leaflet on your travel plan and marked with pictograms. The number of cellphone-enhanced cars was to be increased to 1,495 by 2011. This means that 70 percent of the seats in ICE cars should be equipped with cell phone amplifiers.
The ICE 1 was originally delivered with an on- board information system based on BTX , but the screens have now been pasted over. In the ICE 3 , there were touchscreens in some of the cars , which provide general timetable information on the entire rail network and can print it out on request. The system can also be found on all ICE 2 trains in the on-board restaurant .
The modernization of ICE 1 from 2005 to 2008 has now largely been completed. Seats and interior fittings have been aligned with the ICE 3 (including installation of sockets), the audio / video entertainment system and footrests in the second class have been removed. As with the ICE 2/3, an electronic seat reservation display was introduced.
The ICE-2 trains provide a socket at all tables. These are available in almost all seats in ICE 3 / T trains and modernized ICE 1 trains (previously only in the conference compartment).
All ICE 1 and ICE 2 are equipped with a dining car with a restaurant and bistro area, as are the seven-part ICE T (series 411). In contrast, the ICE 3, the five-part ICE T and the ICE TD were designed without an on-board restaurant; instead, an on- board bistro with standing room and smoking and non-smoking areas was introduced. Since October 1, 2006 - in addition to the traditionally smoke-free restaurants - the bistro areas on Deutsche Bahn trains have also been smoke-free. Since September 1, 2007, there has been a complete smoking ban on all long-distance trains operated by Deutsche Bahn. The upholstery and carpets in the previous smoking cars were cleaned in the trains and the pillows on the seats were completely replaced. A smoking ban in the bistro was introduced as early as August 1, 1992. This was later abolished.
Cellular and Internet access
As early as 1999, with the introduction of the mobile radio amplifiers , mobile internet access via GSM / GPRS with low data transmission speeds was possible in the ICE trains . Thanks to the constant expansion of the GSM and UMTS networks, fast internet access is now possible while driving, especially in metropolitan areas. On the open route, in the cars equipped with cellular amplifiers, it is usually possible to use the Internet at a lower transmission speed (GPRS) largely without interruption. Most of the ICE lines and tunnels have now been equipped for interference-free mobile radio reception.
Internet access via WLAN has been possible in seven ICE 3 trains on the Dortmund – Essen – Cologne (–Siegburg / Bonn) route since the end of 2005, and an extension to Frankfurt followed in spring 2007. By the end of 2007, the Frankfurt – Hanover – Hamburg and Frankfurt – Stuttgart – Munich routes were also equipped accordingly, and the number of WLAN trains increased to 38. At the beginning of 2015, most of the ICE fleet and most of the ICE network were equipped with mobile internet access. Internet access is free in first class.
In March 2015, Deutsche Bahn announced that it would also offer free WiFi in second class from 2016, which has been the case across the board since 2017, with the exception of dead spots in rural areas. From September 2015 a free “on-board infotainment” is to be made available, which has meanwhile been implemented through a cooperation with the provider Maxdome by using a free app with a limited range. In the course of the discontinuation of Maxdome in summer 2020 by ProSiebenSat.1 Media, the new portal Joyn Selection , which will inherit from Maxdome, will be gradually switched over.
No possibility to take bicycles with you
The inability to take unpacked bicycles with you on ICE trains is often criticized - the transport conditions of Deutsche Bahn exclude taking bicycles on the ICE. The ADFC , for example, regularly refers to the continuously deteriorating possibilities of taking bicycles with you on longer routes, as in recent years numerous interregional and intercity connections (with bicycles) have been replaced by ICE connections. According to the ADFC, the number of people taking bicycles with them on long-distance German rail transport has fallen from more than 500,000 to 250,000 per year since the mid-1990s due to this reduction in services (as of 2007). In return, Deutsche Bahn AG refers to high conversion costs for the ICE fleet (in the double-digit million euro range), extended stopping times in the train stations and the seasonal nature of bicycle transport, which does not justify the permanent elimination of a double-digit number of seats per train would. The ICE trains called up from the future ICE 4 series (from around 2018 [obsolete] ) should be able to take bicycles with them.
