|Opština :||Novi Sad|
|Area :||702.7 km²|
|Residents :||231,798 (2011)|
|Agglomeration :||341,625 (2011)|
|Population density :||330 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||(+381) 21|
|Postal code :||21,000|
|License plate :||NS|
|Structure and administration (as of 2012)|
|Structure :||15 districts|
|Mayor :||Miloš Vučević ( Srpska Napredna Stranka )|
|Web presence :|
Novi Sad ( Cyrillic Нови Сад [ nɔviː Sad ] ; German until 1945 Novi Sad , Hungarian Újvidék ; Slovak Nový Sad ) is the second largest city in Serbia , capital of Vojvodina and administrative center of the okrugs Južna Bačka .
The university town consists of the districts of Novi Sad north of the Danube and Petrovaradin at the foot of the fortress of the same name south of the Danube. According to the 2011 census, the city has 231,798 inhabitants. 341,625 inhabitants live in the greater area of Opština Novi Sad . The city lies at an altitude of 72 to 80 meters above sea level. In Novi Sad the Little Batschka Canal (as part of the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal System ) flows into the Danube. The city is also known as the Serbian Athens .
The place arose in the late Middle Ages in the densely populated county of the Kingdom of Hungary through the construction of the Cistercian monastery Belefons as a so-called church place. In 1526 it was conquered by the Ottomans . Their 150-year rule led to the devastation and depopulation of the Pannonian Plain . Nomadic southern Slavs , tolerated by the Ottomans, took over existing villages or founded new settlements. However, the turbulence at the time usually did not allow for sustainable settlements. According to Ottoman records ( Defter ) from 1590, 105 Slavic families lived in what is now Novi Sad.
After the victory of the Austrians against the Ottomans (1697) under Prince Eugene at Zenta (Serbian Senta) and the subsequent peace treaty of Karlowitz (1699), the Ottoman Empire had to inter alia. cede the Batschka to Austria. After the publication of the Imperial Impopulation Patent (".. for better support, re-elevation and population of the same"), the Viennese court chamber planned an immediate resettlement of the Batschka , but this was soon postponed due to the priority of the military border ( Pantschowa , Timisoara, etc.).
As early as 1694, the Austrian military administration had built a bridgehead on the opposite bank of the Danube from the Peterwardein Fortress, around which a settlement with soldiers, craftsmen and traders, initially called Racka Varoš , grew . In German, the settlement was called Ratzenstadt , which meant Serbenstadt , because Raizen , Ratzen or Rac was an earlier German and Hungarian name for the Serbs , the inhabitants of Raszien . The settlement was later called Peterwardeiner Schanze . A settlement with around 1000 Slavic inhabitants developed around this bridgehead, which is today's old town. In the early years it was mostly Serbs, as only Catholics were allowed to settle in the opposite fortress Peterwardein (Serbian Petrovaradin).
In 1716 the Ottomans faced Novi Sad again, but were defeated by Prince Eugene in the Battle of Peterwardein .
Royal Free City of Neoplanta
On January 1, 1748, Empress Maria Theresa granted the city the rights of a “royal free city” (libera regia civitas) and named it (Latin) “Neoplanta”. ("Nominentur Neoplanta", we call it Neoplanta from now on), Hungarian: Új-Vidégh, German: Ney sentence. Later, the village was Serbian Novi Sad and Bulgarian Mlada Loza called
According to rumors, the craftsmen and traders are said to have bought the status of the Free Imperial City for 80,000 forints from the Empress, because they no longer wanted to be residents of a military settlement, but citizens of a free trading city.
Novi Sad quickly developed into an economic and, above all, cultural center for the Serbs. In 1765 the first Serbian Orthodox seminary was established. In the Fruška Gora National Park opposite there are 17 Serbian Orthodox monasteries. In 1810 the first Serbian grammar school was opened in Novi Sad. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić wrote in 1817 that Novi Sad was the largest Serbian city in the world. In 1820 Novi Sad had 20,000 inhabitants, two thirds of whom were Serbs.
Novi Sad was a location of the Austro-Hungarian Army , the III. Battalion of the Infantry Regiment No. 20, the IV. Battalion of the Infantry Regiment No. 6 and parts of the Imperial and Royal Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 32 are stationed. At the beginning of the 20th century, Germans made up the third largest population group in the city after Hungarians and Serbs.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Second World War
In the period from 1941 to 1945 the city was by the Axis powers belonging Kingdom of Hungary occupied. In Novi Sad, the Hungarian commander, General Ferenc Feketehalmy-Czeydner, shot 1,246 civilians from January 21 to 23, 1942 , including 809 Jews, 375 Serbs, 8 Germans and 18 Hungarians. Several hundred civilians were thrown under the ice of the frozen Danube and drowned. After the partisans moved in at the end of 1944, almost the entire part of the remaining German-speaking population group, which had not yet fled, was expelled or murdered.
