|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Tübingen|
|Height :||478 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||118.68 km 2|
|Residents:||126,329 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||1064 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0731, 07304, 07305, 07346|
|License plate :||UL|
|Community key :||08 4 21 000|
|LOCODE :||DE ULM|
|City structure:||18 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Gunter Czisch ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Ulm in Baden-Württemberg|
Ulm ( [ ʊlm ] ) is at the Danube at the southeastern edge of Schwäbischen Alb on the border of Bavaria preferred University City in Baden-Württemberg . The city has over 125,000 inhabitants (as of the end of 2017), forms its own urban district and is the seat of the district office of the neighboring Alb-Danube district . According to the Baden-Württemberg State Development Plan, Ulm is one of a total of 14 regional centers in the state and, together with Neu-Ulm, forms one of the transnational dual centers in Germany with 183,323 inhabitants. Ulm is the largest city in the administrative district of Tübingen and in the Donau-Iller region , which also includes areas of the Bavarian administrative district of Swabia .
The city is known for its Gothic cathedral , the steeple of which is the highest in the world at 161.53 meters. Also noteworthy is the long bourgeois tradition of Ulm with the oldest constitution of a German city and a city theater , the beginnings of which go back to 1641. In the past, Ulm was the starting point for the emigration of the Danube Swabians , who traveled to their new home countries in southeastern Europe in so-called Ulmer boxes .
Ulm, first mentioned in a document on July 22, 854, was a royal palace and free imperial city , Bavarian from 1802 , and since 1810 part of Württemberg . Since then, Ulm has been separated from its former area to the right of the Danube, which remained with Bavaria and on which the city of Neu-Ulm developed.
Famous personalities include Albert Einstein (1879–1955), who was born in Ulm , the resistance fighters Hans (1918–1943) and Sophie Scholl (1921–1943), who grew up in Ulm from 1932, and the actress Hildegard Knef (1925–2002) , who was born in Ulm, and the German designer and graphic designer Otl Aicher (1922–1991), who was born and grew up in Ulm.
The city of Ulm is located at an average altitude of Iller at the confluence of the Blau and the Danube. The city lies on the southern edge of the Ulmer Alb (part of the middle surface Alb ) and the plateau of the so-called " Hochsträß ", separated from it to the south by the former valley of the Urdonau (Blau, Ach and Schmiechtal) . The elevations of Hochsträß and Alb (from west to north to east: Galgenberg, Kuhberg, Roter Berg (Hochsträß), Eselsberg , Kienlesberg, Michelsberg, Safranberg (Ulmer Alb)) surrounded in the west, north and east, separated by smaller or larger valleys the city center. In the south this is limited by the course of the Danube.(measuring point: town hall). The urban area is geographically rich and ranges from (Danube bank) up to (Klingensteiner Forest). The historic city center is about two kilometers below (east) the confluence of the
The urban area of Ulm extends largely north of the Danube, which forms the border between the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria for a few kilometers with the Bavarian sister city of Neu-Ulm on the southern bank of the Danube. In the west and north, the urban area with the suburbs Harthausen, Grimmelfingen , Einsingen , Ermingen , Allewind and Eggingen extends over the plateaus of the Hochsträß , with Lehr , Mähringen and Jungingen over the plateaus of the Ulmer Alb. To the west of the city center is the suburb of Söflingen, south of the Blau on the edge of the Hochstrasse. The suburb of Böfingen connects to the northeast of the city center and is located on the slopes of the Alb north of the Danube. Only above the confluence of the Iller and the Danube does the urban area of Ulm with the districts of Wiblingen , Gögglingen , Donaustetten and Unterweiler extend to the floodplains and alluvial terraces of the Danube and Iller southwest of the Danube and Iller.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.
There are significant finds from the Paleolithic in the area around Ulm , on the one hand near the neighboring Blaubeuren and on the other hand a few kilometers north of Ulm in the Lone Valley (for example in the Vogelherd cave ). They point out that the area on the edge of the Alb was an interesting habitat in the times of hunters and gatherers. In the Neolithic the Hochsträß was settled very early (e.g. Ulm-Eggingen); from Ulm itself there are finds from a more recent phase of the Neolithic. A role that should not be underestimated for the development of the city of Ulm as a traffic junction is played by the course of the Danube and Iller rivers and the easily manageable transition between Ulm and Geislingen across the Swabian Alb through the blue river valleys that cut far into the Alb plateau from the south and north, Kleiner Lauter , Lone , Brenz , Kocher and Fils .
The Römerstraße , which historians call Donausüdstraße today, runs not far from the southern bank of the Danube near Ulm between the Roman fort Unterkirchberg , the small fort Burlafingen and the small fort Nersingen , the Roman path that branches off north into the Filstal valley to the Urspring fort (fort Ad Lunam ) and the dense evidence of Roman sites and manors in the Ulm area make the strategically important location of the Ulm area in the hinterland of the militarized border line of the Limes up to the Limes falls around the year 260 AD. From 15 BC BC to around 100 AD and then again after the Limesfall from 260 AD to around 500 AD ( Danube-Iller-Rhein-Limes ), the Danube bank opposite Ulm formed the northern border of the Roman Empire . The state border between Bavaria and Württemberg runs in the Ulm area exactly where the border between the Roman Empire and the unoccupied Germania ( Germania Magna ) ran more than 2000 years ago .
The burials of the large cemetery from the Merovingian period on the Kienlesberg (immediately north-west of the city center) and the early medieval royal palace of the Carolingians on the vineyard and in the area of St. Geist Spitals (first mentioned in a document in 854) underline the special importance of Ulm as a strategically important traffic junction during the early Middle Ages.
Due to its location at the junction of several trade and pilgrimage routes on land and water, Ulm developed as a free imperial city into a leading trade and art center in southern Germany during the High and Late Middle Ages . In the late Middle Ages, merchants from Ulm maintained a dense network of trade contacts that stretched from Scandinavia to North Africa , from Syria to Ireland and beyond. One of the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela to the grave of St. James , venerated by the Catholic Church , the Way of St. James , which has been significant for centuries , led via Ulm to north-west Spain and has been in the interests of the city of Ulm since 1997 as a link between nations in the sense of European unification of the state of Baden-Württemberg. As a Franconian-Swabian St. James he moves from the north to the cathedral and from there than the Oberschwäbische St. James well marked further south into Switzerland .
From the late 17th century onwards, Ulm became the central collection point for mostly (but not always) Swabian emigrants who were settled in the newly conquered territories of the Habsburg and Russian empires in southeast Europe and southern Russia . A first wave of emigration reached the newly conquered lands of the Habsburg Empire in southeastern Europe between the late 17th and mid-18th centuries on Ulmer Schachteln . The ethnic groups of the Hungarian Germans and / or Danube Swabians emerged in their new settlement areas in today's Romania , Hungary and Serbia .
A second wave of emigration followed at the beginning of the 19th century. From 1804 to 1818, thousands of emigrants came by water to the mouth of the Danube ( Dobruja ) in what is now Bulgaria and Romania and to Bessarabia (now the Republic of Moldova ) on the northern Black Sea (now South Ukraine ) and from there to southern Russia , especially in the area of the Caucasus . The mostly Swabian emigrants embarked in Ulm on rafts and Ulmer boxes and drove down the Danube to its mouth in the Black Sea near Ismajil . Travel stories tell of the greatest exertion of the emigrants during the 2,500 kilometer journey. Numerous accidents and illnesses that broke out in the crowded confines of the mostly overcrowded boats after drinking polluted river water and due to the poorest hygienic conditions resulted in countless deaths. Result of this second major Danube downward emigration were the ethnic groups of the Dobrujan Germans , Bessarabian Germans , Black Sea Germans , and Caucasus Germans .
Through these waves of emigration, the close contacts from Ulm merchant and boatman families in this area that existed before this time were sustainably strengthened. After the expulsion of the Hungarian Germans and Danube Swabians from Serbia and Hungary as a result of the Second World War and a wave of Danube Swabians who emigrated from Romania after 1990, they often settled in the former regions of origin of their ancestors. This has resulted in a strong Danube Swabian community around Ulm since the late 1940s. Today, several monuments erected in the urban area, which remind of the history and expulsion of the Danube Swabians, testify to the Danube Swabian Central Museum (DZM) opened in 2000 in the rooms of the Upper Danube Bastion ( Federal Fortress Ulm ) and numerous town partnerships and cooperation projects with communities and towns along the Danube close connection between Ulm and the Danube Swabians and Southeastern Europe .
The wide-ranging intellectual and commercial connections in Ulm, which have grown continuously since the Middle Ages, still play a central role in the consciousness of many Ulm residents as the basis for current and future-oriented thinking and action. They are very consciously cultivated as part of their own history and identity. The International Danube Festival, which has been taking place every two years since 1998, with representatives from all the Danube bordering countries, the recently founded European Danube Academy, the "living Way of the Cross" of the large Italian community, and an annual "French Wine Festival" underline the narrow and centuries-old Mutual connections lived in everyday life.
The Bavarian district town of Neu-Ulm borders on the right (south-eastern) side of the Danube and Iller . On the left (north-western) side, Ulm is almost completely surrounded by the Alb-Danube district. The neighboring communities in Baden-Württemberg are here (from south to west to north): Illerkirchberg , Staig , Hüttisheim , Erbach (Danube) , Blaubeuren , Blaustein , Dornstadt , Beimerstetten and Langenau as well as the Bavarian community of Elchingen in the east .
The urban area of Ulm is divided into 18 districts: Stadtmitte, Böfingen, Donautal, Eggingen, Einsingen , Ermingen , Eselsberg , Gögglingen-Donaustetten , Grimmelfingen , Jungingen , Lehr , Mähringen , Oststadt, Söflingen , Unterweiler, Weststadt and Wiblingen . Nine parts of the city, which were incorporated in the course of the latest municipal reform in the 1970s (Eggingen, Einsingen, Ermingen, Gögglingen-Donaustetten, Jungingen, Lehr, Mähringen and Unterweiler) have their own local councils, which play an important advisory role to the city council as a whole carry out relevant matters. However, final decisions on measures can only be made by the city council of the entire city of Ulm.
With an average temperature of 8.4 degrees Celsius (° C) and an average precipitation of 749 millimeters (mm) per year, Ulm is - like almost all of Germany - in the temperate climate zone . Compared to other cities in Baden-Württemberg, the climate in Ulm is relatively cold. The average temperature is well below the values in other places in the southwest (for example Heidelberg 11.4 ° C, Stuttgart 11.3 ° C). The precipitation mean, however, hardly deviates from what is usual in Baden-Württemberg (Heidelberg 745 mm, Stuttgart 664 mm).
From a humorous point of view, Ulm is sometimes referred to as the “capital of the foggy kingdom”. The statistics of the German Weather Service show for Ulm, however, with an average of 1659 hours of sunshine per year, a value that is in the middle of all recorded weather stations. However, until 2014 the relevant measuring station was on the Kuhberg, one of the highest elevations in the city. It has now been relocated to the Mähringen district, which is also higher up. Due to the increased measuring locations, fog fields in the Danube Valley, in which the city center of Ulm is located, were partially not taken into account in the measurements.
Flooding is only an occasional problem in Ulm. It usually only occurs when the Danube and Iller both carry a lot of meltwater or rainwater with them. However, sudden meltdowns in particular led to severe flooding within half a day.
According to a study published in 2007, Ulm is “Germany's healthiest city”. In addition to climate data , other criteria such as air pollution , medical care or the number of daycare places were decisive for the assessment .
Climate data from Ulm
In the greater Ulm area, the tertiary, clastic molasse sediments border the limestones of the Upper Jura . This is accompanied by the landscape transition from the Alpine foothills to the Swabian Alb . The limestone of the Jura is overlaid by the sediments of the foothills of the Alps (molasses sediments) to the south (and partly also to the north) of Ulm. In addition to the Quaternary deposits along the Blau, Iller and Danube valleys, sediments of the brackish water molasses ("Grimmelfinger and Kirchberg layers"), the barley sand channel , the upper sea molasses , the lower freshwater molasses ("Ulmer layers") and the Upper Jurassic (mass limestone, Cement marl of the Kimmeridgian ). Quartz sands are mined near Eggingen (Ulm), among others.
The sub-Miocene " Erminger Turritellenplatte ", which is characterized by its wealth of fossils, is located in the district of Ulm- Ermingen . The deposit was formed around 18.5 million years ago ( Lower Ottnangian ) under shallow marine conditions near the coast ( Upper Sea Molasse ).
In the thermal water borehole of Neu-Ulm (Donautherme Neu-Ulm), the Upper Jura ( Malm ) was drilled to a depth of 460 m. Below are the layers of the Middle Jurassic ( Dogger ) and the Lower Jurassic ( Black Jura ). The layers of the Upper Triassic ( Keuper ) and up to 1010 m of the Middle Triassic ( Muschelkalk ) appear from a depth of around 700 m to 890 m . The crystalline basement , from which the thermal water is extracted, then follows below.
The urban district of Ulm has 2 nature reserves :
According to the protected area statistics of the State Agency for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), 137.05 hectares of the urban area are under nature protection, that is 1.15 percent.
Water protection areas
Geotopes in the urban district of Ulm
- Kesselbrunnen, district Jungingen, geological era Tertiary, geotope ID ND8421001
- Abandoned quarry Steigäcker-Blattegert, district Mähringen, geological age Jura, geotope ID ND8421002
- Abandoned quarry Hagen Valley, Jungingen district, Jura geological age, geotope ID ND8421003
- Hülbe St. Moritz, Jungingen district, Tertiary geological age, geotope ID ND8421004
- Stockert, district of Ermingen, geological era Tertiary, geotope ID ND8421005
- Abandoned Eichhalde quarry, Mähringen district, Jura geological age, geotope ID 8421001
- Käppelesberg sand pit, Eggingen district, Tertiary geological age, geotope ID 8421002
The oldest documented settlement in the Ulm area dates from the early Neolithic , around 5000 BC. There is evidence of settlements from this period, for example near Eggingen (excavations by the Baden-Württemberg State Monuments Office ) and Lehr (readings from various collectors).
Numerous excavations in the context of the urban archeology carried out since the 1960s (initially by the city history research center, most recently by the Baden-Württemberg State Monuments Office) prove: The area of what later became Ulm was in the form of the locations "Westerlingen" and "Pfäfflingen", which are documented by donation deeds from the Reichenau monastery. settled before it was first mentioned by name as "Ulm" (854). The oldest finds date from the end of the Neolithic (burial of the bell-cup culture on Münsterplatz ). As early as autumn 1857, a large, extremely richly furnished Alemannic burial ground from the Merovingian period was discovered north of the Ulm train station on the Untere Kienlesberg , which, despite inadequate excavation methods and finds documentation, provides important clues for also supraregional significant settlements on the Weinhof and in the area of the Green Court (possibly: Westerlingen and Pfäfflingen) delivered.
As a result of the latest research by the State Monuments Office in Neue Straße, a complete description of the history of the city of Ulm up to the 14th century has recently been outlined. The most important theses are: The Palatinate was roughly at the level of today's Spitalhofschule / Adlerbastei. The previously assumed location at the Weinhof is said to have been an Ottonian foundation. Accordingly, the core city goes back to an Ottonian city foundation.
However, at the current state of excavations and discussions, the arguments put forward are not completely convincing, as the new model, which is in some points very worth considering, does less justice to the archaeological findings in the rest of the city than the previous ideas on which the following chapters are based.