In practice, however, fully packed bicycles can also be transported on the ICE (provided they do not exceed a certain size and can be carried by one person) as well as folding bicycles , these are then considered as "payload" and - like normal luggage - can be taken along free of charge . There are only a few opportunities to take bicycles with you in German high-speed traffic in the TGV-POS trains that have been running between Stuttgart / Munich and Paris since June 2007 and that can accommodate four bicycles per train.
Only the majority of the ICE-T and ICE-TD are prepared for the transport of up to 39 (ICE-T) or 10 (ICE-TD) bicycles. In practice, it was only possible to carry up to eight bicycles per multiple unit on five trains in service with Switzerland between 1999 and 2002.
The maintenance is carried out in seven operating plants for a more developed compared to previous vehicles concept in newly built or specially ertüchtigten for the ICE depots in Basel , Berlin , Dortmund , Frankfurt , Hamburg , Cologne , Munich and Leipzig . In future, the trains will also be serviced at a SNCF plant in Paris . General inspections and repairs to damage caused by accidents are carried out in the Krefeld-Oppum and Nuremberg repair shops .
One of the special features is that the trains are usually not separated even during maintenance. Maintenance is carried out on at least three levels at the same time - below the vehicle, at entry height and in the roof area. The regular work is usually carried out in seven stages from around 4000 to 1.65 million kilometers, depending on the mileage . The downtime for short workshop visits should only be one hour and take place mostly at night. Another major innovation is the radio pre-notification of the defects stored in the computer-aided diagnosis system via remote data transmission while the vehicle is in motion.
Current network structure
The ICE system is a city-connecting express train network with around 180 ICE stations . The network is mostly operated on a one-hour, sometimes two-hour basis , whereby the largest cities should have priority; only individual trains run on branches. From 130 ICE stations in Germany, around 80 stations are served at least every two hours, from around 50 ICE stations abroad around 15. The superimposition of several lines on a section of their route results in times of around half an hour (Nuremberg-Munich, Cologne – Frankfurt, Göttingen – Kassel – Fulda). The traffic offer is supplemented by amplifiers .
Compared to other high-speed trains, the ICE system has a comparatively small average distance between the stops at around 70 kilometers. One reason for this is the polycentric settlement structure of Germany, which has no central metropolis (such as Paris , Madrid or Tokyo ). The imbalance of the ICE lines is criticized. So count Montabaur (12,600 inhabitants) and Oldenburg in Holstein (9800 inhabitants) to the smallest towns with regular ICE stop. The smallest place with a regular ICE stop is the community of Züssow with 1300 inhabitants. In contrast, some large cities such as Chemnitz (244,000 inhabitants) and temporarily Krefeld (223,000 inhabitants) are not served by either ICE or IC trains.
Managing new routes and stopping ICE trains is often highly controversial. As part of the planning for the new Rhine / Main – Rhine / Neckar line, a long-standing dispute arose over the question of whether some ICE trains (between Stuttgart and Frankfurt am Main) should bypass Mannheim's main station without stopping. It was also criticized that an ICE on the 200-kilometer route from Hamburg to Osnabrück (157,000 inhabitants) should not stop in the city of Bremen (552,000 inhabitants), although the loss of time would only be a few minutes.
There are numerous high-speed routes available in Germany for high-speed trips of at least 200 km / h . In addition to upgraded lines that have been expanded for high-speed journeys since the 1960s, five new German routes for travel speeds between 250 and 300 km / h were put into operation from 1991 , and others are under construction or in the planning stage. In addition to high-speed lines, ICE trains travel the existing network at up to 160 km / h. Larger sections with particularly low driving speeds exist or existed in the network regularly used by the ICE, among others on the Geislinger Steige (70 km / h over a length of seven kilometers), until December 9, 2017 on the Frankenwaldbahn (twelve kilometers with 70 km / h, are now bypassed on the high-speed line Nuremberg – Erfurt ) and until June 15, 2017 in the area of the Schwarzkopf tunnel (70 km / h). A number of new construction projects are to close some of the gaps in the German high-speed network over the next few years.
