Baden-Württemberg [ ˌbaːdn̩ˈvʏrtəmbɛrk ] ( abbreviation BW; officially: Land Baden-Württemberg ) is a parliamentary republic and a partially sovereign member state ( Land ) in the southwest of the Federal Republic of Germany . It was founded in 1952 through the merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden , Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern . Baden-Württemberg ranks third among the German states in terms of both population and area. The most populous city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital Stuttgart , followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim . Other major cities are Freiburg im Breisgau , Heidelberg , Ulm , Heilbronn , Pforzheim and Reutlingen .
Baden-Württemberg is the German state with the highest exports (2018), the second lowest unemployment rate (October 2019), the fourth highest gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (2019) as well as the most registered patents per capita (2018) and the highest in absolute and relative terms Research and Development Spending (2017). The average life expectancy in the period 2016/18 was 79.7 years for men and 84.1 years for women, which means that both are in first place among the German federal states.
In the south, Baden-Württemberg borders with the Klettgau and the Hotzenwald on the Upper Rhine , in the Hegau and Linzgau on Lake Constance and in the west with the Breisgau and the Markgräflerland on the Upper Rhine . In the north, the state border stretches over the Odenwald and Tauberland , in the east over Frankenhöhe and Ries , along the Danube and Iller and through the western Allgäu .
Neighboring German states are Bavaria in the east and north-east , Hesse in the north and Rhineland-Palatinate in the north-west . In the west, Baden-Württemberg borders the French region of Grand Est . The Swiss border in the south is formed by the cantons of Basel-Stadt , Basel-Landschaft , Aargau , Zurich , Schaffhausen and Thurgau . The canton of St. Gallen is only connected via Lake Constance. Baden-Württemberg is also connected to the Austrian state of Vorarlberg via Lake Constance . With this it shares - because the Alemannic dialect is also spoken there - the sometimes colloquial nickname "Ländle" or Alemannic "Ländli".
The geographic center of Baden-Württemberg at is marked by a monument in a wooded area on the outskirts of Tübingen . This is the focus of the land area. In contrast, the center of Baden-Württemberg was determined from the extreme values (northernmost, southernmost, easternmost and westernmost land point). The average of the latitude of northern and southern point and the average of the longitude of the eastern and western point in the WGS84 reference system is calculated to be . These four extreme coordinates of Baden-Württemberg are: the north in the city Wertheim , south in the municipality of Grenzach-Wyhlen , in the west in the municipality of Efringen-Kirchen and in the east in of the community of Dischingen . The center of Baden-Württemberg is located 14.3 km north of the Tübingen focus in Böblingen in a small forest, the Hörnleswald, on the Tübinger Straße from Böblingen to Holzgerlingen and is marked with a stone pillar.
The highest point in the country is the Feldberg in the Black Forest at . The lowest point is in Mannheim's Ballauf-Wilhelmswörth nature reserve on the banks of the Rhine and on the border with Hesse at .
Natural structure and geology
- The Upper Rhine Plain is a rift valley filled with sediments . This also includes the foothills between the plain and the Black Forest. In the lowlands there are various salt deposits, healing springs and some now extinct volcanoes such as B. the Kaiserstuhl .
- The border mountains Black Forest and Odenwald consist of granite , gneiss and red sandstone . Their north-south orientation makes them rain catchers , whose western waters carry a lot of water and have cut themselves comparatively deep. The Feldberg, located in the southern Black Forest , is at 1,493 m the highest mountain in the German low mountain range .
- The south-west German layer level country consists of wide, hilly land terraces, which are separated from each other by several stone levels . Towards the southeast, they consist of ever younger rock layers, alternating between hard and soft layers. Sub-areas are the Neckar and Tauber- Gäuplatten ( Baar , the Obere Gäu , Stromberg , Kraichgau , Hohenloher Ebene ), the Keuperbergland ( Kleiner Heuberg , Rammert , Schönbuch , Glemswald , Strom- and Heuchelberg , Schurwald , Swabian-Franconian Forest Mountains ) and that Alb foreland. The Randen and its foothills in the Klettgau also belong to the south-west of Germany .
- As a closed low mountain range, the Swabian Alb is a karst area with little water . It is criss-crossed by typical karst forms (e.g. sinkholes ) and numerous small volcanic forms. On the eastern edge is the meteorite crater of Nördlingen ( Nördlinger Ries ).
- The foothills of the Alps , to which Upper Swabia and the Württemberg Allgäu belong, is a gently rolling hill country in which Lake Constance and former volcanic mountains in Hegau lie. The strong influence of Ice Age processes is evident in numerous typical landscape forms such as moraines , lakes and moors.
Baden-Württemberg lies in a transition area between the maritime climate in the west and the continental climate in the east. This means that oceanic and continental climatic influences become effective alternately . Due to the prevailing westerly winds, the oceanic climatic influences predominate, whereby these decrease in the eastern parts of the country. The diversity of the surface shapes, i.e. the juxtaposition of high mountainous areas and shielded pool areas, leads to clear climatic differences even at short distances.
Due to its southern location, Baden-Württemberg has a better temperature than other countries . The Upper Rhine lowlands have mean annual temperatures of 10 ° C, making them one of the warmest areas in Germany. The Kraichgau, the Neckar Valley north of Stuttgart, the Lake Constance area, the Upper Rhine area and the Taubertal are also climatically favored. The average temperature falls with the altitude, and the southern Black Forest is one of the coldest areas in Germany with an average of 4 ° C. An exception to this rule is the inversion weather situation occurring in winter , in which higher altitudes are warmer than lower ones, because in windless high pressure weather the cold air flowing from the heights collects in the pool area. Extreme cold values can therefore be observed on the Baar . Temperatures of below −30 ° C can occur here in winter.
The air masses transported by the westerly wind accumulate mainly in the Black Forest and Odenwald , as well as in the Swabian Alb, the higher elevations of the Keuperwald Mountains and the foothills of the Alps. That is why there is plenty of precipitation on the windward side (over 1000 mm per year, in the southern Black Forest in places over 2000 mm). Significantly less precipitation falls on the leeward side in the rain shadow. There are pronounced arid areas here: In the northern Upper Rhine lowlands, the Freiburg Bay (lee side of the Vosges ) and the Taubergrund, around 600 mm fall, in the central Neckar region and the Danube lowlands near Ulm around 700 mm per year.
Consequences of global warming
On behalf of the Baden-Württemberg state government, several studies on the regional consequences of global warming have been carried out since the end of the 1990s . According to a summary of these results from 2012, the annual average temperature in Baden-Württemberg rose by 1.0 ° C in the period 1906–2005 (0.7 ° C worldwide), from an average of 8 ° C to 9 ° C. The largest increase occurred in the last 30 years. The number of maximum precipitation in winter and the number of flood events increased by 35% during this period, while the number of days with snow cover in lower regions decreased by 30–40%. From 1953 to 2009 the number of ice days (maximum temperature below 0 ° C) in Stuttgart decreased from 25 to 15, while the number of summer days (maximum temperature at least 25 ° C) increased from 25 to 45 (see also heat wave 2003 ). The probability of a distinctly dry growing season in summer has increased six-fold since 1985. Climate models predict a continuation of these trends. In July 2013, a climate protection law for Baden-Württemberg was passed.
Due to the mountainous topography, the rivers and their valleys have played and continue to play a significant role in the country's settlement, transportation and history. The European main watershed between the Rhine and the Danube has its westernmost bulge in the Black Forest and runs over the Baar in the north along the Swabian Alb, in the south through the Alpine foothills. The catchment area of the Rhine tributary Neckar takes up almost two fifths of the country's area with around 14,000 km².
The Rhine is the most water-rich river in the country. With it, Baden-Württemberg is connected to one of the most important waterways in the world. Its catchment area (excluding the Neckar) in the country is around 11,000 km². In the 19th century, the Upper Rhine was straightened based on the plans of the Baden engineer Tulla . With a few exceptions, it forms the western border with France and Rhineland-Palatinate . The Upper Rhine , Seerhein and Lake Constance form the largest part of the southern border with Switzerland.
The Neckar rises on the eastern edge of the Black Forest near Villingen-Schwenningen and flows through the center of the country until it flows into the Rhine in the northwest in Mannheim. It is regulated by numerous locks and serves as a traffic route for the industrial center of the country.
The Danube arises near Donaueschingen from the source rivers Brigach and Breg coming from the Black Forest and flows approximately east-northeast, bounding the Swabian Alb to the south and Upper Swabia to the north and flowing behind Ulm to Bavaria. It drains around 9400 km² and thus more than a quarter of the country.
While the Rhine the land near Mannheim at an altitude of about erosion power and enlarge their catchment area in the long term at the expense of the Danube.Leaves , the Danube on the Bavarian border near Ulm is still over high. The rivers draining to the Rhine therefore have greater
Of the other rivers, the longest are the twin rivers Kocher and Jagst , which flow through the northeast of the country and flow into the Neckar. The Tauber flows in the far northeast . Here the state borders on the Main .
With Lake Constance , the country has a share in the second largest lake on the edge of the Alps. Several million residents, especially in the central Neckar region, receive their drinking water from the Lake Constance water supply.
