from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 45 ° 30 ′ 0 ″  N , 21 ° 22 ′ 30 ″  E

Relief Map: Europe

The Banat ( German : [ baˈnaːt ], Serbo-Croatian : [ ˌbanaːt ], Romanian : [ baˈnat ], Serbian - Cyrillic Банат , Hungarian Bánság ) is a historical region in Southeastern Europe , which today lies in the states of Romania , Serbia and Hungary . The term Banat is derived from the domain of a Ban (Serbian / Croatian / Hungarian for count / margrave).


Modern map of the historical Banat region

The Banat lies on the south-eastern edge of the Hungarian lowlands and is bordered by the rivers Tisza in the west, the Danube in the south and (for the most part) the Marosch in the north, and by the southern Carpathians in the east. In the northeast - on the other side or to the right of the Marosch - the Arad area joins, which in part can also be assigned to the Banat, at least in terms of cultural geography.

In the east of the region lies the Banat Mountains , which are rich in hard coal and iron ore . In the west, on the other hand, there are fertile plains.

As a result of the Trianon Treaty , the Banat was divided between Romania (two thirds), Serbia (almost one third) and Hungary (a small corner in the northwest). Some new administrative districts were or still carry the name of the region today. In terms of area, the historic Banat was about the size of Belgium with 28,523 km².

The Romanian Banat consists in the west of a part of the Pannonian lowlands ("the heath"), in the northeast of the hill country ("the hedge") and in the southeast of the Carpathians ( Banater Mountains , and the Poiana-Ruscă and Retezat Mountains ). The Serbian part (with the exception of the Vršačke Planine low mountain range ) consists almost entirely of flat land. The economic and cultural center is the city of Timișoara (German Timişoara , Hungarian Temesvár ).

Administrative division of the Banat

In Romania

In Serbia

In Hungary

Cities and larger municipalities in the Banat


Timișoara (German Temeswar ), Reșița (German Reschitz ), Lugoj (German Lugosch ), Jimbolia (German Hatzfeld ), Sânnicolau Mare (German Groß-Sankt-Nikolaus ), Periam (German Perjamosch ), Anina (German Steierdorf ), Oravița (German Orawitza ), Orșova (German Orschowa ), Caransebeș (German Karansebesch ), Lipova (German / Hungarian Lippa ), Buziaș (German Busiasch ), Făget (German Fatschet ) Deta (German / Hungarian Detta ), Gătaia (German Gataja ), Recaș ( German Rekasch ), Ciacova (German Tschakowa ), Bocșa , Moldova Nouă (German Neumoldowa ), Oțelu Roșu (German Ferdinandsberg ), Băile Herculane (German Herkulesbad ), Biled (German Billed ), Giarmata (German fair ), Sântana (German Sanktanna ) .


Zrenjanin (German Groß-Betschkerek ), Pančevo (German Pantschowa ), Kikinda (German Großkikinda ), Vršac (German Werschetz ), Bela Crkva (German Weißkirchen ).

Other cities

Some cities that are not historically part of the Banat expanded into this region in the course of the 20th century, so that today some districts are in the historical Banat: Arad (Aradu Nou , German Neuarad ), Belgrade (Palilula) and Szeged (German Szeged ) (Újszeged) .


origin of the name

The origin of the word is disputed. According to the historian Rudolf Spek, Banat (ung. Bánság ) in medieval Hungary is understood to be certain border marks in the south of the country, which were under the administration of a banus who had to fulfill similar tasks as the German margraves . The name Banus is of Croatian origin and dates back to the 12th century. The other Banats such as the Bosnian, Matschoer or Severiner Banat went under with the occupation of Hungary by the Turks. After the Yugoslav Romanist Petar Skok, Banat is derived from the Avar prince title Ban . Other historians derive the word from the Turkish bajan ( empire, rule ). According to Anton Scherer, the proto- Bulgarians called their governors Ban , according to other sources, the Bulgarian aristocracy called themselves Boil , from which the Slavic Boljar later developed.