Critics point to the high costs and the enormous effort with which the high-speed new lines are driven through often medium-mountainous terrain. With one exception, all German new lines run between about a quarter ( new line Cologne – Rhein / Main ) and about half ( new line Ebensfeld – Erfurt ) in tunnels and on bridges. Only the new Berlin – Wolfsburg line in the north German lowlands manages without a tunnel. On the other hand, the average travel speeds on old routes in the low mountain range are often in the low range, for example between Erfurt and Leipzig at 100 km / h or between Leipzig and Bamberg before 2017 at only 88 km / h.
The routes most heavily loaded by all types of train (freight, regional and long-distance traffic including ICE) include the corridor between Mannheim and Frankfurt am Main or Mainz with the Riedbahn , the Main-Neckar-Bahn and the Mainz – Ludwigshafen railway with around 650 train journeys per day, the high-speed line Augsburg – Munich with around 300 trains per day, the Kinzigtalbahn between Hanau and Fulda and the routes from Cologne to Duisburg and on to Dortmund as well as via Wuppertal to Hagen and on to Hamm . The Hanau – Frankfurt railway line has the highest ICE density in all of Germany with around nine ICE lines that run at least every two hours, which means that an ICE runs every twelve minutes in each direction (without amplifiers and trains running outside of regular traffic).
The track access charge per kilometer ICE is Euro denominated different sources 6 or 7th
The network is mainly structured by six north-south main lines, which are served either directly or by superimposing several lines every hour:
- from Hamburg-Altona via Hanover, Göttingen, Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe, Frankfurt (Main) and Mannheim, further via Karlsruhe, Baden-Baden and Freiburg to Basel (ICE line 20) or directly to Stuttgart (ICE line 22)
- from Hamburg-Altona or Bremen via Hanover, Göttingen, Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe, Fulda and Würzburg, further via Nuremberg and Ingolstadt or Donauwörth and Augsburg to Munich (ICE line 25, wing train to Hanover)
- from Hamburg-Altona via Berlin, Leipzig / Halle, Erfurt, Nuremberg and Augsburg or Ingolstadt to Munich (ICE lines 18, 28, 29)
- from Berlin via Wolfsburg, Braunschweig, Hildesheim, Göttingen, Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe, Fulda, Hanau, Frankfurt (Main) and Mannheim, further via Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel (ICE line 12) or via Stuttgart, Ulm and Augsburg to Munich (ICE line 11)
- from Amsterdam or Dortmund via Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Cologne, Frankfurt (Main) Airport and Mannheim, then via Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel (ICE line 43) or via Stuttgart, Ulm and Augsburg to Munich (ICE line 42)
- from Essen via Cologne, Frankfurt (Main), Würzburg, Nuremberg and Ingolstadt to Munich (ICE line 41)
- from Berlin via Hanover, Bielefeld and Hamm, further via Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg and Düsseldorf to Cologne / Bonn Airport or via Hagen and Wuppertal to Bonn (further to Koblenz, ICE line 10, wing train from Hamm)
- from Dresden via Leipzig, Erfurt, Fulda, Frankfurt (Main) and Mainz to Wiesbaden, individual trains via Darmstadt, Mannheim and Kaiserslautern to Saarbrücken (ICE line 50, wing train from Frankfurt)
Secondary branches / night connections in Germany
In addition to the main lines in north-south direction, there is a secondary line:
- from Hamburg via Bremen, Münster, Dortmund either via Essen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf or Hagen and Wuppertal to Cologne, then via Bonn, Koblenz, Mainz to Frankfurt (Main) (ICE line 31, ICE line 42, individual trains). In contrast to this, ICE 1034/1035 Hamburg-Cologne-Hamburg runs as a sprinter without stopping to Essen via the Bremen and Recklinghausen freight bypass
