Scope and evolution of the term
In a hierarchy of levels of traffic flows according to radius of action, regional traffic is seen today alongside local traffic / local traffic and long-distance traffic . In general, regional transport only applies to routes that serve to develop localities and are available all year round, so that regional transport can be distinguished from excursion transport . In Switzerland, for example, it is still restricted to localities with a certain population, while smaller localities are conceptually covered by local transport even when they are long distances (remote locations).
In public passenger transport, local transport is characterized by:
- high cycle density and consistent timetable coordination in the core areas
- a mix of regional high-speed transport systems (corridors with fewer stops) with regional development systems with denser stops (especially in local rail passenger transport )
- good development through the local transport systems (fine distribution, short delay and lead times)
- Supplementing rail transport with regional bus systems and other route-independent, demand-driven systems (such as on- call buses , shared taxis ) for area service of less high-volume regional routes - while at the same time rail transport has priority over bus transport, which competes with individual transport
In road traffic , regional traffic is characterized by a mostly relatively dense network of high and medium-level roads (interurban roads), some of which also have the function of channeling traffic through settlement areas (local thoroughfares ) and are integrated into long-distance traffic routes ( trunk roads ).
In shipping , regional traffic is characterized by well-developed waterways ( navigable rivers, canals , sea routes close to the coast), in public passenger transport with a similarly dense network of landing stages that are connected to the other regional traffic network, such as the stops of land-based systems. In addition, regional air traffic (short-haul flights) also plays a role.
The boundary of the regional area is not precisely defined and is determined by the size of the central area . In the course of the decades or since the industrial revolution , this area has been steadily expanded due to motorization , everyday mobility , and also the increasingly easy travel over longer distances. On the one hand, the concept of local transport is moving from below into ever larger areas, for example through the formation of urban agglomerations , through the establishment of transport associations that sometimes overlap so that one local transport region merges into the next, or through (daily) commuting to the workplace, in itself a typical local transport phenomenon that was possible over ever longer distances in the course of the 20th century. Conversely, the onset of regular short-haul air traffic, which competes directly with rail traffic, also creates pressure for the integration of more distant traffic nodes into the dense regional and, in some cases, local traffic network. In rail tariff systems today there are sometimes no longer any distance restrictions for regional transport systems, while long-distance transport is outsourced to separate systems (such as high-speed lines ) so that the entire classic rail network takes on a certain regional character.
Overall, regional traffic today is no longer geographically to a specific extent, but - due to the diverse traffic engineering systems - seen purely functionally, in the ratio of the density of the connection to these traffic systems to the local size of the settlement structure and its fragmentation, i.e. functional settlement geographical units.
On the other hand, due to the “inflationary” use of the term, a new (or re) occupation is increasingly taking place, a Swiss legal term as regional passenger traffic focuses on specific regions , and an Austrian legal definition under the term ( passenger ) regional traffic in Special also on the traffic in rural areas .
In Austria, regional public transport is a matter for the federal states , cities and municipalities and is regulated nationwide in the Public Local and Regional Transport Act 1999 (ÖPNRV-G). According to the law, regional traffic is focused on rural areas , while urban-surrounding traffic is subsumed under local traffic . The transport associations have been set up for each federal state since 1997 at the latest (making Austria the first state in the world to have a nationwide clock and tariff systems covering all public transport systems).
The Motor Vehicle Act is the legal basis for local road transport. In road traffic, there has been a clear demarcation of local / regional traffic since the transfer of the former federal roads (B-numbering retained) to state administration with these and the municipal roads , and in contrast to the motorways / expressways still under federal administration and the designated European roads to long-distance transport . Local / regional traffic is in principle free of charge in Austria, while tolls apply for motorways ( vignette , GO-Box ), which primarily leads to a burden on regional routes by toll refugees .
As a result, local and regional transport are considered together, traffic planning today takes place consistently in the context of a central location and within the framework of municipal associations .
In Switzerland, regional public transport is a statutory task anchored in the Passenger Transport Act, which is ordered and financed jointly by the federal government and the cantons, regardless of the mode of transport.
- after Heiner Monheim: Principles for the preparation of local transport plans and the promotion of an attractive public transport , Trier 1997, p. 28. Quoted from Michael Hölzinger: The strategic importance of lobbying as reflected in the historical development of the transport policy framework in Germany. GRIN Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-06303-6 , p. 293 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Art. 28 1 u. a. Passenger Transport Act . SR 745.1.
- "Regional passenger traffic (traffic in rural areas) within the meaning of this federal law is not to be understood under the scope of the provision of paragraph 1 [note: local passenger traffic ] that meet the transport needs of a region or rural area. " Public Local and Regional Transport Act 1999, StF: Federal Law Gazette I No. 204/1999 (idgF ris.bka ) (2) of the
- on the reform at the time see Wilhelmine Goldmann: The public local and regional transport in Austria . In: Österreichische Gemeinde-Zeitung (ÖGZ) 71 (2005), 8, pp. 18-22 ( online ( memento of the original from May 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check Original and archive link according to instructions and then remove this note. , ÖGZ contributions, annual archive)
- In Austria there is no city that is not surrounded by a green belt, even Vienna still breaks off quite abruptly within the city limits into agricultural zones and forests. In the few urban conurbations, such as along the thermal line south of Vienna, in the Upper Austrian central area , Salzburg Basin , Tyrolean Inntal , Vorarlberg Rhine Valley , Klagenfurt Basin , the urban catchment areas only overlap in linear fashion along the rivers or traffic axes.
- Local transport . Federal Ministry for Climate Protection, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology, bmk.gv.at, accessed February 22, 2020
- right . Federal Ministry for Climate Protection, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology, bmk.gv.at, accessed February 22, 2020.