Swiss Federal Railways
|Swiss Federal Railways SBB
|legal form||public legal Aktiengesellschaft (according to SBBG )|
|founding||January 1, 1902,
January 1, 1999 ( AG )
|Seat||Bern , Switzerland Coordinates: 46 ° 58 ′ 4.1 ″ N , 7 ° 27 ′ 47.5 ″ E ; CH1903: six hundred and one thousand eight hundred sixty-nine / 201858|
Vincent Ducrot (Chief Executive Officer ) ,
Monika Ribar ( President of the Board of Directors )
|Number of employees||32,535 (2019)|
|sales||9.86 billion CHF (2019)|
|As of June 1, 2020|
The Swiss Federal Railways AG , SBB for short , French Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses CFF , Italian Ferrovie federali svizzere FFS , Romansh VFF , English Swiss federal railways SFR ; Brand identity SBB CFF FFS is the state-owned railway company in Switzerland , based in the federal city of Bern . The abbreviations VFF and SFR are rarely used; in English texts, SBB or SBB-CFF-FFS is mostly used.
On January 1, 1999, the SBB was spun off from the federal administration and converted into a public limited company under special law, the shares of which are wholly owned by the Swiss Confederation .
The corporation is run according to entrepreneurial principles. The Federal Council sets the strategic goals for four years. In addition, the service agreement stipulates the payments and federal loans for the infrastructure and the services to be provided for it. Compensation for regional passenger transport and combined transport is carried out separately according to the same rules as for other companies. The long-distance passenger and the other freight must be operated at least break even.
Structure and direction
The Board of Directors elected by the Federal Council is chaired by President Monika Ribar and Vice-President Peter Siegenthaler and consists of seven other members of the Board of Directors (Erich Ammann, Andrea Hämmerle , Georg Kasperkovitz, Alexandra Post Quillet, Beat Schwab, Daniel Trolliet and Pierre-Alain Urech). Group auditing is directly subordinate to the Presidium of the Board of Directors and Group Management reports directly to the Board of Directors.
The group consists of the four divisions Passenger Transport, Freight Transport , Infrastructure and Real Estate. The divisions are responsible for processing their market areas. Group divisions are each responsible for cross-sectional functions that they lead professionally (finance, IT, corporate development, law and compliance, human resources, communication, security and quality as well as supply chain management).
Vincent Ducrot heads the Executive Committee as Chairman. He took over the management from Andreas Meyer , who led the company from 2007 to 2020. The Chief Executive Officer is responsible for the overall success of the company. Group management decisions are made as committee decisions based on the majority principle. The Group Management manages SBB's business unless they are reserved for the Board of Directors or have been delegated to the divisions and business units. In addition to the chairman, the group management consists of Anton Häne (Head of Passenger Transport), Jacques Boschung (Head of Infrastructure), Nicolas Perrin (Head of Freight Transport), Alexander Muhm (Head of Real Estate), Christoph Hammer ( Head of Finance ), Markus Jordi ( Head of Human Resources ), Kathrin Amacker (Head of Communication) and Peter Kummer ( Head of IT ).
Subsidiaries and investments
Some German rail routes in local rail passenger transport are operated by the German subsidiary SBB GmbH : Wiesentalbahn , Gartenbahn and the Seehas .
Subsidiaries under Swiss law are Elvetino AG (100 percent), SBB Cargo AG (100 percent), Thurbo AG (90 percent), Regionalps AG (70%) and AlpTransit Gotthard AG (100 percent). SBB also holds significant shares in Zentralbahn AG (66 percent), TILO SA (50 percent) and Lyria (26 percent).
In 2002, SBB established the SBB Historical Heritage Foundation to look after and maintain its historical heritage . It maintains the historical rolling stock and operates the information center in Windisch AG , which contains a large traffic history library, the historical archive, the plan archive, the photo archive and the SBB poster collection.