In addition to the core network, trains run within Germany :
- from Berlin to Rostock (ICE line 28, individual trains)
- from Berlin to Stralsund (ICE line 28, individual trains)
- from Hamburg to Lübeck (ICE line 25, ICE line 75, individual trains)
- from Hamburg to Kiel (ICE line 20, ICE line 22, ICE line 28, ICE line 31, individual trains)
- from Hamburg to Flensburg (ICE line 76, individual trains)
- from Bremen to Oldenburg (ICE line 10, ICE line 22, ICE line 25, individual trains)
- from Leipzig via Hanover to Cologne (ICE line 50, individual trains)
- from Leipzig via Kassel to Düsseldorf (ICE line 50, individual trains)
- from Würzburg via Kassel to Essen (ICE line 41, individual trains)
- from Munich to Garmisch-Partenkirchen (ICE line 25, ICE line 28, ICE line 41, individual trains)
- from Nuremberg via Regensburg to Passau (ICE line 91, every two hours)
Individual ICE have taken over night train routes .
As an ICE sprinter , a total of seven ICE trains run morning and evening on five routes between Berlin , Frankfurt am Main , Hamburg , Cologne and Munich . The trains serve no or only a few intermediate stops and run in a journey time of around three and a half to four hours, around half an hour shorter than the trains on the regular timetable . Individual stopovers include Düsseldorf , Duisburg , Essen , Hanover , Erfurt and Halle (Saale) .
In some cases, the trains continue to run ahead or onward than regular ICE trains.
Individual ICE trains will be continued abroad - in some cases deviating from their main routes:
- from Duisburg via Oberhausen and Arnhem to Amsterdam (Netherlands, ICE International Line 78, every two hours) with ICE 3M,
- from Cologne via Aachen and Liège to Brussels (Belgium, connection to the Eurostar to London , ICE International line 79, every two hours) with ICE 3M
- from Saarbrücken via Baudrecourt junction or from Karlsruhe via Strasbourg to Paris (France, ICE line 82, four pairs of trains or two pairs of trains) with ICE 3 MS,
- from Basel to Interlaken , Zurich or Chur (Switzerland, ICE line 12, ICE line 20, individual trains) with ICE 1 or ICE 4 suitable for Switzerland,
- from Passau via Linz to Vienna (Austria, ICE line 91, every two hours).
On June 10, 2007, regular operation of the high-speed line LGV Est européenne Paris – Strasbourg with a branch to Saarbrücken was opened. Since then, ICE 3MF train sets have been running from Frankfurt (Main) via Saarbrücken to Paris . At the same time, the TGV POS operate from Paris to Stuttgart, and since December 2007 also to Munich. An ICE connection to Prague is also planned in the medium term . 35,000 passengers use Deutsche Bahn's cross-border traffic every day.
With the timetable change in December 2007, an extensive two-hour ICE service between Vienna and Frankfurt was introduced. Some trains continue to Dortmund.
The multiple units used in international ICE traffic to the Netherlands, Belgium and France ( ICE 3M and ICE 3MF ) are multi-system capable . The multiple units that go to Switzerland have an additional "Swiss" pantograph (with a narrower contact strip). These are also equipped for the Swiss train control systems Integra-Signum and ZUB 121 .
About 70 percent of the international connections of DB Fernverkehr are provided by the ICE. 4.3 million passengers use the ICE in traffic between Germany and Switzerland (as of 2019).
Inland ICE in Austria
Between 1998 and 2007 a pair of trains made up of ICE 1 ran between Innsbruck and Vienna. Between December 2007 and December 2010, a pair of ICE T trains (DB 411 / ÖBB 4011 series) ran between Vienna and Bregenz.
As is customary for long-distance trains in Austria, the ICE also runs free of charge within Austria.
