Trans-Europ-Express ( TEE , often incorrectly referred to as Trans-Europa-Express ) was a type of train in international long-distance passenger rail transport that ran between the states of the EEC (European Economic Community) , Austria and Switzerland from 1957 to 1987 . Trains of this standard had to be reserved and only carried the first carriage class ; a surcharge was also required. International business travelers also had a so-called train secretariatto disposal. The Trans Europ Express was replaced by the EuroCity . Deutsche Bahn holds the trademark rights for the name Trans-Europ-Express .
In 1954 the Trans-Europ-Express-Commission was founded with its seat in The Hague . This happened on a suggestion by Franciscus Querien den Hollander, the then President of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS). Founding members were the state railways of Belgium ( NMBS / SNCB ), the Netherlands ( NS ), the Federal Republic of Germany ( DB ), France ( SNCF ), Italy ( FS ), Luxembourg ( CFL ) and Switzerland ( SBB ). The Spanish State Railways ( RENFE ) only joined later. The development of common trains was not yet in sight in view of national regulations and different power systems.
Common criteria for the vehicles were:
- Diesel multiple units with a top speed of 140 km / h, a maximum axle load of 18 tons and extremely smooth running
- at least 120 seats, no more than three seats per row
- Rooms for passport and customs control while driving
- Uniform paintwork in wine red and beige; in Germany RAL 3004 or RAL 1001
Since many international routes were not yet electrified and multi-system trains were not yet fully developed, only diesel multiple units were ordered in the first generation. In the 1950s, the routes only allowed speeds of up to 140 km / h.
On June 2, 1957, train operations began. Since the participating states could not agree on uniform trains, the state railways of France (SNCF) put their RGP1 ( SNCF X 2770 ), Italy (FS) the 442/448 , Germany (DB) the multiple units VT 08.5 and VT 11.5 and the The Netherlands (NS) and Switzerland (SBB) launched the joint development SBB RAm TEE / NS DE IV , their own modern diesel multiple units . The Belgian state railway NMBS / SNCB only provided later, the Luxembourg CFL no vehicles at all.
While the passengers in the French and Italian railcars were served with meals and drinks at the seat ( at the seat service ), the Swiss-Dutch and German trains had a dining car , the German VT 11.5 also had a bar car with a second dining room.
The advancing electrification, the increase in speeds and increasing numbers of passengers meant that the trains of the initial equipment did not have a long service life as TEE. The SNCF X 2770 were moved to domestic routes as early as 1965, the FS ALn 442/448 and DB 601 operated as TEE until 1972, the SBB / NS RAm until 1974.
In 1961 the first electric multiple unit of the SBB RAe TEE II series followed , which was suitable for the four power systems commonly used in the transport sector. In the same year, cross-border freight trains started as TEEM .
In order to be able to better adapt the trains to the number of passengers, the SNCF from 1963 and the DB from 1965 used fast, modern electric locomotives and particularly comfortable first-class cars in new TEE connections . The SNCF, SNCB and DB used multi-system locomotives for the connections between the Benelux countries, France and Germany . On the other hand , the locomotives were changed regularly, including in Emmerich am Rhein , Basel , Chiasso and on the Brenner Pass .
In 1971, almost all TEE trains in Germany were integrated into the two-hour cycle system of the then first-class InterCity trains.
In 1979, many TEE in Germany were replaced by InterCity trains with two car classes.
In 1982 the Lufthansa Airport Express (LHA) was set up between Düsseldorf Airport and Frankfurt am Main Airport . It was also run internally as a TEE by the Deutsche Bundesbahn until the summer of 1987. Also in 1987, the EuroCity, a new European type of train for quality trains with first and second class, was introduced.
The last TEE ran between Zurich and Milan on September 24, 1988. From the following day he was also on the road as EuroCity and with new vehicle equipment. The five TEE sets were rebuilt.
In 1993, the only non-stop service between Brussels and Paris trains running Euro-city trains (using were INOX TEE cars ) used one last time under the name "TEE", but the first already with cars and second class. For the following summer schedule, however, the product "TEE" disappeared in France in favor of the TGV.
The color of the SBB RAe TEE II , which has been restored to its original color, has been operating for SBB Historic in charter and tourist traffic since 2003 .
In 2004 the restoration of a TEE train was carried out by Deutsche Bahn. The estimated cost of three million euros should be ensured by 90 to 100 trips per year.
Since 2007, a set of TEE cars including a viewing car with two DB class 103 locomotives has been operating for the Nuremberg Transport Museum under the product name TEE Rheingold in charter and tourist traffic .
