Means of transport
Means of transport in the broader sense are all technical or organizational facilities that help people, goods and messages to cover distances by changing location . To do this, means of transport use traffic routes such as land routes ( pedestrian traffic , roads , rails ), waterways ( rivers , canals , sea routes ) and air corridors for traffic purposes . To the transport stationary include transportation facilities (for example piers , train stations , ports , stops , charge and erase squares ), mobile objects such as pack animals , vehicles ( land vehicles , aircraft , spacecraft , watercraft ) and is intralogistic transport aids ( containers or pallets ).
Vehicles and transportation are sometimes viewed in the literature as synonyms, but their connotations are different. Means of transport form a subset of the means of transport, because they are intended not only to transport the vehicle driver ( driver , captain , flight captain , train driver ), but also to carry out the transport of goods and people . Not all means of transport are therefore means of transport, but all means of transport are also means of transport. Since, for example, the electric scooter is only allowed to transport the driver in accordance with Small Electric Vehicle Ordinance , it is a means of transport and not a means of transport. A wagon with a coachman is a means of transport if it also transports luggage or other people, the single horse carriage is a means of transport.
The means of transport usually do not include rides , sports equipment , play equipment and children's toys , even if they can be used to move around or goods or people can be transported with them. It should be noted that the legal situation in Switzerland , for example, differentiates whether children's play equipment (such as roller skates or inline skates ) is a toy or a means of transport, depending on how and where it is used. As a vehicle similar devices all equipped with wheels or rollers means of transportation are referred to, which are driven exclusively by its own body power (Art. 10 paragraph 1. Traffic regulation Regulation ). These include, in particular, scooters , roller skates, inline skates, skateboards , unicycles and children's bikes.
The modes of transport can be divided into the following types:
- Depending on the type of drive, there are motorized and non-motorized means of transport:
- Motorized vehicles differ in size ( seating or usable capacity ): trains , buses , planes ( large-capacity aircraft ) or ships ( inland or ocean-going vessels , container ships , ferries ). The type of motor does not matter, so e-bikes , e-scooters or Segways and hybrid vehicles are also included .
- Non-motorized means of transport are bicycles , pedestrians , skateboards , pack animals and scooters . They have to be moved with human or animal power. Their range is relatively small compared to the motorized ones.
- Means of transport for the transport of people or goods:
- According to the number or quantity of the transported goods:
- Mass transports transport people or goods in large quantities. These mainly include public transport, planes and ships.
- In the individual transport , however, only a few people or goods are transported, there is a free decision about transport times and routes ( English choice rider ).
- With regard to free accessibility:
- Public transport is freely accessible for every user, and providers are often obliged to enter into a contract due to a transport obligation .
- Private means of transport are owned or owned by private individuals who can decide whether or not to use them by third parties (e.g. when it comes to car sharing ).
Local public transport is therefore a publicly accessible form of mass transport. The range divides the means of transport into short-haul , local transport , long-distance transport , long- haul aircraft ; When it comes to comfort, the class of transport is important ( cruise ships ).
Means of transport that have to travel on one lane are called "track-bound", mostly they are also "track-guided" by technical equipment such as rails , ropes or magnetic fields and can not leave their fixed lanes ( railways , rail buses , suspension trains , trams , cable cars , track buses ). The trolleybus (Switzerland: "Trolleybus") is track-bound, but not track-guided.
The legal term means of transport is used instead of the term means of transport. For example, local public transport is “the generally accessible transport of people by means of public transport , which are primarily intended to meet the demand for urban, suburban or regional transport” ( RegG ). According to (2) No. 2 of the Transport Services Act, equipment including information and communication systems is also considered a means of transport. The transport devious means ( "dodging") according to para. 1 of the Criminal Code , among others, the transport by a transport without payment of conveying tariff .
There is an obligation to transport numerous public transport vehicles , for example public rail passenger transport ( AEG ) and public road passenger transport ( PBefG ). The transport obligation for taxi companies only applies in the compulsory driving area (§ Paragraph 2, Paragraph 2 PBefG), they can refuse the transport according to BOKraft if there are facts that justify the assumption that the person to be transported is a danger for the safety and order of the company or for the passengers. In the air service is in addition to the unreasonableness of a general obligation to carry according to para. 2 LuftVG . Only in shipping is there no obligation to carry on scheduled services. This obligation to carry is an obligation to contract because it legally compels the companies concerned to carry passengers if they so wish.
The automotive industry produces vehicles that must be built in accordance with the Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO). You will receive an operating permit in accordance with StVZO . Push and push rim wheelchairs , toboggan sleds , baby carriages , scooters , children's bicycles and similar, non-motorized or auxiliary means of transport with a design-related maximum speed of no more than 6 km / h are not vehicles within the meaning of this Act in accordance with (2) StVZO .
Means of transport are vehicles that are equipped according to the route and the required service ( purpose , payload ). They are movable things that are required directly for the transport of people or goods. The price for the use of other transport means for passenger transportation tariff (trains, buses, ferries, boats or taxis ), for goods freight ; their generic term is the transport costs .
The utilization of the means of transport plays a major role, especially in the transport of people and goods . In passenger transport it is called the seat load factor , especially for airlines . The cargo business speaks of cargo tonne-kilometers , in cargo aircraft it is called the cargo load factor . The higher the degree of utilization, the lower the idle costs . It therefore makes sense to avoid "empty trips" and also to use the return trip to capacity. Increases the rate of utilization over the break-even point , thus achieving the transport company profits at, full employment the maximum possible profit. When underemployment incurred losses . Cable cars, such as ski lifts, are purely seasonal operations that avoid the underemployment that does not cover costs in summer by closing them.
A transport risk arises through means of transport . In addition to the risk of personal injury or property damage , the transport risk includes the risk that the means of transport used cause social or ecological damage such as emissions or noise pollution . The delay of transport, for example due to traffic jams, is also one of the transport risks.
In everyday life, traffic is determined by a combination of all modes of transport, known as the modal split . The modal split is the distribution of the traffic volume among the various modes of transport.
While the motor vehicle dominates throughout German and Austrian cities (69% in Essen , 66% in Klagenfurt ), residents in Paris or Barcelona prefer to walk (63% and 40%, respectively). The public transport is dominant in Bogotá (64%), Zurich (63%), Warsaw (60%) and New York City (55%), the bicycle as expected in Amsterdam (38%) and Beijing (32%).
Compared to private motorized transport, public transport is generally more environmentally friendly. Local means of transport such as S-Bahn , U-Bahn , light rail , tram , trolleybus and omnibus are used for mass transport in large cities, and in some cases ferries or cable cars are also used in regular transport. In third world countries , trucks , midibuses , minibuses and wagons are also used for passenger transport.
- List of modes of transport
- Driving game
- Personal Rapid Transit
- Transport infrastructure
- Traffic sociology
- traffic system
- Comparison of means of transport
- Transportation advertising
- Transportation Science
- Mode of transport
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