Inland ICE in Switzerland
In order to avoid idle times or empty trips, there are ten ICE round trips, mainly in the off-peak hours, which only run within Switzerland, from Basel SBB to Interlaken Ost, Zurich, Bern and back.
These trains, although they are referred to as ICE in the timetable, often have the stop frequencies of an InterRegio , so that they also stop at smaller stations such as Liestal or Sissach . Like all day trains in Switzerland, these ICEs run free of charge.
The Stiftung Warentest evaluated the arrival times of trains at their terminal stations in ten major cities between 6 a.m. and midnight between September 23 and October 31, 2007 (excluding strike days). Of 13,228 ICE trains examined, 38 percent were four or more minutes late.
The Deutsche Bahn rejected the result of the survey and spoke of an overall punctuality in passenger traffic of “well over 90 percent” in 2007, without giving any more specific figures.
In a similar study by Stiftung Warentest in 2001, a punctuality rate of 54 percent was determined, whereby trains with a delay of two minutes or more were rated as no longer on time. The arrival times of 2030 ICE trains at eight train stations between June 6 and 29, 2001 were recorded manually. An investigation based on the same criteria in 1999 showed a punctuality rate of 35 percent. The arrival times of 1,750 ICE trains at eight train stations between June 5 and 14, 1999 were recorded manually. In 1997, a punctuality rate of 56 percent was determined (basis: arrival times of 1,454 ICE trains at ten stations between June 3 and 16, 1997).
In 2018, 73 percent of the trains were still on time. The actual goal of 82 percent punctuality is not expected to be achieved until 2025.
ICE traffic is subject to the tariff of the ICE product class (formerly product class A ), the highest of the three DB passenger transport product classes. It also includes ICE Sprinter, Railjet , TGV and Thalys , and until 2006 also Cisalpino . For the same routes , higher tariffs are generally charged in ICE traffic than in lower product classes (IC / EC: InterCity / EuroCity, C: regional traffic). The surcharge varies depending on the relation, sometimes no surcharge is charged. The ICE minimum price for short distances is otherwise seven euros (for comparison: the minimum price for the IC tariff is 6.00 euros, for local transport 1.30 euros). Since 2007, ICE trips have always been charged for the entire travel distance at the ICE tariff, regardless of which sections of the route you actually use an ICE.
ICE tickets can be purchased three months before their first day of validity at the earliest. For group trips, the lead time is up to twelve months, provided the relevant timetable is already known.
From a travel distance of 100 kilometers, ICE tickets are valid for two days for a return trip. The validity of certain trains can be restricted by early bird discounts . Some of the ICE travelers use the Bahncard customer card , which grants discounts. Individual special offers (for example the Lidl ticket ) grant discounts without prior specification on certain trains, in some cases certain travel days (Friday, occasionally also Sunday) are excluded (for example Tchibo ticket ).
A seat reservation is not compulsory for ICE trips. The ICE Sprinter was an exception until December 2015. Since February 1, 1995, seat reservations have been subject to a charge. In connection with a ticket purchase or rebooking , three D-Marks were charged for each seat, nine D-Marks without a ticket. On the same date, reservations were possible until shortly before the train's departure - previously the minimum lead time was 24 hours. Reservations cost (as of 2018) EUR 4.50 per person in second class or EUR 5.90 in first class, for up to two long-distance trains in each direction. Different prices apply if a reservation is purchased together with the ticket on the Internet or at a machine, for families, groups and commuters as well as in the ICE Sprinter.
Since December 14, 2014, first-class customers have been able to reserve a seat in conjunction with the ticket purchase (normal and saver price) (also with a one-time, free rebooking until shortly before departure). In the future, seat reservations are to be included in all long-distance tickets (as of March 2015). For frequent travelers with bahn.comfort status, a special contingent of reservable and non-reservable spaces is available.