In May 2007, during excavation work at Salemer Hof in the south-east of Ulm's old town, the remains of Neolithic settlements and an approximately 5000-year-old skeleton were discovered.
Ulm in the High Middle Ages (800 to 1200)
At the beginning of the High Middle Ages, probably around 850, Ulm became the royal palace . The first documentary mention dates from July 22nd, 854. King Ludwig the German sealed a certificate in "Hulma" . The name is a Germanic or pre-Germanic water body name (Indo-European root * uel: turn, wind, wallow or * el - / * ol-: flow, stream, be damp, musty), which refers to a connection with the confluence of the blue in the Danube indicates.
But there is also a new interpretation that goes back to the ford across the Danube further to the east, where the Palatinate has been located since the new archaeological excavations:
“The associated rulership center, the center of this settlement, is to be located further to the east, in the vicinity of the former Donaufurt in the area of the later medieval hospital. This area, which up to now has hardly received any archaeological attention, was the first focus of our considerations as part of our review of the excavation results on Neue Straße. The Indo-European root of the place name, which Ulm explains with a surge of water or with the properties 'turn, wind, roll' or 'flow, flow, be damp and musty', confirms the original waterfront location of the place. Here the rulership center could control the crossing point of the highways and secure the Danube crossing, for which a ferry station is assumed. This clearly shows the economic function of the early rulership, which can be linked to the Palatinate Ulma mentioned in 854. "
For the next 50 years, Ulm was an important palatinate town, which was reflected in the numerous visits by the king. In the Hungarian storms, the Palatinate was probably developed into a refuge. Based on the excavations, the following further development is assumed:
“Since Ulm was on the royal estate or imperial estate, only the king and, due to the dating information, only Otto I can be considered as the founder. Otto I must have recognized the strategic and central importance of Ulm on the Danube and immediately after the victory over the Hungarians in 955, through which the imperial borders were secured, initiated the founding of a town with a town castle on the edge. The area of the Ottonian city is identical to that of the Staufer city, a name introduced in the specialist literature for the old city center of Ulm. The associated castle was built on the site of the later so-called Weinhof. "
Thus the Weinhof became the place for a castle in Ottonian times. A tower, a Luginsland, was also built there later. It can be assumed that Otto I. probably took the first step towards founding the city.
According to the latest findings of the archaeological investigations in Neue Straße, Ulm's path from the royal palatinate to the free imperial city led through the following development steps:
- Carolingian Palatinate at the Danube crossing from the middle of the 9th century;
- Fortification and expansion into a refuge in the first half of the 10th century;
- Relocation of the seat of power from the lowlands to the back of the town in the early Hottonic period - associated with this, a new castle and town were founded;
- Transition from wood to stone construction in Salian times;
- Reconstruction of the city destroyed in 1134 and city expansion in the early Staufer period;
- Internal growth and construction of the city wall over centuries combined with the development of the municipal city administration.
Ulm lost its importance as a place of residence for kings during the time of the Saxon kings in the 10th and 11th centuries. Only under the Salians - beginning with the Court Day of Konrad II in 1027 - can there be more evidence of royal stays again. In 1079 Friedrich von Staufen was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Swabia. After consolidating their power in this area, the Staufers were able to develop Ulm into one of their main bases. The extinction of the Salians led to battles for the imperial estates from this inheritance, as a result of which Ulm's surrounding area was burned down in 1131, and in 1134 the entire city was hit.
Under the Staufers , the Ulm Palatinate was rebuilt from 1140 and the settlement was expanded further in the wake. In 1181 it was elevated to the status of a city and in 1184 to a free imperial city . Around 100 years later, Ulm seems to have been completely fortified, as it was able to withstand a siege by the opposing king Heinrich Raspe in the winter of 1246. Ulm developed into one of the main domains of the Hohenstaufen kings and emperors. Little is known about the development of the constitution in Ulm's early phase. "A document about the elevation of Ulm to the city has not survived". The city development seems to have taken place in stages since the 11th century, but without leaving any written records. The granting of Esslingen city rights by Rudolf von Habsburg in 1274 was probably more "an embarrassing solution to fill a [...] gap".
Ulm in the late Middle Ages (1200 to 1500)
With the end of the Hohenstaufen rule, Ulm managed to remain a royal city, which was possibly due to the fact that the lines of the Counts of Dillingen who held the imperial bailiwick died out almost at the same time and Count Ulrich von Württemberg, as the new bailiwick owner, had no ambitions with regard to Ulm. At the end of the 13th century, a municipal bailiff can be found who was elected annually by the citizens.
In the 14th century, the city area quadrupled to 66.5 hectares, which was to remain the size of the city until the 19th century. The expansion also went hand in hand with the re-fortification of the city, which may be connected with a failed attack by Ludwig the Bavarian in 1316. In the inner city, the first half of the 14th century was marked by civil war-like unrest, which was in connection with disputes between the guilds and the urban patriciate , which had largely emerged from former imperial officials and carried out the rule. In 1345 there was an interim solution in the form of the Small Oath, which temporarily led to a pacification of the situation by giving the guilds a decisive say in political and legal matters for the first time.
Under Ulm's leadership, the Swabian Association of Cities was founded in 1376 as an alliance of 14 Swabian imperial cities. Ulm was chosen as the “suburb” (ie main location for federal assemblies) and was given the title “main and ornamentation of Swabia”. On June 30, 1377, the construction of the Ulm Minster began because the old church was in front of the city walls and the residents could not go to church during a siege by Emperor Charles IV . After the defeat in the First City War in 1388, the Swabian League of Cities fell apart. As a result, Ulm lost its influence on the other Swabian cities, but remained so influential both economically and politically that it had numerous, largely independent branches in almost all important trading centers in Europe (e.g. Venice, Vienna, Antwerp / Amsterdam, Constantinople / Istanbul). 1396 came Geislingen with the castle Helfenstein , Altenstadt , Amstetten , Aufhausen and other places to the city, when the count von Helfenstein had to pay his debts to the city.
The Great Oath , the Ulm Constitution, came into force in 1397 after the compromise of the Small Oath "became increasingly unsatisfactory". He regulated the distribution of power and the duties of the mayor. The guilds now had 30, the patricians only 10 council seats. At the same time, the patricians were denied the right to vote. The mayor had to answer the residents. The Oath (penultimate Monday in July) has since been a Ulmer holiday.
In 1480 a new city wall was built in the middle of "the raging river". It ranged from the Herdbruckertor, built in 1348, to the Fischertor, located at today's Wilhelmshöhe. This still existing city wall along the Danube replaced the old, only partially remaining wall, which from the fishing tower over the pig market and the two blue arms (remains in today's Häuslesbrücke are preserved) at an almost right angle on the humpback square wall of the Hohenstaufen Palatinate and this then followed in an easterly direction. The medieval wall was then built in 1527 according to Albrecht Dürer's fortification theory (published in Nuremberg in the same year under the title Etliche underricht / zu fortigung der Stett / Schlosz / und flecken ) by the Nuremberg builder Hans Beham the Elder . Ä. rebuilt.
Dürer's ideas were implemented by Beham as follows: The Mauer-Wall-Trabenwehr, replacing the wall, was supposed to withstand the bombardment of the then modern firearms better and also enable the defender to better position his own artillery . Access ramps were also built for the artillery from the city side. A parapet with large loopholes was built to the outside. Dürer's ideas for fortification continued to be implemented by radically demolishing the towers of the city gates, which are particularly endangered by artillery fire, and adding low octagonal storeys. In addition, Dürer's system provided for round bastions in front of the wall, from which the flanking trench could be shot at. The city fortifications at Glöcklertor, Neue Tor and Frauentor were then modernized accordingly. The bastionary fortifications realized by Gideon Bacher in the Italian style at the beginning of the 17th century , which shifted the defense lines far into the apron, changed the cityscape even more decisively than Beham's renovations. And immediately afterwards (from 1617 to 1622) the Dutch engineer Johan van Valckenburgh and various successors set new standards with their conversions and new buildings according to the Dutch system, which was then considered the ultimate in fortress construction. The remnant of their activities is essentially the Wilhelmshöhe / Promenade area. This new work cost around two million guilders , which had to be raised through taxes.
Between 1484 and 1500, the well-traveled Dominican Felix Fabri , who worked in Ulm, published his Tractatus de civitate Ulmensi (Treatise from the City of Ulm). It is considered to be the oldest surviving chronicle of the city of Ulm. Fabri not only describes the present of the city in his time, but also tries to present its history as comprehensively as possible. The autograph of this work, written in Latin, is in the Ulm city archive.
Imperial city in the early modern period (1500 to 1802)
Urban development reached its economic and cultural climax around 1500: Ulm possessed the second largest imperial urban territory after Nuremberg in what is now the Federal Republic of Germany. Three cities ( Geislingen , Albeck and Leipheim ) and 55 villages belonged to the area. The city was an important hub for iron, textiles, salt, wood and wine. At the same time, Ulm developed into one of the most important art centers in southern Germany from the middle of the 15th century. Works of art from Ulm production (especially elaborately designed sculptures and winged altars) became “export hits” far beyond the city limits and were traded as far as Vienna, Sterzing (South Tyrol) and the Netherlands. The rhyme that underpinned the city's position in the world of that time also dates from this period:
and Ulm money
rule the world.
With the Ulm money in verse, in addition to the coinage minted in Ulm and abundantly used by Ulm traders and bankers, it also means that which constituted the actual wealth of Ulm - the barchent , a mixed fabric of cotton and linen. The Barchent, which was given the Ulm seal after the strictest testing, guaranteed such an extraordinarily high quality that, as it was in great demand all over Europe, it was as good as money.
Due to its economic and political importance, Ulm also became the capital, i. H. to the meeting place and administrative seat, the Swabian Federation . This federation, founded in 1488, served to unite the Swabian imperial estates , ensured a lasting peace in the country and was an essential element of the imperial reform . Although the Swabian Confederation broke up again as early as 1534 as a result of the Reformation, Ulm, due to its importance in this alliance, not only became an essential political center, but also the actual administrative center in Swabia.
With the establishment of the Swabian Imperial Circle as one of a total of 10 Imperial Circles with which Emperor Maximilian I reorganized the administration of the Holy Roman Empire in 1500 and 1512, Ulm succeeded once again in building on its supremacy among the Swabian cities and imperial estates. The city became the main and meeting place of the newly formed Swabian Imperial Circle. The Reichskreistage (i.e. the decision-making meetings of the imperial estates united in the Swabian imperial circle) took place in the Gothic town hall until the end of the imperial city period. Hans Fischer and Matthäus Gaiser built the new building in the Ulm late renaissance style between 1583 and 1593 as an alternative quarter for the city administration during the Reichskreistage . As a multi-purpose building, it also served as a council and oath house, courtroom, prison and city warehouse for salt, wine and grain.
From 1694, the Swabian Imperial Circle maintained a permanent standing army, the administration and material stocks of which were largely housed in the Ulm armory.
The discovery of America (1492) and the sea route to India (1497), but also the strong local competition in the barchent business by the Fuggers , who at the beginning of the 16th century increasingly "redirected" the lucrative barchent trade to their newly acquired properties in the lower Illertal , soon after 1500 the wealth and influence of Ulm quickly faded. The emergence of new trading centers and the relocation of the main trade routes towards the Atlantic led to the city's gradual economic decline. Last but not least, religious tensions also contributed to this. In 1529 the city belonged to the representatives of the Protestant estates ( Protestation ) at the Reichstag in Speyer . Their citizenship demanded the unhindered spread of the evangelical faith. In 1531 the city joined the Protestant faith through a vote of the citizens . The subsequent iconoclasm, as a result of which over 30 churches and chapels were torn down or profaned and well over 100 altars (over 60 in the cathedral alone) destroyed or removed, also meant the abrupt end of Ulm as an art center. Conflicts with the emperor and other imperial estates led until 1546 ( Schmalkaldic War ) that Ulm lost 35 of its villages through looting or pillage and ultimately had to submit to the Catholic Emperor Charles V , who in 1546 the then valid urban constitution (Great Oath Letter ) from the year 1397 and granted the urban nobility (patriciate) the so-called Hasenrat in fact sole decision-making power in the city.
In the course of the next centuries, the former wealth of the city was reduced by further wars, especially during the Thirty Years War and the War of the Spanish Succession , by devastating epidemics, reparations payments and extortion of various besiegers and occupiers to such an extent that the city was bankrupt around 1770 and for another reason ( Herrschaft Wain ) had to sell. In 1786, the Ulm area also comprised the following administrations: Obervogteiamt Geislingen, Oberämter Langenau , Albeck and Leipheim as well as the offices Süßen , Stötten , Böhringen, Nellingen, Weidenstetten, Lonsee , Stubersheim, Bermaringen and Pfuhl.
Ulm near Bavaria (1802 to 1810)
The reorganization of Europe by Napoleon also had an impact in Ulm. In 1802, before the announcement of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, the city lost its independence and was incorporated into the Electorate of Bavaria . Following on from Ulm's leading role within the disbanded Swabian Empire, Ulm became the seat of the regional directorate of the "Bavarian Province of Swabia" (predecessor of the current government of Swabia). On October 14, 1805, a decisive battle of the Napoleonic Wars took place near the city ( Battle of Elchingen ), which led to the Battle of Ulm on October 16-19, from which Napoleon emerged victorious. After the French Marshal Ney had crushed the Austrians (for this he was appointed Duke of Elchingen), they withdrew to Ulm, where they were besieged and shortly afterwards surrendered. This cleared the way to the east for Napoleon for the decisive battle against the Russians and Austrians at Austerlitz . In 1810, Ulm came from the Kingdom of Bavaria to the Kingdom of Württemberg through an exchange of territory between Bavaria and Württemberg, which was regulated in the relevant border treaty .
Border and provincial town in the Kingdom of Württemberg (1806 to 1918)
For Ulm, the transition to Württemberg had serious consequences that continue to this day. Although the much larger part of the former imperial city territory north of the Danube with Ulm came to Württemberg, large parts were no longer subject to direct Ulm administration, but were assigned to other offices and senior offices (above all Geislingen , which had previously belonged to the Ulm area itself). The smaller, but economically more important southern part of the former Ulm territory remained Bavarian, became “foreign” and formed the basis of the future city of Neu-Ulm. Ulm had thus become a border town .
What the loss of its hinterland south of the Danube made for Ulm can be illustrated by the fact that important Ulm supply and disposal facilities were located south of the Danube. The Iller rafts landed from the central Herdbrücke upriver to the mouth of the Iller , which mostly headed for Ulm as the end point, but sometimes also went to Vienna. They were mostly pure tree rafts , but also so-called baths, which consisted of boards that were already prepared. The raftsmen brought not only timber for the city, but also firewood, salt and delicacies such as cheese (from Switzerland and the Allgäu), snails, wine (from the growing areas on Lake Constance or from Italy) or kirsch. Between today's railway bridge and the Gänstorbrücke on the southern bank of the Danube there was a room for building timber, a timber trading area and another timber storage area for the storage and the nationally important sale of building timber and firewood.
Furthermore, south of the Danube, in the immediate vicinity of the Herdbrücke at the so-called “Schiffbauerplatz”, there were several shipyards in which the so-called “ Ulmer Schachteln ” were built for the Danube navigation that began here. After their completion, these were loaded with goods at the so-called "Schwal" and launched into the water. A little further down the river, the gardeners' guild maintained a fertilizer site, which was especially important for the large number of tree, fruit and pleasure gardens also to the south. The stone pillar was responsible for the facilities for the utilization of animal bodies, which were subject to the administration of the imperial city executioner . This was at the same time a Wasenmeister ( skinner , flayer, Kleemeister).