What is understood today under the name (Temescher) Banat was never a Banat in the true sense of the word and was only briefly referred to as Banat after the Peace of Passarowitz in 1718 as Banatus Temesvariensis , while the Peace of Karlowitz in 1699 this area was still called Provincia Circumscribes Temesvariensis .


The Banat in the 2nd century
The Crown Land of the Voivodeship of Serbia and the Temescher Banat (south of the Banat military border ), 19th century

In ancient times the Banat was part of the Kingdom of Dacia , and since the beginning of the 2nd century part of the Roman province of Dacia . Numerous Roman fortresses and cities were built in the south and east. The local Dacians were probably Romanized (see also: Dako-Romanesque continuity theory ). After the Romans withdrew from the Carpathian Arch in the year 271, the Banat became one of the transit areas of the steppe nomads , who established various successive empires in the Pannonian lowlands, such as the Huns in the first half of the 5th century. At times there were empires and settlement areas of the Ostrogoths and other Germanic tribes here.

From 553 the Avars ruled over parts of the Banat for two centuries. During this time, Slavs also settled in the area. In 790 Charlemagne drove out the Avars, after which the Pechenegs moved to the Banat. Also Cumans , Bulgarians and Vlachs were based here. Whether the region was part of the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century is a matter of dispute.

After defeating the Wallachian ruler Achtum around the turn of the century, the region of the first Hungarian king was Stephen I in the Kingdom of Hungary added. In 1241 the Mongols invaded from the north and devastated the Banat. After their expulsion, the Hungarian King Bela IV called German settlers to the depopulated country.

The establishment of the Banats in the 13th century was a central means of the Kingdom of Hungary as a buffer for its southern flank in the areas once located between Byzantium and the lands of the St. Stephen's Crown. The Bane were directly subordinate to the Hungarian king. Banat existed in the Bosnian Usora , Tuzla , Macva up to the Banat von Severin in western Wallachia.

In 1338 dense swarms of locusts migrated across the country and destroyed the vegetation in the region, so that a famine broke out the following year. This was followed by an earthquake , and in 1340 the plague broke out, claiming numerous victims.

As the Ottoman Empire increasingly threatened Christian Europe, King Władysław III appointed. (Poland and Hungary) 1441 Johann Hunyadi to Temescher Comes and captain of Belgrade , who in 1443 repulsed the Ottomans as far as Sofia . In the same year, the Banat was hit again by a devastating earthquake.

After defeating Hungary in the first battle of Mohács (1526) , the Ottomans conquered what was then Temesvár in 1552. The Banat was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in the same year as the Eyâlet of Temesvár . Since the 16th century, the Banat was mainly populated by Raizen (Serbs) and Wallachians , who rose up against Ottoman rule in 1594. With the capture of the Temesvár fortress by Eugene of Savoy in 1716, the Turkish sovereignty over the Banat ended. The Banat became Austrian in 1718 ( Friede von Passarowitz ), almost twenty years later than Hungary, and was named Temescher Banat .

Between 1686 and 1848 the Banat with large parts of the Pannonian Plain and adjacent areas was the destination of settlement trains, including several Swabian trains that were organized and carried out by the Habsburg monarchy . As governor of Temesvár , Claudius Florimund Mercy led the settlement and cultivation of the southern Hungarian areas including the Temescher Banat as well as the construction of the Bega Canal from 1720 .

The plague, brought into the Timisoara fortress from the east by an infantry battalion during the Turkish War of 1736–39, spread quickly throughout the Banat in 1738/39, leaving thousands of dead.

From 1849 to 1860 a large part of the Banat was part of its own crown land , the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temescher Banat , which had been split off from the Kingdom of Hungary . In 1867 it was reintegrated into the Kingdom of Hungary as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise . The counties of Torontal (today mainly in Serbia) with headquarters in Großbetschkerek , Temes (corresponds approximately to today's Romanian Timiş district ) with headquarters in Timişoara and Krassó-Szörény (corresponds to today's Caraş-Severin district ) with headquarters in Lugosch were formed.

