"Motor vehicles within the meaning of this law are land vehicles that are moved by machine power without being tied to railroad tracks."
In Vehicle Licensing Ordinance , motor vehicles are defined as " land vehicles that are not permanently tracked and are moved by machine power." However, bicycles with auxiliary drives ( ) and vehicles that are not faster than 6 km are an exception / h ( ).No. 1 of the German
In Switzerland it is defined:
"Motor vehicle within the meaning of this law is any vehicle with its own drive, by means of which it is moved on the ground independently of rails."
In Austria, according to the Motor Vehicle Act ( ):
(1) For the purposes of this federal act,
1. Motor vehicle a vehicle intended for use on roads or used on roads, which is driven by technically released energy and is not tied to rails, even if its drive energy is taken from overhead lines;
The international convention on road traffic signs defines:
m) "Motor vehicles" *) means any self-propelled vehicle with a propulsion engine, with the exception of motorcycles in the territory of the Contracting Parties, which have not treated them as motorcycles, and with the exception of rail vehicles;
n) "Motor vehicles" *) in the sense of this letter are only those motor vehicles that are normally used for the transport of people or goods or to pull vehicles that are used for the transport of people or goods. This term includes trolleybuses - that is, vehicles connected to an electrical line and not traveling on rails. It does not include vehicles that are only occasionally used on the road to transport people or goods or to pull vehicles used for the transport of people or goods, such as agricultural tractors;
*) The term "motor vehicle" is used in two different meanings. If it is used without an addition, it has the meaning assigned to it under letter m. If it is used with the addition “(Article 1 letter n)”, it has the meaning assigned to it under letter n.
In other countries an analogous definition usually applies.
Motor vehicles are considered to be road vehicles because the lane guidance is usually achieved through friction on a flat or uneven surface. Despite the motorized drive, rail vehicles do not belong to the motor vehicles. Corresponding definitions can be found in the traffic laws, for example in the German Road Traffic Act ( (2) StVG), in the Austrian Motor Vehicle Act ( (1) Z 1 KFG) and in the Swiss Road Traffic Act (Art. 7).
Vehicle and body types (Germany)
For the uniform collection of vehicle data, the register for the systematisation of motor vehicles and their trailers of the Federal Motor Transport Authority came into force on October 1, 2005 . Among other things, EC vehicle classes , emission classes , vehicle and body types (national) as well as fuel types and energy sources are listed. Accordingly, motor vehicles include (the corresponding abbreviations in brackets):
- Two-, three-wheel and light four-wheel vehicles (motor vehicles), EU vehicle class L
- 4-wheel, under 350 kg, up to 50 cm³ or 4 kW
- Motorcycles ( motorcycle )
- Three and light four wheeled motor vehicles
- Passenger cars (cars), EU vehicle class M
- Buses (COM) (Closely related to the power bus is the trolleybus , which however due to its dependence on a contact line is considered as a mixture of trams and buses, and therefore, occupies a special position. Because it similar to a tram is attached to a fixed infrastructure, are for special legal regulations.)
- Lorry (truck)
- Agricultural or forestry tractors / tractors
- Self-propelled machines (sfAM)
- Construction machinery , if not rail-bound
- Other motor vehicles
- Special vehicles
- Tow truck
- Two-wheel tractor
- Fire brigade vehicles (e.g. turntable ladder , fire truck )
- Disaster control vehicles (e.g. equipment vehicles , doctors' troops )
- land-based rescue agents (eg. as ambulances , rescue vehicles , ambulances )
- Municipal vehicles (e.g. garbage trucks , street sweepers , sewer cleaning machines )
- Electric carts
- Mobile cranes
- Industrial trucks ( pallet trucks , forklifts , etc.)
