Traffic planning

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Roundabout as a variant of a motorway connection

The traffic planning is a field in the Transportation (especially in traffic engineering and transport engineering ), the object in the optimal design of transport systems located. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for the economic efficiency, performance and safety of traffic processes for current and future generations should be taken into account (principle of sustainability ). Traffic planning is based on knowledge of the traffic flow, traffic technology and traffic organization. Traffic planning emerged in the second half of the 20th century from civil engineering , in particular from the areas of design and dimensioning of traffic systems as well as geography , spatial or urban planning and geodesy . In the meantime, traffic planning has established itself as an independent field of work within traffic sciences.


Depending on the context, the term traffic planning can have different meanings. So this term stands u. a. For



The task of traffic planning is u. a. Assess the effects of measures that affect traffic. Ideally, these effects should represent an improvement in the current situation. Transport planning affects the transport medium to long term by means of different transport planning tools . It deals with different aspects and mediates between different actors who are connected to the transport system or its effects:

  • Political aspects (e.g. German federal transport infrastructure planning , regional development planning , transport turnaround, general transport policy ),
  • Economic aspects (transport systems must be profitable, at least economically),
  • Constructive aspects (infrastructure, vehicles, energy),
  • Social aspects (accessibility, availability, in short: mobility , see also traffic psychology ),
  • Operational aspects (interface to traffic engineering , takes into account sub-areas " individual traffic " and " public traffic "),
  • Influence of the system environment (environmental or environmental aspects), i.e. the spaces and systems adjacent to the traffic area, such as B. other branches of industry, other regions, abroad, the biosphere (traffic geography, partly also traffic ecology ).

The work in traffic planning is characterized by the effect of the following factors:

  • Longevity of the transport infrastructure : once planned, once built - the project has to be a success.
  • Network character: The structures of the transport system cover the whole area. Changes are therefore very resource-intensive. Structural reactions to changes are complex.
  • Planning paradigms: The transport system is a socially widely connected entity that is frequent and v. a. is subject to many influences. Here there is a need between compensation and further development.
  • Fluctuating demand: whether there is a holiday traffic jam, daily rush hour or the weekend commuters. The traffic system is subject to a very variable intensity of use.
  • Transport performance is a service: the capacity must be dimensioned in such a way that every demand is met immediately, because transport services cannot be produced in advance. The resulting problem of capacity bottlenecks (cf. fluctuating demand) can be solved by intelligent traffic system or mobility management.
  • Many interest groups: In addition to the “insiders” of the transport system, politicians, user groups, injured parties and other actors also pursue their interests. The task of "integrated traffic planning" is to mediate between all interests.
  • Competing modes of transport: Every mode of transport that exists today is determined within the scope of its specific offer for an equally specific demand. The intelligent linking of the various systems is also a special feature in the work of traffic planning (design and conception) as well as logistics and traffic management technology (in everyday business).

In addition to the overarching approach of integrating traffic planning - that is, involving all stakeholders and making the best possible use and networking of the modes of transport - future-oriented traffic planning should take into account the postulate of sustainability. The demand for not only socially and economically but also ecologically sustainable transport development is basically met by the following approaches:

  • Traffic avoidance: Assignment of basic functions of human life such as living, supply, work and leisure with the aim of avoiding traffic by short distances.
  • Shifting traffic : Optimization of offers for resource-saving modes of transport with the aim of encouraging road users to switch to public transport.
  • Environmentally friendly processing: Use systemic and technical innovations in order to process the necessary mobility needs as environmentally friendly as possible.

Vehicle scheduling

In the transport sector , the schedule is the planned sequence of journeys that a specific vehicle ( railroad vehicle , tram , trolleybus or omnibus ) makes in a certain period of time; in aviation, the period of time that the aircraft and crew need to fly to and from several destinations in a row .

The task of personnel deployment planning is similarly based on the methodology and closely related to vehicle scheduling .

Mission statements

  • Traffic-friendly city (1945–1955)
    • The goal was roads with a smooth flow of traffic . During the reconstruction, bottlenecks in the thoroughfares should be avoided.
  • Car-friendly city (1955–1971)
    • The goal was a city that is optimized for motorized individual transport.
    • Features were city motorways, inner-city car tunnels, pedestrian bridges and underpasses.
    • The car-friendly city should avoid the emerging problems of mass motorization.
  • Urban traffic (1971–1980)
    • The car traffic should no longer burden the city. The public transport advanced with the focus.
  • Current mission statements:
    • City-friendly traffic (1980–?)
    • Human-friendly traffic (1980–?)

See also


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Mobility for everyone! ( Memento from March 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), Solveigh Janssen, Diversity in the City of the Future - Lecture Series at Beuth University Berlin, November 5, 2012
  2. a b The dream of traffic flow: urban traffic planning since 1945 in German , Barbara Schmucki, 2001, p. 90
  3. ↑ Are our cities still working? The transformation from a car-friendly city to a human-friendly city , Martin Randelhoff, March 1, 2015
  4. a b Decentralized large-scale supply structures and environmentally-oriented transport - a contradiction? , Jürgen Gerlach, undated
  5. On the move and mobile: Verkehrswelten im Museum , Ed .: Bettina Gundler, 2006
  6. Technology Options in Urban Transport - Changing paradigms and promising innovation pathway , by Research Amsterdam Marketing, August 5, 2013
  7. City and communication in times of upheaval in the Federal Republic of Germany , Ed .: Adelheid von Saldern, 2006, p. 308