First World War

The Banat Republic, 1918
Tripartite division of the Banat, 1919–1923
Stamp of the German civil administration in the Serbian Banat 1941

During the emerging collapse of the Danube Monarchy in World War I , Magyars, Croats, Romanians and Serbs laid claim to the Banat. The Germans limited themselves to concessions for full equality with the other nations, but would later tip the scales. Magyars and Croats invoked historical rights based on the old borders of the Stephen and Tomislav empires. Romanians as well as Serbs invoked their people who already lived there or simply the right of the victors. Romania had previously been awarded the entire undivided Banat as a price for entering the war in the alliance treaty with the Entente of August 17, 1916.

Interwar period

The Banat Republic existed between November 1 and November 15, 1918 . The Banat Republic ( Romanian Republica bănățeană , Serbian Banatska republika, Банатска република , Hungarian Bánáti köztársaság ) was proclaimed on November 1, 1918 in Timisoara. It was seen as an attempt to save the multi-ethnic Banat from being divided between Hungary , Serbia and Romania after the collapse of Austria-Hungary .

In order to anticipate the decision of the peace conference and to assert their territorial claims, Serbian troops occupied Timisoara and large parts of the Banat on November 19, 1918. Romania's strongest protest and threat of war were reported to the Supreme Council in Paris, with the result that the Serbian troops had to leave the Banat and were temporarily replaced by French soldiers. On August 3, 1919, just a few days after the withdrawal of the Serbian and French troops from the Banat, the Romanian troops, led by Colonel Virgil Economu, marched into Timisoara.

The destruction of Hungary and the resulting division of the Banat were decided in the Treaty of Trianon of June 4, 1920. The Romanian representative Ion IC Brătianu insisted on the fulfillment of the alliance agreement and, based on this, the transfer of the entire Banat to Romania, but could not prevail against the French compromise proposal. Accordingly, Torontál fell as the Serbian part of the Banat to Yugoslavia and Temes and Krassó-Szörény (Caras Severin) to Romania. The borders within this Vojwodina ( Szerb Vajdaság és Temesi Bánság ), which at that time did not officially exist , were drawn by the Hungarians themselves. The Banat itself was previously divided into three counties by the Hungarians: Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény. 18,945 km² went to Romania, 9,307 km² to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and 271 km² remained with Hungary.

The Treaty of Sèvres then only served as a final confirmation, whereby the territorial new acquisitions of Romania and Yugoslavia by Turkey were recognized, which ultimately also the USA agreed (they had not previously agreed to the Trianon Treaty because of Romania).

With the Belgrade Convention of November 24, 1923, the borders were adjusted by exchanging some municipalities. Modosch (Serbian: Jaša Tomić ) and Parjan came to Yugoslavia. Hatzfeld, (Romanian: Jimbolia ) with a 75 percent German majority went to Romania, as did Großscham ( Jamu Mare ), Tschene ( Cenei ) and Neuburg ( Uivar ).

Second World War

Borders of the planned southern German buffer state south of Hungary

According to the plans of the German Reich, the Banat was to be merged into a small German state in the Balkans between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in the event of Hungary's refusal to go to war against Yugoslavia on the side of the German Reich in 1941. After the defeat of Yugoslavia in the Balkan campaign in 1941 - with the participation of Hungary - a German civil administration made up of Banat ethnic Germans was established in the Yugoslav part of the Banat , which was subordinate to the German military commander of Serbia.

Situation after the break-up of Yugoslavia

In some cases before the arrival of German troops, smaller units of the Yugoslav army, gendarmerie and police posts were disarmed by semi-military units from among the ethnic Germans. The invasion of German troops was accompanied by looting, arbitrary arrests, and the shooting and expulsion of Serbs and Jews. The Banat Jews of Serbia were deported to concentration camps in August 1941 and the Serbian Banat was declared free of Jews . Most of the “Jewish property” was sold to the German and Hungarian minorities in the Serbian part of the Banat. By the end of 1943, 80 percent of the Aryanized property belonged to ethnic or imperial Germans . The trust administration appointed provisional directors from among the ethnic Germans to continue running Jewish operations.