The Black Forest National Park, founded in 2014, is the first national park in Baden-Württemberg. The largest of the more than 1000 nature reserves in the country are the areas of Feldberg and Gletscherkessel Präg in the Black Forest, which are dominated by the Ice Age , the Wurzacher Ried high moor in the likewise glacial Alpine foreland and the Taubergießen floodplain on the Upper Rhine. About 22.8 percent of the land area is designated as landscape protection areas. Seven nature parks together take up a third of the area of Baden-Württemberg. The Swabian Alb and Black Forest biosphere areas are recognized as biosphere reserves by UNESCO.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2017.
Baden-Württemberg lies within the European agglomeration band known as the Blue Banana , which runs from London to Northern Italy . The current state development plan from 2002 differentiates between the spatial categories "agglomeration", "edge zones of agglomeration" and " rural area ", the latter containing its own agglomeration areas. In addition to the largest and central Stuttgart area, the seven agglomerations are located in cross-border regions along the periphery of the state. Most are designated as part of European Metropolitan Regions:
- the Stuttgart agglomeration with approx. 2.7 million inhabitants including the areas around Heilbronn and Reutlingen / Tübingen ; see also metropolitan region Stuttgart with approx. 5.2 million inhabitants
- the Baden-Württemberg part of the cross-border conurbation Rhine-Neckar, see also the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region
- the agglomeration of Karlsruhe / Pforzheim
- the agglomeration of Freiburg
- the Lörrach / Weil agglomeration as a Baden-Württemberg part of the cross-border agglomeration around Basel, see the Basel metropolitan region
- the Baden-Württemberg part of the cross-border conurbation Ulm / Neu-Ulm
- the Lake Constance area with a special structural character
The Upper Rhine area from Karlsruhe via Offenburg and Freiburg to Lörrach / Weil am Rhein is part of the tri-national metropolitan region Upper Rhine, which was formed in 2010 with the neighboring South Palatinate, French and Swiss regions .
The five agglomeration areas in rural areas are:
- the Schwäbisch Hall / Crailsheim densification area
- the Aalen / Heidenheim / Ellwangen agglomeration area
- the conurbation area Offenburg / Lahr / Kehl
- the urbanization area Villingen-Schwenningen / Tuttlingen / Rottweil
- the Albstadt / Balingen / Hechingen urbanization area
Nine cities in the country have more than 100,000 inhabitants.
|city||Residents||Compression space||Brief description||image|
|Stuttgart||634.830||Stuttgart||State capital, former capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg, sixth largest city in Germany, on the middle Neckar in a basin and half-height position with vineyards and mineral springs, center of the automotive industry (Daimler, Porsche, Bosch), two universities and other colleges.|
|Karlsruhe||313.092||Karlsruhe / Pforzheim||Former state capital of Baden, planned baroque city (“fan city”) in the Upper Rhine plain, seat of the Federal Constitutional Court and Federal Court of Justice, nine universities, important location for information and communication technology, UNESCO City of Media Arts.|
|Mannheim||309.370||Rhine-Neckar||Industrial and commercial city at the confluence of the Neckar and Rhine rivers in the Upper Rhine Plain, former royal seat of the Electoral Palatinate, baroque planned city ("square city"), universities, UNESCO City of Music.|
|Freiburg in Breisgau||230.241||Freiburg||University town on the western edge of the southern Black Forest, former capital of Upper Austria , seat of a Catholic archdiocese, southernmost city in Germany.|
|Heidelberg||160.355||Rhine-Neckar||University town at the point where the Neckar flows from the Odenwald to the Upper Rhine Plain, until 1720 the seat of the Electoral Palatinate, international tourist destination with old town and castle ruins, UNESCO City of Literature.|
|Ulm||126,329||Ulm / Neu-Ulm||On the Danube and the border with Bavaria, university, former free imperial city and federal fortress.|
|Heilbronn||125,960||Stuttgart||Industrial city on the Neckar, "Käthchenstadt", former imperial city.|
|Pforzheim||125,542||Karlsruhe / Pforzheim||Located on the northern edge of the Black Forest and the confluence of the Enz and Nagold rivers, known for the jewelry and watch industry.|
|Reutlingen||115.966||Stuttgart||Located on the western edge of the Swabian Alb, former Free Imperial City.|
The area of today's Baden-Wuerttemberg was evidently already settled by representatives of the genus Homo at least half a million years ago . The in wall found the lower jaw of the wall and in Steinheim an der Murr discovered Homo steinheimensis , both for today Hominini - kind Homo heidelbergensis are classified, are at an age of about 500,000 or 250,000 years ago to the oldest finds of the genus Homo in Europe at all .
Significant paleolithic evidence of cultural life in Baden-Württemberg goes back around 35,000 to 40,000 years. That is how old are the finds of the oldest known musical instruments of mankind (an ivory flute, unearthed in 1979 in the Geißenklösterle ) and works of art ( lion man ) that were discovered in caves in the Swabian Alb, especially in those in the Lone Valley . The most important of these caves are the so-called caves of the oldest ice age art .
Above all from the Neolithic there are numerous evidence of settlements and burials from the earliest times, which go back to the most diverse cultural complexes starting with the ceramic band and represent an uninterrupted line up to the beginning of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In Kleinkems in South Baden, the oldest German is Jasper mine from the Neolithic period.
During the Hallstatt period, the Celts settled large parts of the country. This is evidenced by the numerous barrows , the most famous of which is the grave of the Celtic prince of Hochdorf , and by Hallstatt settlements such as the Heuneburg or the Münsterhügel von Breisach .
Since Caesar's Gallic War in 55 BC In the north, the Rhine formed the eastern border of the Roman Empire . Around 15 BC The Romans crossed the Alps under Tiberius . The newly founded province of Raetia extended to the Danube and thus also included what is today Upper Swabia .
The overland route between Mainz and Augsburg was strategically very important. In order to shorten this, the Romans built a road through the Kinzig valley in the central Black Forest around 73/74 AD ; to protect this street they founded Rottweil . Other foundations of this time are Ladenburg , Bad Wimpfen , Rottenburg am Neckar , Heidelberg and Baden-Baden ; however, settlement continuity is only likely for Baden-Baden, Ladenburg and Rottweil. The later road via Bad Cannstatt shortened the route between Mainz and Augsburg even further. The Romans secured the conquest of southwest Germany through campaigns in what is now Hesse. Around 85 AD, Emperor Domitian founded the province of Germania superior (Upper Germany).
The border of the Roman Empire ran from around 98–159 AD along the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes , later along the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes . The part of the area enclosed by the Limes on the right of the Rhine and on the left of the Danube was called the Decumatland by the Romans . The northeastern part of today's Baden-Württemberg was never part of the Roman Empire.
. By 233 BC sacked n. Alamannen the Dekumatland; In the time of the imperial crisis of the 3rd century , the Romans abandoned the previous border after renewed raids around AD 260 and withdrew behind the Rhine, Danube and Iller, the Danube-Iller-Rhine-Limes . They held the Rhine border until the Rhine crossing from 406 .
In the 5th century the area of the Duchy of Alemannia came to the Franconian Empire . The northern border of Alemannia was shifted to the south and roughly coincided with the course of today's Alemannic-Franconian dialect border. The northern third of Baden-Württemberg was thus in the direct Franconian sphere of influence (dioceses of Mainz, Speyer, Worms, Würzburg), the southern two-thirds remained in the Alemannic sphere of influence (dioceses of Constance, Augsburg, Strasbourg). In the 8th century counties ( Gaue ) were installed as administrative units. With the formation of the new tribal duchies , the southern areas of today's federal state belonged to the Duchy of Swabia until the end of the High Middle Ages , the northern areas were part of the Duchy of Franconia .
In the High Middle Ages, the area was one of the central landscapes of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. It is home to numerous up-and-coming aristocratic dynasties and was at the intersection of some important long-distance trade routes. The high nobility and the monasteries directed an intensive development of the country, in the course of which the low mountain ranges were opened up and numerous cities were founded, thus expanding their power base. In addition to the ducal houses, the most important families were the Franconian Salians and the Swabian Staufers , who fought for the imperial throne in their day. Other important noble houses were the Guelphs , originally from Upper Swabia , the Zähringer and the Habsburgs and also the Lower Swabian Hohenzollerns .
After the end of the Staufer dynasty in the 13th century, the empire was permanently decentralized . The already traditionally weak central power of emperors and kings increasingly lost rights and powers to emerging regional powers. This long-term trend was also and especially noticeable in southwest Germany. There was territorial fragmentation into hundreds of small counties, imperial cities, spiritual areas or even individual knightly villages.
The territories that developed in the area of the old tribal duchies of Franconia and Swabia in the High and Late Middle Ages mostly proved to be stable and dominated until the years of upheaval 1803/1806. The most important of them include:
- the imperial cities of Ulm , Biberach an der Riss , Esslingen , Heilbronn , Gmünd , Hall , Rottweil , Constance (until 1548) and Reutlingen
- the secular princely states of Württemberg , Upper Austria , Palatinate , Baden , Hohenlohe and Fürstenberg
- the secular domains of the dioceses of Constance , Worms , Speyer and Strasbourg
- the monastic states of St. Blasien , Zwiefalten , Ochsenhausen and Salem
For horizontal diversification, the vertical division of rights in one place into different rightsholders occurred . Thus the numerous financial, economic, military and jurisdictional rights within a village could lie in the hands of several states, lords or families.
Early modern age
The early modern period was shaped by the Reformation and the expansion efforts of the emerging territorial states of Austria , Prussia , France and Sweden . This resulted in conflicts such as the Peasants' War , the Thirty Years War and the War of the Palatinate Succession . In today's Baden-Württemberg, which remained extremely fragmented in terms of territory, this was one of the focal points of the fighting with corresponding consequences for the population and the economy.