In September 2020, the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure presented a concept "TransEuropExpress (TEE) 2.0 - Cross-border high-speed and night rail traffic for climate protection". The concept envisages a new TEE network with high-speed trains over long distances through several countries. Deutsche Bahn points out that there are already several cross-border connections. Given the presentation, some observers rate it as unlikely that the TEE 2.0 could really compete with the aircraft. In the case of European connections, for example, there is only one pair of trains per day and not a train system with a tight frequency.
DB class VT 11.5 in TEE colors, front view, 1959
SBB Re 4/4 I 10033 in TEE colors
SBB Re 4/4 II 11253 in TEE colors
In Germany, the TEE trains were originally mainly driven by class VT 11 5 diesel multiple units. In 1957, the German Federal Railroad bought 19 VT 11.5 multiple units. The trains attracted attention with their streamlined end cars, whose diesel engines from Maybach , initially producing 810 kW (1100 hp), enabled a cruising speed of 140 km / h. Initially, before the delivery of the VT 11.5 series, class VT 08 5 railcars were also used.
From 1965 on, electric locomotives of the E 03 and E 10.12 series were used; The latter locomotives were a special version of the E 10 series, the maximum speed of which had been increased to 160 km / h for TEE traffic. First the sets of the Rheingold and Rheinpfeil , which had been in service since 1962, were repainted in the TEE colors, and later similar vehicles were procured for the other TEE trains. The trains consisted of air-conditioned compartment cars and first class open seating cars, a dining car and, in many cases, a viewing car or bar car .
From the 1970s onwards, upgraded lines made it possible to travel at speeds of up to 200 km / h for the trains hauled by the 103 series. The wagons were retrofitted with anti-roll dampers and magnetic rail brakes , steam heaters and axle generators could be removed because the wagons were now supplied with energy via the train busbar .
List of TEE trains / connections
|Train number||Surname||Train run||from||to|
|TEE 92/93||Adriatico||Milano C - Bari||3rd June 1973||May 30, 1987|
|TEA 8/9||Albert Schweitzer||Dortmund - Strasbourg||June 2, 1980||May 27, 1983|
|TEA 78/79||Ambrosiano||Milano C - Roma Termini||May 26, 1974||May 30, 1987|
|TEA 1/2||Aquitaine||Paris Gare d'Austerlitz - Bordeaux||May 23, 1971||May 30, 1984|
|TEE 64/65||Arbalète||Paris Gare de l'Est - Zurich||June 2, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 88/89||Aurora||Roma Termini - Reggio Calabria||May 26, 1974||May 31, 1975|
|TEA 14/15||Bacchus||Dortmund - Stuttgart - Munich||May 28, 1979||May 30, 1980|
|TEE 66/67||Bavaria||Zurich - Munich||September 28, 1969||May 21, 1977|
|TEE 84/85||Brabant||( Amsterdam CS -) Brussels Midi / Zuid - Paris Gare du Nord||May 26, 1963||2nd June 1984|
|TEE 90/91||Blue gentian||Hamburg-Altona - Klagenfurt||May 30, 1965||May 26, 1979|
|TEA 74/75||Capitole du matin||Paris Gare d'Austerlitz - Toulouse-Matabiau||September 27, 1970||May 23, 1982|
|TEE 76/77||Capitole du soir||Paris Gare d'Austerlitz - Toulouse-Matabiau||May 27, 1970||September 29, 1984|
|TEE 83/84||Catalan - Talgo||Geneva -Cornavin - Barcelona||June 1, 1969||May 22, 1982|
|TEA 22/23||Cisalpine||Paris Gare de Lyon - Milan C||July 1, 1971||January 21, 1984|
|TEE 68/69||Colloseum||Milano C - Roma Termini||3rd June 1984||May 30, 1987|
|TEE 36/37||Cycnus||Milano C - Ventimiglia||September 30, 1973||May 27, 1978|
|TEE 42/43||Diamond (I)||Antwerp - Dortmund||May 30, 1965||May 29, 1976|
|TEE 80/81||Diamond (II)||Hamburg-Altona - Munich||May 27, 1979||May 27, 1981|
|TEE 90/93||Edelweiss||Amsterdam CS - Zurich HB||June 2, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEA 26/27||Erasmus||The Hague - Munich||3rd June 1973||May 31, 1980|