In the Romanian part of the Banat, the Romanian leader Marshal Ion Antonescu gave his consent to the deportation of Jews from Arad , Timișoara and Turda on August 17, 1942 . 2833 people were then deported from Timișoara until 1943. Originally the Jews were to be taken to the Belzec extermination camp , but Antonescu canceled the order on October 11, 1942. Jewish property was mainly leased to Romanians here. The " de-Jewification " took place here under the term Romanization .

Advance of the Red Army between August 19 and December 31, 1944

The royal coup on August 23, 1944 caught the leadership of the German ethnic group unprepared. The local officials urged calm and advised against fleeing; There was talk of an impending German relief and the German population was put off to an early counterattack while the German garrisons were moving away. The German troops stationed in Timișoara, which withdrew in the course of August 25, took a smaller number of German people, who often decided to flee completely unprepared and without luggage, on their vehicles. The 4th SS Police Panzer Grenadier Division under SS Brigade Leader Fritz Schmedes , which then attacked from the Serbian Banat , already encountered Soviet troops on both sides of Timișoara and was no longer able to take the city.

Romania declared war on Hungary on September 7, 1944. On September 12, 1944, a German-Hungarian counter-offensive took place in the direction of Arad and Timișoara, which was repulsed with the help of the Romanian Divizia 9 Cavalerie Română and the Regimentul 13 Călărași . On that day, the Red Army also moved into Timișoaras.

The German combat group Behrens worked towards an evacuation of the German population . Immediately after the penetration of the German troops, an evacuation was called in the Banat-Swabian communities east of Timișoara, so that the first columns of cars with refugees of German ethnicity marched on September 15, 16 and 17. Some communities to Timişoara fled completely from horse-drawn carriages and tractors existing treks through the Serbian Banat about Kikinda and Rudolfsgnad to Hungary. It is believed that the number of Banat Swabians evacuated from the area around Timișoara was higher than the 12,500 people named by the Main Office of Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle at the time.

post war period

After the end of the occupation by the German Wehrmacht in World War II, the entire German ethnic group was made responsible for the atrocities committed against the Serbian population through collective guilt . The German minority in the Serbian West Banat (358,604 people in Vojvodina according to the 1931 census, see Danube Swabia) disappeared almost completely immediately after the war through flight , deportation into Russian forced labor , murder , displacement and emigration .

In the Romanian Banat, too, there was a temporary disenfranchisement and total expropriation of the German minority as well as the temporary deportation of Romanian Germans to the Soviet Union . Between 1951 and 1956 they were deported to the Bărăgan steppe , which affected over 40,000 Banat people, around a quarter of whom were of German ethnicity.

In contrast to the then Yugoslav (now Serbian) West Banat, there was no systematic displacement here. In this way, the Banat Swabians in Romania were able to maintain their identity and, to a lesser extent, their property even after the expropriation in Romania in 1945 . In addition, Romanian Germans were deported to the Soviet Union , where they had to do forced labor. The great waves of emigration of the 1980s and 1990s caused the number of Germans in the Banat to fall to a tiny minority today, but place names such as Altringen , Bethausen , Gottlob , Johannisfeld , Lenauheim , Liebling , Nitzkydorf , in particular in the area around Timișoara , Gherman or Freidorf refer to the region's German-influenced past.

The Romanian Revolution , which led to the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime and to democracy, began in 1989 in the Banat city of Timișoara.


The population structure in all parts of the Banat was still very mixed until 1944. In the 18th century - after the end of the Turkish wars - predominantly Catholic, mostly German settlers were settled with the Serbs living here through the Austrian crown . These emigrants, later referred to as Danube Swabians , were mainly from the Palatinate , Swabia , Bavaria , Hesse and Alsace . But there were also a small number of French , Croats , Bulgarians ( see also : Banat Bulgarian ), Italians and Spaniards , Magyars , Slovaks , Russians and Armenians . In the vicinity of the Iron Gate in the southern Banat there are still some Banat Czechs and some almost purely Croatian villages. In the Banat there were many villages and towns with an absolute or relative German majority. In Timișoara (dt. Timisoara, Temeschburg ) the Germans were numerically the largest ethnic group until the Second World War .