The PubliBike bicycle rental system was founded in 2011 together with PostBus and “Rent a Bike” .
|Passenger journeys (million)||222||323||328||347||357||354||366||430||442||458||452||456|
|Passenger kilometers (million)||10,877||16'144||16,677||17,513||17,749||17,545||17,773||18'231||18,560||18,960||18,501||18,608|
|GA travelcards (1) (2) (thousand)||226||374||400||429||431||442||442||453||460||472||480||490|
|Half-fare travelcards (1) (2) (thousand)||1,884||2,206||2,275||2,357||2,345||2,381||2,335||2,344||2,332||2,395||2,531||2,598|
|Net tonne kilometers (million)||10,786||12,531||11,674||13'111||12,346||12,132||12,317||14,478||15'065||16,559||16,699||16,974|
|Train-path kilometers standard gauge (million)||131||159||162||164||166||167||171||173||175||178||177||177|
|Full-time employees||28'272||27,822||27,978||28,143||28,586||29'396||31'158||32,857||33,081||33,119||32,754||32 309|
(1) Valid on Swiss public transport well beyond the SBB network
- Length of the SBB infrastructure network in standard gauge : 3,086 kilometers (2018)
- Length of the Zentralbahn network in meter gauge : 98 kilometers (2018)
- Train stations and stops in tourist traffic: 793 (2018)
- Railway stations with the highest passenger frequency : Zurich HB 471,300, Bern 206,400, Basel SBB 111,000, Winterthur 109,300, Lausanne 102,500, Lucerne 97,900, Zurich Oerlikon 94,700, Olten 83,000, Zurich Stadelhofen 82,800, Geneva 70,700. Entry and exit per working day (2018)
- Railway stations with freight traffic: 242 (2010)
- private sidings : approx. 1,300
- Park Fields Park and Rail : 28 '455 (2018)
- Parking spaces for two-wheelers managed by SBB: 94,074 (2018)
- Passenger punctuality in passenger transport: 90.1% (arrival of passengers at the destination, measured from the point of departure including any necessary changes, with less than three minutes delay or on time) (2018 )
- Mediated train connections: 97% (2018 )
- Proportion of self-economic long-distance transport in the transport performance (pkm): 73.6%
- Subsidy for operation, maintenance and construction investments (2007–2010) : 5.88 billion Swiss francs
The SBB route network is fully electrified. The meter-gauge Brünig Railway was until 2005 the only non-standard-gauge railway line operated by SBB. It was outsourced from the company and merged with Luzern-Stans-Engelberg-Bahn to form Zentralbahn , in which SBB is a majority shareholder with 66%.
In the 19th century, all railways in Switzerland were still owned by private companies. The economic and regional political interests of the companies led to the financially disastrous construction of practically parallel railway lines, which drove the national railway, designed as a counterpart to the large companies, into bankruptcy. The unconditional pursuit of profit of the monopolistic societies (regional monopolies) led to severe public criticism. At the referendum of February 20, 1898, the sovereign approved the nationalization of the five large companies. The first board of directors consisted of 54 members and the first constituent meeting was held on October 24, 1900. The SBB has existed as a complete organization since January 1, 1902; The first train that was actually run by the SBB General Management also ran on that day. This means that this day is the official “date of birth” for SBB. Until then, the operation was carried out on behalf of the federal government, but still in the organization of the private railways. From 1901 to 1909, the five largest private railways were gradually nationalized and transferred to the SBB. Finally, the following private railways were incorporated into SBB:
- Swiss Central Railway (SCB)
- Swiss Northeast Railway (NOB) including the Lake Constance fleet
- United Swiss Railways (VSB) including the Toggenburgerbahn
- Jura-Simplon Railway (JS) including Brünig Railway (from 1903)
- Gotthard Railway Company (GB) (from 1909)
- Jura neuchâtelois (JN) (from 1913)
- Tösstalbahn (TTB) including Wald-Rüti-Bahn (WR) (from 1918)
- Seetalbahn (STB) (from 1922)
- Uerikon-Bauma-Bahn (UeBB) (from 1948)
- Chemin de fer Vevey – Chexbres (VCh) (from 2013)
With the timetable change on June 3, 1956, SBB and the other European railways switched to the two- class system , the third wagon class became the second, the second and the first were merged into the new first class.