Reformation and Peasants' War
Later Baden was the scene of the Bundschuh conspiracies . Joß Fritz , who came from Untergrombach , led a total of three conspiracies from 1501 to 1517 in the Prince Diocese of Speyer and in Upper Austria .
As early as 1518, young south-west German scholars got to know Martin Luther and his teachings at the Heidelberg disputation . The Bretten Philipp Melanchthon followed Luther to Wittenberg and became one of the leaders of the Lutheran Reformation. Johannes Brenz went from Heidelberg to Schwäbisch Hall, introduced the Reformation there and later supported Duke Christoph von Württemberg in building the Protestant regional church.
On Easter Sunday 1525 and occupied Swabian peasants stormed the castle vineyard and killed the Count of Helfenstein, of a son of Emperor Maximilian I was. This bloody act from Weinsberg cost the farmers a lot of sympathy. As a result, they moved into Stuttgart, among others, and destroyed numerous castles and monasteries, including Hohenstaufen Castle , Lorch Monastery and Murrhardt Monastery . On April 24, 1525, the rebels transferred the military leadership to Captain Götz von Berlichingen . On May 23, 1525, farmers in southern Baden took Freiburg .
The peasant uprising was brutally suppressed in the summer of 1525 by a mercenary army that fought on behalf of the Swabian Federation under the leadership of Georg Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil . It is estimated that around 100,000 insurgents were killed.
The Reformation spread quickly, especially in the south-west German imperial cities. In 1529, five imperial cities from today's Baden-Württemberg belonged to the Speyer Protestation . When Margrave Philipp von Baden died childless in 1533, the margraviate became under his brothers Ernst and Bernhard III. divided into Protestant Baden-Durlach and Catholic Baden-Baden . Duke Ulrich von Württemberg introduced the Reformation when he returned to the Stuttgart throne in the victorious battle of Lauffen in 1534 after fifteen years of forced administration by the Habsburgs.
In 1557 , Elector Ottheinrich introduced the Lutheran Reformation to the Electoral Palatinate . Under his successor Friedrich III. , who had the Heidelberg Catechism worked out in 1563 , the Electoral Palatinate became Calvinist .
Thirty Years' War
The main scenes of the Thirty Years' War in the south-west of Germany were the Electoral Palatinate and Upper Austria , but the other areas were also badly hit by looting and robbery of the armies passing through and encamping.
After the Battle of the White Mountain , the Bohemian-Palatinate War shifted to the Electoral Palatinate. The united armies of Counts Peter von Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich von Baden-Durlach defeated Tilly in 1622 near Mingolsheim . A little later, the Margrave of Baden Tilly, who had been separated from Mansfeld, was defeated in the Battle of Wimpfen .
While the war events then shifted north, the Electoral Palatinate remained occupied by Spaniards. In 1632 these were expelled by the Swedes under King Gustav Adolf . In 1634 the Swedes conquered the Philippsburg fortress and moved to the Upper Rhine in the same year. After the battle of Nördlingen , Duke Eberhard III fled . into exile in Strasbourg. The victorious imperial and Spanish troops occupied the territory of Württemberg and devastating attacks, looting and pillage took place in these Protestant regions. In 1635 Johann von Werth recaptured Philippsburg and Heidelberg.
In 1638 the Protestant-Swedish associations under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar celebrated successes in front Austria at the battle of Rheinfelden , in Breisach and in Freiburg . In 1643/44 the fortunes of battle turned into battles near Tuttlingen and Freiburg in favor of the imperial-catholic troops. The fighting in the southwest continued until the end of the war.
In 1647 Bavaria, Sweden and France signed an armistice agreement in Ulm, as a result of which the Swedish and French troops that had invaded Bavaria withdrew to Upper Swabia and Württemberg. In the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Karl I Ludwig received the Palatinate and the electoral dignity lost in the Regensburg Reichstag in 1623 back and Breisach became French.
As a result of the Thirty Years' War, the population had declined by more than half, regionally by two thirds, the livestock was almost completely destroyed, and a third of the land was fallow. It took the region a long time to recover.
Age of Absolutism
→ Main article for the period 1693–1733 in Württemberg: Eberhard Ludwig
In the Palatinate War of Succession , French troops led by General Melac devastated the north-western part of what is now Baden-Württemberg. Between 1689 and 1693, Melac had almost all villages and towns burn down across the board, including the residential cities of Heidelberg with the castle , Durlach and Baden as well as Mannheim , Bretten , Pforzheim and Marbach . After the end of the war, France had to return Freiburg and Breisach am Rhein to Austria.
As a result, several of the regional and church princes moved out of the old royal cities and built new baroque residences based on the model of Versailles . Thus arose Baroque planned cities with large locks in Karlsruhe , Ludwigsburg and Rastatt , the Palatine residence Mannheim Palace and summer residence of Schwetzingen and Bruchsal Castle as the seat of the diocese of Speyer.
From 1703 to 1713 the Upper Rhine Plain between Freiburg and Heidelberg was the staging area of the imperial troops in the War of the Spanish Succession and the scene of battles between them and those of France on several occasions.
In 1782, in the areas of Upper Austria, d. H. in large parts of today's southern part of the country, serfdom abolished in the course of the reforms of Emperor Joseph II .
1806 to 1918
At the beginning of the 19th century around 300 states still held territorial rights in what is now Baden-Württemberg, but their number was reduced to four after the dissolution of the Old Kingdom. Above all, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Grand Duchy of Baden were among the winners of the coalition wars . The two principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen survived the mediation due to special relationships with Napoleon . In addition, the city of Wimpfen was a Hessian exclave .
In 1849 the Baden Revolution was suppressed by Prussian intervention troops, the Baden Army was dissolved and rebuilt under Prussian leadership. In 1850 the two Hohenzollern states became the Prussian province of Hohenzollernsche Land . In the German War of 1866, Baden and Württemberg sided with Austria and after the end of the war had to pay compensation to victorious Prussia and conclude secret military treaties with the North German Confederation . This led to the entry of these states into the Franco-German War in 1870 . As a result of the war, Baden and Württemberg joined the newly founded German Empire led by Prussia .
1918 to 1933
time of the nationalsocialism
Seizure of power and terror
In 1933, the independent state governments were ousted in favor of National Socialist Gauleiter and Reich Governor. The seizure of power was accompanied and supported by terror against political opponents.
In Baden, Gauleiter Robert Wagner appointed himself President of the State on March 11, 1933. Reich President Hindenburg legalized this self-appointment on May 5, 1933, by appointing Wagner as Reich Governor. Walter Köhler took over the office of Prime Minister of Baden . On March 15, 1933, the Württemberg state parliament elected Wilhelm Murr as President with the votes of the NSDAP, DNVP and the farmers' union. On May 6, 1933 he was appointed Reich Governor, while the office of Prime Minister was transferred to Christian Mergenthaler . This duality in the exercise of power remained until the end of the war.
The opponents of the regime, mainly communists and social democrats, were taken into “ protective custody ” in a wave of arrests by the Gestapo from March 1933 and interned in the camps Kislau (near Bad Schönborn), Ankenbuck (near Villingen) and Heuberg (near Stetten am kalten Markt). Women critical of the regime were held in Gotteszell women's prison . The Baden SPD leadership was abducted from Karlsruhe to Kislau on May 16, 1933, and the evacuation was publicly staged.
After the reorganization of the state parliaments in accordance with the result of the Reichstag election of March 5, 1933, the state parliaments passed state authorizing laws on June 8, 1933 in Württemberg and on June 9, 1933 in Baden. The MPs of the now banned KPD were no longer allowed to take part in the votes. The SPD MPs abstained from voting in Württemberg, while the five remaining in Baden openly voted “No”. All other MPs - in Württemberg this was the center, DNVP, Bauernbund, CSVD and NSDAP - agreed to disempower themselves.
The Heuberg camp was closed at the end of 1933 due to overcrowding. The inmates were transferred to Fort Oberer Kuhberg in Ulm. Members of the Gestapo, SS and SA murdered the leading Baden Social Democrat Ludwig Marum on March 29, 1934 in Kislau. In 1936 the Gestapo reported that they had smashed the “illegal” structures of the SPD and KPD.
The mass murder of the German civilian population by the National Socialists in Baden and Württemberg killed around 12,000 Jews, a large number of members of the Roma minority, 10,000 sick people and an unknown number of opponents of the regime.
By 1939 two thirds of the approximately 35,000 Jews who had lived in Baden and Württemberg in 1933 had emigrated. On October 22nd, 1940, the Baden Gauleiter Robert Wagner and Josef Bürckel , Gauleiter of Westmark , led the " Wagner-Bürckel-Aktion ", during which around 6000 Jews from Baden were deported to the Gurs camp before the actual Holocaust . From there, most of them were taken to German extermination camps in Eastern Europe and murdered there. The Württemberg Jews were in November 1941 in several through trains, each with about 1,000 people after Riga , Izbica , Auschwitz and Theresienstadt deported where they were killed.
In the Grafeneck killing center near Gomadingen , those in power murdered more than 10,000 patients from psychiatric clinics in a gas chamber as part of the T4 campaign . Roma, including many Sinti , were z. Some were interned in local "gypsy camps", for example in the gypsy forced camp in Ravensburg , and deported to Poland in 1940 and to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp in 1943 . Numerous inmates of Baden-Württemberg concentration camps died in forced labor. For example, in the Bisingen concentration camp near Hechingen, the attempt to extract shale oil cost 1,000 people their lives. Other prisoners perished on the so-called death marches with which the rulers wanted to evacuate the concentration camps shortly before the end of the war in view of the advancing American troops.