The Imperial City Rifle House was also south of the Danube. The rifle club used to hold target practice there several times a week. At the same time, the southern bank of the Danube was also the preferred local recreation area for the people of Ulm, where people went for walks, promenades and stopped in the taverns. When the Danube became a border river as a result of the Napoleonic wars and territorial shifts between the new kingdoms of Württemberg and Bavaria , there was suddenly a passport for walkers, including those from Ulm who had their place of work on the other side of the Danube.
When it joined Württemberg, Ulm became the seat of what was initially a very small upper office , the Ulm Upper Office . A year later, the city was named " Our Good City " and thus the right to its own member of the state parliament.
In 1811, Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger , “the tailor of Ulm”, was supposed to demonstrate the aircraft he had designed on the occasion of the inaugural visit of the Württemberg king to the city. According to eyewitnesses, Berblinger successfully completed several gliding flights of several dozen meters "over meadows and gardens" in the area of the upper Michelsberg. Unfortunately, Berblinger should not present his flying skills there, but on the high bank of the Adlerbastei near the Herdbrücke. Berblinger shied away from the demonstration because he correctly assessed the thermals there as extremely unfavorable for flight attempts. The next day, the king was no longer present, but his son was, the Ulm aviation pioneer was back at the start. According to an ondit , Berblinger, who was still hesitant, was pushed from the Adlerbastei and ended up in the Danube instead of on the Bavarian bank. Modern flight competitions have shown that the location chosen for Berblinger's flight demonstration always offers very problematic conditions for gliding over with non-motorized aircraft. The failed flight demonstration had disastrous consequences for Albrecht Berblinger. Far beyond Ulm he became a ridiculous figure of joke and was defenselessly exposed to the ridicule of his contemporaries. He himself gave up his experiments bitterly, withdrew and died unrecognized and completely impoverished. In the meantime (not only in Ulm) Berblinger's honor with regard to his assessment as a flight pioneer has been restored. In addition to the contemporary reports, modern replicas of and tests with Berblinger's aircraft have clearly proven that it was actually airworthy and that considerable distances can be covered with good thermals.
In 1819, Ulm became the seat of the Württemberg Danube District (roughly comparable to an administrative district) and was able to significantly expand the area of responsibility of the Oberamt Ulm through the incorporation of the short-lived Oberamt Albeck.
The opening of the first continuous line of the Württemberg railway network from Heilbronn to Friedrichshafen on June 1, 1850, as well as the huge construction tasks of building the federal fortress and the completion of the Ulm Minster, which had begun in the middle of the 19th century, brought new life to what has since become the “provincial nest with 12,000 Inhabitants ”Ulm. In the wake of the construction of the federal fortress with 53 fortifications around Ulm and Neu-Ulm as well as the completion of the minster, as a result of which Ulm received the highest church tower in the world since 1885 (the inauguration of the new west tower was on May 31, 1890), prosperity returned.
The result of this revival was a rapidly increasing population and the establishment of numerous commercial and industrial companies. The Ulm pharmacist Gustav Ernst Leube rediscovered the art of cement production, which had been forgotten since late antiquity, and founded Germany's first cement factory in 1838 with his brothers Wilhelm and Julius Leube. Conrad Dietrich Magirus , Commander of the Ulm Voluntary Fire Brigade , was involved in the construction of fire fighting equipment. He is considered the inventor of the mobile fire escape. In 1864 Magirus became a limited partner in the newly founded Gebr. Eberhardt, an open trading and limited partnership that manufactured and sold fire fighting equipment. After disagreements between Magirus and the Eberhardt brothers, Magirus then founded his own company in 1866, which he called the C. D. Magirus Fire Brigade Prop Factory. In 1893, Karl Heinrich Kässbohrer , scion of an old fishing and boatmen dynasty from Ulm, founded the Kässbohrer wagon factory. From 1910, bodies for passenger car chassis were mass-produced there for the first time. The company also received the first patent for a combined bus body for transporting people and goods. In 1922, Kässbohrer developed the first truck trailer. Against the background of the important supraregional function of the Ulm commander Magirus, the 1st German Fire Brigade Day took place in Ulm in 1854 .
The troops of the federal fortress stationed since the middle of the 19th century also played an important role in the development of Ulm and Neu-Ulm. In 1913, Ulm had 60,000 inhabitants, including over 10,000 soldiers. In 1938, shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, the twin cities of Ulm / Neu-Ulm were the largest garrison in the German Reich with more than 20,000 soldiers. The tolerant and imperial cities of Ulm were not particularly fond of acts of war and the military itself. Rarely in the history of the city had war brought any good. The resentment of the people of Ulm against anything too military was evident, for example. B. in the fact that the imperial city very early left large parts of the city's defense to foreign mercenaries, for whom the so-called “moat houses” were built along the city wall. Ulm also tried to settle territorial disputes with its neighbors diplomatically, if necessary by making horrendous monetary payments. Large parts of the former imperial city territory came into the hands of the people of Ulm through purchase or debt redemption, not through military means. The introduction of general conscription after the involuntary annexation to Bavaria and Württemberg met with bitter and long-lasting resistance in Ulm. Overall, Ulm has repeatedly been the object of various desires in the course of its history, most of which were pursued by military means to the detriment of the city. As the capital of the Swabian League of Towns or the Swabian Imperial Circle, the city was always shaped by its own or foreign military.
Ulm during the People's State and the Nazi dictatorship (1918 to 1945)
In 1918/19 the democracy of the Weimar Republic became effective in Ulm through the People's State of Württemberg . In 1919, with the Württemberg municipal law, active and passive democratic voting rights were introduced for all people. A representative democracy with city councils was created. Parties were founded that organized themselves in parliamentary groups in the city council and controlled the administration with the democratically elected mayor. However, the parties that wanted to abolish this democracy, especially the National Socialists , grew stronger. The First World War and the subsequent global economic crisis hit Ulm particularly hard, as the city's commercial enterprises were designed to be strongly export-oriented and, as former armaments companies, were directly affected by reparations claims and production restrictions of the Versailles Treaty . The radical reduction in the number of military personnel stationed in Ulm due to the defeat in World War I also had an extremely negative effect on the local economy. In addition, the currency was destroyed by inflation in 1922/1923 , which briefly led to its own regional currency , the Wära brand money.
The National Socialists and their allied parties that reject democracy succeeded in blaming those parties that supported the Weimar Republic for the reparation obligations, the poor economic situation and also for the dismantling of the military, combined with a high proportion of anti-Semitism : The Jews were considered to be the originators of all negative events in the Weimar Republic. Then there was the fight against the communists, who rejected the Weimar Republic itself. Since the late 1920s, there was a high proportion of the National Socialists' votes in Ulm.
Immediately after the National Socialists came to power on January 30, 1933, the persecution of the Weimar Democrats, Communists and Jews began. This was initially carried out by the SA and SS on behalf of the NSDAP, and later by the police authorities. Many of the victims of this persecution were incarcerated and mistreated without trial from 1933 to 1935 in the Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp , one of the fortifications of the Ulm Federal Fortress . The remaining prisoners were later transferred to the Dachau concentration camp . Kurt Schumacher was among them . At the same time, the democratic bodies and the democratic rule of law were abolished. From 1933, the real rulers of Ulm were the NSDAP district leader Eugen Maier and his superiors in the NSDAP district of Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
In 1933, the Württemberg Political Police set up an external headquarters in the new building , which from 1936 until the end of the war served as the Secret State Police.
From 1933 to 1935 the Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp consisted mainly of political prisoners in the fort of the same name in the Ulm Federal Fortification.
On April 22, 1934, opposition representatives of the Protestant Church from all over Germany (German Reich) made the Ulm Declaration in the Ulm Minster , in which they objected to efforts to subordinate the independence of the Protestant Church to the National Socialist state.
During the so-called Reichspogromnacht (November 9/10, 1938), the Ulm synagogue at Am Weinhof 2, consecrated in 1873, was set on fire by an SA group from Ulm . In addition, members of the Jewish community were mistreated, which also involved other Ulm citizens. 56 men were imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp for several months. Two arrested people from Ulm did not survive the tortures there. The city fire brigade quickly put out the fire in the synagogue, not to prevent the fire at the Jewish community's sanctuary, but because they wanted to prevent the fire from spreading to neighboring buildings. In order to complete the National Socialist pogrom , the city administration ordered the building to be demolished a few days later and forced the Jewish community to finance it themselves. After the “Reichskristallnacht” the remaining people of Jewish faith living in Ulm were forcibly quartered in so-called Jewish houses . From 1941 to 1942, the remaining Jews from Ulm were transported to the extermination camps in the east to be murdered there. Only a few of the deported Jews from Ulm survived. At the staircase of the Sparkasse Neue Straße 66, from 1990 until the new synagogue was built on the Weinhof opposite in 2012, a memorial plaque commemorated the 122 Ulm Jews who were persecuted and murdered in the Shoah and their place of worship. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the Victims of the National Socialist Persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 195 Jewish residents of Ulm who were deported and mostly murdered .
There was also some resistance to the National Socialist state. In 1942, a group of high school graduates around Hans and Susanne Hirzel and Franz J. Müller formed the Ulm offshoot of the well-known Munich resistance group White Rose , in which the two Ulm-based Hans and Sophie Scholl were active. Both resistance groups were caught in 1943. Its members were sentenced partly to death and partly to prison terms.
The heavy air raids on Ulm began in 1944 . At the end of the war - especially as a result of the major attack on December 17, 1944 - 81% of the historic old town had been destroyed, but the cathedral was largely spared.
On April 24, 1945, Ulm was occupied by US troops. Elsewhere in Germany, the war continued until the beginning of May. The war finally ended on May 8th with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .
Ulm in the post-war period (1945 to 2000)
Ulm was part of the American zone of occupation and therefore belonged to the newly founded state of Württemberg-Baden since 1945 , which was incorporated into the current state of Baden-Württemberg in 1952.
The city center of Ulm, which was largely destroyed, was rebuilt in the decades after the end of the war. The question of whether the reconstruction should take place historically or in a modern way led to heated arguments. Most of the city was rebuilt in the style of the 1950s and 1960s. In order to realize large traffic projects like the “Neue Straße” as an east-west thoroughfare, even preserved historical buildings were sacrificed. However, there were also reconstructions of individual buildings that were important for the city's history, and numerous modern buildings were more or less based on historical forms, e.g. B. on the pointed gables typical of Ulm. (See also Culture and Sights - Buildings - Cityscape )
The reconstruction was not limited to the old Ulm city center. The newly designated industrial area in the Danube Valley (1951) was of great importance for the further economic development of the city. In the new Eselsberg district, numerous displaced persons were taken in, which quickly brought the population back to the level it was before the war and beyond.
After Ulm hosted the 1st German Fire Brigade Day in 1854 , the 22nd German Fire Brigade Day also took place there from May 29th to 31st, 1953. It was the first after Nazi rule and World War II.
In 1953, the history of the style-setting college for design began in the 1950s and 1960s, but has since closed again . An engineering school opened its teaching business in 1960 and merged with the University of Applied Sciences for Economics and Technology in 1972 . A major boost for the city was the foundation of the University of Ulm (1967), of 1982, the previously formed from municipal hospitals University Hospital was connected.
On January 1, 1973, the district reform in Baden-Württemberg came into force. Ulm became the seat of the newly formed Alb-Danube district , but remained independent. In 1980, Ulm passed the 100,000-inhabitant mark for the first time and thus became a major city. In the same year, Ulm hosted the first state horticultural show in Baden-Württemberg, in which the neighboring Bavarian town of Neu-Ulm also took part.
Overcoming the economic crisis at the beginning of the 1980s turned the previous industrial city into a service and science center, which in 1987, with a population of 104,000, had a remarkable number of 84,000 jobs.
Ulm in the 21st century (since 2001)
In 2004 the city celebrated several significant events: on the one hand the 1150th anniversary of the first documented mention of Ulm, on the other hand the 125th birthday of Albert Einstein , who was born on March 14, 1879 in today's Bahnhofstrasse. (However, the family moved to Munich shortly after Albert was born in 1880. At the site of the house where he was born there is now a sculpture in honor of the city's prominent Jewish son, who was expatriated by the Nazi rulers .) Another major event was the 95. German Katholikentag from June 16 to 20, 2004 under the motto “Life from God's Power”, in which around 30,000 believers took part.
Formerly independent communities or districts that were incorporated into the city of Ulm. The growth area indicates the area added to the total area of the city in the year of incorporation.
|Date or year||places||Increase in ha||source|
|1828||Böfingen, Örlingen and Obertalfingen||?|
|November 6, 1905||Söflingen||1448|
|April 1, 1926||Grimmelfingen||471|
|April 1, 1927||Wiblingen||809|
|1st September 1971||Jungingen||1354|
|January 1, 1972||Unterweiler||452|
|February 1, 1972||Mahringen||891|
|May 1st 1974||Eggingen||810|
|July 1, 1974||Donaustetten||598|
|July 1, 1974||Sing in||651|
|July 1, 1974||Ermingen||837|
|July 1, 1974||Gögglingen||514|
|1st January 1975||Teaching||614|
The city's population doubled between 1890 (36,000 inhabitants) and 1939 (75,000 inhabitants). Due to the effects of the Second World War, Ulm lost around 30 percent (20,000) of its residents by 1945. In 1951 the population had returned to pre-war levels. In 1980, the city's population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city. At the end of December 2011, according to an update by the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office, 123,672 people had their main residence - an all-time high. According to the 2011 census , the number as of May 9, 2011 is 116,761 inhabitants, which is less than previously assumed. As of December 31, 2004, 19,570 residents (16.3 percent) had a foreign passport (over 100 nations). 14.4 percent of the population were under 15 years old, 17.5 percent 65 years old or older. This means that Ulm, like other German cities, has a relatively low birth rate, but the number of inhabitants is still increasing by 0.5 percent annually due to immigration.
According to a report by the State Statistical Office of Baden-Württemberg, the city or urban district of Ulm will be the youngest district in Baden-Württemberg in 2025. The average age of the city will rise from the current 41.3 years to 44.5 years, which is still well below the average age of other urban and rural districts in the country.
According to the 2011 census , 25.9% of the population were Protestant , 35.6% Roman Catholic and 38.5% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. At the end of 2019, Ulm had 127,508 inhabitants, of which 30.6% were Catholic, 21.5% Protestant and 47.9% either had another religion or no religion at all. In the previous year 2018, 22.0% of the residents were Protestant and 31.4% Catholic. The proportion of residents with “belonging to another religious denomination or without any information” was 46.6%.
Figures on other religious communities were last collected in the 2011 census. At that time 3.3% of the population were Christian Orthodox , 1.1% were members of a Protestant free church and a further 4.1% belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Baden-Württemberg (including the Old Catholic Church and the Witnesses Jehovah's ). According to calculations based on the 2011 census figures, the proportion of the Muslim population in Ulm was 8.2%.