Before the reformed price system was introduced at the end of 2002, there were numerous special ICE offers. In addition to the ICE saver price and the ICE super saver price , a limited ICE Sunday morning ticket for trips on Sunday mornings between 5 a.m. and 2 p.m. was introduced on April 1, 1999 .
A special feature is on sections of the route abroad - e.g. B. to and from Belgium - the use of the high-speed train Thalys , on which seat reservations are compulsory, has not been able to be booked through Deutsche Bahn since 2013 and therefore tickets have to be purchased separately. Accordingly, in such cases, price information can only be obtained indirectly.
ICEs on the Paris – Forbach route within France operate according to the TGV tariff, including the reservation requirement contained therein.
In the Netherlands, there is a surcharge of 2.30 euros for trips with the “ ICE International ” (as of March 19, 2015). This surcharge is already included in monthly and annual tickets.
On the Austrian routes (Vienna – Innsbruck – Bregenz, Vienna – Salzburg– (Munich), Vienna – Passau– (Hamburg), Innsbruck – Kufstein– (Berlin)), there is no surcharge, as is the case with other long-distance trains.
Similarly to other long-distance trains in Switzerland, no surcharge is levied on the Swiss routes to the terminus in Zurich, Interlaken or Chur and the inland ICE trains (see above).
Since October 31, 2002, ICE trains have been given the names of cities that want to sponsor . When choosing the cities, the connection to the railway, the number of inhabitants and the regional balance play a role. By the beginning of 2016, more than 220 naming was celebrated. The following is an overview of the ICE names assigned to the series that were still in operation up until May 1, 2019. The names Nuremberg, Memmingen, Regensburg, Mühldorf (Inn), Westerland / Sylt, Lübeck, Rendsburg and Jever, originally assigned to the ICE-TD, were split up among other series after they were discontinued. The names Wehrheim (Taunus), Ostseebad Heringsdorf, Aarhus and København, originally assigned to the ICE-TD, have not, however, been reassigned.
Current naming of ICE 1
Large map: Germany
Small map: Switzerland
Current naming of the ICE 2
Current naming of ICE 3
Large map: Germany
Small maps: Benelux, France
Current naming ICE-T
|Brandenburg (including Berlin )||
|Lower Saxony (including Bremen )||
|Rhineland-Palatinate (including Saarland )||
|Schleswig-Holstein (including Hamburg )||
At the start of the ICE's scheduled trips on June 2, 1991 and on the 750th anniversary of the city of Hanover, a commemorative medal was minted in an edition of 2000 pieces. On October 5, 2006, Deutsche Post AG published a stamp for the ICE 3 at 55 + 25 euro cents as part of a charity stamp series consisting of four stamps .
- Wolfram O. Martinsen, Theo Rahn: ICE. Train of the future . 3. Edition. Hestra, Darmstadt 1997, ISBN 3-7771-0272-5 .
- Daniel Riechers: ICE. New trains for Germany's express traffic . Transpress, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-71172-9 .
- Heinz Kurz: InterCityExpress. The development of high-speed traffic in Germany . EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-228-7 .
- ICE line network 2020 of Deutsche Bahn AG (PDF; 445 KiB)
- ICE-Fansite.com - Private website about the ICE
- Website on the ICE network
- The rail system: The ICE on the DB Systemtechnik website(PDF; 5.4 MiB)
- The total number refers to the number of vehicles delivered as of March 1, 2019. Accidents and retirement have reduced the actual number of vehicles available over time. As of March 2019, 57 of the 60 ICE 1, 41 of the 44 ICE 2, 82 of the 84 ICE 3, 70 of the originally 71 ICE T and 25 ICE4 are still in operation. 2 ICE-TD and 1 rented ICE2 are in use at DB Systemtechnik, Siemens is also testing a 12-part (9014), a 13-part (9451) and 4 7-part (9201–9204) test units
- Deutsche Bahn AG (ed.): 20 years of high-speed traffic in Germany . Press release from May 27, 2011.