With Count von Stauffenberg , who grew up in Stuttgart , the Scholl siblings , who spent their childhood in Forchtenberg , Ludwigsburg and Ulm , and the Hitler assassin Georg Elser , who lived on the Ostalb and in Konstanz, four of the most famous German resistance fighters have their roots in the southwest.
Further examples are Gertrud Luckner from Freiburg , who helped Jews to leave the country, was arrested in 1943 and survived the Ravensbrück concentration camp , Georg Lechleiter from Mannheim , who led an underground organization of the KPD and was executed in Stuttgart in 1942, and Reinhold Frank from Karlsruhe and Fritz from Stuttgart Elsas and Eugen Bolz , who were executed as members of the conspiracy of July 20, 1944 in 1945.
The economists of the Freiburg circle around Walter Eucken , the Rottenburg bishop Joannes Sproll , who was expelled from his diocese in 1938 after he had not participated in the referendum on the "Anschluss" of Austria , and Robert Bosch , the Jews and , are also counted among the resistance accommodated other persecuted people in his company.
End of war and consequences of war
In October 1944, the government of the Vichy regime under Marshal Pétain was transferred from Vichy to Sigmaringen on Hitler's orders . The Castle Sigmaringen remained of the view of the Nazis until the war ended headquarters official French government.
The Allied air raids in World War II did not all hit cities in southwest Germany to the same extent. In the air raid on Pforzheim on February 23, 1945 , 17,600 people died within a few minutes. Stuttgart, Mannheim, Heilbronn , Friedrichshafen , Freiburg and Ulm were also hit very hard . Karlsruhe, Reutlingen , Böblingen , Sindelfingen , Offenburg and Göppingen suffered severe damage . Other cities, e.g. B. Rottweil, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, Esslingen , Ludwigsburg , Tübingen, Villingen , Konstanz, Aalen or Schwäbisch Gmünd remained almost intact and therefore still have intact old towns today.
In the spring of 1945, American and French ground troops defeated those of the Wehrmacht in the area of Baden-Württemberg. The Americans occupied Mannheim on March 29, 1945. Stuttgart was conquered by the French troops on April 22, 1945. Partly heavy fighting meant that Crailsheim , Waldenburg , Bruchsal and Freudenstadt were destroyed in the last weeks of the war .
The way to the southwest state
After the Second World War, the northern parts of Baden and Württemberg came under the US occupation zone, the southern parts and Hohenzollern under the French . The division took place along the district boundaries, with the US zone deliberately drawing all the circles through which the Karlsruhe-Munich motorway (today's A 8 ) ran. The military governments of the zones of occupation founded the states of Württemberg-Baden in the American zone and Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden in the French zone in 1945/46 . These countries became part of the Federal Republic of Germany on May 23, 1949 .
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany contained in regulations for a reorganization of the federal territory with the help of referendums. However, this article initially did not come into force due to reservations by the occupying powers. Deviating from this, Article 118 urged the three countries in the southwest to regulate a new structure by mutual agreement. This article was based on the decision of August 31, 1948 at the conference of prime ministers at the Niederwald hunting lodge to create a south-western state, which was taken before the start of deliberations on the Basic Law . In the event that such a regulation did not come about, a regulation was stipulated by a federal law. Alternatives were either a union into a south-western state or the separate restoration of Baden and Württemberg (including Hohenzollern), with the governments of Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern advocating the former and Baden advocating the latter. An agreement of the governments on a referendum failed because of the question of the voting mode. The federal law passed on May 4, 1951 provided for a division of the voting area into four zones (North Württemberg, North Baden, South Württemberg-Hohenzollern, South Baden). The unification of the countries should be considered accepted if there was a majority in the entire voting area and in three of the four zones. Since a majority in the two Wuerttemberg zones as well as in North Baden was already foreseeable (trial votes were carried out for this), this regulation was favored by the unification proponents. The (southern) Baden government initiated a constitutional complaint against the law, but this was unsuccessful.
Before the referendum, which took place on December 9, 1951, supporters and opponents of the planned south-west state fought . The leading representatives of the pro side were the Prime Minister of Württemberg-Baden Reinhold Maier and the President of Württemberg-Hohenzollern Gebhard Müller , the leader of the south-western state opponents was the State President of Baden Leo Wohleb . In the vote, voters in both parts of Württemberg voted with 93% for the merger, in North Baden with 57%, while in South Baden only 38% were in favor. In three out of four voting districts there was a majority in favor of the formation of the south-west state, so that the formation of a south-west state was decided. If the result had counted in total Baden, a majority of 52% would have been in favor of restoring the (separate) state of Baden.
- Note: The historical processes can also be found in detail in the section The Origin of Baden-Württemberg in the article Württemberg-Hohenzollern .
Establishment of the country
On March 9, 1952, the state constituent assembly was elected. The first Prime Minister was elected at a meeting on April 25, 1952. The state of Baden-Württemberg was thus founded.
“My honorable Members. According to Section 14, Paragraph 4, Clause 2, the date of formation of the provisional government is hereby established for the present moment, namely Friday, April 25, 1952, 12:30 p.m. With this declaration, the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern are united into one federal state in accordance with Section 11 of the second restructuring law. (...) "
Reinhold Maier (FDP / DVP) was the first Prime Minister to form a coalition of the SPD, FDP / DVP and BHE . After the constitution came into force, the state constituent assembly acted as the first state parliament of Baden-Württemberg until 1956.
The name of the country was the subject of a lengthy dispute. The name Baden-Württemberg , mentioned in the transition law of May 15, 1952, was initially only intended for a transitional period, but ultimately prevailed because no other name was accepted by all parties. The state constitution , which came into force on November 19, 1953 , was only passed by the state constituent assembly, but not subsequently confirmed by a referendum.
With his quick government formation in 1952, Reinhold Maier had excluded the CDU as the strongest parliamentary group. The resentment generated, both in the two southern regions South Baden and South Württemberg-Hohenzollern, who felt little or no presence is insufficient in the new government, as well as Gebhard Müller , the new CDU parliamentary group chairman, the non-participation of the CDU as a personal affront felt . In the federal election of September 6, 1953 , which Reinhold Maier had also declared a plebiscite on his politics, the CDU in Baden-Württemberg won an absolute majority of the votes. Reinhold Maier drew the consequences and resigned as Prime Minister. His successor was Gebhard Müller , who formed a coalition of CDU, SPD, FDP / DVP and BHE. The same constellation also governed after the 1956 election (the KPD no longer managed to enter the state parliament, so the coalition became an all-party government ) and lasted until 1960. In 1958, Müller was succeeded by Kurt Georg Kiesinger as the country's third Prime Minister.
Another vote in Baden
The Baden unification opponents did not give up the fight against the south-western state even after 1952. In Heimatbund Badnerland organized, they continue striving for the restoration of Baden. Germany Treaty in 1955, the Heimatbund submitted a petition for a referendum to restore the state of Baden within the borders of 1945. The Federal Ministry of the Interior rejected this request on the grounds that the new federal state had already passed a referendum come about. In the subsequent lawsuit before the Federal Constitutional Court , the Heimatbund was right in 1956. The court argued that the vote of 1951 was not a vote within the meaning of Basic Law, since the numerically larger population of Württemberg and Hohenzollern could outvote the numerically weaker population of Baden. The will of the Baden population had been overshadowed by the peculiarity of the political and historical development, which is why a referendum according to GG is permissible.Paragraph 2 of the Basic Law provided that a referendum on the reorganization was possible in areas whose nationality had been changed after the end of the Second World War without a referendum. After this passage came into force as a result of the
In its judgment, the Federal Constitutional Court did not set a deadline for the vote, which is why it was repeatedly dragged off. A further decision by the Federal Constitutional Court was required in 1969, in which it ordered the vote by June 30, 1970 at the latest. This was carried out on June 7, 1970 and, with 81.9%, gave a high level of approval for Baden to remain in the common state of Baden-Württemberg. The turnout was 62.5%.
The rejection of the popular initiative cleared the way for an administrative reorganization of the country. In 1971 a reform of the administrative districts and administrative districts was initiated, which came into force in 1973. Since then, the former national borders can hardly be seen on the map.
The population development in Baden-Württemberg was generally characterized by a steady increase between 1950 and 2008. In the 1950s, the population of Baden-Württemberg rose by almost 1.3 million people. In the 1960s, too, the population rose again by just under 1.2 million people. In 1971 the population topped the nine million mark for the first time. In contrast, the 1970s were largely characterized by stagnation in terms of population.
In the ten years from 1977 to 1987 in particular, the population trend largely stood still. A decline in the early 1980s was compensated for, but in the ten years after 1977 the population only increased by around 165,000 people to just under 9.3 million. However, with the end of the Cold War and the influx of people from Central and Eastern Europe, this changed very significantly.
The twenty years from 1988 to 2008 were characterized by a continuous increase in population. The population increased by almost 1.5 million people during this time. In 1990 and 1991 the population grew by almost 200,000 people.
