Novi Sad

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Нови Сад
Novi Sad
Újvidék
Nový Sad
Нови Сад
Novi Sad coat of arms
Novi Sad (Serbia)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Serbia
Province : Vojvodina
Okrug : Južna Bačka
Opština : Novi Sad
Coordinates : 45 ° 15 '  N , 19 ° 51'  E Coordinates: 45 ° 15 '18 "  N , 19 ° 50' 41"  E
Height : 72  m. i. J.
Area : 702.7  km²
Residents : 231,798 (2011)
Agglomeration : 341,625 (2011)
Population density : 330 inhabitants per km²
Telephone code : (+381) 21
Postal code : 21,000
License plate : NS
Structure and administration (as of 2012)
Community type: city
Structure : 15 districts
Mayor : Miloš Vučević ( Srpska Napredna Stranka )
Website :
Map of Ratzenstadt from 1745
town hall
Petrovaradin Fortress
Liberty Bridge over the Danube
Marienkirche in the city center

Novi Sad ( Cyrillic  Нови Сад [ nɔviː Sad ] listen ? / I ; German Novi Sad , Hungarian Újvidék ; Slovak Nový Sad ) is the second largest city in Serbia , capital of Vojvodina and administrative center of the okrugs Južna Bačka . Audio file / audio sample  

The university town consists of the districts of Novi Sad north of the Danube and Petrovaradin at the foot of the fortress of the same name south of the Danube. According to the 2011 census, the city has 231,798 inhabitants. 341,625 inhabitants live in the greater area of Opština Novi Sad . The city lies at an altitude of 72 to 80 meters above sea level. In Novi Sad, the Little Batschka Canal (as part of the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal System ) flows into the Danube. The city is also known as the Serbian Athens .

history

middle Ages

The place arose in the late Middle Ages in the densely populated county of the Kingdom of Hungary through the building of the Cistercian monastery Belefons as a so-called church place. In 1526 it was conquered by the Ottomans . Their 150-year rule led to the devastation and depopulation of the Pannonian Plain . Nomadic southern Slavs , tolerated by the Ottomans, took over existing villages or founded new settlements. However, the turbulence at that time generally did not allow sustainable settlements. According to Ottoman records ( Defter ) from 1590, 105 Slavic families lived in what is now Novi Sad.

Habsburg monarchy

After the victory of the Austrians against the Ottomans (1697) under Prince Eugene at Zenta (Serbian Senta) and the subsequent peace treaty of Karlowitz (1699), the Ottoman Empire a. a. cede the Batschka to Austria. After the publication of the Imperial Impopulation Patent (".. for better support, re-elevation and population of the same"), the Vienna Court Chamber planned an immediate resettlement of the Batschka , but this was soon postponed due to the priority of the military border ( Panschowa , Timisoara, etc.).

As early as 1694, the Austrian military administration had built a bridgehead on the opposite bank of the Danube from the Peterwardein Fortress, around which a settlement with soldiers, craftsmen and traders, which was initially called Racka Varoš , grew . In German the settlement was called Ratzenstadt , which meant Serbenstadt , because Raizen , Ratzen or Rac was an earlier German and Hungarian name for the Serbs , the inhabitants of Raszien . Later the settlement was called Peterwardeiner Schanze . A settlement with around 1000 Slavic inhabitants developed around this bridgehead, which is today's old town. In the early years it was mostly Serbs, as only Catholics were allowed to settle in the opposite fortress Peterwardein (Serbian Petrovaradin).

In 1716 the Ottomans faced Neusatz again, but were defeated by Prince Eugene in the Battle of Peterwardein .

Royal Free City of Neoplanta

On January 1, 1748, Empress Maria Theresa granted the city the rights of a “royal free city” (libera regia civitas) and named it (Latin) “Neoplanta”. ("Nominentur Neoplanta", we call it Neoplanta from now on), Hungarian: Új-Vidégh, German: Ney sentence. Later, the village was Serbian Novi Sad and Bulgarian Mlada Loza called

According to rumors, the craftsmen and traders are said to have bought the status of the Free Imperial City for 80,000 forints from the Empress, because they no longer wanted to be residents of a military settlement, but citizens of a free trading city.

Novi Sad quickly developed into an economic and, above all, cultural center for the Serbs. In 1765 the first Serbian Orthodox seminary was established. In the Fruška Gora National Park opposite there are 17 Serbian Orthodox monasteries. In 1810 the first Serbian high school was opened in Novi Sad. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić wrote in 1817 that Novi Sad was the largest Serbian city in the world. In 1820 Novi Sad had 20,000 inhabitants, two thirds of whom were Serbs.

Novi Sad was a location of the Austro-Hungarian Army , the III. Battalion of Infantry Regiment No. 20, the IV. Battalion of Infantry Regiment No. 6 and parts of the kk Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 32 are stationed. At the beginning of the 20th century, Germans made up the third largest population group in the city after Hungarians and Serbs.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

After the end of the First World War , the area around Novi Sad fell to the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , which from 1929 was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia .

