|Crew :||0/1/2/ 3|
|Extinguishing powder :||6 kilograms|
|Rescue kit :||available|
|Perm. Total mass :||14,000 kilograms|
Extensive tools and special equipment are available for this purpose, with which people can be freed from their emergency situations after accidents (especially in road traffic ), environmentally harmful substances can be collected, deployment locations can be illuminated and various other tasks can be performed.
However, the crew consists of only three man, more precisely, a group (0/1/2/ 3 ) . That is why the rescue vehicle is practically never used alone, but together with other vehicles in the rescue train or to support an extinguishing train . In some places the rescue vehicle - contrary to the norm - was also built with a six-person squadron - or even with a nine -person group crew .
The rescue vehicle was created when the equipment of the fire brigade for emergency operations became too complex to be loaded onto a fire engine together with extinguishing agents. Originally, most of the vehicles assigned to civil protection were called pioneer vehicles. There was also the auxiliary vehicle (HKW) , which transported a wide variety of materials for technical assistance and additional equipment for fire fighting (e.g. units, hose material , portable pumps ) according to the respective needs .
In 1951, Magirus-Deutz presented the world's first rescue vehicle with an all-round rotating crane at the IAA.
In 1952, rescue vehicles (RKW; also known as rescue crane vehicles ) were built that transported a 7-tonne crane system, power generator and extensive technical equipment.
In 1971, Magirus-Deutz also released the so-called rescue vehicle rail, the world's first fire engine that was suitable for both rail and road use . It was z. B. procured by the Frankfurt am Main fire department for use in underground tunnels.
In 1972 the second, almost identical, sister vehicle of the rescue vehicle rail of the Frankfurt fire brigade appeared.
Since the 1970s, Baden-Württemberg had also had a construction guideline for a rescue vehicle acid , which, however, was not widely used. He carried protective clothing and fall arrest equipment. The national standard has meanwhile been withdrawn in favor of the regular rescue vehicles and equipment vehicles for dangerous goods .
In the past, a distinction was made between several types of rescue vehicles according to the DIN 14555 standard. All were characterized by common features such as crew, four-wheel drive, generator, etc. The RW 1 (according to DIN 14555 part 2), procured by the federal government , with a nominal permissible total weight of 9 tonnes, is built on a Magirus-Deutz, Unimog 435 or MAN-VW chassis and is stationed at medium-sized fire brigades, whose number of operations are involved the technical assistance did not justify the purchase of the larger RW 2 (according to DIN 14555 part 3) with 12 tons. Both vehicle types were merged in June 2002 with the introduction of the new DIN 14555-3. In terms of equipment, the standard of the current RW is closest between the earlier RW 2 and RW 3. The omission of RW 1 met with criticism in many places, especially from smaller fire departments. Even without a standard, such vehicles will still be in use for years.
The even larger type RW 3 had already been omitted from the standard in the early 1990s. The procurement of four RW 3 with a relay cabin (RW 3-St) by the Berlin fire brigade and three RW 3 with a crew by the Munich fire brigade took place after this point in time.
Construction and loading
General requirements for rescue vehicles and equipment vehicles are set out in DIN EN 1846-2. The relevant national standard for the RW in Germany is DIN 14555-3.
Rescue vehicles are built on an all -wheel drive chassis. There are usually 7-9 equipment rooms, including several deep-drawn ones.
At the front of the vehicle there is a mechanical pulling device with 50 (minimum requirement) to 100 kN pulling force (5–10 t), in the vehicle body or at the rear there is a light mast with two headlights with an output of 1000 W each, which comes from the generator built into the vehicle be fed. This power generator has a minimum output of 23 kVA. There are 308 individual parts on a RW (standard load). In addition, there is additional loading such as B. "Equipment set for oil removal" (+ 110 individual parts) or water rescue. Other less common special equipment can be extensive dangerous goods equipment ("rescue vehicle with special loading of dangerous goods", RW-G) or a crane.
According to the current version of the standard, the rescue vehicle does not contain any fire extinguishers (two with extinguishing powder and one with extinguishing foam ) or a fire blanket for fire fighting, but extensive equipment for technical assistance . These include extensive power and lighting equipment, a chainsaw , reciprocating saw , cut -off machine , an MZ 32 multi-purpose hoist, electronic hammer drill , cordless screwdriver , hammer drill and demolition hammer , lifting bag set , plasma cutter , hydraulic rescue kit, sealing box, traffic accident box, electrical tool box, Waders , certain other protective clothing, props, square timbers and accessories.
- Small, non-standardized advance rescue vehicles , advance equipment cart or small emergency vehicles with greatly reduced load should reach the accident site quickly.
- A RW 1 without mechanical towing device and all-wheel drive is standardized under state law in Lower Saxony as an additional equipment vehicle .
- With the relatively new emergency fire-fighting group vehicles (HLF), an (almost fully-fledged) fire-fighting group vehicle (LF) is supplemented by an additional load for technical assistance. The latter can, however, replace an RW 1 at best. The equipment of a RW (according to the current standard), RW 2 or RW 3 (both according to withdrawn standards) goes well beyond that of a fire-fighting group vehicle in the area of technical assistance.
- The equipment vehicles used by the technical relief organization are similar to the fire brigade's rescue vehicles . Among other things, they have a crew cabin to accommodate a group.
- In Bavaria, a maximum permissible total weight of 16 tons has recently been applied to rescue vehicles, cf. Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Transport (2014): Fire Brigade Grant Guidelines; Deviations from the standard specifications for fire fighting vehicles - addition , point 2.
- RKW 10 on alga.de
- Museum Depeche. Information brochure of the Fire Brigade History and Museum Association Frankfurt am Main eV (2010, 4th edition), p. 6.
- Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance : Data sheet for the Magirus-Deutz F 130 M 7 FAL armored vehicle
- Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance : Data Sheet for the Unimog U 1300 L rescue vehicle
- Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance : Data sheet for the rescue vehicle MAN-VW 8.136 FAE, type 565
- Cf. on the concept of merging RW 1 and RW 2 into one RW: DIN 14555-1 rescue vehicle and equipment trolley - Part 1: General requirements
- DIN 14555-1 rescue vehicle and equipment vehicle - Part 1: General requirements
- Standard page for a RW (according to the current DIN standard) on din.de
- State Fire Brigade School Regensburg (2015): Minimum equipment for rescue vehicle RW - issue 05/2007 ( Memento from September 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Hamilton: Handbook for the Firefighter , ISBN 3-415-01705-2 .
- Josef Schütz: Die Rote Hefte, Booklet 8b - Fire fighting vehicles Part II . 11th edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 978-3-17-014285-5 .