Overall, in the 50 years between 1952 and 2002, the population of Baden-Württemberg grew by just under four million from 6.7 to 10.7 million people, an increase of almost 60 percent. In 2008 and 2009 there was a small population decline in Baden-Württemberg, which is otherwise characterized by growth. So far, the population has always shrunk for a maximum of three years in a row, only to grow again and again. Nevertheless, in 2010 the State Statistical Office forecast a decline in the population by 3.5 percent to around 10.3 million people by 2030.
In a forecast from 2011, the study “Wegweiser Kommune” by the Bertelsmann Foundation assumes a population decline of 0.4 percent for Baden-Württemberg by 2030 (compared to 2009), making Baden-Württemberg the area with the most stable population after Bavaria is.
|December 31, 2015||10,794,570|
|December 31, 2020||10,793,360|
|December 31, 2025||10,753,570|
|December 31, 2030||10,670,320|
The coat of arms shows three striding lions on a golden background. This is the coat of arms of the Hohenstaufen and Dukes of Swabia . Above the large state coat of arms are the six coats of arms of the historical landscapes from which or parts of which Baden-Württemberg was formed. These are: Vorderösterreich (red-white-red divided shield), Kurpfalz (rising lion), Württemberg (three stag sticks), Baden (red sloping bar), Hohenzollern (white-black square) and Franconia (three silver tips on a red background) . The coats of arms of Baden and Württemberg are shown somewhat larger. Shield holders are the Baden griffin and the Württemberg deer . Instead, a leaf crown rests on the small state coat of arms .
The use of the state coat of arms is subject to approval and generally only permitted by the authorities.
The national flag is black and gold; the state service flag also bears the small state coat of arms.
Since January 1, 1973, Baden-Württemberg has been divided into four administrative districts , twelve regions (each with a regional association ) as well as 35 rural districts and nine urban districts.
Administrative districts and regions
- Freiburg with the regions of Hochrhein-Bodensee , Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg , southern Upper Rhine
- Karlsruhe with the regions Middle Upper Rhine , Northern Black Forest , Rhine-Neckar
- Stuttgart with the regions Heilbronn-Franconia , East Wuerttemberg , Stuttgart
- Tübingen with the regions Bodensee-Oberschwaben , Donau-Iller , Neckar-Alb
The Donau-Iller region also includes neighboring areas in Bavaria. The Rhine-Neckar region also includes neighboring areas in Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate.
City and rural districts
The country has the following nine urban districts (the respective license plates in brackets):
The 35 counties are:
The districts came together in 1956 for the Baden-Württemberg District Assembly .
See also: List of cities and municipalities in Baden-Württemberg , List of the largest cities in Baden-Württemberg (all municipalities with more than 20,000 inhabitants) and municipal codes in Germany
Since the completion of the administrative reorganization and the merger of other municipalities divided the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg in a total of 1,101 municipalities (89 of which are large district towns, 311 communities as city designated) and the two uninhabited unincorporated areas Gutsbezirk Münsingen and community Freehold Rheinau .
The rights and obligations of the municipalities are primarily laid down in the Baden-Württemberg state constitution (§§ 69–76) and in the Baden-Württemberg municipal code (GemO). In § 1 GemO the municipalities are described as the “basis and member of the democratic state”, and the “participation in the […] administration of the municipality” as the “right and duty” of the municipality residents.
Section 7 GemO defines the totality of the land belonging to the municipality as a municipality area . This property unit is documented as a district in the land register . Furthermore, it is stipulated that all properties in Baden-Württemberg should belong to one municipality - but “special reasons” justify the remaining of properties outside a communal marking association. Such "community-free properties" exist in Baden-Württemberg in two uninhabited, community-free areas - Guts Bezirk Münsingen and community-free property in Rheinau .
In § 3 GemO, urban districts (outside of Baden-Württemberg called district-free city ) and large district towns are mentioned as special types of communities . They differ from the remaining municipalities in that they take on all or part of district tasks . In Baden-Württemberg, nine municipalities have been declared urban districts and 91 municipalities have been declared major district towns.
Of the municipal area changes mentioned in § 8 GemO, incorporation ( incorporation ) and new formation ( municipality merger / amalgamation) result in the end of the political independence of a municipality. Extensive such area changes were ordered under the heading of territorial reform in the 1970s. The integration of Tennenbronn into Schramberg on May 1, 2006 was the first task of a municipality to become independent since 1977.
The five-year local elections were last held on May 26, 2019 . In the 2009 elections, 18,233 municipal councils and 1,960 district councilors were to be elected.
|No.||Surname||Life dates||Political party||Beginning of
the term of office
|1||Reinhold Maier||1889-1971||FDP / DVP||1952||1953|
|3||Kurt Georg Kiesinger||1904-1988||CDU||1958||1966|
|6th||Erwin the devil||* 1939||CDU||1991||2005|
|7th||Günther Oettinger||* 1953||CDU||2005||2010|
|8th||Stefan Mappus||* 1966||CDU||2010||2011|
|9||Winfried Kretschmann||* 1948||Green||2011||officiating|
Baden-Württemberg is politically bourgeois-conservative, the CDU and the FDP / DVP are relatively strong in Baden-Württemberg and have provided most of the state's governments. For this reason the SPD always had a difficult time there; So far, their results have always been below the national average. Until 2011, the CDU emerged as the strongest party in every election, while the federal state is the only one for the FDP so far where it has never failed to pass the five percent hurdle in state elections . Since the 1980s, Baden-Württemberg has also been a stronghold of the Greens founded in Karlsruhe , whose election results in the state have always been above the national average; their first entry into the state parliament in 1980 was also the first in an area state; since the success of the state elections in 2011, the Greens have appointed their first prime minister here. While the Prime Minister was always provided by the CDU from 1953 to 2011, the FDP / DVP and the SPD (Grand Coalition) were partly involved in the government. During the 1990s, the Republicans were represented in the state parliament (10.9% in 1992 and 9.1% in 1996 ), and they were most popular in this state. Before that, between 1968 and 1972 the NPD also sat in the state parliament with 9.8% of the vote. In 2016, the AfD moved into the state parliament with 15.1%. In no other of the old (West German) states did parties to the right of the CDU and CSU achieve such high election results.
The CDU achieved an absolute majority in the state parliament in all elections between 1972 and 1988. Due to Ulrich Maurer's resignation from the SPD on June 27, 2005 and joining the WASG on July 1, the latter was represented in the state parliament. Stefan Mappus was elected Prime Minister on February 10, 2010, but lost his black and yellow government majority after the 2011 state election . The CDU itself achieved the second-worst election result in the history of the state party with 39.0%, while the FDP only barely made it into the state parliament (5.3%). The Greens, on the other hand, achieved the party's best result at the state level at the time with 24.2%. With 23.1%, the SPD achieved its worst election result in Baden-Württemberg to date and joined a green-red coalition as a junior partner. In the state elections in 2016 , the trend continued: Both the CDU and the SPD deteriorated again to their previously worst results in the country, while the Greens continued to win. The new member AfD was able to achieve 15.1% of the vote. As a result, the Greens and the CDU formed a coalition under Prime Minister Kretschmann .
The state has two state representations outside of Baden-Württemberg. Since 1954 there has been a representation of the state of Baden-Württemberg at the federal government , which was based in the federal city of Bonn until the move of the federal government and is now located in the federal capital Berlin . In 1987 the representation of the state of Baden-Württemberg at the European Union was added, which acts as a link between the state of Baden-Württemberg and the European Union .
Baden-Württemberg and the Japanese prefecture of Kanagawa have maintained a bilateral partnership since 1989. Within Europe, Baden-Württemberg, together with the regions of Catalonia , Lombardy and Rhône-Alpes, forms the multilateral working group Four Motors for Europe .
With service-bw , citizens have an e-government platform at their disposal. In the state-owned environmental information system Baden-Württemberg , current measurement results on air quality, Lake Constance, severe weather warnings, geographic information and an information system for water, pollution control, soil, waste and occupational safety can be called up.
Baden-Württemberg is one of the economically strongest and most competitive regions in Europe . Baden-Württemberg is considered the most innovative region in the European Union, particularly in the field of industrial high technology and research and development . The research strength is reflected in the expenditures for research and development, which in 2005 amounted to 4.2% of the gross domestic product , the highest value among the EU regions (NUTS 1) .
Measured in terms of gross domestic product, which amounted to around 476.76 billion euros in 2016, Baden-Württemberg is one of the wealthier regions of the EU with an index of 144 (EU-28: 100, Germany: 126) (2014). After Hamburg and Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg ranks third in the 2016 purchasing power comparison with 23,368 euros per inhabitant. The unemployment rate was 4.4% (July 2020) . It is traditionally lower in the more rural regions than in the cities. In July 2014, the rate in the Biberach district was only 2.5%, in the Lake Constance district 2.6% and in the Alb-Danube district 2.7%, while it was 6.1% in the Mannheim districts , 6% in Heilbronn , 2% and in particular Pforzheim with 7.6% was significantly higher. Around 50,000 people from Baden-Württemberg work as cross-border commuters in Switzerland.
Family businesses are characteristic of the country's economy . 190 of the 1000 largest family businesses in Germany are in Baden-Württemberg, which is 3rd place in a comparison of the federal states. In relation to the number of inhabitants, the country can boast the third most family businesses in Germany. The family business with the highest turnover in Baden-Württemberg is the retail multinational Schwarz Group , followed by Robert Bosch GmbH and the Merckle group of companies .