Novi Sad was the target of air strikes by NATO during the Kosovo war in 1999 , which destroyed all bridges over the Danube, the regional water supply (which supplied 600,000 people), the radio building and the refinery. The city hospital, several elementary schools, a day-care center and several day nurseries were also damaged by the bombs.
For more than six years, traffic across the Danube was handled by a pontoon bridge that was only opened to ships three times a week. Since the reopening of the so-called Freedom Bridge on October 11, 2005, navigation has been unhindered again.
According to the 2011 census, the population of the city belonged to the following ethnic groups:
culture and education
- Novi Sad is home to the oldest Serbian art and science institution, Matica srpska , which was founded in Budapest in 1826 and transferred to Novi Sad in 1864.
- The University of Novi Sad (with branches in Subotica , Zrenjanin and Sombor ) was established in 1960. In 2016 it comprised 13 faculties in which around 38,000 students are enrolled. Many respected scientists have studied or taught in Novi Sad.
- In the Serbian National Theater in Novi Sad, founded in 1861, an international theater festival " Sterijino pozorje " takes place every year.
- Novosadsko pozorište / Újvidéki színház, a Hungarian-language theater founded in 1974 with the idea of maintaining the cultural identity of Hungarians, also resides in Novi Sad.
- “ Zmajeve dečje igre ”, a festival of literature for children, takes place annually in Novi Sad.
- At Radiotelevizija Novi Sad (Radio-Television Novi Sad) the program is made in Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Romanian.
- There are many artist studios at the Petrovaradin Fortress. There is also “Atelje 61”, a studio for making tapestries.
- Since the year 2000, the largest music festival in Serbia has been taking place at the Petrovaradin Fortress, the EXIT .
- The former synagogue is used as a concert hall. To the southeast of the city center is the SPENS sports and business center , where sports events and congresses as well as concerts take place.
- Contemporary art has a significant formation in Novi Sad with Art Klinka . This art collective around the painter Nikola Dzafo set critical accents in the Milošević era as the Led Art group . In 2002, the art clinic was the last Led Art project. Nikola Dzafo won the Politika Art Prize in 2013 .
- The center for war traumatized people is also located in Novi Sad . It tries to help war traumatized people come to terms with their experiences.
The largest sports club in Novi Sad is the Vojvodina Novi Sad football club . He plays in the SuperLiga , the top division in Serbian football . Vojvodina celebrated its greatest successes in Yugoslav football. It became Yugoslav champions in 1966 and 1989.
sons and daughters of the town
- Đuro Daničić (1825–1882), philologist
- Milan Savić (1845–1930), writer
- Erik Molnár (1894–1966), Hungarian lawyer, historian and politician
- Iván Petrovich (1894–1962), film actor and singer
- Stjepan Han (1922-1997), professor
- Boža Melkus (* 1922), Lord Mayor from 1957 to 1962
- Jovan Soldatović (1922–1997), sculptor, professor at the Novi Sad Art Academy
- Aleksandar Tišma (1924-2003), writer
- Rudolf Marić (1927–1990), chess player
- Miodrag Pavlović (1928–2014), poet, writer, dramaturge and editor
- Josef Lapid (1931–2008), Israeli politician and Minister of Justice
- Erich Kaufmann (1932–2003), German architect and urban planner
- Dragoljub Ćirić (1935–2014), chess grandmaster
- Zoltán Berczik (1937–2011), table tennis player
- Branko Andrić (1942–2005), writer and artist
- Svetislav Pešić (* 1949), basketball player and coach
- Vladimir Biti (* 1952), Slavist and university professor
- Andrej Tišma (* 1952), action artist
- Đorđe Balašević (1953–2021), songwriter and author
- Milorad Krstić (* 1953), painter
- Laslo Siladji (* 1953), sculptor
- Branko Damljanović (* 1961), chess player
- Boris Ninkov (* 1966), actor and musician
- Časlav Brukner (* 1967), physicist
- Nemanja Mirosavljev (* 1970), marksman
- Šandor Tot (* 1972), pool player
- Dragan Tarlać (* 1973), basketball player
- Monica Seles (* 1973), tennis player
- Lena Bogdanović (* 1974), actress
- Dara Bubamara (* 1976), singer
- Andrija Gerić (* 1977), volleyball player
- András Ispán (* 1977), musician with Divlje Jagode , among others
- Veljko Petković (* 1977), volleyball player
- Vlada Avramov (born 1979), football player
- Aleksandar Radenković (* 1979), actor
- Nataša Bekvalac (* 1980), singer
- Tijana Bogićević (* 1981), singer
- Branko Andrić (* 1983), artist
- Milan Stepanov (born 1983), football player
- Iva Obradović (* 1984), rower