- Golf course vehicle / golf cart / golf cart / golf caddy
- Half-track vehicles of all kinds (in many cases counted as tractors)
- Tracked vehicles of all kinds (eg. As tanks , groomers , snowmobiles )
- motorized wheelchairs
- Aircraft tug
- Horse truck
- Solar vehicle
- Road-rail vehicles
- Special vehicles
International classification ( EC vehicle classes )
- L1 single-track mopeds
- L2 multi-track mopeds
- L3 motorcycles
- L4 motorcycles with sidecars
- L5 motor tricycles
- L6 4-wheeled light motor vehicle
- L7 4-wheeled motor vehicle ( max.power output 15 kW, empty weight up to 400 kg, up to 550 kg for goods transport (in each case without batteries for electric vehicles))
M Motor vehicles for passenger transport with at least four wheels
- M1 vehicles with a maximum of 8 seats (except the driver's seat)
- M2 vehicles with more than 8 seats under 5 tons
- M3 vehicles with more than 8 seats over 5 tons
N Motor vehicles for the carriage of goods with at least four wheels
- N1 vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of up to 3.5 t.
- N2 vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of up to 12 t.
- N3 vehicles with a gross vehicle weight over 12 t.
O trailers including semi-trailers
- O1 trailers up to 750 kg (light trailers)
- O2 trailers up to 3.5 t
- O3 trailers up to 10 t
- O4 trailers over 10 t
The motor vehicle consists of a large number of parts that are combined in units and independent assemblies. The direct and indirect interaction of all parts ensures that the automobile functions properly. The main assemblies include:
- Power transmission
- landing gear
- Body or also called structure
- Vehicle electrics / electronics
Combustion engines are subdivided according to several aspects:
- according to the design
- according to the energy carrier used ( fuel )
- according to the active principle
After petrol and diesel-powered vehicles dominated automotive technology for a long time, increased environmental awareness and the rise in prices as well as the foreseeable reduction in the availability of mineral oil-based fuels are also bringing alternative fuels and alternative drive concepts back into the focus of automotive developers and manufacturers.
Alternative fuels can be:
- For reciprocating engines:
- For reciprocating engines and fuel cells
Alternative drive technologies are partly implemented or supplemented by electrifying the drive train:
The power transmission includes all components that are arranged in the drive train between the engine and the drive wheels. The main tasks of power transmission are the transmission, distribution and regulation / conversion of the torque and the speed.
Power transmission includes:
- Differential gear , also known as differential gear or differential
- Vehicle transmission
- PTO shaft or chain
- Transfer case
The vast majority of vehicles are moved on wheels . For vehicles that are to be moved in difficult areas, such as certain excavators and battle tanks are chain drives used. There are also exotic chassis such as the worm drive of the Russian ZIL-2906 or vehicles with mechanical legs such as the Mondospider or the clumsy walking machine.
The chassis include:
The chassis serves in its entirety to make the motor vehicle drivable. In addition to the possibility of changing the direction of travel, the chassis must maintain constant contact with the road even on uneven stretches in order to transfer forces.
Currently, an independent suspension is mostly used in cars and often in buses . For SUVs and trucks are still too rigid axles are used. In some cases, leaf springs are also used as a spring element, while torsion bar and coil springs usually dominate. In buses and trucks in particular, however, air suspension is also increasingly being used, which enables easy adaptation to the load. In passenger cars, air suspension has so far been reserved for the luxury class for reasons of cost. The concept of modern air suspension was invented by Citroën in the early 1950s as hydropneumatics .
The body is the structure and paneling of the motor vehicle.
There are three different designs:
- load-bearing construction
- Frame construction
- self-supporting construction
With the frame construction, the body and frame form a separate unit and are elastically connected to one another. This construction method is primarily used in truck construction. In the "self-supporting" construction, a stiffened floor assembly takes on the function of the frame. The entire structure forms a unit. This construction method is primarily used in car construction. With the “load-bearing” construction, the frame is firmly connected to the body via welded or screwed connections.
Vehicle electrics / electronics
The electrical system of the motor vehicle includes all live components. These are:
- Lighting device
- Electrical system
- Vehicle battery
- Engine control
- Ignition system
- other electrical equipment
Environmental protection, landscape protection
The motor vehicles in road traffic are the main reason for road construction with all its consequences ( surface sealing , deforestation , etc.). Since the vast majority of vehicles are driven by internal combustion engines (more precisely: with the power generated by internal combustion engines), the motor vehicle is one of the causes of air pollution . From the point of view of environmental protection , energy-saving cars can be distinguished from conventional motor vehicles, see 3-liter car . This is particularly important with regard to the emission of carbon dioxide, which creates the greenhouse effect .