In 1529 Ulm joined the Protestant imperial estates at the Reichstag in Speyer. In a vote from November 3 to 8, 1530, 1,621 of 1,865 people entitled to vote voted in favor of the Reformation. In 1531 the Reformation of the Zwingl direction was introduced by the Konstanz reformer Ambrosius Blarer , but Martin Luther was soon approached when the city was given a Lutheran church order in 1533. Thus, Ulm was a Protestant city for centuries. Mayor Hans Ehinger von Balzheim († 1583) signed the Lutheran Agreement formula of 1577 for the city council of Ulm. At the turn of the 16th to the 17th century, the proportion of Catholics in Ulm's population (around 20,000) fell to one percent (200,000) up to 250 in 1624). This number remained constant until the middle of the 18th century. The remaining priests were not allowed to preach, and Catholic baptisms were only allowed to take place in private homes. For the bridal mass , the celebration of which was banned in Ulm, the few couples went to the Catholic Söflingen, where there had been a Poor Clare monastery since 1258 , which was closed in 1803. Since the middle of the 17th century, Catholics were excluded from citizenship. The strongest groups among the Catholics were the patricians and especially the journeymen, servants and day laborers. At the beginning of the 19th century there was again a strong Catholic parish, in 1805 the first Catholic parish after the Reformation.
After the transition to Württemberg (1810), Ulm became the seat of a generalate (today prelature ) within the Evangelical Church in Württemberg , to which the Protestant parish members belong, provided they are not members of a Protestant free church. In addition to the Protestant prelature, there is also a deanery at the Adlerbastei in Ulm , the position of which is in charge of the Protestant church district of Ulm with a total of 55,408 Protestants (as of 2005). The evangelical overall parish of Ulm is the successor to the historical, independent Ulm imperial city church and currently forms a network of six parishes: Church of the Resurrection, Christ Church, Lukaskirche , Martin Luther Church , Münster , Paul Gerhardt Church (was demolished in 2007 and gave way to condominiums) and Paulus Church . The elected representatives of these six parishes form the Ulm Parish Council. This represents 21,561 community members (as of 2006) and is responsible for the evangelical church life in the city.
The Catholics in the city initially belonged to the Diocese of Constance , later to the Diocese of Augsburg and from 1817 to the General Vicariate of Rottenburg, from which later the Diocese of Rottenburg and then the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart emerged .
With the incorporation of surrounding Catholic places, the weight between Protestant and Catholic Christians changed. Today, the proportion of Catholics in the total population is 35.0%, 25.5% profess the Protestant faith (as of 2012).
Since the end of the Iron Curtain, Ulm has seen a large immigration of Eastern European population groups, a large proportion of which belong to various Orthodox churches . The Russian Orthodox community in Ulm, which has grown considerably in recent years, uses the Valentine's Chapel ("Schmalzhäusle") on the southern Münsterplatz for its services, as well as the former Baptist community center at the Judenhof, which it took over in 2007.
There are also a number of Methodist Christians; In 2012 the two Methodist congregations in Ulm merged to form the "UMC Ulm". The Evangelical Free Church in Ulm has its parish hall in Neu-Ulm. Furthermore, in Ulm there are congregations belonging to the Ecclesia and the People's Mission , a Free Evangelical Congregation , an Adventist congregation and an assembly of the South German Community Association that belong to the Federation of Free Church Pentecostal Congregations . The Apostolic Community uses a former cemetery chapel in the city center. The New Apostolic Church , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses are also represented with their own congregations and places of worship in Ulm. The members of the Old Catholic Church belong to the Augsburg congregation and hold their services in Senden .
The Jewish community in Ulm has a long and varied history. Since the Middle Ages there has been a Jewish community in Ulm (first documented in 1241/42) with a synagogue in the Judenhof . During the plague of 1349 the Jews were persecuted and their community was nearly destroyed. In the second half of the 14th century, Jews who had great economic importance for the city settled again , but were expelled from the city in 1499. Only from 1806 onwards could Jews move in again. Ulm was the seat of a rabbinate from 1889 . The highest number was reached around 1880 with 694 people of Jewish faith. In 1933 around 530 Jews lived in Ulm. Most of these were forced into emigration through expropriation and other persecution by city institutions and fellow citizens. 141 fellow citizens, the rest of the Jewish inhabitants, were forced to be deported to the extermination camps by the city authorities . 121 Jewish citizens were murdered there. After the end of the war there was no longer any Jewish life in Ulm.
It wasn't until 1990 that more Jews moved to Ulm with the repatriates from Eastern Europe, and since 1999 they have been looked after by a rabbi again. Today the Jewish community comprises around 450 citizens of Ulm. According to the board of directors of the IRGW (May 2008), an influx of Jewish migrants to Ulm will take place through an increased allocation of Jewish new immigrants. The Jewish community was re-established as a branch Municipality of Stuttgart in 2002 and inaugurated on May 5 of that year, a new Jewish community center with a prayer room, the first since the destruction of the synagogue On December 2, 2012, 1938. The new synagogue of the Jewish community of Ulm on inaugurated in almost the same place as the Old Synagogue , which was destroyed in 1938 . In addition to the disused old Jewish cemetery, which has been commemorated by a memorial stone since 1987, there is also a Jewish section in the city cemetery in Ulm.
There are several mosques in Ulm , including a newly built one in the Weststadt with a prayer room for 400 men and 30 women on a gallery, as well as a meeting room for 600 people as well as minarets and domes.
In 2007 there was a stir because of a fundamentalist radicalized section of Muslim Ulmer who was close to the Islamic Information Center (IIZ). Its board of directors included two men who fought with weapons in Chechnya and were killed in the process; one of the three men who were arrested in September 2007 for planning terrorist attacks in Germany was a member of the IIZ. In addition, other fundamentalist activists were linked to the IIZ, which led to a raid there. The IIZ anticipated a planned ban and dissolved itself in October 2007. Khaled al-Masri , who attacked the Mayor of Neu-Ulm , Gerold Noerenberg in his office on September 11, 2009 , and beat him, so that Noerenberg had to receive medical attention afterwards , also frequented the IIZ .
Salah Abdeslam , the main suspect of the terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 in Paris , was in Ulm on the night of October 2 to 3, 2015. His rented car was spotted at a refugee shelter. There he picked up three alleged accomplices.
At the beginning, the city of Ulm was headed by Ammann and the city council . Since the 13th century there has been a mayor in addition to the Ammann as managing director of the council, who from 1345 assumed the chairmanship of the council and the management of the city. From 1325 onwards, following civil war-like turmoil , the guilds were given more say in the small oath in addition to the urban patriciate, which until then had only determined politics. Between 1397 and 1547, as the constitution of the imperial city , the Great Oath Letter guaranteed the guilds a majority in the council and access to high municipal offices. In 1547, the rights of the guilds guaranteed in the Great Oath were abolished by Emperor Charles V and the urban nobility (patriciate) were again given the majority. From then on, access to higher municipal offices was hardly possible for non-nobles. Ulm became a de facto aristocratic republic . Originally 17 patrician families elected the mayor and high civil servants from their ranks. As a result, almost all higher state offices were owned by the city patriciate, honorary and limited to one to two years. After their term of office, the former incumbents (especially the mayors) were subject to a kind of blocking period , so that, with a few exceptions, they could not be elected to the same office twice in succession, but were allowed to take on another office. In 1802 the imperial city constitution was repealed. Today the council has 40 members. The mayor is elected directly, for eight years at a time. At 68, he automatically leaves office.
Result of the election to the municipal council on May 26, 2019:
|Political party||Share of votes||+ / -% p||Seats||+ / -|
|CDU||16.5%||(- 5.8)||6 seats||(- 3)|
|SPD||13.8%||(- 5.7)||5 seats||(- 3)|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||26.7%||(+ 7.4)||10 seats||(+ 3)|
|Free voters / FWG||6.9%||(- 1.2)||3 seats||(± 0)|
|UWS||6.8%||(- 0.8)||3 seats||(± 0)|
|FDP / DVP||5.0%||(+ 0.5)||2 seats||(± 0)|
|WWG||4.8%||(- 2.1)||2 seats||(- 1)|
|UVL||4.8%||(- 0.9)||2 seats||(± 0)|
|The left||4.2%||(± 0)||2 seats||(± 0)|
|Pirates||2.3%||(+ 2.3)||1 seat||(+ 1)|
|BLO||1.8%||(+ 1.8)||1 seat||(+ 1)|
|Ulm for everyone||4.7%||(+ 4.7)||2 seats||(+ 2)|
|AfD||1.7%||(+ 1.7)||1 seat||(+ 1)|
FWG, UWS, WWG and UVL together form the FWG fraction.
Denise Niggemeier (BLO) and Doris Schiele (left) joined the Green parliamentary group.
The 2 UfA city councils joined the CDU parliamentary group.
Anja Hirschel (pirates) and Eva-Maria Glathe-Braun (left) joined the SPD parliamentary group.
Lord Mayor since 1819
coat of arms
|Blazon : " Divided by black and silver ."|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The seals of the imperial city that have been verifiable since 1244 contain the imperial eagle , which is temporarily accompanied by a star and a lily at the top . The divided shield as the actual city coat of arms has been documented in the seals since 1351 , where it first appears in the claws of the eagle and later as the eagle's breastplate . With the mediatization (after 1803) the imperial eagle disappeared, while the city coat of arms, divided by black and silver in colored representations from the middle of the 15th century, which has not yet been reliably interpreted, was continued.|
The city flag bears the city colors black and white (black and silver).
Ulm has no official twin city. However, it has maintained a de facto city partnership (see sponsored city ) with Jinotega in Nicaragua via a partnership association since 1986 . The Wiblingen district has a partnership with the French city of Argenton-sur-Creuse .
In July 1998, representatives from 15 Danube cities in Ulm signed a joint declaration on the occasion of the “First International Danube Festival”, the motto being: “The Danube and its cities - a European network of the future”. In it they committed themselves to long-term and cross-border cooperation. In the meantime, solid contacts have developed from this in particular to the following cities and regions in Southeast Europe (Danube partnerships) :
- Bratislava (Pressburg) (Slovakia)
- Budapest , Baja and Hódmezővásárhely (Hungary)
- Vukovar (Croatia)
- Novi Sad , Subotica and Kladovo (Serbia)
- Vidin and Silistra (Bulgaria)
- Sibiu , Temeschburg , Arad , Klausenburg and Tulcea (Romania)
The Danube Office played and continues to play an important role in starting cooperation with the cities and regions mentioned above. It was brought into being with the aim that Ulm, the first major city on the course of the Danube, and following on from traditional relationships ( Danube Swabia ), should strengthen the cooperation with the cities and regions along the river, maintain existing contacts and establish new connections be forged in order to establish lasting partnerships to shape the future of Europe. Politics, administration, economy, science, education and culture are the fields in which the Danube office is active: on the one hand with projects, events, workshops, seminars and (co-) productions, on the other hand in arranging contacts and creating synergies. Based on the Ulm model, there are now also Danube offices in half a dozen of these twin cities. In 2009, with the founding of the Council of Danube Cities and Regions, the communal and regional cooperation network downstream, which had grown over the years, was given an organizational framework.
Further city partnerships:
- Linz on the Danube , Austria
Culture and sights
There are several theaters in Ulm that work independently of each other.
The Ulm municipal theater at Herbert-von-Karajan-Platz 1 is the largest theater in Ulm with 815 seats. It was founded in 1641 and is therefore the oldest municipal theater in Germany, but the building shown in the picture is a new building from the 20th century. Unusually for the size of the city, the Ulm Theater is a three-part house with music theater , drama and ballet . Affiliated to the theater is the Philharmonic Orchestra of the City of Ulm , which gives symphonic concerts both in the theater itself and at other concert venues.
A children's and youth theater in Ulm is the Junge Ulmer Bühne (JUB), located in the old Ulm Theater, as well as the Kuh 16 (Unterer Kuhberg 16).
Another theater, the privately run Theater in the West Pocket, has been based in Ulm-Böfingen since 2012 (40 years before that in Herrenkellergasse in Ulm's old town). The “smallest theater in Germany” with 40 seats described itself as an exotic, experimental and innovative stage.
In the Academy of Performing Arts (ADK) ( s. U. ) Belonging Academy Theater on Kuhberg provide aspiring directors and actors presented their performing arts, and as in other venues Ancient Theater is avoided.
The Ulüm Theater is the only professional Turkish-speaking theater in southern Germany with a regular program and a permanent venue in the Upper Danube Bastion in Schillerstraße. The Ulm Theater Workshop is also based there.
The First Ulm Punch and Judy Theater was founded in 2001 as a professional children's theater. It has around 60 seats and offers five performances a week.
Museums and open air galleries
The Ulm Museum is designed as a museum for art, archeology as well as city and cultural history. In addition to numerous, sometimes high-profile exhibits, information on the history of the city and well-known Ulm personalities, such as Albert Einstein, is presented. Among the collections and exhibits of the museum, the archaeological department with the lion man as the oldest human-animal sculpture in the world (dated approx. 37,000 BC), the large cultural and urban history department with clothing and everyday life in the late 18th century Century clay figures of the Rommel pottery family and the 17th century art and natural chamber of the wealthy Ulm merchant Christoph Weickmann with some of the world's oldest preserved African textiles, the extensive art collection with late medieval works of the so-called Ulm School ( works by Jörg Syrlin the Younger, Hans Multscher, Gregor & Michel Erhart, Bartholomäus Zeitblom and Niklaus Weckmann) and numerous works of contemporary art from the 20th century (including by Joseph Beuys , Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein ) and the design exhibition with designs and works by the international r special mention from the renowned Ulm University of Design (HfG) .
As a modern building sculpture, designed by the New York architect Richard Meier and opened in 1993, the Ulm town hall corresponds to the late Gothic Ulm Minster . The town house is above all a place for contemporary topics, presented in temporary exhibitions and events. The focus of the exhibition program is on contemporary photography, architecture and outsider art. The roots of the town house in the history of the Ulm Münsterplatz are shown in a multimedia permanent exhibition.
On November 24, 2007, the Kunsthalle Weishaupt was opened in the Neue Mitte, in the immediate vicinity of the Ulm Museum and directly connected to it via a glass bridge . It was realized by the entrepreneur Siegfried Weishaupt with private funds and built according to the plans of the Munich architect Wolfram Wöhr . The collection includes several hundred large works and is one of the most important private collections of contemporary art in Germany.
Together with the University's Sculpture Path (including works by Niki de Saint Phalle ) and the archive of the internationally renowned Ulm University of Design (HfG), Ulm has been given the status of an outstanding exhibition location for fine art and design in southern Germany.
In the Museum of Bread Culture, uniquely in Germany, not only the techniques and history (s) of bread making are presented, but also the extremely complex cultural and social history of bread as a basic foodstuff and important cultural symbol.
In its permanent exhibition entitled “We wanted the other”, the Ulm Memorial White Rose reminds young people in Ulm from 1933 to 1945 in the foyer of the Ulm Adult Education Center on Kornhausplatz to Ulm members of the White Rose resistance group as well as a number of other young people from Ulm who during the time of Nazi resistance contributed.
The Ulm concentration camp memorial in Fort Oberer Kuhberg commemorates the use of this part of the federal fortress by the Nazi regime as a concentration camp . From November 1933 to July 1935, over 600 political and ideological opponents from the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern were incarcerated in Fort Oberer Kuhberg under inhumane conditions. Kurt Schumacher , the re-founder of the SPD in Germany after 1945, was among them . The former concentration camp is now a memorial . In 1994 it was named an “exemplary local museum” by the Tübingen regional council. The Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp is the only concentration camp in southern Germany that has been preserved in its entire structural substance. These include the underground dungeons in which the prisoners were housed, the outdoor area with Kurt Schumacher's detention cell and the rooms of the concentration camp headquarters.