Starting with Bern train station , the toilet facilities at some train stations were privatized in 1995.
At the beginning of 1997, the SBB's Board of Directors decided to split the company up organizationally into the areas of transport and infrastructure , each with its own balance sheet and profit and loss account. The division, which was implemented gradually by January 1, 1998, also included the unimpeded network access for third parties required by the European Community . Until 1998, the SBB were formally part of the federal administration with their own accounting. They were divided into three districts with district offices in Lausanne , Lucerne and Zurich . In the course of the reorganization, SBB's own management consultancy SBB Consulting was founded in 1999.
In 2000 the company participated in two tenders in the London area .
The biggest timetable change since the introduction of the interval timetable in 1982 took place on December 12, 2004. As part of the implementation of the Bahn 2000 project , 90 percent of all trains changed the timetable, and 12 percent more trains were used at the same time. The core of Bahn 2000 was the reduction of travel times in the railway triangle Basel - Zurich - Bern to less than one hour. This means that ideal connection conditions have existed in the railway hubs since December 2004, which significantly reduces the total travel time. This was mainly made possible by the new Mattstetten – Rothrist line (between Bern and Olten), on which 160 km / h can be driven until summer 2007 and 200 km / h since then.
Many Swiss train stations were rebuilt so that the planned timetable change could take place on December 12, 2004. Various routes such as from Ziegelbrücke to Sargans been adjusted in Bern station which was wave of Bern created a platform above the tracks, which serves as the West access.
In the early evening of June 22, 2005, a network-wide power failure brought the SBB and many other railways to a standstill for over three hours. An estimated 200,000 passengers and around 2000 trains were directly affected by this operating margin - the largest so far in the history of Swiss railways. As was determined in retrospect, an overload on the Amsteg - Rotkreuz power transmission line was the cause of the disruption: as a result of construction work on the Amsteg - Steinen line, it was the only connection to handle the entire exchange of energy between the Gotthard region and the other parts of the country, but it had power a lower transport capacity than specified in the system documentation.
In the same year, however, the SBB also won the Wakker Prize , an award from the Swiss Homeland Security , which is normally only given to municipalities that pay particular attention to their appearance.
With the timetable change on December 11, 2005, Swiss railways banned smoking on all trains; Smoke-free zones have also been marked in the train stations. However, these are limited to the closed areas such as underground stations and ticket halls. Smoking is usually not restricted on the platforms.
With the timetable changes in December 2015 and 2016, SBB added two important new sections of its route network to the timetable: in 2015 it was the Zurich cross-city line , which significantly reduced travel times on the east-west axis between Bern and St. Gallen. Since then, the trains no longer use the large station hall (terminus) on this connection, but the Löwenstrasse underground station. In 2016, the Gotthard Base Tunnel was integrated into the timetable, the commissioning of which not only significantly reduced the travel time of the trains on the north-south axis Olten-Bellinzona, but thanks to its gradient-free route, the freight trains can run at higher speeds, which ultimately the Additional capacity on the route increases.
In February 2017, the SBB announced that they would check the operation of trains with remote control . SBB boss Andreas Meyer wants to increase the capacity of the network by 30% with efficient rail technology. From 2025, a closer cycle, more automation , digital interlocking technology and better information for customers should be implemented.
Since 2019, the advertising space in the trains and over 70 locomotives have been marketed as outdoor advertising space by APG SGA .
In September 2019, Smartmo, in cooperation with SBB, put a digital bicycle parking system into operation with space for 50 bicycles in front of the Lucerne train station . It is the first of a total of six pilot plants which are expected to start operating gradually by the end of the year.
SBB corporate divisions
The corporate divisions serve, on the one hand, for central control of the group and, on the other hand, as service providers for the divisions. As cross-sectional functions, they interface with all divisions.