|TEA 4/5||Etendard||Paris Gare d'Austerlitz - Bordeaux||August 26, 1971||May 30, 1984|
|TEE 82/85||L'Étoile du Nord||Amsterdam CS - Paris Gare du Nord||June 2, 1957||June 26, 1984|
|TEA 34/35||Faidherbe||Paris Gare du Nord - Tourcoing||2nd October 1978||June 1, 1991|
|TEA 16/17||Friedrich Schiller||Dortmund - Stuttgart||May 27, 1979||May 19, 1982|
|TEA 14/15||Gambrinus||Hamburg-Altona - Munich||May 29, 1978||May 27, 1983|
|TEE 36/37||Gayant||Paris Gare du Nord - Tourcoing||2nd October 1978||May 30, 1986|
|TEE 50/51||Goethe (I)||Paris Gare de l'Est - Frankfurt (Main) Central Station||May 31, 1970||May 31, 1975|
|TEA 24/25||Goethe (II)||Dortmund - Frankfurt (Main)||May 27, 1978||May 27, 1983|
|TEA 58/59||Gottardo||Zurich HB - Milano C||July 1, 1961||September 24, 1988|
|TEA 28/29||Heinrich Heine||Dortmund - Frankfurt (Main)||May 27, 1979||May 27, 1983|
|TEA 78/79||Helvetia||Hamburg-Altona - Zurich HB||June 2, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 88/81||L'Île de France||Amsterdam CS - Paris Gare du Nord||June 2, 1957||May 28, 1981|
|TEE 91/92||iris||Brussels South - Zurich HB||May 26, 1974||May 30, 1981|
|TEA 30/31||Jules Verne||Paris Gare Montparnasse - Nantes||September 28, 1980||September 22, 1989|
|TEE 60/61||Glue||Paris Gare de l'Est - Strasbourg||May 23, 1971||September 23, 1988|
|TEA 24/25||Lemano||Milano C - Geneva-Cornavin||June 1, 1958||May 22, 1982|
|TEE 45-46 / 47-48||Ligure||Marseille St-Charles - Milano C||September 12, 1957||May 22, 1982|
|TEA 12/13||Le Lyonnais||Paris Gare de Lyon - Lyon Perrache||February 9, 1969||September 26, 1976|
|TEE 84/85||Mediolanum||Munich - Milano C||October 15, 1957||2nd June 1984|
|TEE 86/79||Memling||Brussels South - Paris Gare du Nord||29th September 1974||June 1, 1984|
|TEA 34/35||Mercury||København - Stuttgart||May 26, 1974||May 27, 1978|
|TEA 10/11||Le Mistral||Paris Gare de Lyon - Nice -Ville||May 30, 1965||September 26, 1981|
|TEA 23/24||Mont Cenis||Lyon-Perrache - Milano C||June 2, 1957||September 30, 1972|
|TEA 40/41||Molière||Cologne - Paris Gare du Nord||June 2, 1957||May 25, 1979|
|TEE 80/89||L'Oiseau Bleu||Brussels South - Paris Gare du Nord||June 2, 1957||2nd June 1984|
|TEA 40/41||Paris Ruhr||Paris - Dortmund||June 2, 1957||June 2nd 1972|
|TEE 32/33||Parsifal||Hamburg-Altona - Paris Gare du Nord||September 29, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 86/87||Prince Eugene (I)||Bremen - Vienna Westbahnhof||September 25, 1971||May 29, 1976|
|TEA 26/27||Prince Eugene (II)||Hanover - Cologne - Vienna Westbahnhof||May 30, 1976||May 27, 1978|
|TEA 10/11||Rembrandt||Amsterdam CS - Stuttgart - Munich||May 28, 1967||May 28, 1983|
|TEA 22/23||Rhine-Main||Frankfurt - Amsterdam||June 2, 1957||May 27, 1972|
|TEA 6/7||Rheingold||Amsterdam CS - Geneva Cornavin||May 30, 1965||May 30, 1987|
|TEA 16/17||Rheingold (wing train)||Amsterdam CS - Salzburg||May 29, 1983||May 30, 1987|
|TEA 21/22||Rhine arrow||Dortmund - Munich||May 30, 1965||September 25, 1971|
|TEA 74/75||Roland (I)||Bremen - Milan C||June 1, 1969||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 90/91||Roland (II)||Bremen - Stuttgart||May 28, 1979||May 29, 1980|
|TEA 78/79||Rubens||Brussels Midi / Zuid - Paris Gare du Nord||29th September 1974||May 27, 1987|
|TEA 16/17||Le Rhodania||Paris Gare de Lyon - Marseille C.||May 23, 1971||September 29, 1978|
|TEA 28/29||sapphire||Ostend - Dortmund
later: Brussels Midi / Zuid - Frankfurt (Main)
|June 2, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 68/69||Settebello||Milano C - Roma Termini||May 26, 1974||2nd June 1984|
|TEE 62/63||Stanislas||Paris Gare de l'Est - Strasbourg||May 24, 1971||September 25, 1982|
|TEE 56/57||Ticino||Zurich HB - Milano C||July 1, 1961||May 25, 1974|
|TEA 22/23||Van Beethoven||Amsterdam CS - Frankfurt (Main)||June 2, 1957||May 26, 1979|