The fortress museum Fort Oberer Kuhberg was founded in 1974 by the Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm e. V. founded. The aim of this association is the restoration, documentation and presentation of the preserved structures. Before the association was founded in 1974, the first maintenance work began in Fort Oberer Kuhberg (part of the Ulm Federal Fortification ). In the meantime, it is the best preserved fort and can be visited on guided tours. The activities of the association have expanded to other fortifications in recent years, which are also presented to the public in guided tours.
In the Danube Swabian Central Museum (dzm), which is housed in part of the Obere Danube Bastion fortress (part of the Federal Fortress Ulm ), the history, culture and fate of the so-called Danube Swabians, German-born, mostly Swabian emigrants who emigrated to Southeast Europe in the 18th century, and theirs Descendants returned after the Second World War as displaced persons, shown in changing exhibitions. The dzm is an institution of European importance, financed jointly by the city of Ulm, the state of Baden-Württemberg, the federal government and the EU.
The natural history collections of the city of Ulm are also referred to as a "living museum". The subjects of mineralogy , geology , paleontology , botany , zoology and ecology can be experienced not only cognitively but also sensually. This concept makes the museum particularly suitable for families with children and people with mental or physical disabilities. The museum has numerous information panels in Braille . Since March 2013 the Natural History Education Center has been one of 26 information points of the UNESCO Geopark “Swabian Alb” .
The non-public Setra Museum in Ulm fishing district (Fischergasse 23) shows the history of the brand Setra (buses with se lbst tra gender body, developed in the mid 20th century by the then Ulm-based company Karl Kässbohrer GmbH ). There is also an exhibition of omnibus models.
Other cultural institutions
The Roxy sociocultural center offers a wide range of events: music, cabaret, readings, poetry and science slam parties. It was founded in 1989 by the Association for Democratic Education and Cultural Work. V. founded and supported, since 2000 it is a non-profit GmbH .
The Ulm tent has been Germany's longest cultural tent festival since 1986 with a six and a half week program from mid-May to early July. It takes place in Friedrichsau with international top acts, but also lesser-known artists of all genres as well as cabaret, children's action area, children's theater and other events. The organizer is the Association for the Promotion of Free Culture Ulm e. V.
The oratorio choir Ulm e. V. is a mixed concert choir , has been under the direction of Thomas Kammel since 2014 and performs works of classical church music and secular oratorios together with professional orchestras and soloists , including at concerts in the Pauluskirche and as part of the Oath Monday celebrations .
The youth wind orchestra Junge Bläserphilharmonie Ulm , founded in 1961 as Ulmer Knabenmusik , also plays an important role in the city's musical life. In 2008 the ensemble won first place in the category B2 youth wind orchestra at the German Orchestra Competition in Wuppertal.
The Ulmer Spatzen Choir , known beyond Ulm, is a children's and youth choir that has won several national prizes in the 21st century.
The Museum Society Ulm e. V. organizes exhibitions as a cultural citizens 'initiative, offers meeting rooms for the artists' guild or the Friends of the Ulm Theater (founded in 1979 to support the Ulm Theater ) and is active as a patron . Every year, it awards the Museum Society Ulm Prize, endowed with 5000 euros, for promoting the humanities at Ulm University . The museum society emerged from the oldest civil society in Ulm, the reading society founded in 1789. In 1815 she had moved into the "upper room" opposite the town hall, after the house had belonged to the "honorable society of the gentlemen" from 1548 to 1803. In contrast to the lower room , where the merchants' guild met, the upper room was the meeting place of the patriciate. Around 1900 the museum society was the social center of the upper middle class. It had a library (already set up by the reading society) to which only members had access. This comprised around 30,000 volumes before it was completely destroyed in the bombing attack on December 17, 1944, along with most of the Ulm city center. The upper room was rebuilt at the historical location, although the new building showed the eaves side of the town hall. In 2007, the museum society fundamentally rebuilt the Upper Stube with contemporary architecture and modern building materials (also in response to three modern new buildings in the immediate vicinity, Ulm's Neuer Mitte) and, based on the historical model, provided it with a double gable facing the town hall .
Like many associations, the society was founded in 1950 in 1950; (Founding) members were and are well-known personalities from the (bourgeois) cultural scene, including Otl Aicher , Kurt Fried , Wilhelm Geyer and Inge Scholl . However, the dominant role of the earlier years has been lost.
The Söflinger Vorstadtverein (VVS) serves as the umbrella association of the Söflinger associations and centrally manages the interests of the members in order to be able to represent them better towards the city of Ulm. Other important tasks of the VVS are the promotion of art and culture, coordination, support and advice for the clubs that have joined (a total of 26 music, sports and singing clubs and many smaller societies) as well as landscape and monument protection. The Catholic Söflingen was not incorporated into the Protestant imperial city of Ulm until 1903. With the establishment of the VVS, Söflingen's independence was strengthened on the one hand, and a hinge was formed on the other hand, which serves to hold Ulm together with the district. The VVS also acts as a cooperating point of contact for the city administration. The association's work was successfully continued in the new millennium, for example with the preparations for the centenary of the suburb of Söflingen in 2003 and the regular organization of further celebrations that take place in the Söflingen monastery courtyard.
The Great Carnival Society Ulm / Neu-Ulm e. V. (GKG U / NU) tries to maintain and maintain the carnival activities in the Ulm region. It was founded in 1905 through the merger of the predecessor companies "Gesellschaft der Elfen" and another carnival club founded in 1885. Subareas of the GKG U / NU are the gardens in their different age groups, clowns and the mask group "Danube witches".
Ulm is the seat of the working committee for children's games and toys. V., which awards the spiel gut seal of approval for special toys, as well as the Künstlergilde Ulm e. V., a non-profit art association.
Up until the Second World War, the cityscape of Ulm was characterized by a centuries-old imperial city building culture with numerous architectural monuments, mainly from the Gothic , Renaissance and historicism styles and some baroque and classicist buildings. The medieval old town of Ulm was one of the largest and most important in southern Germany. This line of tradition broke off abruptly towards the end of the Second World War when Ulm was largely destroyed by air raids on December 17, 1944. The ensemble effect of the closed old town development was lost, less than a fifth of the historical old town development was preserved. The western inner city from the Münster to the main train station was completely destroyed, while in some other areas only a few, mostly incoherent remains of the old town survived (Fischerviertel, Donaufront, a few alleys in the northern and northeastern area of the Munster, quarter "Auf dem Kreuz" east of Frauenstrasse). Some important buildings, the interior of which was burned out in the firestorm, were rebuilt in their outer forms (e.g. town hall, Schwörhaus, Kornhaus), many others, on the other hand, have completely disappeared from the cityscape and the consciousness of the citizens of Ulm. After the Second World War, concepts were called for as to how the little preserved old could be meaningfully incorporated into the reconstruction of the city, but the rapid rebuilding of the inner city did not result in any special architectural works. The road network was largely based on the road network of the prewar period, but with serious exceptions. In line with the idea of a car-friendly city, a wide swath was cut through the city with the Neue Strasse, and the historical architecture that was still preserved was torn down in favor of this city motorway. At the beginning of the 21st century, the gap was closed by the Neue Mitte (see below ), after the existing historical buildings had already been treated more sensitively in other districts close to the city center during the 1980s. The careful renovation of some historic buildings in the Fischerviertel and the Quartier auf dem Kreuz by the city's own renovation institute can be considered exemplary.
The new buildings in the Neue Mitte between Münsterplatz and City Hall, such as the town house by the architect Richard Meier , the House of the Senses and the Sparkasse building, both by Stephan Braunfels , as well as the Weishaupt art gallery by the architect Wolfram Wöhr, which was built as a “glass pyramid” Municipal library of Gottfried Böhm and the construction of the Upper stub (see above ) set with their modernity in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral and of the rebuilt historic town hall in a conscious contrast effects and fractures.
In summary, the cityscape of Ulm today is characterized by the mixture between preserved or (even if mostly only externally rebuilt) historic buildings and streets on the one hand and modern architecture on the other. The exciting result of the courageous urban development attracts a lot of attention and is recognized in large parts of the professional world, but is also viewed critically by parts of the population.
The Gothic cathedral with the tallest church tower in the world dominates the cityscape. The skyline of the city is also characterized by the Holy Trinity Church , built between 1617 and 1621 , rebuilt after the fire of 1944, and now used as a meeting place for concerts, seminars, theater and lectures. The towers of the Protestant garrison church Pauluskirche , which was built within two years (1908–1910) by Theodor Fischer in Art Nouveau style, are also striking . The neo-Gothic St. George's Church , which was built by Max Meckel in 1904 as a Catholic garrison church and later became a parish church, is also visible from afar.
The two former city gates Gänsturm and Metzgerturm characterize the banks of the Danube. In the historic old town, despite the bombing of the Second World War, some buildings have been preserved, including the town hall built in 1370 . The stone house , together with the Nikolauskapelle, is the oldest surviving building in the city and dates from the Staufer period from the 12th to 13th centuries. A half-timbered building with a late Gothic brick gable from 1485 is the Büchsenstadel , which houses the youth center in Mitte and the non-commercial local radio station Radio freeFM . The Gasthof zur Krone is an imposing building complex from the 16th century with parts and structural additions from the 19th century, it was used in the 15th and 16th centuries as a palace substitute for kings and emperors. The Kornhaus is a renaissance building from 1594 with rich sgraffito decoration. The last remaining patrician building is the Kiechelhaus , which today belongs to the building complex of the Ulm Museum. The new building , a brick building built from 1584 to 1593 as a warehouse with an office and council chamber, is now the seat of the police headquarters. The Reichenauer Hof is a building that has been expanded by Ulrich Ehinger . Ulm's location on Salzstrasse led to the construction of a salt barn in 1592 . Since 1991 this has been the seat of the Museum of Bread Culture .
The Ochsenhäuser Hof , originally built as the nursing yard of the Ochsenhausen monastery , was built around 1500. The former shoemaker's guild house, the Schuhhaus , was built in 1537 behind the choir of the minster and houses the Ulm Art Association , which uses it for art exhibitions. Every July, the Schwörhaus is the focus of the Ulm Oath Monday . It was built in 1612 and after a fire in 1785 it was given a baroque gable. Burned out again in 1944, it was rebuilt with modern interiors by 1954. Today the city archive is located there.
Two buildings stand out from Ulm's most recent building history: the New Central Library , built in 2004 in the form of a glass pyramid, around 23 meters high, located directly next to the historic town hall, and the town hall on Münsterplatz, in 1993 despite the majority rejection of the project in a referendum Built according to the design of the New York architect Richard Meier , "walk-in sculpture", space for exhibitions, concerts, conferences, lectures, etc. Also worth mentioning is the Weishaupt art gallery , directly adjacent to the museum and the town hall, in Ulm's "Neuer Mitte". The otherwise unusual underground car park under this “Neue Mitte”, which opened on March 11, 2006, was equipped with an exhibition on the history of Ulm and made it possible to make the market square and the Judenhof car-free.
Reference is made to two other church buildings: The Martin Luther Church as an important building in the Expressionist style , built in 1928 by Theodor Veil and richly furnished by the Neu-Ulm woodcarver Martin Scheible , as well as St. Michael zu den Wengen (the Wengen Church ) . The former baroque monastery church from 1399 burned out in 1944; In the church, which was newly built in 1954, there is an altarpiece painted by Franz Martin Kuen in 1766 and a late Gothic crucifixion group in the baroque chapel from 1629.
Ulm's city wall, built around 1480 into the Danube ("in the middle of the raging river"), later according to Albrecht Dürer's ideas of the fortress building by Hans Beham the Elder. Ä. (Nürnberger Baumeister) rebuilt, today is a 600 meter long promenade that ends upstream at the Wilhelmshöhe - Bastion Lauseck, part of the city fortifications from the 16th to 18th centuries. Century. This part of the old city wall also includes the optically completely inconspicuous Adlerbastei, the place from which Albrecht Berblinger (The Tailor of Ulm) started his forced, failed attempt to fly over the Danube in 1811 . The part of the city wall on today's streets Neuer Graben, Frauengraben and Seelengraben was built with soldiers' quarters from 1610 after the Dutchman Valckenburgh had planned and implemented a new fortification of Ulm, which practically took the old city wall into the city. The "Grabenhäusle", modernized, now form a residential area with its own flair. In the area of the fishing district you can find the Staufermauer an der Blau, built from around 1150, remains of the fortifications of the Ulmer Königspfalz and the oldest preserved buildings in the city.
To little architectural features Ulm include Guckehürle , which are small Ausgucktürmchen on the roof ridges , fialenartige essays on the gables which support the weathervane of a house brick on a gable wall to the symbolic documentation of a Traufrechts , alleys fireplaces to smoke from the lower floors with no chimney outside, and wrought-iron locking hooks to attach locking chains to make it difficult for troops to enter.
Fishing and tanning district
In this quarter on the Danube tributary of the Blau, which was predominantly settled by craftsmen in the Middle Ages, there are still many buildings from this period and referring to them, such as the Garnsiede on the Blauinsel, which today, like the Lochmühle and the Gerberhaus, is used for gastronomy purposes, the ship's guild house (am historical fishermen's place directly on the Danube, about where the Danube Swabians, among others, embarked for the journey downriver to their new home countries Hungary and Romania). Also noteworthy are the Ulmer Münz, the Kässbohrer House built around 1500 and, directly adjacent to the Ulmer Münz, the Schiefe Haus , built in the 14th century, today a hotel that is considered to be the most crooked in the world. In the vicinity of the fishing district were also three landing sites for the Iller rafting company, which transported wood from the Allgäu and Upper Swabia and goods of all kinds to Ulm and from there to Vienna. In 1870, 3,000 rafts reached the landing sites on the Danube.
On the cross
About half of the buildings in this medieval old town quarter, which in the last 20 years has developed into a preferred residential area with traffic-calmed down and close to the center, dates from before 1700. The Sebastian Chapel can be counted among the more noteworthy , for the first time in 1415 in the city's history Mentioned, now an exhibition room, as well as the Seelturm , which was built in the 14th century on the Ulm city wall and served as a pumping station from 1638, which pumped water into the adjacent - octagonal - well house and stored it there. The name Seelturm came from a lake house directly opposite that was destroyed in the war. Mention should also be made of the Zundeltor, which was built in 1870 below the Seelturm and still has a (neo) Gothic style today (especially the roof structure). The name Zundeltor comes from the materials stored in the Seelturm, because tinder and powder were stored there. Also located on the edge of this area, the armory , former arsenal of the former imperial city, which was built in several stages from the 1522nd Large parts were destroyed in 1945. Changing exhibitions take place in the pillared hall of the early baroque "lion building" from 1667, which belongs to the complex and was undamaged by all wars.
Federal fortress Ulm
The fortress was planned and built as the central southern German arsenal of the German Confederation from 1842 to 1859 under the fortress construction director and then Colonel Moritz von Prittwitz , and today it is one of Europe's largest fortifications. Up to 10,000 workers were employed in the construction. Today, numerous buildings are still preserved throughout the city, including almost all forts, almost the entire city wall between Wallstrasse Bridge and Eythstrasse as well as individual buildings on the city fronts and the concrete works from 1901/1914, as well as a number of infrastructure buildings within the inner fortress ring and on the Kuhberg.