The Finance division ensures the financial management of the SBB divisions and its subsidiaries. He procures and manages the financial resources, is responsible for tax issues and insurance management in the group.
SBB Informatik, based in Worblaufen near Bern, is the internal supplier for all IT services that do not relate to control technology. The further development of the approx. 1200 business applications and the construction of new applications are carried out with internal development teams, which are supported by external companies. The data centers and the workstation hardware with the office applications are outsourced by T-Systems Switzerland and Swisscom IT Services .
Applications developed by SBB are primarily used to support processes in the divisions, but also to end customers via systems for self-service ticket sales via the electronic channels automat (see also the section on ticket machines of the Swiss Federal Railways ), web shop and the mobile app SBB Mobile as well as the serviced Ticket sales at the ticket counter. Since the end of May 2019 , customers of Salt Mobile and Sunrise have been able to benefit from a free internet connection in the InterCity tilting trains via SBB Freesurf . The customer data collected from all the digital applications can be monetized with targeted advertising , which SBB already pours a single-digit million amount into the till every year.
Through its technical leadership role, SBB Informatik is responsible for compliance with IT governance throughout the Group. In order to be able to operate the complex IT landscape safely and to further develop it economically, its tasks include IT architecture management and control over the effective use of IT resources. For this purpose, the corporate architecture of SBB is mapped in a model and future development is controlled via a project portfolio .
With around 840 employees (as of January 1, 2012) working for SBB Informatik, it is one of the most important IT employers in the Bern area.
Corporate development develops the corporate strategy and is responsible for organizational management. With the SBB Consulting division, it provides internal and external management advice.
Human Resources is responsible for the further development of the collective labor agreement and wage negotiations on the employer's side.
SBB passenger transport
In accordance with the strategic goals of the Federal Council, the Passenger Transport division is to take on a disproportionate share of national and international long-distance transport through a market-oriented offering and connect the Swiss rail system with the European high-speed network. The high market share is to be maintained in regional transport. The services in regional transport and the remuneration from the public sector are negotiated with the cantons. The cantons are free to put public transport services out to tender and to conclude contracts with other providers. As a result, the SBB are competing for tenders in regional transport.
All vehicles required for passenger transport and shunting, such as locomotives, shunting locomotives, passenger coaches and multiple units, are managed and maintained by SBB Personenverkehr. At SBB, heavy maintenance has been integrated into passenger transport for all divisions since January 1, 2009. Train drivers, train attendants, sales and service staff at the stations and train preparation staff are employees of passenger transport.
SBB provides its customers with a course book , a mobile app and the SBB website to help them plan their trips . The latest timetables are called up on the website and in the app. Current delays, operational disruptions or changes to the platforms, train loadings and current fares or economy prices are displayed online. The ticket can be purchased online by clicking on the desired journey .
As the owner, the federal government expects the SBB to make a significant contribution to shifting freight traffic from road to rail. To this end, SBB Cargo operates a nationwide network for single-wagon load traffic in Switzerland, in which single wagons are transported to sidings or to the railway's own loading facilities. A competitive advantage of this network is the overnight transport, as the night driving ban applies to the roads in Switzerland. A disadvantage is the high structural costs. Despite repeated adjustments to the structure and operation, this network is not economically viable for SBB Cargo.
Rail freight transport is largely liberalized in Switzerland. This affects SBB Cargo above all in transit traffic and block train traffic. In order to compensate for the loss of market share on the transit route in Switzerland, SBB Cargo made a strategic decision to manage transports from Germany to Italy on its own. Although it was possible to carry out the transports in high quality, the market entry costs in Germany and Italy were so high that SBB Cargo has so far not been able to operate this business profitably in the long term without partners. The train drivers, locomotives, shunting locomotives, shunting teams and freight wagons required for freight transport are managed by SBB Cargo.
Planzer Transport , Camion-Transport , Galliker Holding and Bertschi AG want to take a 35% stake in SBB Cargo through Swiss Combi AG. The participation announced at the end of August 2019 still requires the approval of the competition authority .