|TEE 94/95||Vesuvio||Milano C - Napoli||September 30, 1973||May 30, 1987|
|TEA 38/39||Watteau||Paris Gare du Nord - Tourcoing||2nd October 1978||June 1, 1991|
|TEE 61/62||LH 1001/1002||Düsseldorf Airport - Frankfurt (Main) Airport||March 27, 1982||1987|
|TEE 63/64||LH 1003/1004||Düsseldorf Airport - Frankfurt (Main) Airport||March 27, 1982||1987|
|TEE 65/66||LH 1005/1006||Düsseldorf Airport - Frankfurt (Main) Airport||March 27, 1982||1987|
|TEE 67/68||LH 1007/1008||Düsseldorf Airport - Frankfurt (Main) Airport||March 27, 1982||1987|
Status: train numbers and route at the time the train was discontinued
- On October 5, 2006, Deutsche Post AG published a stamp with the image of the VT 11.5 at 55 + 25 euro cents as part of a welfare stamp series made up of four stamps .
- The incorrect spelling mentioned at the beginning is sometimes attributed to the music album called Trans Europ a Express and its title song of the same name, which the German group Kraftwerk published in 1977.
- Also in 1977, the feature film Rheingold by Niklaus Schilling was made between Emmerich and Basel SBB in a regular TEE Rheingold (TEE 6/7) .
- Episode 36 of the German crime series Derrick was called Mord im TEE 91 .
- With the Eurofima C1 paint scheme , five of the eight state railways involved in the TEE project again introduced a cross-border uniform paint scheme for vehicles involved in international traffic in 1975; it was based on the TEE paint scheme from 1957 and partially replaced it. In Germany, the TEE paintwork was slightly modified from the end of the 1970s (window band ivory instead of beige, roof umbra gray, aprons red instead of black-gray) and only replaced in 1986 with the introduction of the so-called product colors of the German Federal Railroad .
- Fritz Stöckl: Trans-Europ-Express. The history of the TEE company. Rösler + Zimmer, Augsburg 1971
- Maurice Mertens (German translation and adaptation by Bernd von Mitzlaff): TRANS EUROP EXPRESS , Alba Verlag, Düsseldorf 1987, ISBN 3-87094-114-6
- Hans-Bernhard Schönborn: The TEE trains in Switzerland. Luxury trains for Europe. GeraMond, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7654-7122-4
- Christian Zellweger: TEE - icon of luxury trains. AS, Zurich 2003, ISBN 3-905111-95-0
- Rüdiger Block: The TEE railcars of the Deutsche Bundesbahn. EK, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-88255-102-X
- Peter Goette: TEE trains in Switzerland and Swiss TEE trains abroad. EK, Freiburg 2006, ISBN 3-88255-697-8
- Peter Goette: TEE trains in Germany. EK, Freiburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-88255-698-8
- André Papazian: Fascination TEA. Transpress, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-613-71417-5
- SWR: Railway Romanticism - The TEE (episode 17)
- SWR: Railway Romanticism - Between Country Magic and TEE Dreams (episode 537)
- Trans-Europ-Express , Franco-Belgian feature film by Alain Robbe-Grillet from 1966
- Martin U. Müller : Ministry plans new European railway network. In: Der Spiegel. September 20, 2020, accessed September 26, 2020 .
- The last TEE was EuroCity . In: Die Bundesbahn , 64, No. 11, 1988, , p. 1100 f.
- TEE - a star of the rails returns . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 6/2004, , p. 279.
- Office of the Federal Government Commissioner for Rail Transport (GS-BSV): TEE 2.0 - Cross-border high-speed and night rail traffic for climate protection. (PDF; 4.8 MB) Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, September 21, 2020, accessed on September 24, 2020 .
- Martin U. Müller , Gerald Traufetter, DER SPIEGEL: Rail is reserved towards Scheuer's Trans-Europ-Express 2.0 - DER SPIEGEL - Wirtschaft. Retrieved September 26, 2020 .
- Wolf-Heinrich Kulke: Milestones of Locomotive Technology (= Library of Locomotives, Vol. 2). GeraMond, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-86245-134-0 , p. 36.