Stock of passenger cars by fuel type
|Fuel type (as of Jan. 1)||petrol||diesel||Liquid gas (LPG) (including bivalent)||Natural gas (CNG) (including bivalent)||Electric||Hybrid||other types of fuel||Total cars|
From January 1, 2008 only registered vehicles without temporary shutdowns / decommissioning.
|Petrol (including petrol / ethanol E85)||2,168,945||2,087,180||2,127,533||1,983,337||1,960,380||1,957,751||1,972,352||1,988,079||1,997,066|
|LPG (including bivalent)||78||131||707||1,770||33||57||88||125|
|Natural gas (including bivalent)||1,381||1,847||2,209||2,670|
|Fuel type||petrol||diesel||Electric||Other fuels||Total cars|
- Hybrid vehicles (petrol-electric, diesel-electric)
In almost every country in the world, the use of a motor vehicle on public property requires the possession of a driving license , which can be subject to conditions and restrictions. A driver's license documents this permission.
Some taxes are levied in connection with motor vehicles. In addition to the purpose of fundraising, states also use this instrument to reduce the environmental damage caused by motor vehicles . In addition to the consumption-based mineral oil tax, there is a time-related vehicle tax and (less often, e.g. in Denmark ) a registration tax . In Austria there is also the standard consumption tax (NoVA), which must be paid when a vehicle is first registered in the country.
Research institutions on the subject of motor vehicles
- AVL List GmbH, Graz
- Vehicle technology department at the Technical University of Darmstadt
- FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen
- Research Institute for Automotive and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart
- Engineering company Auto and Traffic ( IAV GmbH ), Berlin
- Institute for Motor Vehicles Aachen (ika) of the RWTH Aachen
- Institute for Land and Sea Transport, Department of Motor Vehicles at TU Berlin ( ILS Motor Vehicles )
Most electrically powered recreational fun devices, such as B. e-boards are legally classified as motor vehicles. In public spaces, they are therefore not allowed to be used on the sidewalk or bicycle path, but must be out on the street. There they then need an official license, otherwise their use is " driving without license ", which can be punished with a fine and points in Flensburg. In the case of a minor “driver” i. A. add " driving without a license ".
- Motor vehicle adaptation for the physically handicapped
- Motor transport
- Means of transport
- Economic figures on the automobile
- Directory for the systematisation of motor vehicles and their trailers (PDF; 970 kB)
- Technical data on various motor vehicles ( Memento from May 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Development history of the first automobile ( Memento from February 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Motor vehicle . Duden , accessed on December 19, 2013.
- The Brockhaus in one volume . Leipzig 1994, ISBN 3-7653-1676-8 .
- RIS - Convention on Road Traffic Signs - Consolidated Federal Law, version dated August 13, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018 .
- The federal authorities of the Swiss Confederation: SR 741.01 Road Traffic Act, Art. 7 Motor vehicles , accessed September 19, 2012
- The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation: Road Traffic Act (SVG) , PDF version, accessed September 19, 2012
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt: Directory for the systematisation of motor vehicles and their trailers. 7th edition. June 2012, part A 1B.
- Winfried Reinhardt: Public transport: technology - legal and business fundamentals. Page 578.
- Film on YouTube
- Mondo Spider on the Burning Man Festival: Movie on YouTube
- The Walking Machine at the Burning Man Festival: Film on YouTube
- Stock of passenger cars according to displacement classes and fuel types. (PDF) In: Statistische Mitteilungen des Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, Series 2, January 1, 2006. Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt , September 2006, p. 19 , archived from the original on January 7, 2007 ; Retrieved June 25, 2014 .
- Number of passenger cars from 1955 to 2014 by type of fuel. (PDF) In: Statistische Mitteilungen des Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt FZ 13, January 1, 2014. Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt , March 2014, p. 12 , accessed on June 25, 2014 .
- Number of cars in the years 2008 to 2017 according to selected fuel types. Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, accessed on March 17, 2018 .
- Passenger cars on January 1, 2018 according to selected features. Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, archived from the original on March 17, 2018 ; accessed on March 17, 2018 .
- Statistics Austria ; Motor vehicles - stock Austria 2005-2011
- Federal Statistical Office : Road vehicles in Switzerland ( Memento from May 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Statistical Office: Road vehicles - inventory, degree of motorization