Second World War

In the period from 1941 to 1945 the city was by the Axis powers belonging Kingdom of Hungary occupied. In Novi Sad, the Hungarian commander, General Ferenc Feketehalmy-Czeydner, shot 1,246 civilians from January 21 to 23, 1942 , including 809 Jews, 375 Serbs, 8 Germans and 18 Hungarians. Several hundred civilians were thrown under the ice of the frozen Danube and drowned. After the partisans moved in at the end of 1944, almost all of the remaining German-speaking population group, which had not yet fled, was expelled or murdered.

NATO bombings

The single-track temporary bridge has replaced the Žeželj Bridge on the Belgrade-Budapest route in Novi Sad, which was destroyed by bombing in 1999, since 2000 .

Novi Sad was a target of air strikes by NATO during the Kosovo war in 1999 , which destroyed all bridges over the Danube, the regional water supply (which supplied 600,000 people), the radio building and the refinery. The city hospital, several elementary schools, a daycare center and several day nurseries were also damaged by the bombs.

For more than six years, traffic across the Danube was handled by a pontoon bridge that was only opened to ships three times a week. Since the reopening of the so-called Freedom Bridge on October 11, 2005, navigation has again been possible without hindrance.

population

According to the 2011 census, the population of the city belonged to the following ethnic groups:

Ethnicity Urban area proportion of
Serbs 269.117 78.79%
Hungary 13,272 3.88%
Slovaks 6,596 1.93%
Croatians 5,335 1.56%
Roma 3,636 1.06%
Other 43,669 12.78%
Total population 341.625 100%

culture and education

  • Novi Sad is home to the oldest Serbian art and science institution, Matica srpska , which was founded in Budapest in 1826 and transferred to Novi Sad in 1864.
  • The University of Novi Sad (with branches in Subotica , Zrenjanin and Sombor ) was founded in 1960. In 2016 it comprised 13 faculties in which around 38,000 students are enrolled. Many respected scientists have studied or taught in Novi Sad.
  • In the Serbian National Theater in Novi Sad, founded in 1861, an international theater festival " Sterijino pozorje " takes place every year.
  • Novosadsko pozorište / Újvidéki színház, a Hungarian-language theater founded in 1974 with the idea of ​​maintaining the cultural identity of Hungarians, also resides in Novi Sad.
  • Zmajeve dečje igre ”, a festival of literature for children, takes place annually in Novi Sad.
  • At Radiotelevizija Novi Sad (Radio-Television Novi Sad) the program is made in Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Romanian.
  • There are many artist studios at the Petrovaradin Fortress. There is also “Atelje 61”, a studio for making tapestries.
  • The EXIT, the largest music festival in Serbia, has been taking place at the Petrovaradin Fortress every year since 2000.
  • The former synagogue is used as a concert hall. To the southeast of the city center is the SPENS sports and business center , where sports events and congresses as well as concerts take place.
Matica srpska library portal
The Art-Klinika , on the left the Schock-Galerie
  • Contemporary art has a significant formation in Novi Sad with Art Klinka . This art collective around the painter Nikola Dzafo set critical accents in the Milošević era as the Led Art group . In 2002, the art clinic was the last Led Art project. Nikola Dzafo won the 2013 Politika Art Prize .
  • The center for war traumatized people is also located in Novi Sad . It tries to help war traumatized people to come to terms with their experiences.

Novi Sad to become European Capital of Culture in 2021 ; this is the first time the title goes to the city of a country that is not a member of the European Union, but merely a candidate country.

Sports

The largest sports club in Novi Sad is the Vojvodina Novi Sad football club . He plays in the SuperLiga , the top division in Serbian football . Vojvodina celebrated its greatest successes in Yugoslav football. He became Yugoslav champion in 1966 and 1989.