- DB Mobility Logistics AG (Ed.): Deutsche Bahn DB Mobility Logistics: Data & Facts 2012 ( Memento of the original from October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.1 MiB), p. 18.
- Deutsche Bahn - Facts and Figures 2019 , p. 19.
- The InterCity Express - result of the funding of rail research by the BMFT . In: Railway technical review . tape 40 , no. 5/6 , 1991, pp. 377 f .
- ICE reaches 317 km / h. In: Railway technical review. 34, No. 12, 1985, p. 846.
- Public presentation of the ICE. In: Railway technical review. 34, No. 11, 1985, p. 844.
- ICE intermediate car handed over to the Deutsche Bundesbahn. In: Railway technical review. 34, No. 7/8, 1985, pp. 618-620.
- Jürgen Hörstel, Marcus Niedt: ICE - New trains for new routes. Orell-Füssli, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-280-01994-X , p. 105.
- A veteran leaves the Deutsche Bahn. In: DB World . July / August 2007, p. 15.
- Peter Münchschwander (Ed.): The high-speed system of the German Federal Railroad. Von Decker, Heidelberg 1990, ISBN 3-7685-3089-2 , pp. 26-31.
- Bundesbahn high-speed train goes into series production. In: Railway technical review. 36, No. 1/2, 1987, p. 3.
- The further plans of the new railway. In: Bahn-Special. The new railway. No. 1, 1991, Gera-Nova, Munich, p. 78 f.
- ICE production is already running at full speed. In: The Federal Railroad. No. 3, 1989, p. 261.
- Annual review 1988. In: Die Bundesbahn. No. 1, 1989, p. 64.
- Theo Rahn : The order of the century in numbers and digits. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . No. 125, 1991, p. 3.
- ICE: Roll-out of the first intermediate car in Salzgitter. In: The Federal Railroad. No. 10, 1990, p. 1001 f.
- Bundesbahn orders 19 more ICE trains. In: The Federal Railroad. No. 9, 1990, p. 913.
- Ursula Bartelsheim: Advertising on the Deutsche Bundesbahn 1949–1993. In: DB Museum (Ed.): Go easy Go Bahn. Nuremberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-9807652-9-9 , pp. 150-189.
- Deutsche Bundesbahn, main administration (ed.): The new railway. About us. Frankfurt am Main, May 1985, p. 79 (brochure, 86 A4 pages).
- Jump forward on the rail. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. January 24, 1983.
- Heinz Kurz : 15 years of the ICE. Part 1: From Intercity-Experimental to ICE 1. In: Eisenbahn-Kurier . 4, No. 403, April 2006, , pp. 58-63.
- Play with Bähnle . In: Der Spiegel . No. 34, 1976, p. 59.
- Horst J. Obermayer: The new dimension of train traffic. In: Herrmann Merker (Ed.): ICE - InterCityExpress at the start. Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1991, ISBN 3-922404-17-0 , p. 56.
- Deutsche Bundesbahn, headquarters, central sales office: InterCityExpress. 20-page advertising brochure, no year, pp. 7, 9.
- Martin Voß: ICE-M multi-system multiple unit. In: The Federal Railroad. No. 5, 1989, pp. 389-398.
- Bundesbahn ordered 41 ICE trains. In: The Federal Railroad. No. 8, 1988, p. 747.
- Deutsche Bundesbahn, headquarters, central sales office: InterCityExpress. 20-page advertising brochure, no year, p. 9.
- Matthias Maier, Rüdiger Block: ICE. InterCity Experimental. InterCity Express. In: Eisenbahn-Kurier Special: High-speed traffic. No. 21, 1991, pp. 58-67.
- operation started in the ICE depot Hamburg-Eidelstedt . In: The Federal Railroad . No. 9 November 1990, pp. 1128 f .
- Theo Rahn: One year InterCityExpress. In: Railway technical review. June 1992, p. 359 f.
- Rail service. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. No. 214, 1995, p. 21.
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