Other buildings, some of which are striking and some of which are noteworthy in terms of (architectural) history, are briefly mentioned here: the Daimler research center by architect Richard Meier ; the Danube Stadium , with 19,500 seats and standing room, the venue for the home games of the SSV Ulm football teams in 1846, as well as international football games (women's national team) and athletics competitions; the world's largest office building in the passive house standard Energon , with 8000 m² and approx. 420 workplaces; the Ulm-Ermingen telecommunications tower , built in 1964 ; the Schapfenmühle grain silo , completed in 2005, with a height of 125 m (including antenna) the highest grain silo still in use in the world; And finally some sacred buildings in the suburbs: the monastery church of St. Maria in Söflingen, built in 1688 by Caspar Feichtmayr as the church of the Clarissen monastery in the early baroque style, with parts of the monastery complex that were demolished at the beginning of the 19th century and the one in the immediate vicinity on Söflinger Leonhard's chapel with a baroque calvary located in the cemetery; the Wiblingen , a former Benedictine monastery, (founded in 1093, abolished in 1806) with significant late Baroque monastery church (1772-1781) with early neoclassical interiors; the Protestant Marienkirche in Lehr with remarkable late Gothic wall paintings.
Upper Swabian Baroque Street
Ulm is the starting point of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route . The route is approx. 500 km long, begins at Ulm Minster, continues towards Lake Constance and consists of additional extension routes that run through Austria and Switzerland . The Wiblingen Monastery with its library, located in the city of Ulm, is one of the main attractions on Barockstrasse.
In addition to the tallest church tower in the world, Ulm also has the most crooked hotel in the world, as well as the highest tram stop in Germany at 617.8 meters with the Botanischer Garten stop near the Botanical Gardens.
The Friedrichsau is considered to be the local recreation area for Ulm. It can be reached by public transport (bus and tram), by passenger ships across the Danube - or on foot. From downtown Ulm you can walk down the banks of the Danube in about 30 minutes by foot to Friedrichsau with its three community gardens, the fairground (for folk festivals, guest circus performances and open airs as well as the six-week culture festival “Ulmer Zelt”) and the zoo .
The history of Friedrichsau is remarkable. In Ulm they say "Napoleon is to blame for everything". In fact, the Steinhäule on the right side of the Danube was no longer used as an excursion area for the people of Ulm, as it had been added to Bavaria after the borders were redrawn in 1810. The former Elector Friedrich I , who only rose to the rank of King of Württemberg through Napoleon's grace , showed himself to be generous on his inaugural visit to Ulm in 1811 and donated, among other things, 2,000 guilders for a new recreation area in Gänshölzle , which is why Friedrichsau was named after him.
It was there that the Au societies came into being in the first half of the 19th century , among which the dog comedy became the best known. They were mainly used for social purposes. Singers' associations such as the Liederkranz and Teutonia also found their home in Friedrichsau.
A popular local recreation area and excursion destination is the Ulm Botanical Garden, a central facility of Ulm University . With 28 hectares it is one of the largest botanical gardens in Germany. Plant collections, outdoor experimental areas and several greenhouses are available for teaching students and research as well as visitors. In the green classroom, environmental education is offered to schools all year round. Visitors can enter the outdoor area all year round and the greenhouses at certain times. In the upper part of the outdoor area of the Botanical Garden, the pharmaceutical company ratiopharm opened the New Ulm Pharmacist Garden in cooperation with the University of Ulm . Over 200 medicinal and useful plants can be found in the beds .
Other recreational areas or park-like facilities are the old cemetery, the banks of the Danube with walking opportunities, the fragrance and touch garden with information also for visually impaired people and the planned, but not yet realized, district park Oberer Eselsberg .
The Gerd-Walter-Linde is visible in large parts of Ulm.
- Small brewery market: Every year (for the first time in 2005, first in Neu-Ulm, then since 2007 in Ulm), small breweries take place on the southern Münsterplatz, where beers are offered for tasting.
- Württemberg State Trombone Day : Every two years on a weekend in May or June, the StateTrombone Day ofthe Evangelical Youth Organization in Württemberg takes place, at the closing ceremony of which up to 9,000 participating brass players form the largest trombone choir in the world.
- Ulmer Donaucup, the annual rowing regatta of the Ulmer Rowing Club. As part of this major event, various competitions are held on the Danube: the classic rowing regatta with races in 37 boat classes and the Dragon Cup for 64 leisure teams.
- Fortress Day : On a Sunday in June, numerous works of the Federal Fortress Ulm are presented by the Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm e. V. open to the public for viewing.
- International Danube Festival : The Festival of Danube countries with cultural, musical and culinary events at the Ulm and Neu-Ulm Danube was celebrated for the first time in 1998 and since then takes place every two years.
- Oath week: The festivities that take place on the weekend before the oath Monday are called the oath week. It begins with the serenade of lights . On the morning of Oath Monday, the mayor has to give an account to the residents. The day commemorates the former constitution of the imperial city, the great oath of 1397, and is celebrated on the penultimate Monday in July. This Monday is handled like a half- day public holiday in Ulm and Neu-Ulm, which means that many shops and public institutions are closed from around 10:30 a.m. to give everyone from Ulm the opportunity to take the oath (traditionally around 11 a.m. from the balcony of the Schwörhaus at the Weinhof) to be heard. The weekend ends with Nabada . The jousting takes place every four years . On special occasions, otherwise also every 4 years, the traditional binder dance is performed in the oath week. The Ulm folk festival will also take place in Friedrichsau from mid-July, ending on Oath Monday.
- Ulmer and Neu-Ulmer Kulturnacht, an annual event in September since 2000, which shows the entire cultural offer of the two Danube cities. With 95 venues and over 450 participating artists in 2006, the Kulturnacht is one of the largest events of its kind in Germany.
- The Einstein Marathon has been held in September since 2005 and is one of the largest running events in Baden-Württemberg.
- Wiblinger Bachtage : annual series of concerts, mostly in autumn, centered on the works of the Thomaskantor Johann Sebastian Bach . The concert series has existed in Ulm and Neu-Ulm since 1985 and reached a total of 70,000 concert-goers in 2004.
- The annual Ulm Christmas Market is one of the largest and most popular Christmas markets in southern Germany. It usually starts on the Monday before the first weekend in Advent and continues until two days before Christmas Eve. For this purpose, the market square in front of the main portal of the minster will be transformed into a “hut village” (with its own street name).
The best-known club in Ulm is SSV Ulm 1846 , which played in the Bundesliga with its football department in the 1999/2000 season . Today the division, which has been outsourced since January 2009, plays in the Regionalliga Südwest . The volleyball women of SSV Ulm 1846 became German champions and cup winners in 2003 and are currently playing in the Regionalliga Süd. The SSV Ulm 1846 is also the second largest sports club in Baden-Württemberg with 9500 members. In basketball, the Bundesliga team ratiopharm ulm is currently Ulm's most successful sports club. He has played in the 1st basketball league since 2006, and in 1996 he won the German Cup. After SSV Ulm 1846, TSG Söflingen is the sports club in Ulm with the largest number of members. He is particularly successful with the gymnastics and handball sections, but also produces successful athletes in so-called niche sports such as bike ball and wheelchair basketball . With around 700 members, the ESC Ulm is represented in the city with eight departments in the sports of bowling, football, tennis, table tennis, gymnastics, taekwondo, fishing and shooting. The bowlers in particular have played in the 1st and 2nd Bundesliga in the past. The Post SV Ulm e. V. was founded in 1952 and consists of seven departments. The most successful department is the chess department, which played temporarily in the Bundesliga. With Klaus Bischoff, you also come from the most successful athlete in the club. The club operates a tennis hall in Ulm.
The sports diving club, Sporttauchergruppe Ulm / Neu-Ulm e. V. is one of the largest diving clubs in Baden-Württemberg with over 250 members. One of the largest rowing clubs in Baden-Württemberg is the Ulmer Ruderclub Donau e. V. With Urs Buyer , who was world champion in Germany eighth in 2009 and participant in the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, and Kerstin Hartmann, there are a number of Ulm rowers in the national teams of their respective age groups. In addition, the Ulmer Ruderclub Donau e. V. over some, partly reigning state and federal champions. The most successful rowers from Ulm were Maximilian Reinelt in the eighth and Raimund Hörmann sen. with Dieter Wiedenmann in a foursome . The latter were twice vice world champions (1979 and 1982) as well as one world champion each (1983) and one Olympic champion (1984).
The Ulmer Paddler canoe club was founded in 1925 and operates a training course in the Illerkanal . The second canoe club is the Ulmer Kanufahrer e. V. aktiv, which was also founded in 1925. The American Football- playing Ulm Sparrows were founded in 1984 and are now a subgroup of VfB Ulm. The baseball department of VfB Ulm plays as the Ulm Falcons in the Bundesliga baseball .
Ulm has repeatedly hosted international sporting events. As part of the 1972 Summer Olympics , four preliminary rounds of the Olympic handball tournament were played in the Ulm Danube Hall. Among other things, the final of the 2001 European Football Championship for women took place in the Danube Stadium in Ulm .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Ulm achieved, within the city limits, a gross domestic product (GDP) of 9.253 billion euros and thus ranked 38th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 75,044 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and is thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 2.8%. In 2016 there were around 122,400 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 3.2% in December 2018, making it one of the lowest among major German cities.
In the Future Atlas 2016, the urban district of Ulm was ranked 17th out of 402 rural districts and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the regions with "very high future prospects".
Ulm is the seat of a Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) (chamber district: City of Ulm, Alb-Donau district and district of Biberach) and a chamber of crafts (chamber district: city of Ulm, Alb-Donau district, district of Biberach, Lake Constance district, district of Heidenheim, Ostalb district and Ravensburg district).
Ulm is also a traditional location for the commercial vehicle industry . As early as 1866, the Ulm fire brigade commander Conrad Dietrich Magirus founded a factory for the manufacture of fire fighting equipment ( see: Magirus ). The first turntable ladder was built there in 1892 , the first self-propelled steam fire pump in 1903 , trucks from 1916 and buses from 1919 . In 1935/36 the Magirus company was taken over by Klöckner-Deutz from Cologne. After the Second World War , the commercial vehicle brand Magirus-Deutz, established on the market after this merger, rose to become Germany's second largest truck and bus manufacturer and the German and European market leader for fire fighting vehicles . Between 1975 and 1983 the Magirus-Deutz brand was merged with the Ulm commercial vehicle plant in Iveco , which was part of the Italian Fiat group and discontinued the Magirus-Deutz brand, but not production in Ulm. While fire engines continued to be produced, the production of trucks ( Iveco Stralis ) was relocated to Madrid in 2012 and only the development center was left in Ulm. The former parent company of Magirus-Deutz (today's Deutz AG ) still builds engines in Ulm. The Deutz plant in Ulm was expanded to become the company's internal center for air-cooled diesel engines .
The Ulm-based company Kässbohrer went back to 1893 and the initiative of Karl Heinrich Kässbohrer , and from 1951 built self-supporting buses under the Setra brand . At the end of the 1960s, Kässbohrer was Germany's largest manufacturer of buses and truck trailers. From 1993 the company was divided into what is now Kässbohrer Transport Technik , Kässbohrer Geländefahrzeug AG and the bus division, which was taken over by Daimler-Benz and today still produces buses with the name Setra under the name EvoBus , although theirs has been theirs since 2009 Is located entirely in Neu-Ulm.
The book manufacturer Ebner & Spiegel GmbH, based in Ulm, produces more than 70 million books annually with around 500 employees. Ebner & Spiegel emerged in 2002 from J. Ebner Graphische Betriebe GmbH & Co. KG, founded in 1817, and Franz Spiegel Buch GmbH , founded in 1930 by Franz Xaver Spiegel . After the merger of the two traditional companies, the internationally operating group CPI from Paris invested 13 million euros in the modernization of the rotary printing and binding facilities in the Ulm plant.
Large resident companies
- AEG Identificationssysteme GmbH (AEG ID): Identification electronics (transponders, readers, antennas)
- Airbus Defense and Space : Defense and Security Systems
- JG Anschütz GmbH & Co. KG: hunting and sporting weapons (e.g. for biathlon)
- Atmel Germany GmbH: Semiconductors
- Audi AG: Research and Development
- Beiselen GmbH: Wholesale in the agricultural sector
- Beurer GmbH: Electrical devices for health and well-being (e.g. heating pads, blood pressure and blood sugar measuring devices, clinical thermometers)
- Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft (BMW AG) : Research and development
- BMG MIS GmbH (formerly AEG MIS): liquid crystal displays (LCD) for information systems of all kinds (focus: multimedia applications in mobile and stationary areas, both for indoor and outdoor use)
- Gold Ochsen brewery : beer, beverage distribution
- CE Noerpel GmbH: Transport and logistics service provider
- Continental AG : Research Center for Driver Assistance Systems
Daimler AG : Research and Development
- Daimler TSS GmbH: IT services
- Deutsche Telekom AG: Network Operation Center (Internet control center of the group)
- Deutz AG : diesel engines
- Ebner & Spiegel GmbH: Book printing
- euro engineering AG: Research, development, construction, engineering services
- Fritz & Macziol Group : IT system house
- Gardena GmbH : garden tools, the Swedish company Husqvarna belonging
- Harman Becker Automotive Systems GmbH (formerly TEMIC SDS GmbH ): automotive supplier (car radios, voice control, navigation devices)
- Hensoldt : Defense and Security Systems
- H. Krieghoff GmbH : hunting and sporting weapons (since 1886)
- Iveco SpA: Commercial vehicle production (only delivery and customer center, no more production since 2012)
- Liqui Moly GmbH: additives, oils, car care products
- Magirus GmbH (formerly Iveco Magirus Brandschutztechnik GmbH): Fire fighting vehicles and equipment
- MairDumont GmbH & Co. KG: Logistics center of the publishing house (travel guides, atlases, city maps)
- Mayser GmbH & Co. KG: tactile sensors for security technology
- Müller Holding Ltd. & Co. KG : trade (drugstore chain)
- Nokia Networks BV (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks and Nokia Siemens Networks): Telecommunications (research and development)
- Nuance Communications Inc .: Artificial Intelligence (Research)
- ratiopharm GmbH: patent-free pharmaceutical products
- Schwenk Putztechnik GmbH & Co. KG: Ready-mixed dry mortar and thermal insulation composite systems
- Schwenk Zement KG: cement, concrete
- Seeberger KG : dried fruits, nut kernels and coffee
- Seifert Logistics Group : Transport and logistics company
- Joyson Safety Systems (Former Takata KK : manufacturer of passenger protection systems for automobiles) (e.g. airbags, belt tensioners)
- Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd .: Pharmaceuticals
- Thales SA : military technology, aerospace, security technology
- Uzin Utz AG: Construction chemistry
- Carl Walther GmbH sport weapons : firearms and sport weapons
- Wieland-Werke AG: Semi-finished products, pipes and sliding elements
- Zwick Roell AG: testing machines
- Emud : radio manufacturer (until 1972)
- Britax Römer Kindersicherheit GmbH: Car and bicycle seats, strollers (until autumn 2016, move to Leipheim )
- car2go GmbH: car sharing (until December 31, 2014)
- Manufaktur Ulmer Keramik (UK): utensils, tiles, promotional items made of ceramics (until March 31, 1991)
- Nokia : Telecommunications (Research and Development) (until December 31, 2012)
Trade fair city
In the northeast of the city are the Donauhalle and the exhibition grounds with several halls that can also be used independently of one another. In addition, congresses and events take place in the Congress Centrum Ulm (CCU) and in the Kornhaus , including the annual mail order bookshop conference organized by the German Book Trade Association . Numerous prefabricated house manufacturers have built exhibition houses in the prefabricated house exhibition at the exhibition center. Furthermore, trade fairs and major events take place in the Ratiopharm Arena event center, which is located in the Neu-Ulm area but is shared with the neighboring city .