SBB real estate
SBB Immobilien manages 4,000 properties with 3,500 buildings and rents them out to SBB organizational units as well as to third parties. Especially with the centrally located train stations in the largest Swiss cities, which are marketed under the brand name RailCity, SBB has high-quality commercial properties for service and retail companies. Land and properties that are no longer necessary for rail operations and do not fit into the portfolio are sold. The profits made by SBB Immobilien are used by SBB to restructure the pension fund.
SBB Infrastructure has been the name for the Infrastructure division since the reorganization and conversion of SBB into an AG at the beginning of 1999 . It is responsible for the construction, maintenance and operation of all railway systems, the energy supply and the telecommunications networks of the SBB . Various thermal and some electric traction vehicles are assigned to her for maneuvers within large train stations , in shunting yards and for rail maintenance purposes.
SBB Infrastructure operates and maintains 2,939 km of the Swiss rail network, 1,711 km of which are multi-track. A total of 7590 kilometers of track are spanned with contact wire for electrical operation. 14,254 turnouts and 31,874 signals are set in 502 signal boxes . These signal boxes are controlled from four operations centers in Zurich Airport, Olten, Lausanne and Pollegio. The route network includes 319 rail tunnels with a total length of 257 km and 6005 bridges with a total length of 92 km. The company uses 2.5 to 4 tons of the controversial herbicide glyphosate each year to control weeds on the track beds . During the second heat wave in summer 2019, SBB tested the application of white paint to the tracks to prevent heat-related track warpage - a deformation of the tracks.
SBB Infrastructure employs 9,193 people and generates annual train path revenues of CHF 540 million . The proceeds from energy sales are approximately CHF 300 million. In addition, there are annual payments and interest-free federal loans of around CHF 1,400 million. This does not include federal funds for major projects (NEAT, Bahn 2000, connection of Switzerland to high-speed traffic, noise protection) and urban traffic.
The command rooms of SBB Infrastructure are located in Zurich , Pollegio , Olten and Lausanne .
The Energy Business Unit , part of SBB Infrastructure, is located in Zollikofen , where the central network control center is also located. The SBB's own power plants, converter systems, transmission lines and distribution systems / networks are subordinate to the division. The division is also active in electricity trading.
With the Elektrifikationsentscheid favor of the MFO - traction power system - single-phase with reduced frequency of 16 ⅔ Hz (1995: 16.70 Hz) - was made indirectly, the decision to build its own power supply.
The SBB has six of its own power plants:
- Châtelard-Barberine (VS)
- Etzelwerk (SZ)
- Massaboden (VS)
- Vernayaz (VS)
The SBB is involved in the following power plants:
- Amsteg (UR): 90%
- Göschenen (UR): 40%
- Rupperswil-Auenstein (AG): 55%
- Wassen (UR): 90%
- Ritom (TI): 75%
- Nant de Drance (VS): 36%
Originally to cover energy bottlenecks from the 50 Hz national network, the SBB traction power converter plants :
- Giubiasco (TI)
- Kerzers (FR)
- Massaboden (VS)
- Rupperswil (AG)
- Zurich Seebach (ZH)
- Wimmis (BE; takeover 2007)
Since the frequency converters work in both directions, SBB can trade in electricity: during the day electricity is fed into the national electricity grid, while at night electricity can be bought cheaply using the pump storage-capable power plants.
The short-term and unannounced coverage of energy bottlenecks on the national grid is regulated by the BEN contract , named after the first letters of the contract partners BKW Energie , Energie Ouest Suisse and Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke .
Transmission network (extract)
The SBB have two to four-system transmission lines with 66 or 132 kV. The network is not meshed, but star-shaped . Various management projects failed due to objections from nature conservationists. If possible, the cable runs will be built along railway lines. In some cases, the SBB enjoy usage rights for the transmission lines of the power and transmission plants.
