A two-way vehicle is a vehicle that is both on the road as on tracks can drive. Zoom in and derail be Eingleisstellen used. Vehicles of this type are mostly construction machines (such as road-rail excavators ), maintenance vehicles or vehicles for ( rail ) shunting services .
A two-way vehicle should not be confused with a two-system vehicle on railways that can handle different types of drive (e.g. different electrical voltages or types of current). According to the origin of the term, amphibious vehicles are also two-way vehicles, as they can travel both on land and on water.
The EN 15746-1 standard divides road-rail vehicles into four categories based on their configuration of road and rail wheels:
- Category 8 vehicles may be placed in trains. To do this, they must be equipped with an appropriate pulling and pushing device and designed for the forces acting on them. Restrictions are allowed, e.g. B. that these vehicles may only be set at the beginning or at the end of a train.
- Vehicles of category 9A (in Germany also category 1 ) are driven directly via rail wheels ( rail drive system ), often by means of a hydrostatic drive . These also bear the full weight of the vehicle.
- Vehicles of category 9B (in Germany also category 2 ) are driven by rail wheels ( rail drive system ), which are driven indirectly by the existing road wheels. The weight of the vehicle is borne entirely by the rail wheels.
- For vehicles of category 9C (in Germany and Category 3 ) of the drive to done tracks as well as on the street across the road wheels, but rail wheels are for tracking additional separate available ( rail guide device ). The weight of the vehicle is borne partly by the rail wheels and partly by the rubber tires.
Depending on the categorization, the standard prescribes further technical regulations. National particularities can further restrict or supplement the specifications of the standard. For example, in France and Italy, placing Category 8 vehicles on trains is not recommended. Furthermore, vehicles of category 9C are not recommended in the Netherlands.
As a general rule, road-rail vehicles must adhere to the vehicle gauge and ensure driving, derailment and stability . During the work, the vehicle and its moving parts must not get into the clearance profile of the adjacent operating track and not come into contact with the live overhead line . This can be prevented by means of a limiting device (pivot and stroke limitation). In the driving position, road- rail vehicles must be equipped with signal lights and be able to emit acoustic warning signals . If road-rail vehicles are to transport regular vehicles (e.g. freight wagons ), they must be equipped with a continuous air brake . Additional equipment can be prescribed by national guidelines and standards.
Road-rail vehicles are national differently regardless of the standard EN 15746-1 operationally handled.
From an operational point of view, road-rail vehicles in Germany are classified either as heavy ancillary vehicles (Schwerkleinwagen) or as small cars , depending on whether the safe functioning of wheel sensors and track vacancy detection systems is guaranteed or not. For vehicles assigned to category 9C and operated as a heavy auxiliary vehicle, the contact pressure of an axle must be at least 4 tons. Road-rail vehicles that are classified as heavy ancillary vehicles and this is required by the planned use must also be equipped with a point train control. According to the EBO , road-rail vehicles traveling faster than 20 km / h must be equipped with a safety driving circuit.
In Switzerland, road- rail vehicles are treated as special vehicles and may only be operated there on closed and secured tracks. Vehicles without the normal pulling and buffing device may only travel on the route at a maximum of 40 km / h. Those with normal pulling and buffing equipment in the SBB network with a maximum of 60 km / h.
Road- rail Unimog in shunting service (Category 9C)
Road-rail vehicle of the Zams volunteer fire brigade (Category 9A)
Road-rail shunting vehicle / train module UCA-TRAC B 16
DMV (Dual Mode Vehicle) for passenger transportation from JR Hokkaido
Trailer as road-rail vehicle; Since the road tires are not used for propulsion, they can be completely raised in rail operation
Road-rail vehicles at the Waldhof pulp factory
Orenstein & Koppel MH S rail-road excavator in use on rails
- Rail cleaning vehicle
- Rail-road excavator
- Rail-road omnibus of the Deutsche Bundesbahn
- Road-rail Unimog, e.g. B. in the armed forces
- Electric tram bus from Siemens & Halske
- Perambulator trolley
In 1972 Magirus-Deutz presented the world's first fire engine with road-rail technology. The so-called " rescue vehicle splint" was able, even in underground - tunnel driving. The Frankfurt fire brigade was one of the first customers . Today 14 " emergency fire-fighting vehicles 24/14 rail " are in use nationwide .
- Stoffels, Wolfgang: The rail-road omnibuses . German Society for Railway History Part 25
- Jochen Forstmeyer: Road-rail excavator on DB Netz AG tracks . In: Eisenbahn-Unfallkasse (Ed.): BahnPraxis . tape 9/2009 . Bahn Fachverlag, Mainz ( uv-bund-bahn.de [PDF]).
- Holger Doth: road- rail vehicles . In: Your train . No. 11/2008 ( special-trucks.eu [PDF]).
- Zweiwegefahrzeug.de -depth information and an extensive photo collection of two-way vehicles.
- A Unimog on rails. : Fire out! / brandaus , born 1974, p. 368 (online at ANNO ).
- Railway applications - Track - Road-rail machines and associated equipment - Part 1: Technical requirements for driving and work . In: DIN EN 15746-1: 2011-12 . Beuth Verlag GmbH.
- DB Netz (Ed.): Construction requirements for road-rail vehicles . Ril 931.0103.
- Holger Doth: two-way vehicles . In: Your train . No. 11/2008 ( special-trucks.eu [PDF]).
- Railway building and operating regulations (EBO) . ( gesetze-im-internet.de ).
- Federal Office of Transport (ed.): Swiss driving service regulations FDV . R 300.4, July 1, 2015.
- SBB Infrastructure (Ed.): Appendix B to Regulation I-40036 two-way machines and associated equipment . October 19, 2018, 22.214.171.124 Operation, p. 11 ( sbb.ch [PDF]).