- Milan Lukač (* 1985), football goalkeeper
- Darko Miličić (* 1985), basketball player
- Nemanja Džodžo (* 1986), football goalkeeper
- Nikola Petković (* 1986), football player
- Mirna Jukić (* 1986), Croatian-Austrian swimmer
- Gojko Kačar (* 1987), football player
- Mihail Dudaš (* 1989), athlete
- Marko Dzomba (* 1990), saxophonist
- Luka Mitrović (* 1993), basketball player
- Milica Gardašević (* 1998), athlete
Personalities who have worked on site
- Pavel Jozef Šafárik (1795–1861), Slavist and poet, teacher and later director of the Serbian high school in Novi Sad
- Josif Runjanin (1821–1878), military musician, composer of the Croatian national anthem, died in Novi Sad
- Lipót Baumhorn (1860–1932), architect of the Novi Sad synagogue
- Mileva Marić (1875–1948), physicist, Albert Einstein's first wife, attended the secondary school for girls here
- Milan Begović (1876–1948), writer and dramaturge, was a director at the Serbian National Theater
- Milka Ivić (1923–2011), linguist
- Pavle Ivic (1923-1999), linguist
- Bogumil Karlavaris (1924–2012), painter and art teacher, joint projects with Max Bense
- Vera Zamurovic (* 1928), radio journalist, made children's programs on Radio Novi Sad for around 30 years
- Mira Banjac (born 1929), actress
- Dusko Popov (1930–2012), publicist, journalist, award winner, secretary of "Matica Srpska"
- Miroslav Antić (1932–1986), writer
- Stephan Horota (* 1932), sculptor, attended primary school in Novi Sad
- Danilo Kiš (1935–1989), writer, worked in Novi Sad for several years
- Matthias Bronisch (* 1937), poet, worked for three years in Novi Sad as a lecturer
- László Végel (* 1941), writer
- Dusko Bogdanović (* 1947), publicist
- Refik Memišević (1956-2004), wrestler, began his career in Novi Sad
- Djuradj Vasić (* 1956), long-time football player at FK Vojvodina
- Lepa Brena (* 1960), singer, lived and worked in the city for several years
- Ružica Đinđić (* 1960), politician, studied and worked in the city
- Nedeljko Bajić (* 1968), singer, lived in the city for several years
- Jovo Stanojević (* 1977), basketball player, began his career in Novi Sad
Novi Sad lists the following nine twin cities :
|Banja Luka||Bosnia and Herzegovina||2006|
|Changchun||Jilin, People's Republic of China||1981|
|Dortmund||North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany||1982|
|Nizhny Novgorod||Volga, Russia||2006|
|Norwich||East of England, UK||1989|
- Boško Petrović, Živan Milisavac: Novi Sad - monografija. Novi Sad 1987.
- Milorad Grujić: Vodič kroz Novi Sad i okolinu. Novi Sad 2004.
- Jovan Mirosavljević: Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745–2001. Novi Sad 2002.
- Jovan Mirosavljević: Novi Sad - atlas ulica. Novi Sad 1998.
- Mirjana Džepina: Društveni i zabavni život starih Novosađana. Novi Sad 1982.
- Zoran Rapajić: Novi Sad bez tajni. Beograd 2002.
- Đorđe Randelj: Novi Sad - slobodan grad. Novi Sad 1997.
- Enciklopedija Novog Sada. Volumes 1-26. Novi Sad 1993-2005.
- Branko Ćurčin: Slana Bara - nekad i sad. Novi Sad 2002.
- Branko Ćurčin: Novosadsko naselje Šangaj - nekad i sad. Novi Sad 2004.
- Sveske za istoriju Novog Sada. Volume 4-5. Novi Sad 1993-1994.
- Novi Sad (Serbian / English)
- pod2.stat.gov.rs (PDF; 54 MB).
- Diana Mishkova: We, the People. Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe . Central European University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-963-9776-28-9 , pp. 277-278 ( books.google.com - reading excerpt, p. 278).
- Serbian Athens. Official Website of Novi Sad, September 21, 2011, accessed December 5, 2013 .
- Beatrice Töttossy: "Nominentur Neoplanta" In: Fonti di Weltliteratur - Ungheria, Firence University Press, page 166, ISBN 978-88-6655-312-0 (  )
- Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon. Volume 14. Leipzig 1908, p. 573 ( zeno.org ).
- Nicholas Wood, Ivana Šekularac: Hungarian Is Faced With Evidence of Role in '42 Atrocity In: The New York Times . October 1, 2006 ( nytimes.com ).
- Yearbook of the United Nations 1999 . tape 53 . United Nations Publications, 2001, pp. 347 .
- United States of America Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th congress - first session . tape 145 , part 7. United States Government Printing Office, Washington 1999, p. 9181 .
- Serbian Contemporary Art Info ( Memento of the original from February 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Queryed on April 12, 2013.
- October Salon ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Queryed on April 12, 2013 (English).
- BalkanInsight , queried on April 12, 2013.
- Deutsche Welle: Novi Sad to be European Capital of Culture ; queried on October 15, 2016
- Left ǀ Novi Sad. Retrieved December 21, 2018 .