Altendorf – Sargans traction power line
The Altendorf – Sargans traction power line was bipolar all the way into the 1980s. In a first stage, it was expanded from Altendorf to Ziegelbrücke and connected to the SBB substation there. The continuation runs partly underground at the Walensee .
Rupperswil – Muttenz railway power line
In Rupperswil or end party lines NOK and SBB begin. Among them is the Rupperswil – Muttenz railway power line. Combined with an Axpo fine distribution line, it passes Staffelegg . At Frick AG , it first follows the A3 motorway and then separates from the NOK line. As far as Muttenz , it follows the railway line without exception and contains four systems all the way. At the level of Möhlin , Rheinfelden and Kaiseraugst, it is joined by a three-system NOK fine distribution pipeline that branches off from the Riburg-Schwörstadt power plant. The routing of the Energiestrasse at the level of the Pratteln train station proved to be not easy . Although the railway line is dead straight, the line requires all of the transformer masts of different heights. The two-level arrangement had to be changed somewhat on two supporting structures, as a building and a factory chimney are next door. The line then runs through the freight yard on tall lattice masts .
Continuations are the lines to Delsberg and the Muttenz – Haltingen traction power line . The latter is one of two transmission lines for traction current between Switzerland and Germany.
The steam locomotives of the early days of the SBB included the Ed 2x2 / 2 , E 3/3 , A 3/5 , B 3/4 and C 5/6 series .
For the first experiments with electrical traction ( traction current ; single-phase alternating current ), from 1903 the Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon (MFO) together with the SBB started the Seebach-Wettingen test operation with the later Ce 4/4 locomotives ( Eva and Marianne ). It was not until the coal shortage after the First World War that the electrification of the railroad network followed from 1919 and thus the procurement of various series of electric locomotives : Ce 6/8 II / Ce 6/8 III Krokodil (1920/1926), Be 4/6 (1920), Be 4/7 (1921), Ae 3/5 (1922), Ae 3/6 I (1921), Ae 3/6 II (1924), Ae 3/6 III (1925), Ae 4/7 (1927) and Ae 4/6 (1941). The year 1946 marks a turning point, in which the step was made to the modern bogie locomotive without running axles , the most popular locomotive type in Switzerland: Re 4/4 I (1946), Ae 6/6 (1952), Re 4/4 II / Re 4/4 III (1964/1971), Re 6/6 (1972), Re 450 DPZ (1989) and Re 460 / Re 465 Lok 2000 (1992/1994).
The completion of the delivery of Locomotive 2000 and the subsequent dissolution of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Factory (SLM Winterthur ) marked the end of Swiss locomotive construction. The splitting of SBB into the passenger transport and freight transport divisions also meant the beginning of separate rolling stock procurement. Since SBB is increasingly focusing on multiple units in passenger transport , new locomotives are mainly being procured from SBB Cargo: Re 482 Traxx F140 AC (2002), Re 484 Traxx F140 MS (2004) and Re 474 ES64 F4 (2004).
The oldest car used in normal operation are from 1956 procured Einheitswagen I and II. The modernization versions without external flush doors are excreted, 2014. The last ones still in operation were the Parrot / New Look (dark gray, green, blue with yellow doors) and comfort stripes (green with turquoise stripes). The wagons in the NPZ color scheme light gray / blue and smooth exterior, automatic exterior swinging doors are only used in shuttle trains with Re 420 and RBDe 562. The air-conditioned Swiss Express cars (standard car III) procured in the 1970s were sold to BLS in 2007.
The air-conditioned IV standard cars come from the 1980s and are in use in long-distance traffic in various stages of modernization (new, white paint scheme; new interior fittings; vacuum toilets; upgraded for 200 km / h). Together with the IC Bt control car, they are often used as additional modules for EW-IV or IC2000 master compositions. The SBB also have matching EW-IV dining cars, which are used on intercity lines and in international traffic.