Since 1999 the state government has advertised with the motto “We can do everything. Except standard German. ”For Baden-Württemberg as a business location and living environment. The aim of the campaign, which the state government considers extremely successful, is to make the country's economic performance better known and to associate it with its cultural, scenic and gastronomic advantages. The motto was invented by the advertising agency Scholz & Friends and initially offered to the Free State of Saxony , which, however, refused to use it.
June 30, 2012
since June 30, 2007
June 30, 2012
|Job density 1|
|Freiburg in Breisgau||107,888||+10.03||+39.246||760|
|Unemployment rate in%||5.4||4.9||5.4||6.2||6.2||7.0||6.3||4.9||4.1||5.1||4.9||4.0||3.9||4.1||4.0||3.8||3.8||3.5||3.2|
The country has very different natural conditions for agriculture (see section Geography ). In the balance sheet, the lower valley and basin areas of the state such as the Upper Rhine lowlands and Neckar valley or the Lake Constance area are particularly favorable areas for agriculture. In addition to arable farming, there are also intensive crops such as B. Fruit and viticulture with the wine-growing regions of Baden and Württemberg . Most of the country has medium altitudes, which are favorable for grain cultivation, which occurs in various combinations with grassland farming and forage cultivation . Unfavorable growth climates can be found in the high areas of the Black Forest and the Swabian Alb as well as in the Baar, where fodder farming and livestock farming predominate on grassland or forestry . The organic farming has increased in 2018 (14% of agricultural land) in 9290 enterprises (11% of holdings) and 197,751 hectares of organically farmed land.
The general structural change in agriculture, its operational concentration and the intensification of production, is taking place in Baden-Württemberg with some delay due to its smaller-scale agriculture and ultimately at the same speed. Indicators are e.g. B.
- the decline in the number of farms: in 1971 there were still 215,430 farms, in 2007 there were only 57,049;
- the growth in the average farm size: in 1949 it was 4.9 hectares, in 2005 it was 23.9 hectares (the lowest number in the federal average among the large states);
- the reversal of the ratio of full-time to part-time businesses: in 1949 there were 251,000 full-time and 141,000 part-time businesses, in 2005 there were 19,900 full-time businesses and 35,400 part-time businesses;
- The decline in the number of people employed in agriculture: their absolute number increased in Baden-Württemberg until 1925 and then fell slowly at first, then rapidly from the 1950s onwards; in 2005 there were around 100,000 employed, which corresponds to two percent of all employed persons.
Industry and trade employed a good 1.2 million people in 8,600 companies in 2005, which represents 38.3% of the employees subject to social security contributions. This makes Baden-Württemberg the German state with the highest share of industrial employees and the highest industrial share in the gross domestic product. The high level of international competitiveness of the country's industrial sectors is significantly boosted by the high level of research performed by companies (economic share of research and development: 3.4% of gross domestic product).
The three most important industries according to the number of employees are
- the mechanical engineering industry , which is based in Baden-Württemberg with many companies (e.g. Trumpf , Heidelberger Druckmaschinen , Festo , Voith , Liebherr , Putzmeister , SEW );
- Vehicle construction: Baden-Württemberg is a center of the automotive industry ( Daimler AG , Porsche , Robert Bosch GmbH , Audi , Smart , Iveco Magirus , ZF Friedrichshafen , LuK ) with locations in Stuttgart, Sindelfingen, Neckarsulm , Mannheim, Rastatt , Gaggenau , Bühl ( Baden) , Ulm, Friedrichshafen and Weissach ;
- the manufacture of metal products (e.g. Wieland-Werke AG in Ulm).
The Upper Rhine mineral oil refinery in Karlsruhe is the second largest mineral oil refinery in Germany.
The largest European software company SAP is based in Walldorf . The well-known programs VirtualBox , TeamSpeak and TeamViewer come from Baden-Württemberg . With Lexware another software developer in Baden-Wuerttemberg is home and known primarily for commercial software solutions.
In Baden-Württemberg there is still one nuclear power plant , the Neckarwestheim nuclear power plant , in which a unit with a total gross output of 1400 MW is in operation. The Obrigheim nuclear power plant was decommissioned in 2005, the Philippsburg nuclear power plant in 2019. In 2011, the oldest units in each of the Neckarwestheim and Philippsburg nuclear power plants were shut down.
The rivers of the country have numerous run-of-river power plants . The Rhine power station Iffezheim was built in the mid-1970s . It was expanded in 2013 and has since been the largest of its kind in Germany with 148 MW.
As of the end of 2015, 515 wind turbines with a total output of 880 MW were installed in Baden-Württemberg , of which 186 MW were installed in the first half of 2016. The number of systems increased to 720 by 2018, the output to 1534 MW. However, Baden-Württemberg still has the lowest installed wind energy output of all German territorial states with the exception of Saarland. As of August 2020, the Harthäuser Wald wind farm with 18 turbines and 54.9 MW is the largest and most powerful wind farm in the country .
In Baden-Württemberg almost 50 newspaper publishers produce more than 220 different daily newspapers with a circulation of more than two million copies. In the newspaper area there are 17 regional newspapers. The highest circulation (at least 80,000 copies) are the Südwest Presse , the Stuttgarter Nachrichten , the Schwäbische Zeitung , the Mannheimer Morgen , the Badische Zeitung , the Badische Neuesten Nachrichten , the Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung , the Heilbronner Voice and the Stuttgarter Zeitung . Most local newspapers get the cover from a regional newspaper .
Over 500 publishers in Baden-Württemberg produce over 10,000 new publications every year. Many traditional companies such as Ernst Klett Verlag , the Georg von Holtzbrinck publishing group or the Hüthig Jehle Rehm publishing group have their headquarters in the country. Furthermore, the headquarters of Hubert Burda Media , one of the largest publishing and media groups in Germany, which is also important on the international market, is located in Offenburg .
The most important academic libraries in Baden-Württemberg are the Württemberg State Library and the Baden State Library . Around 16 million items of media are kept available in the state's 800 public libraries, which are run by local authorities. There are also several hundred church-sponsored libraries.
Public broadcasting is operated by Südwestrundfunk , which also maintains ensembles that are among the leading in Europe: the SWR Symphony Orchestra , the SWR Vokalensemble Stuttgart and the SWR Big Band Stuttgart.
In private radio there are 13 local broadcasters, three regional broadcasters ( Radio Regenbogen , Antenne 1 , Radio 7 ) and one national broadcaster mainly for young people ( bigFM ). Twelve non-commercial private radio broadcasters, such as Bermuda radio , transverse radio or radioactive , and five learning radios complete the offer.
The broadcasters BWeins, HD Campus TV and Baden TV offer a private national TV program. There are also 14 regional TV channels, such as Rhein-Neckar Fernsehen , Regio TV Schwaben or RTF.1 Neckar-Alb. Eight private nationwide organizers broadcast from Baden-Württemberg.
Around 49 million overnight stays are counted in the Baden-Württemberg tourism industry every year. The medium-sized tourism industry contributes around five percent to the gross domestic product. Tourism offers around 200,000 jobs and 8,000 training positions. Since the workplaces are location-specific, they are considered to be relatively safe.
The Black Forest is the most important recreational region in Baden-Württemberg and the most popular holiday destination among the German low mountain ranges. It is particularly known for its romantic valleys, gorges, mills and the typical farms and as the place of origin of the cuckoo clock . It is also a popular hiking area because of its good network of long-distance hiking trails such as the Westweg . Winter sports have a long tradition around the Feldberg (1493 m), the highest mountain in the Black Forest, as well as in many other places in the Black Forest .
The Lake Constance with the Alps in the background is also a lively destination and recreation destination for city dwellers; Here you can find evidence of different eras with the pile dwellings in Unteruhldingen and the monastery island of Reichenau, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site . At the lake, the flower island of Mainau and the old cities of Konstanz and Meersburg have the highest numbers of visitors. Not far from the region around Lake Constance are the Danube Valley and Upper Swabia with the old small towns of Biberach an der Riss and Ravensburg, which were dominated by imperial cities . The Upper Swabian Baroque Route leads through this Baroque center north of the Alps.
The Württemberg Allgäu attracts with its landscape and many hiking opportunities, as well as the Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park further north . The Swabian Alb is known for its small romantic cities (z. B. Bad Urach ) that heathlands, the vast forests, caves, castles and palaces known ( Hohenzollern Castle , Lichtenstein Castle , Sigmaringen Castle ). Baden-Württemberg has around 60 spas and health resorts , especially in the Black Forest and Upper Swabia.
The spa town of Baden-Baden with its famous casino, the old university towns of Heidelberg ( Heidelberg Castle and Old Town), Freiburg im Breisgau ( Münster and " Bächle " in the old town) and Tübingen (on the outskirts of the city) are also attractions for city travelers idyllic Schönbuch forest , also known for its punt on the Neckar ), the old imperial cities of Esslingen am Neckar , Reutlingen and Ulm and the centrally located state capital Stuttgart with the zoological-botanical garden Wilhelma , the state gallery and the automobile museums ( Mercedes , Porsche ). In addition to Wilhelma, there are other botanical gardens in Freiburg , Heidelberg , Hohenheim , Karlsruhe , Konstanz, Tübingen , and in Ulm , the city with the highest church tower in the world.
The Europa-Park in the southern Baden Rust is Germany's largest theme park with over five million visitors a year. The Tripsdrill adventure park near Cleebronn , the first amusement park in Germany, is also very well known.