Environment / ecology
FUG GmbH (Fernwärme Ulm) operates one of the largest biomass heating power plants in Germany (60 MW installed capacity) in Ulm's Weststadt ( see also: List of power plants in Germany ). In addition, Ulm has regularly taken one of the top places in the solar league in the major cities category in recent years and, alongside Ingolstadt, is the major German city in which the most solar power is produced per inhabitant. The Weltladen, founded in Ulm in 1976, is one of the oldest and now largest world shops in Germany. In 2007 and 2011 the city of Ulm received the European Energy Award for its exemplary municipal energy management and its services to climate protection. Since January 2008 the Ulm Minster has been fully supplied with renewable energy and since April 2008 the KfW 40 energy standard has been prescribed for new buildings in Ulm . In February 2010 the alliance 100% Renewable Energies was founded, which wants to achieve a conversion of the Ulm / Neu-Ulm region to 100% renewable energies by 2030 with all key players in the Ulm / Neu-Ulm region.
Climate protection concept
The Ulm City Council decided in May 2013 to create a climate protection concept . On November 24, 2015, the climate protection concept in the version of October 16, 2015 was adopted. The city of Ulm has set itself the goal of reducing municipal per capita greenhouse gas emissions every 10 years by 20% compared to the reference year 2010 (10 tons of CO 2 per inhabitant and year) and thus savings of 80% by 2050 (target value: 2nd Tons of CO 2 per inhabitant and year).
Measurements in 2006 and 2007 clearly exceeded the permitted limit values for fine dust and NO 2 . Motorized road traffic is the biggest cause of both pollutants. As a result, a clean air plan with various measures was adopted for the first time in 2008, including a. the introduction of an environmental zone .
In the modal split of the choice of means of transport, the share of motorized individual traffic is 49.8%, pedestrian traffic 23.3%, public transport 15.5% and cycling 11.4% of total traffic in the city (as of 2008).
In 2011, the “Fahrrad in Ulm” alliance was launched with the aim of increasing the proportion of bicycles in traffic to 20% by 2020. Some points of the recommendation for action drawn up at the time had already been implemented by 2014, including the appointment of a bicycle officer, joining the AGFK-BW and the “Scherbentelefon”.
Road traffic and pedestrians
|A 7||Flensburg - Hamburg - Hanover - Kassel - Fulda - Würzburg - Ulm - Memmingen - Kempten - Füssen / Reutte (Tyrol)|
|A 8||Karlsruhe - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich - Salzburg|
|B 10||Pirmasens - Karlsruhe - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg|
|B 28||Strasbourg - Freudenstadt - Tübingen - Reutlingen - Ulm|
|B 30||Ulm - Biberach (Riss) - Ravensburg - Friedrichshafen|
|B 311||Ulm - Ehingen - Tuttlingen - Geisingen (- Donaueschingen)|
An environmental zone has existed in Ulm since January 1st, 2009 ; Since January 1, 2013, entry is only permitted with a green particulate matter sticker . The environmental zone does not extend to the entire urban area, but mainly to the core city, and is essentially to the north and west by the Berliner Ring, Kurt-Schumacher-Ring and Kuhbergring (so-called north and west bypasses ) and to the south and east limited by the Danube . At first, the federal highway 10 running through the city in a north-south direction was still excluded from the environmental zone. However, this exemption was lifted on January 1, 2013 - at the same time that entry was restricted to green particulate matter stickers and the introduction of new speed limits.
There is an extensive pedestrian zone in the city center .
The total length of the road in Ulm is 450 km. There are also 20 km of pure bike paths.
The Stuttgart – Ulm – Augsburg line is listed as an urgent requirement in the 2003 Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan ( new and upgraded Stuttgart – Augsburg line ). A new high-speed line is being built from Stuttgart to Ulm (the new Wendlingen – Ulm line ), which will reduce travel times from just under 60 minutes to under 30 minutes. The line from Ulm to Augsburg is also to be rebuilt as a high-speed line or upgraded as an upgraded line. The aim is to reduce travel time from around 40 minutes to 27 minutes. The decision to find the route is not expected before 2025. The new and upgraded Stuttgart – Ulm-Augsburg line is expected to increase long-distance and regional traffic in Ulm by up to 50% in some cases.
Already the project Neu-Ulm 21 was Neu-Ulm station completely re-created (official completion date of the measure: November 24, 2007); in addition, the railway bridge over the Danube was expanded to four tracks.
With the completion of the electrification of the 2-lane southern runway, Friedrichshafen and Friedrichshafen Airport can be reached in under 60 minutes.
The Hauptbahnhof Ulm forms with 12 tracks, including five not continuous, the main transport hub of the city. There are further railway stations in the west ( Ulm-Söflingen train station ) and east ( Ulm Ost stop ) as well as in the Donautal industrial area ( Ulm-Donautal stop ). There are also other traffic stations in Neu-Ulm.
In detail, the following railway lines meet in Ulm :
- Filstalbahn : Ulm - Geislingen - Göppingen - Plochingen - Stuttgart
- Augsburg – Ulm railway line : Ulm - Augsburg
- Württemberg Southern Railway : Ulm - Biberach an der Riss - Aulendorf - Ravensburg - Friedrichshafen
- Railway line Ulm – Sigmaringen : Ulm - Ehingen (Danube) - Sigmaringen
- Brenz Railway : Ulm - Heidenheim - Aalen (- Ellwangen - Crailsheim)
- TGV : Munich - Augsburg - Ulm - Stuttgart - Karlsruhe - Strasbourg - Paris
- ICE line 11: ( Hamburg ) - Berlin - Frankfurt am Main - Stuttgart - Ulm - Munich
- ICE line 42: Munich - Ulm - Stuttgart - Frankfurt - Cologne - Dortmund - Bremen - Hamburg
- ICE line 83: Munich - Ulm - Stuttgart - Karlsruhe - Strasbourg - Paris Est
- ICE line 90: Frankfurt - Mannheim - Ulm - Munich - Linz - Vienna - Budapest
- EC - Line 32: Berlin - Wolfsburg - Dortmund - Cologne - Koblenz - Heidelberg - Stuttgart - Ulm - (Augsburg - Munich - Klagenfurt) / (Friedrichshafen - Bregenz - Innsbruck) / (Memmingen - Kempten - Oberstdorf)
- EC line 60: Basel - Freiburg - Karlsruhe - Stuttgart - Ulm - Munich - Rosenheim - Salzburg
- EC line 62: (Saarbrücken - Kaiserslautern - Mannheim) / (Frankfurt - Heidelberg) - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich - Rosenheim - Salzburg - (Klagenfurt) / (Graz)
- IC line 55: Bochum - Cologne - Koblenz - Mannheim - Stuttgart - Ulm - Memmingen - Oberstdorf
With the Regio-S-Bahn Donau-Iller , a possible S-Bahn is to be introduced in the transport and tariff association DING ( Donau-Iller-Nahverkehrsverbund ) in the greater Ulm and Neu-Ulm area. 8 lines are planned with the Ulm main station , as a hub between the S-Bahn lines, regional traffic and long-distance traffic.
A cost-benefit analysis is to be carried out for the evaluation of the project at the end of 2019, and the results are to be announced in 2021. The states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg each pay one sixth of the costs.
22 lines of Stadtwerke Ulm / Neu-Ulm GmbH (SWU) serve the city area, including two tram and 20 bus lines as well as more than 35 lines from other transport companies. The construction of the second tram line started in summer 2015. Commissioning took place in December 2018. [obsolete] Thus, all parts of the city and the surrounding area are well connected.
At the end of 2005, the SWU introduced eight additional night lines on the weekends, which also serve all parts of the city and the surrounding area of Ulm every hour after midnight. For places and communities outside of Ulm, in which no night lines run so far, the city introduced some additional buses after midnight when the timetable was changed in December 2006. All companies travel at uniform prices within the Donau-Iller local transport network (DING).
Long-distance bus connection
Meanwhile, more and more long-distance bus companies travel to Ulm from all over Germany, with connections from Berlin, Mannheim, Nuremberg, Oberstdorf etc. The long-distance bus stop is located in Ulm-Böfingen on Eberhard-Finckh-Straße with a direct connection to the tram towards the main station.
Long-distance cycle paths
Furthermore, the Iller cycle path ends in Ulm , which leads from Oberstdorf via Memmingen to Ulm.
Long-distance hiking trails
As a hiking club, the Swabian Alb Association looks after a well-developed network of long-distance hiking trails through southern Germany that touches Ulm. The Swabian-Alb-Südrand-Weg (HW 2) and the Main-Donau-Bodensee-Weg (HW 4), which cross in the city, are important. Both paths in turn have numerous access routes from the surrounding area in the Ulm city area.
The nearest major airports are in Stuttgart (approx. 80 km) and Munich (approx. 160 km), travel time by train approx. 120 minutes. With the completion of the high-speed line to Stuttgart, Stuttgart Airport can be reached in under 30 minutes. There are still long-distance bus connections to Munich and Stuttgart airports.
The nearest regional airports are in Memmingen, approx. 50 km away ( Memmingen Airport ). This can be reached by train and bus in around 75 minutes. In Friedrichshafen (Friedrichshafen Airport ), about 100 km away , which also flies to national destinations, once the electrification of the southern runway is completed in 2021, it will be reachable by train in under 60 minutes. Since the summer of 2005, scheduled flights have not been offered from Augsburg Airport, which is about 80 km away . The closest airfield is the Erbach (Danube) sports airfield ( ICAO : EDNE), 10 km from Ulm, with a 630 m × 30 m grass runway, suitable for motorized aircraft up to 2 t MPW, motor gliders, helicopters, microlights, gliders (F-towing Winch launch possible) and balloons.
The Südwest Presse has the largest share of subscribers. Competitors are the Schwäbische Zeitung and the “ Neu-Ulmer Zeitung ”, a regional edition of the Augsburger Allgemeine with a local section for Ulm. The range in the area of e-media is broader: there is a regional studio (TV and radio) of the SWR , the private radio stations Radio 7 and Donau 3 FM , the free radio freeFM , the journalistic and news-oriented, non-commercial and for everyone accessible internet portal ulmnews , the voluntarily operated online magazine Team-Ulm as well as several other Internet portals, which also offer their users (more cultural) information from the region, but mostly targeted (leisure) offers and uses. Hitradio MS One also exists as a local radio station .
Since September 22, 2005, a TV station called Regio TV Schwaben has been based in Ulm . From Monday to Friday between 6 p.m. and midnight, it broadcasts a daily, half-hourly program that repeats itself in a loop, reporting on Ulm, the Alb-Danube district, the Neu-Ulm district and Biberach.
Ulm is the seat of a local court and a regional court , a labor court , a social court and a police headquarters . Ulm also has a tax office , a main customs office and an employment agency , to which branch offices in Biberach and Ehingen are affiliated. In addition, the Ulm and Alb-Donau job centers are located in the city of Ulm.
Ulm University Hospital
The Ulm University Hospital is one of the five university hospitals in Baden-Württemberg. On the one hand, it is a hospital of the maximum care level and is responsible for the supply area of Ostwürttemberg, Donau-Iller and Bodensee-Oberschwaben. On the other hand, it is involved in the practical training of human and dental medicine within the Medical Faculty of Ulm University. The clinic has a total of 1,264 inpatient beds (as of March 2014). Almost 6,400 employees - including around 850 doctors - are available for around 192,000 cases per quarter. The various clinics and institutes of the overall clinic are mainly distributed over three locations in the city: Oberer Eselsberg / Wissenschaftsstadt, Michelsberg and Safranberg.
Bundeswehr Hospital Ulm
Ulm is the location of one of the five German armed forces hospitals . It is located in the immediate vicinity of the University Hospital on the Obere Eselsberg and has a total of 496 inpatient beds, 323 of which are intended for the treatment of civilian patients in the hospital plan of the state of Baden-Württemberg . With the exception of the missing departments for gynecology and paediatrics, the Bundeswehr hospital, like the university hospital, is also a maximum care hospital. The BWK is also the location of the Christoph 22 rescue helicopter stationed in Ulm .
RKU - University and Rehabilitation Clinics Ulm
The RKU - University and Rehabilitation Clinics Ulm was originally founded in 1984 as the Ulm Rehabilitation Hospital . The hospital has specialized in neurology, orthopedics, medical and occupational rehabilitation and has a total of 232 beds in the clinic area and 81 beds in the rehabilitation area. Due to the joint sponsorship of Sana Kliniken AG and the Ulm University Hospital, the neurological and orthopedic clinic of the RKU are also part of the University Hospital. Like the Bundeswehr Hospital and the University Clinic, the RKU is also based on the Upper Eselsberg.
The municipal cemetery came into being after cemeteries in individual parts of the city were no longer sufficient for burials. It also has a large number of tombs of prominent Ulm citizens.
In this cemetery there are also numerous graves of soldiers of the Red Army as prisoners of war and slave labor . In addition, a memorial stone next to the cemetery hall commemorates the hundreds of citizens of Ulm who were victims of the Nazi regime of violence .
Due to its strategically important location, Ulm was often contested in its history. The stationing of military units in Ulm therefore has a long tradition: Ulm has been a garrison town since 1666; in the meantime there were up to 18 barracks in the city. Since the 1950s, Ulm has been the seat of numerous associations and high-level staff of the Bundeswehr. The still great importance of Ulm as a location for the Bundeswehr is also reflected in the fact that until a few years ago there were only three barracks in Ulm: the Wilhelmsburg barracks on the Michelsberg, the Hindenburg barracks on the Eselsberg and the Bleidorn barracks. Barracks on the Kuhberg; there is also the Rommel barracks in the neighboring municipality of Dornstadt . Ulm is also the location of one of the five remaining Bundeswehr hospitals in Germany, the Ulm Bundeswehr Hospital .
Today's Wilhelmsburg barracks was built in 1969 north of the citadel of the former federal fortress Ulm - the Wilhelmsburg - by merging several barracks and fortress buildings (including the former Flanders barracks and Fort Prittwitz) into one barracks complex. The first units stationed in the 40-hectare barracks included the pioneering material company 201 and the topography battery 201. In the meantime (until it was moved to the Bundeswehr hospital), the first Ulm rescue helicopter, the SAR 75, was also at home in the Wilhelmsburg barracks . The main users of the barracks are now the Multinational Forces Operations Command (2013 out of the stationed also in Ulm Operations Command command emerged), the Army Band Ulm and the military police . The site has a total of around 1,000 soldiers and civilian employees.
The Hindenburg barracks was built between 1934 and 1936 as part of the development of the Wehrmacht on the lower Eselsberg. After the Second World War , the facility was first used as accommodation for displaced persons and later by the US Army . After the German armed forces were re-established in 1955, various units of the Bundeswehr were stationed in the Hindenburg barracks , most recently three companies (around 360 soldiers) of the 41st hospital regiment . After the last soldiers left on October 1, 2014, the barracks was temporarily used as accommodation for up to 200 asylum seekers during the 2015 refugee crisis . In the early 2020s, the barracks site is to be completely redesigned and used as a residential and commercial area.
The Bleidorn barracks were also created in 1934 by expanding an artillery barracks in Fort Unterer Kuhberg. Similar to the Hindenburg barracks , the Bleidorn barracks was initially used as a DP camp in the post-war period before soldiers were once again housed in the buildings: from 1958 the staff of the former Pioneer Command 2 and the Ulm District Army Replacement Office until 2012 . Between October 2015 and September 2016, refugees were housed on the site and in the Hindenburg barracks . Today the Bleidorn barracks only house the Bundeswehr Service Center Ulm and the Ulm Career Advisory Office as a branch of the Bundeswehr Stuttgart career center. According to the 2011 deployment concept, the final closure of the Bleidorn barracks was originally planned for 2018, but the date has since been postponed to probably 2025.