EC cars Apm / Bpm 61 are available from 1989 to 1995 for international traffic (especially Zurich – Munich and Zurich – Stuttgart). At times, some of these cars were used for the locomotive-hauled Cisalpino Eurocitys. From 2009 the cars were modernized and given the same paint as the standard car IV and made suitable for shuttle trains. Today they are also used in Germany.
The latest generation of cars is the IC-2000 double-decker car , which, due to the transitions on the upper floor, cannot run mixed with single-tier cars and therefore run in fixed compositions with the Re 460.
In the few trains that have not yet been commuted, the SBB use a number of splinter types in addition to standard IV and EC wagons, namely UIC-Z2 wagons , which were procured as compartment wagons for international traffic in the 1970s and later converted into large-capacity wagons. The Bpm wagons , which were procured for international traffic from 1980, were air-conditioned and originally painted pure orange-light gray in accordance with the Eurofima C1 paint scheme, are also in use as B 20-73 domestic wagons (27 pieces) and some of the baggage cars taken over from the SNCF .
Multiple units / multiple units
The first electric railcars (built in 1909) are from the Seetalbahn, which was taken over in 1922. Larger series of railcars remained the exception until after 1950: Be 4/6 (1923), De 4/4 (1927), BDe 4/4 (1952), RBe 4/4 (1959), SBB RBDe 4/4 NPZ ( 1984) and RABe 520 GTW (2002).
The first multiple units were procured for the introduction of the regular timetable (almost every half hour) on the Zurich – Meilen – Rapperswil line in 1967: RABDe 12/12 Mirage (1965) and RABDe 8/16 Chiquita (1976). Since the 1990s, multiple units have become increasingly popular in passenger transport: RABDe 500 ICN (1999), RABe 523 (et al.) FLIRT (2004) and RABe 514 DTZ (2006).
The two red arrows ( RAe 2/4 ) and the Churchill double arrow (RAe 4/8) are among the well-known historical multiple units . Internationally, the RAm TEE I (1957) diesel multiple units operated as the Trans-Europ-Express (TEE) , which were quickly replaced by the RAe TEE II (1961) four-current multiple units .
Due to the high degree of electrification, electric shunting locomotives and tractors are used in passenger stations in particular. Areas of application of thermal vehicles are traditionally limited to the operation of non-electrified sidings in single-wagon load traffic (EWLV), the operation of the marshalling yards and the operation of construction and rescue trains.
As a result of the division, the thermal vehicles are largely divided between the Infrastructure and Freight Transport divisions. Contrary to the type designation E for shunting locomotives, due to the technical data (power, maximum speed), a number of thermal series have the type designations A and B for mainline locomotives. So far, four series have been procured in larger numbers (more than 20 vehicles each): Em 3/3 (1959), Bm 4/4 (1961), Am 841 (1996), Am 843 G 1700-2 BB (2004).
The type designation E is strictly observed for the electric shunting vehicles; the only large, albeit heterogeneously composed series are the Ee 3/3 , which have been built since 1928 .
SBB has also been involved in public bus transport since the beginning of the 21st century . From 2006 to 2017, the SBB-Bus Zofingen / Reiden , a joint subsidiary of SBB and BDWM Transport , operated the regional bus network around Zofingen in the canton of Aargau. In cooperation with Aare Seeland mobil , the bus route Herzogenbuchsee - Wynigen is operated, together with Auto AG Uri and VBL the Tellbus Altdorf - Lucerne . On behalf of the Canton of Glarus , SBB and Niederer Bus operate the GlarnerBus.
- History of the Swiss Railway
- Rail transport in Switzerland
- Swiss railway projects
- Railway police in Switzerland
- Traffic fatalities on the Swiss rail network
- Hans-Peter Bärtschi: Swiss Federal Railways (SBB). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . November 27, 2012 , accessed January 27, 2020 .
- Heinz von Arx (ed.): The smart travels in the train - one hundred years of SBB . AS-Verlag, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-905111-63-2 .