The Baden and Swabian gastronomy as well as the Baden and Württemberg wines are also popular . In the Black Forest town of Baiersbronn there are two restaurants, the Schwarzwaldstube and the Restaurant Bareiss , which have been awarded three stars by the Michelin Guide . There are a total of 74 starred restaurants in Baden-Württemberg.
The most important motorways in the south-north direction are the A 5 (from Basel via Karlsruhe to Weinheim and on towards Frankfurt am Main ) and the A 81 (from Singen am Hohentwiel via Stuttgart to Würzburg). Further to the east, the A 7 , which only runs through Baden-Württemberg over a short section between Ulm and Ellwangen, is another south-north connection.
In the west-east direction, the A 6 (coming from Saarbrücken via Mannheim and Heilbronn to Crailsheim and further towards Nuremberg) and the A 8 (from Karlsruhe via Stuttgart to Ulm and further towards Munich) are of greatest importance. A particular road construction challenge was and is the Alb ascent , which overcomes a 16 km length of around 380 m difference in altitude from the Alb foreland to the Alb plateau.
Both west-east motorways are largely located in the northern half of the country, while the mountainous southern half lacks a continuous west-east motorway. The traffic in these directions is taken up here by federal highways, such as B. through the B 31 , which leads through the southern Black Forest and along the northern shore of Lake Constance and connects the highways 5 , 81 and 96 with each other. The latter opens up the extreme southeast of the country. Only on the edge of the High Rhine is currently a new motorway, the A 98 , which already has some sections.
The highways around the major cities of Baden-Württemberg in particular are subject to very heavy traffic, especially during rush hour. Traffic jams of over 25 kilometers in length are not uncommon, even outside of vacation times.
The most frequented intersection in Baden-Württemberg is the Stuttgart-Degerloch junction, known as the Echterdinger Ei , which forms the intersection of the A 8 with the B 27 , which is similar to a motorway . It is located a few kilometers east of the Stuttgart motorway junction and is used by 170,000 to 180,000 vehicles every day.
The length of the motorways in the country is 1039 km, the length of the federal highways 4410 kilometers. The state roads are 9,893 kilometers long, the district roads 12,074 kilometers. (As of 2007)
The rail network of DB Netz AG in the country comprises 3400 kilometers of track , on which 6400 kilometers of track are laid and 9500 points are installed. There are around 1400 level crossings . 6500 train journeys take place on this network every day, covering 310,000 kilometers.
Other routes are operated by other railway infrastructure companies; the most important are the Württembergische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft , the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn , the Südwestdeutsche Landesverkehrs-AG (SWEG) and the Karlsruhe Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft . The local transport company Baden-Württemberg orders the local rail passenger transport in Baden-Württemberg on behalf of the state . The Karlsruhe model as an innovation technologically combines the railways and trams and is being imitated in many places around the world.
The state of Baden-Württemberg is funding the implementation of railroad projects that would actually be a federal responsibility over several years with a total of around 2.4 billion euros, more than all the states put together (as of 2017). The funded projects include Stuttgart 21 , the new Wendlingen – Ulm line , the upgraded and new Karlsruhe – Basel line and the southern line .
The Rhine has the status of federal waterways as far as Basel and the Neckar as far as Plochingen . At the confluence in Mannheim lies the port of Mannheim , one of the most important inland ports in Europe. Other large ports are the Rhine ports of Karlsruhe with the largest inland oil port in Europe, the port of Heilbronn and the port in Kehl . Passenger ships are also used for excursions and leisure trips on the rivers. The car ferries, passenger ships and excursion boats of the White Fleet operate on Lake Constance .
Baden-Württemberg has four commercial airports. Stuttgart International Airport is the sixth largest in Germany. The airport Karlsruhe / Baden-Baden in Rastatt experienced an upswing by the offers of low cost airlines and is the second largest in the state. Another regional airport is located in Friedrichshafen . The Upper Rhine and Hochrhein-Bodensee regions also benefit from the airports in Basel-Mulhouse , Strasbourg and Zurich airports close to the border . The Black Forest Airport near Lahr is a cargo airport; in passenger air transport, he also has the license as a feeder airport for the Europapark Rust . With the Mannheim has airport Mannheim City a major commercial airport .
With the monastic island of Reichenau in Lake Constance, the Cistercian abbey monastery Maulbronn and the caves of the oldest Eiszeitkunst are three sites of the UNESCO world heritage fully in Baden-Wuerttemberg. The country also has a share in the prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps and in the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes , which are also part of the world cultural heritage. Two houses in the Weißenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart were added to the World Heritage List in 2016 as part of the architectural work of Le Corbusier .
Edition C of the Nibelungenlied is kept in the Badische Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe . The three complete manuscripts from the 13th century were jointly named UNESCO World Document Heritage in July 2009 .
The Barbarastollen is a disused supply tunnel near Oberried near Freiburg im Breisgau. The Barbarastollen is the only property in Germany that is subject to special protection under the rules of the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict . Since 1975 it has served as the central salvage facility of the Federal Republic of Germany for the storage of photographically archived documents of great national or cultural historical importance. It is the largest archive for long-term archiving in Europe . Since 1978, the recovery site has also been entered in the International Register of Objects under Special Protection at UNESCO in Paris .
The city of Mannheim has been a UNESCO City of Music since 2014 .
In the south and along the Rhine , the Swabian-Alemannic Carnival is celebrated. The Cannstatter Volksfest is called the second largest folk festival in the world after the Munich Oktoberfest. The Baden-Württemberg Home Days have been held in the state since 1978 .
Religions and worldviews
In the northern part of Württemberg , in the areas of the former margraviate Baden-Durlach and in the Electoral Palatinate , the population belonging to a religious community is predominantly Protestant . Most of the other areas, especially southern and northern Baden and Upper Swabia, are mostly Roman Catholic .
While in 2001 74% belonged to one of the two major denominations , in 2019 it was only 60%. As everywhere in Germany, there is a growing number of people who do not feel they belong to any or any other religion (e.g. Islam).
The following membership figures of the religious communities were published for Baden-Württemberg:
|Denomination / religion||year||proportion of||number|
|Non-denominational and other denominations||2019||29.5||3,275,000|
Irrespective of the church tax, Baden-Württemberg pays over 130 million euros in state benefits to the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches every year .
See also: Archdiocese of Freiburg , Diocese of Mainz and Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart , Evangelical Church in Baden and in Württemberg , New Apostolic Church in Southern Germany , Old Catholic Church in Germany #Distribution by federal states
Languages and dialects
- Middle German: Around Mannheim and Heidelberg , Rhine Franconian (sometimes also called Kurpfälzisch or Palatinate ) is spoken
- Upper German: About in the southern two thirds, different colors of Swabian (especially in Württemberg) as well as Low , Middle and High Alemannic (especially in Baden) are spoken. South Franconian is spoken around Karlsruhe and Heilbronn , and East Franconian in the east of the northern third of Baden-Württemberg .
Between the dialect rooms there are transition areas that cannot be clearly assigned to any of the rooms. There are mainly southern Franconian-Swabian (including around Calw , around Pforzheim , Strohgäu , Zabergäu ), southern Franconian-Lower Alemannic (around Baden-Baden and Rastatt ) and Swabian-Lower Alemannic ( Upper Swabia ) transition areas. In these areas in particular, the blurring of the Germanic dialect structure becomes clear. More recent developments are the penetration of Swabian dialect features into Heilbronn and Schwäbisch Hall .
The country is also associated with (mainly Swabian) dialect speakers outside the national border. The state government under Erwin Teufel took up this in 1999 with the advertising slogan “ We can do everything. Except standard German. “Coined. Well-known dialect artists are z. For example, the poets and writers Thaddäus Troll and Harald Hurst , the popular actor and comedian Willy Reichert , the actor Walter Schultheiß and the cabaret artist Christoph Sonntag . There are television programs in dialect such as B. Hannes and the mayor . The film and the television series The Church Remains in the Village were also filmed in dialect. A writing of the dialect like in Luxembourg is not up for discussion.
The umbrella organizations for sport in Baden-Württemberg are the three state sports federations Württembergischer Landessportbund (WLSB), Badischer Sportbund Freiburg (BSB) and Badischer Sportbund Nord (BSB Nord). The superordinate association is the State Sports Association of Baden-Württemberg (LSV), which is also a member of the German Olympic Sports Confederation .
Stuttgart was the venue for the soccer world championships in 1974 and 2006 . In the football league play with the five times German champions and triple cup winners VfB Stuttgart , the SC Freiburg and TSG 1899 Hoffenheim three clubs from Baden-Wuerttemberg. 1. FC Heidenheim , long-time Bundesliga club Karlsruher SC and SV Sandhausen play in the 2nd Bundesliga . In the 3rd League is SV Waldhof Mannheim active. The former Bundesliga club SSV Ulm 1846 and Stuttgarter Kickers are currently playing in the Regionalliga Südwest and Oberliga Baden-Württemberg . The former German champions Freiburg FC (1907), FC Phönix Karlsruhe (1909), Karlsruher FV (1910) and VfR Mannheim (1949) also come from what is now Baden-Württemberg . SC Freiburg, SC Sand and TSG 1899 Hoffenheim play in the women's Bundesliga . Former Bundesliga clubs are: VfL Sindelfingen , TSV Crailsheim , SC Klinge Seckach , TSV Ludwigsburg , TuS Binzen and VfL Ulm / Neu-Ulm .