Personalities

sons and daughters of the town

Personalities who have worked on site

  • Pavel Jozef Šafárik (1795–1861), Slavist and poet, teacher and later director of the Serbian high school in Novi Sad
  • Josif Runjanin (1821–1878), military musician, composer of the Croatian national anthem, died in Novi Sad
  • Lipót Baumhorn (1860–1932), architect of the Novi Sad synagogue
  • Mileva Marić (1875–1948), physicist, Albert Einstein's first wife, attended the secondary school for girls here
  • Milan Begović (1876–1948), writer and dramaturge, was a director at the Serbian National Theater
  • Stephan Horota (* 1932), sculptor, attended primary school in Novi Sad
  • Matthias Bronisch (* 1937), poet, worked as a lecturer in Novi Sad for three years
  • Danilo Kiš (1935–1989), writer, worked in Novi Sad for several years
  • Lepa Brena (* 1960), singer, lived and worked in the city for several years
  • Djuradj Vasić (* 1956), long-time football player at FK Vojvodina
  • Nedeljko Bajić (* 1968), singer, lived in the city for several years
  • Refik Memišević (1956-2004), wrestler, began his career in Novi Sad
  • Ružica Đinđić (* 1960), politician, studied and worked in the city
  • Jovo Stanojević (* 1977), basketball player, began his career in Novi Sad
  • Vera Zamurovic (* 1928), radio journalist, made children's programs on Radio Novi Sad for around 30 years
  • Milka Ivić (1923–2011), linguist
  • Pavle Ivic (1923-1999), linguist
  • Dusko Popov (1930–2012), publicist, journalist, award winner, secretary of "Matica Srpska"
  • Miroslav Antić (1932–1986), writer
  • Bogumil Karlavaris (1924–2012), painter and art teacher, joint projects with Max Bense
  • Djordje Balasević (* 1953), songwriter
  • Mira Banjac (born 1929), actress
  • László Végel (* 1941), writer
  • Dusko Bogdanović, (* 1947), publicist

Twin cities

Novi Sad lists the following nine twin cities :

city country since
Banja Luka Coat of Arms of Banja Luka.jpg Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006
Budva Budva-grb.gif MontenegroMontenegro Montenegro 1996
Changchun China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China Jilin, People's Republic of China 1981
Modena Modena-Stemma.png ItalyItaly Emilia-Romagna, Italy 1974
Dortmund Coat of arms of Dortmund, svg GermanyGermany North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany 1982
Ilioupoli Ilioupoli Logo.png GreeceGreece Attica, Greece 1994
Nizhny Novgorod Coat of Arms of Nizhny Novgorod.svg RussiaRussia Volga, Russia 2006
Norwich Arms of Norwich.svg United KingdomUnited Kingdom East of England, UK 1989
Pécs COA Hungary Town Pécs.svg HungaryHungary Dél-Dunántúl, Hungary 2009
Timișoara ROU TM Timisoara CoA1.png RomaniaRomania Banat, Romania 2005

See also

literature

  • Boško Petrović, Živan Milisavac: Novi Sad - monografija. Novi Sad 1987.
  • Milorad Grujić: Vodič kroz Novi Sad i okolinu. Novi Sad 2004.
  • Jovan Mirosavljević: Brevijar ulica Novog Sada 1745–2001. Novi Sad 2002.
  • Jovan Mirosavljević: Novi Sad - atlas ulica. Novi Sad 1998.
  • Mirjana Džepina: Društveni i zabavni život starih Novosađana. Novi Sad 1982.
  • Zoran Rapajić: Novi Sad bez tajni. Beograd 2002.
  • Đorđe Randelj: Novi Sad - slobodan grad. Novi Sad 1997.
  • Enciklopedija Novog Sada. Volumes 1-26. Novi Sad 1993-2005.
  • Branko Ćurčin: Slana Bara - nekad i sad. Novi Sad 2002.
  • Branko Ćurčin: Novosadsko naselje Šangaj - nekad i sad. Novi Sad 2004.
  • Sveske za istoriju Novog Sada. Volume 4-5. Novi Sad 1993-1994.

Web links

Commons : Novi Sad  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c pod2.stat.gov.rs (PDF).
  2. Diana Mishkova: We, the People. Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe . Central European University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-963-9776-28-9 , pp. 277-278 ( books.google.com - reading excerpt, p. 278).
  3. ^ Serbian Athens. Official Website of Novi Sad, September 21, 2011, accessed December 5, 2013 .
  4. Beatrice Töttossy: "Nominentur Neoplanta" In: Fonti di Weltliteratur - Ungheria, Firence University Press, page 166, ISBN 978-88-6655-312-0 ( [1] )
  5. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon. Volume 14. Leipzig 1908, p. 573 ( zeno.org ).
  6. ^ Nicholas Wood, Ivana Šekularac: Hungarian Is Faced With Evidence of Role in '42 Atrocity In: The New York Times . October 1, 2006 ( nytimes.com ).
  7. Yearbook of the United Nations 1999 . tape 53 . United Nations Publications, 2001, pp. 347 .
  8. ^ United States of America Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 106th congress - first session . tape 145 , part 7. United States Government Printing Office, Washington 1999, p. 9181 .
  9. media.popis2011.stat.rs
  10. Serbian Contemporary Art Info ( Memento of the original from February 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Queryed on April 12, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.serbiancontemporaryart.info
  11. October Salon ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Queryed on April 12, 2013 (English). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.oktobarskisalon.org
  12. BalkanInsight , queried on April 12, 2013.
  13. ^ Deutsche Welle: Novi Sad to be European Capital of Culture ; queried on October 15, 2016
  14. Left ǀ Novi Sad. Retrieved December 21, 2018 .