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
- Official website of the Swiss Federal Railways
- sbb.ch/freizeit-ferien - online travel agency of the Swiss Federal Railways
- Maps and station plans of the SBB
- SBB trains generated by the official timetable and animated on the Swiss map
- Swiss Federal Railways SBB - Information from the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication DETEC
References and comments
- ↑ special Legal Aktiengesellschaft under Federal law on the Swiss Railways (SBBG; SR 742.31)
- ↑ Personnel. Swiss Federal Railways SBB, accessed on June 1, 2020 .
- ↑ Finances. (PDF; 1.56 MB) Swiss Federal Railways SBB, accessed on June 1, 2020 .
- ↑ Swiss Federal Railways SBB. In: Commercial Register. Canton of Bern, accessed on May 15, 2020 .
- ↑ Federal Supreme Court decision BGE 132 III 470. Swiss Federal Supreme Court, accessed on May 15, 2020 .
- ^ SBB: Board of Directors. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved June 16, 2016 .
- ↑ SBB: Search our archive. (No longer available online.) In: www.sbb.ch. Archived from the original on May 13, 2016 ; accessed on May 28, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ organizational structure. (PDF) January 1, 2018, accessed March 19, 2018 .
- ^ RegionAlps AG. RegionAlps AG, accessed on June 28, 2015 .
- ↑ SBB: Facts and Figures. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved October 10, 2019 .
- ^ SBB: Transport. Retrieved December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ a b SBB facts and figures - infrastructures. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ SBB facts and figures - transport. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ SBB: Sidings. (No longer available online.) In: www.sbb.ch. Archived from the original on May 28, 2016 ; accessed on May 28, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b SBB facts and figures - train stations. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ a b SBB: Punctuality and safety. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ Record ridership in a 'challenging year' for SBB , accessed on March 28, 2014
- ↑ Sven Altermatt: The business with business: How the SBB turned the station toilets into a business. In: aargauerzeitung.ch . August 5, 2019, accessed August 5, 2019 .
- ^ Announcement reform of the SBB: Two pillars - one roof . In: Railway technical review . 45, No. 4, 1996, p. 162.
- ↑ SBB in the competition for concessions in Great Britain . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 10/2000, ISSN 1421-2811 , p. 438 f.
- ↑ Article about the incident at Amsteg-Rotkreuz ( Memento of the original from December 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 240 kB)
- ↑ Schweizer Bahn wants to test remote-controlled trains orf.at, February 13, 2017, accessed on February 13, 2017.
- ↑ From January 1, 2019, out-of-home advertisers will also travel on SBB trains with horizont.net , December 11, 2018, accessed on December 11, 2018.
- ↑ Pilot project in Lucerne - Reserved bicycle parking space at the train station thanks to the new app. In: srf.ch . September 24, 2019, accessed September 24, 2019 .
- ↑ Markus Knöpfli: Digitization: SBB are testing digital bicycle parking spaces at 5 train stations. In: horizont.net . September 24, 2019, accessed September 24, 2019 .
- ↑ SBB start test for free internet on the train. In: watson.ch . May 28, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019 .
- ↑ André Ruch: Growing data octopus - SBB is collecting more and more customer data In: srf.ch , February 24, 2020, accessed on February 25, 2020.
- ↑ Timetable on the SBB website
- ↑ Four private partners for SBB Cargo. In: bernerzeitung.ch . August 30, 2019, accessed September 3, 2019 .
- ↑ SBB: SBB Real Estate - Properties in the best location. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved May 28, 2016 .
- ↑ SBB: Appendices. In: www.sbb.ch. Retrieved May 28, 2016 .
- ↑ SBB. Exemption from environmental pollution In: parlament.ch, Federal Council opinion of 23 August 2017, accessed on 29 November 2017.
- ↑ SBB test white paint on rails against track warpage. In: toponline.ch. July 26, 2019, accessed July 27, 2019 .
- ↑ Konrad Staehelin: SBB operations center visited: This is how the rail network works. In: blick.ch . August 6, 2019, accessed August 7, 2019 .
- ↑ SBB (Ed.): Annual Report 2019 .