Frisch Auf Göppingen won the European Champion Clubs' Cup in 1960 and 1962 , the German championship nine times between 1954 and 1972 and the EHF Cup four times in the 2010s . The Rhein-Neckar Löwen became German champions in 2016 and 2017 and cup winners in 2018 . In the German Handball League Men also play the TVB 1898 Stuttgart and HBW Balingen-Weilstetten . In the women's Bundesliga are with the SG BBM Bietigheim (German champion in 2017 and 2019 , runner-up in 2018 ), the TuS Metzingen (runners-up 2016 ), Frisch Auf Göppingen, who Neckarsulm Sports Union and the Palatinate bear ketch representing five teams.
In the basketball Bundesliga are the MHP giants Ludwigsburg , Ratiopharm Ulm and the Crailsheim Merlins . In the ProA (second basketball league) the Walter Tigers Tübingen , the Kirchheim Knights , the MLP Academics Heidelberg and the PS Karlsruhe Lions play .
The VfB Friedrichshafen in 2007 won the CEV Champions League and was 13 times German champion and 15-time cup winner . TV Rottenburg and Volleyball Bisons Bühl also play in the volleyball Bundesliga . The Allianz MTV Stuttgart team plays in the women's Bundesliga ; she won the DVV-Pokal in 2011 , 2015 and 2017 and was German runner-up in 2015 , 2016 , 2017 and 2018 four times in a row. CJD Feuerbach won the German women's championship from 1989 to 1991 and was four times cup winner.
The eight-time German champions Adler Mannheim and Schwenninger Wild Wings play in the German Ice Hockey League . The Ravensburg Towerstars , the Bietigheim Steelers , the Heilbronner Falken and the EHC Freiburg are represented in the DEL2 .
International ski jumping competitions are held on the Hochfirstschanze in Titisee-Neustadt and in the Adler ski stadium in Hinterzarten . A traditional Nordic combined event is the Black Forest Cup in Schonach . Olympic and world champions in Nordic disciplines such as Georg Thoma , Dieter Thoma and Martin Schmitt come from the Black Forest . Alpine ski competitions take place in the Feldberg area near Todtnau -Fahl, in the home of the oldest German ski club, the Skiclub Todtnau 1891 e. V.
Two internationally important tennis tournaments are taking place in Stuttgart: The men's MercedesCup on the TC Weissenhof facility is part of the ATP Tour 250 . The women's Porsche Tennis Grand Prix in the Porsche Arena is part of the WTA Tour .
The men's team of TK Grün-Weiss Mannheim plays in the 1st Bundesliga. The women's team of the TEC Waldau Stuttgart won the Bundesliga in 2005 , that of the TC Weissenhof won the German team four times between 1975 and 1989. The TC Rüppurr from Karlsruhe belonged to the 1st men's and currently the 1st women's Bundesliga for a long time.
Stuttgart was the venue for the 1986 European Athletics Championships and the 1993 World Championships . The World Athletics Finals took place here from 2006 to 2008 . Then the Mercedes-Benz Arena was converted into a pure football stadium. The International High Jump Meeting Eberstadt was held annually from 1979 to 2018.
The Hockenheimring is one of the most important motorsport racetracks in Germany. Until 2019 it was one of the venues for the German Grand Prix in Formula 1 and is the venue for the opening race and the DTM final .
Motocross World Championship races took place in Holzgerlingen , Gaildorf and Reutlingen . World Cup races with sidecars are held in Rudersberg . In Berghaupten and Hertingen there were runs for the long-track world and European championships.
The most successful hockey club is the HTC Stuttgarter Kickers , which won the German championship in 2005 and the European Cup in 2006. The Mannheimer HC currently plays for both women and men in the field hockey Bundesliga, and TSV Mannheim also plays for women. In the German Water Polo League is SSV Esslingen and the SV Ludwigsburg 08 represented. The Cannstatt in 2006 German champions. The women of TSG Backnang 1920 heavy athletics became German judo team champions in 1917 and 1918 . In the men's category, KSV Esslingen has taken second place six times since 2011.
The German record champions Mannheim Tornados , the four-time German champions Heidenheim Heideköpfe , the Stuttgart Reds and the Ulm Falcons play in the baseball Bundesliga South . In American football , the Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns won the German Bowl in 2011, 2012, 2017 and 2018 . The Stuttgart Scorpions also play in the German Football League . Along with Hanover, Heidelberg is the center of rugby in Germany. The local clubs Heidelberger RK , RG Heidelberg and SC Neuenheim won a total of 18 German championships in the Bundesliga . In chess, OSG Baden-Baden won the German championship twelve times from 2006 to 2015 as well as in 2017 and 2018. In the Bundesliga , Baden-Württemberg is also represented by SV 1930 Hockenheim , SF Deizisau and SK Schwäbisch Hall . Horse races have been held on the Iffezheim racing course near Baden-Baden since 1858 .
In Baden, the forerunner of the modern school system was developed with the Mannheim school system . Today in Baden-Württemberg, after the four-year elementary school, there is a multi-part school system with secondary school and technical secondary school , secondary school , grammar school and community school . Pupils with and without disabilities are brought up and taught together ( including pedagogy ). Special educational advice, support and education takes place in general schools, provided that pupils who are entitled to a corresponding educational offer do not attend a special educational and advice center. In the whole of Baden-Württemberg there are only three integrated comprehensive schools in Freiburg, Heidelberg and Mannheim, which, as schools of a special kind , have received a special permit in the Baden-Württemberg School Act . Furthermore, Baden-Württemberg is the only federal state to have the special form of the “six-year commercial grammar school”, which is the only vocational grammar school in Germany that begins with the grammar school intermediate level. The visit lasts from grade 8 and ends in grade 13 with the general university entrance qualification. After the change of government in 2011, the state government introduced the community school as a new type of school in Baden-Württemberg , which was mostly formed from former secondary schools (or Werkrealschulen), but occasionally also from secondary schools. In the 2013/14 school year there were 129 community schools in the state, another 81 will follow in 2014.
Baden-Württemberg pursues a decentralized education, university and research infrastructure. The universities are spread all over the country. Overall, over a quarter of all university locations are in rural areas.
In Baden-Württemberg there are nine state universities, six teaching colleges (universities on an equal footing) as well as the private Zeppelin University and 73 state and private universities.
The universities in Baden-Württemberg are among the most renowned in Germany. In a university ranking by Focus magazine (2005), six universities in Baden-Württemberg were ranked among the top ten. The oldest university in Germany is located in Heidelberg ; there are also universities in Freiburg , Konstanz , Mannheim , Stuttgart , Tübingen , Stuttgart-Hohenheim , Ulm , the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology as a successor to the University of Karlsruhe and the private Zeppelin University in Friedrichshafen. In 2006, the former University of Karlsruhe was selected as one of three universities with "future concepts" to be funded nationwide in the Excellence Initiative of the federal and state governments. In the second round of the Excellence Initiative, the universities of Heidelberg, Konstanz and Freiburg followed as universities to be funded, so that at times four out of a total of nine of the German universities funded by the Excellence Initiative in all three funding lines were located in Baden-Württemberg. In the course of the third round of the Excellence Initiative in 2012, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the University of Freiburg lost this status, while the University of Tübingen received this award for the first time. In 2019, four universities in Baden-Württemberg were able to achieve the title of " University of Excellence" (which was awarded a total of eleven times) as part of the excellence strategy of the federal government and the states, which is significantly more than in any other federal state. The universities that have been awarded are the University of Heidelberg, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the University of Konstanz and the University of Tübingen. Two more - the universities in Freiburg and Stuttgart - also reached the finals of the Excellence Strategy.
The state universities of applied sciences in Baden-Württemberg have had the title of university since 2006 . In addition to a large number of other universities, such as art and music colleges or universities of teacher education , the tertiary education area is supplemented by the Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University . The Popakademie Baden-Württemberg is unique in Germany . The renowned Baden-Württemberg Film Academy is located in Ludwigsburg .
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- Status of onshore wind energy expansion in Germany, as of June 30, 2016 ( memento of July 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Website of the Deutsche Windguard. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Wind energy in Baden-Württemberg. In: energieatlas-bw.de , accessed on 23 August 2020.
- Expansion record: already 16 percent wind power . In: Renewable Energies. Das Magazin , July 30, 2016. Accessed July 31, 2016.
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- 591 church-sponsored libraries in 1996. State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.): Baden-Württemberg 2000. The new atlas for the entire state. Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-923292-96-1 , p. 194.
- »www.lfk.de« (PDF; 1.7 MB), radio list of the State Office for Communication Baden-Württemberg (as of August 17, 2010)
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- Roland Muschel: Hermann is annoyed with Dobrindt . In: Swabian Post . January 23, 2017, p. 5 ( online ).
- Church membershipas of December 31, 2019. Accessed June 29, 2020 .
- Church members in the federal states, 2001–2018. In: fowid.de , January 13, 2020.
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- Population in a regional comparison by religion (in detail). Retrieved August 13, 2018 .
- New Apostolic Church in Southern Germany. Retrieved November 1, 2018 .
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- State law BW SchG. Retrieved on December 26, 2016 : "School Act for Baden-Württemberg"
- § 3 Abs. 3 Schg
- § 15 Schg
- § 107 SchG
- State Statistical Office B.-W., Stuttgart 2010.
- Focus Uni Ranking 2005 ( Memento from July 15, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
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- Decisions in the Excellence Strategy: Excellence Commission selects ten Excellence Universities and one Excellence Network. Retrieved August 28, 2019 .
- The excellent eleven. Retrieved August 28, 2019 .