According to the current deployment concept of the Bundeswehr, the following Bundeswehr associations and departments are stationed in Ulm (as of 2018):
- Wilhelmsburg barracks
- Lead-thorn barracks
- Property Oberer Eselsberg 40, 89081 Ulm
To commemorate the deserters of the Wehrmacht, a six-ton steel sculpture was placed in front of the Roxy in the Upper Danube Bastion in 1989 . The memorial, designed as a “stumbling block” by the sculptor Hannah Stütz-Mentzel , was soon removed by the local council. In 2005 it found its final location in the Lehrer Tal at the lower entrance of the Botanical Garden .
Despite its status as a large city, Ulm does not have a professional fire service . Instead, the Ulm fire brigade is organized as a volunteer fire brigade with full-time employees and is divided into the fire department (with 63 full-time fire fighters) and 15 departments of the volunteer fire department with around 500 volunteer fire fighters. The permanently manned main fire station of the Ulm fire brigade is located on Keplerstrasse in the city center.
The University of Ulm was founded in 1967 as a medical and natural science university. The range of subjects now includes natural sciences, medicine, engineering, mathematics, economics and computer science. Currently (summer semester 2018) 9,891 students are enrolled.
Ulm has a university (before 2006 Ulm University of Applied Sciences ), which was founded in 1960 as the "State Engineering School". The Neu-Ulm University of Applied Sciences, which is based in the sister city of Neu-Ulm, has an influence on the Ulm university landscape through close cooperation with the Ulm University of Applied Sciences (including joint courses).
In 1953 Inge Aicher-Scholl , Otl Aicher and Max Bill founded the Ulm School of Design (HfG Ulm), which was in the tradition of the Bauhaus and had international significance. It was closed in 1968 after the state government of Baden-Württemberg stopped funding.
Ulm has also been the location of the private University for Communication and Design (HfK + G *) since 2014 .
The Academy for Performing Arts (adk) is a drama school. It was founded in 1996 and has 16 classrooms and training rooms in Fort Unterer Kuhberg with a total area of 1200 m². Connected to the adk-Ulm you will find the Akademietheater Ulm ( see above ), the Chamber Opera Ulm (a music theater ensemble made up of lecturers from the adk-ulm and guests), as well as a puppet theater. the FiThea. All facilities have a regular schedule.
The academy for medical professions also belongs to the university hospital. This has specialized in the training and further education of therapeutic, nursing and technical-medical professions. It was founded over 35 years ago and is based in Wiblingen Monastery. The academy's nine vocational schools have over 700 training places.
General education schools
Ulm maintains 21 elementary schools, five elementary and technical secondary schools, eight (technical) secondary schools, seven general high schools ( Humboldt-Gymnasium (the oldest school in Ulm), Kepler-Gymnasium , Schubart-Gymnasium , St. Hildegard-Gymnasium (Catholic Free Girls' School) , Anna-Essinger-Gymnasium , Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium (one of four in the country with highly gifted students) and Hans and Sophie Scholl-Gymnasium), three technical high schools (technical high school of the Robert-Bosch school, commercial high school of the Friedrich-List school, vocational High school of the Valckenburg School) as well as 12 special education and advice centers. There are also 6 vocational schools (including an additional special vocational school), 21 vocational schools, 1 free evangelical elementary school , 1 evening high school with evening secondary school, 5 technical schools, 13 vocational colleges, 2 Waldorf schools and other private general and vocational schools. There are a total of around 70 general and vocational schools in Ulm (some with several branches). With the Elly-Heuss-Realschule , the city of Ulm has the only Realschule in the country with a pure art profile. Several of these schools belong to the Kuhberg Education Center .
Youth and adult education
There is a wide range of extracurricular educational opportunities in Ulm. The largest provider is the Ulmer Volkshochschule (vh), which trains more than 20,000 people annually in over 3000 courses, lectures and other events. The vh also offers special offers for target groups - e.g. B. in the women's academy or their cultural workshop and youth art school kontiki.
In addition to private providers and the Chamber of Industry and Commerce , denominational further education institutions such as the House of Encounter , the Evangelical District Education Center, the Family Educational Center (ev.), The Catholic Educational Organization and the Kolping Educational Organization (Catholic) offer a variety of educational offers. The Center for General Scientific Further Education (ZAWiW) places a special focus on senior education . The Ulm City Music School and the Ulm City Youth Council offer a wide range of educational opportunities for young people.
The municipal library of Ulm is one with a stock of more than 560,000 media (2009) one of the largest public libraries in Germany. As a scientific library, the Ulm University Library has more than 910,000 books, the library of the Ulm University of Applied Sciences more than 50,000.
As a reaction to the structural economic crisis at the beginning of the 1980s, which affected Ulm as well as many classic industrial locations, the concept of the science city was developed in 1987 with the substantial participation of the then Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg, Lothar Späth . One of the guiding principles of the concept is to better interlink university and industrial research and thus create new jobs. The core of the Science City (Science Park) located on the Obere Eselsberg near the university campus are the affiliated institutes , which conduct application-oriented research in close cooperation with the university, university clinic, universities and industry. The first such institute was founded in 1985: the ILM - Institute for Laser Technologies in Medicine . Research centers of large international corporations (e.g. Daimler , Nokia , Siemens ) have also settled here. After the Science City area had to be expanded in the 1990s due to high demand ( Science Park II ), the city is planning another expansion ( Science Park III ) from the end of the 2010s .
The main part of the city has the area code 0731. Exceptions are
- Ermingen with the number 07304,
- Eggingen, Einsingen, Donaustetten and Gögglingen with the number 07305 and
- Unterweiler with the number 07346.
In addition to a number of personalities to whom the city of Ulm has granted honorary citizenship , numerous personalities were born in Ulm, spent part of their lives in the city or died here. Due to the high number of these personalities, a separate article was created.
"In Ulm, around Ulm and around Ulm."
"Ulm money rules the world."
“The city of birth attaches to life as something as unique as the origins of the birth mother. We also owe part of our being to the city of birth. So I think of Ulm with gratitude, as it combines noble artistic tradition with a simple and healthy nature. "
"If I had Venice's power and Augsburg's splendor, Nuremberg jokes and Strasbourg G'schütz and Ulm money, I would be the richest in the world."
- Ingo Bergmann: "And always remember me ..." Memorial book for the Ulm victims of the Holocaust. With a foreword by Mayor Ivo Gönner. Klemm & Oelschläger, Ulm 2009, ISBN 978-3-932577-82-6 .
- Andrea Bräuning u. a .: Around Ulm. Investigations into medieval fortifications in Ulm. Research and reports on the archeology of the Middle Ages in Baden-Württemberg 23. Theiss, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8062-1396-8 .
- Marianne Dumitrache, Gabriele Kurz, Gabriele Legant, Doris Schmid: The long way to the city . New perspective of archeology for the foundation of the city of Ulm. In: State Office for the Preservation of Monuments in the Stuttgart Regional Council in connection with the specialist units for the preservation of monuments in the regional councils (ed.): Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg . 35th year, issue 1, 2006, ISSN 0342-0027 , p. 28–37 ( denkmalpflege-bw.de ( Memento from January 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 3.2 MB ; accessed on October 31, 2018] Memento in the Internet Archive ).
- Ingeborg flag : Ulm (FSB architecture guide. City guide for contemporary architecture). Verlag Das Example, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-935243-35-9 .
- Johann Herkules Haid : Ulm with its area. Wagner, Ulm 1786, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10019354-1 .
- Heinz Keil (Ed.): Documentation on the persecution of the Jewish citizens of Ulm (= part of the Anne Frank Shoah Library ). On behalf of the city of Ulm. Ulm 1961, .
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): Württembergisches Städtebuch. Volume IV, sub-volume Baden-Württemberg (= German city book. Handbook of urban history. Volume 2). On behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the Association of German Cities and the Association of German Municipalities. Stuttgart 1961.
- Martin Kluger : Ulm and Neu-Ulm. The city guide for the Danube twin cities. context Verlag Augsburg , Augsburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-939645-53-5 .
- Landesarchivdirektion Baden-Württemberg (ed.): The state of Baden-Württemberg - official description by districts and municipalities (in eight volumes); Volume VII: Tübingen administrative region. Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-17-004807-4 .
- Martin Nestler: Ulm - history of a city. Sutton Verlag GmbH, Erfurt 2003, ISBN 3-89702-544-2 .
- Henning Petershagen: Ulm and Neu-Ulm. Small city history . Pustet, Regensburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-7917-3039-4 .
- Hans Eugen Specker: Ulm. City history. Separate printing of the article for Volume II of the Official District Description, supplemented by an introductory part of the picture documenting the urban development as well as a timetable and a final register. Süddeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Ulm 1977, ISBN 3-920921-95-X . Also in: The Ulm district. Official district description. Edited by the Baden-Württemberg State Archives Department and the City of Ulm. Ulm 1977, pp. 34-324.
- Herbert Wiegandt : Ulm - history of a city. Anton H. Konrad Verlag, Weißenhorn 1977, ISBN 3-87437-134-4 .
- ditto from Böfingen , Donaustetten , Eckingen , Einsingen , Ermingen , Gögglingen , Grimmelfingen , Jungingen , Lehr , Mähringen , Söflingen , Unterweiler and Wiblingen
- Website of the city of Ulm
- Matthias Grotz: Ulm 1933–1945. (No longer available online.) In: ulm.de. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017 .
- Literature from and about Ulm in the catalog of the German National Library
- The name "Bohrmuschelkalk" is slightly misleading. In contrast to the depicted Turritellenkalk or the so-called Trochitenkalk , it does not consist essentially of the remains of the organisms that give it its name. Rather, it is limestone that has been colonized by fossil drilling mussels and perforated by their living caves.
- Fritz Drevermann : Seas of primeval times. Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin 1932 ( preview in Google book search).
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Survey of areas according to the type of actual use in 2015 (PDF; 623 kB) In: destatis.de, accessed on December 25, 2019.
- Temperature: long-term mean values 1981–2010. In: dwd.de , April 23, 2019, accessed on September 16, 2019.
- sunshine: long-term mean values 1981–2010. In: dwd.de , accessed on September 17, 2019.
- Christoph Mayer: The Ulm weather now comes from Mähringen. In: Südwest Presse . August 6, 2014.
- The healthiest city in Germany. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . August 21, 2007 (republication: sueddeutsche.de [May 17, 2010, accessed July 12, 2019]).
Maximum and minimum temperatures, amount of precipitation, duration of sunshine, humidity: Climate Germany, Ulm. at: wetterkontor.de
Average temperature: The temperatures in Baden-Württemberg. In: klimadiagramme.de .
- Johannes Baier, Günter Schweigert: Landscape portrait: In Ulm, around Ulm and around Ulm ... In: Fossils. Journal of Earth History. 31 (1), 2014, , pp. 38-43.
- LUBW protected area statistics as of December 9, 2018
- On the excavation process and the finds remaining in Ulm, cf. Kurt Wehrberger: excavations and archaeological holdings of the association for art and antiquity in Ulm and Upper Swabia. In: The history of loyal guardians ... The collections of the association for art and antiquity in Ulm and Upper Swabia (= Festschrift for the 150th anniversary of the association ). Ulm 1991, pp. 64-68.
- Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg. 2006, issue 1.
- StiASG , document A4 A4. Online at e-chartae , accessed June 19, 2020.
- Lutz Reichhardt: Place names book of the Alb-Danube district and the city district of Ulm. Stuttgart 1986, p. 308 f.
- Marianne Dumitrache, Gabriele Legant: From the royal palace to the free imperial city. The example of Ulm. In: Cities of the Middle Ages. Edited by the University of Tübingen. In addition, the pre-publication by Marianne Dumitrache, Gabriele Kurz, Gabriele Legant and Doris Schmid as a PDF file with the title The long way to the city. New perspective of archeology for the foundation of the city of Ulm (see section Literature ).
- Hans Eugen Specker: Ulm. City history. Ulm 1977, pp. 37-38.
- History of Ulm. In: ulmer-stadtportal.de, accessed on July 3, 2017.
- Both quotations: Hans Eugen Specker: Ulm. City history. Ulm 1977, p. 38.
- Hans Eugen Specker: Ulm. City history. Ulm 1977, p. 41.
- Counts of Helfenstein ( Memento from June 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Hans Eugen Specker: Ulm. City history. Ulm 1977, p. 53.
- On the other hand, Tübingen became the seat of the court of the Swabian Federation.
- See Horst Carl: Der Schwäbische Bund 1488–1534. Country peace and cooperative society in the transition from the late Middle Ages to the Reformation (= writings on Southwest German regional studies. No. 24). DRW, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2000, ISBN 3-87181-424-5 .
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- City of Ulm, Department of Urban Development, Building and Environment in Collaboration. with the Israelite Religious Community of Württemberg (Hrsg.): Documentation of the expert opinion procedure Neue Synagoge Ulm. 2010, pp. 15-17.
- Memorial Book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Ulm - Residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on July 12, 2019.
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- City portrait of the project "Reformation Cities of Europe": Reformation City Ulm. Germany. Who seriously wanted to be Christians. In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on September 4, 2017. On the importance of Ulm in the history of the Reformation, see also sections 1500 to 1800 and Christianity .
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- Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office.
- City of Ulm Religion , 2011 census
- Statistics 2019, tables 205 , accessed on August 20, 2020
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- Population in a regional comparison by religion (detailed) in%. In: results.zensus2011.de. Retrieved August 3, 2019 .
- Baden-Württemberg: Religious and ideological communities that have the status of “public corporation” at the state level. In: Personenstandsrecht.de. Retrieved August 3, 2019 .
- Muslims in the big cities in the 2011 census. (PDF) Retrieved on August 3, 2019 .
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- The tomb of Hans and Martha Ehinger von Balzheim is in the church of Sinningen .
- The confessional writings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Published in the commemorative year of the Augsburg Confession 1930 (BSLK) (= Göttingen Theological Textbooks ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1930; 9th edition, Ibid. 1982, ISBN 3-525-52101-4 , p. 765, lines 15 f .; see. P. 17, line 2 f. (German, Latin; mainly in Fraktur ); 13th edition, kart. Study ed. the 12th edition. Ibid 2010, ISBN 978-3-525-52101-4 .
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- Hans Leyendecker: IS terrorist: When Salah Abdeslam was once in Ulm . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed on March 25, 2016]).
- Results of the local elections in 2019. In: ulm.de, May 28, 2019.
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- About us. In: kasperletheaterulm.de. Retrieved June 11, 2019 .
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- Ulm town hall
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- CAT Ulm
- Ulm tent
- Ulm-Messe GmbH: fairground area and Ulm tent ( memento from October 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
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- Eichendorff badge 2005. In: Blätter des Schwäbischen Albverein . Issue 1/2006, p. 30.
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- The theater is on the street. Wolf Vostell's happenings = El teatro está en la calle (= Kerber art ). Edited by Markus Heinzelmann on the occasion of the exhibition "The theater is on the street - the happenings of Wolf Vostell", Museum Morsbroich, Leverkusen 6 June to 15 August 2010. Museo Vostell Malpartida, October 2010 to February 2011. Illustr. Wolf Vostell. Translated by Ricardo Bada. Kerber, Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-86678-431-4 (text in German and Spanish).