According to the last census of the Empire in 1913, the Temescher Banat had 500,835 inhabitants. The largest ethnic group was made up of the Romanians with almost 170,000 inhabitants, followed by the Germans (166,000), the Hungarians (80,000) and the Serbs (70,000).

After 1944, the number of Jews doubled compared to 1930 due to the influx of survivors from the Transnistrian camps to around 14,000 people, most of whom lived in Timișoara and Lugoj. A third of this was destitute and was supported by the Joint Distribution Committee after 1944 . The Jewish Democratic Committee tried to retrain for jobs in the manufacturing industry, but many Jews emigrated from Romania, not least because of the Saturday work required in the Romanian factories. The Jewish communities were politically reorganized and were completely under state control from 1949.

In the Serbian Banat, the resettlement of the Serbian Germans who had been disenfranchised after the Second World War was largely complete by the end of the 1960s, with Montenegrins and Serbs from Bosnia and central Serbia following suit. In the 1990s there were also Serbian refugees from Croatia , Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo . In the Romanian Banat, the immigrated Banat Swabians have been replaced by numerous settlers from other parts of Romania , mainly Romanians, but also a great number of Szeklers and Roma .

The coexistence of the population groups in the Banat is traditionally good. The ethnic conflicts of the past have now subsided. Even today it is not uncommon for a Banat resident to speak two or three languages. Many loan words were also exchanged locally among the languages. In the Lugoj area, for example, it is not uncommon to use the word bigleis for iron in everyday language .

Place on the moon

There is also a banat on Earth's moon . In the Mare Imbrium , between the Copernicus crater in the south and the small Pytheas crater in the north, are the Montes Carpatus with a few protruding mountain peaks. The northernmost protrusion is called Banat Promontory ( English for Banat promontory ).

See also


  • JM Bak: Banat . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , column 1405 f.
  • Remus Crețan: Etnie, confesiune și opțiune electorală in Banat. Structuri teritoriale, tradiție, actualitate , ed. A 2-a, rev. și adăugită, Ed. Univ. de Vest, Timișoara, 2006
  • Walter Engel (Ed.): The Banat - a European cultural area , clear text, Essen, 2007, ISBN 3-89861-722-X
  • Thomas Krause: "The stranger races through the brain, the nothing ..." Images of Germany in the texts of the Banat authors' group (1969–1991) , (= studies on travel literature and imagology research; 3), Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main - Berlin [u. a.] 1998, ISBN 3-631-33399-4
  • Roxana Nubert ; Ileana Pintilie-Teleagă: Central European Paradigms in Southeastern Europe. A contribution to the culture of the Germans in the Banat , Praesens, Vienna, 2006, ISBN 3-7069-0340-7
  • Hans-Heinrich Rieser: The Romanian Banat. A multicultural region in transition. Geographic transformation research using the example of the recent development of the cultural landscape in south-western Romania , (= series of publications by the Institute for Danube Swabian History and Regional Studies; 10), Thorbecke, Stuttgart, 2001, ISBN 3-7995-2510-6
  • Andrea Schmidt-Rösler: Romania after the First World War. The demarcation in the Dobrudscha and in the Banat and the subsequent problems , (= European university publications: series 3, history and its auxiliary sciences; 622), Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main - Berlin [u. a.] 1994, ISBN 3-631-47612-4
  • Diana Schuster: The Banat Authors' Group. Self-presentation and reception in Romania and Germany , Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz, 2004, ISBN 3-89649-942-4
  • Ingomar Senz : The Donauschwaben , Langen / Müller, Munich, ²1994, ISBN 3-7844-2522-4
  • Akiko Shimizu: The German occupation of the Serbian Banat 1941-1944 with special consideration of the German ethnic group in Yugoslavia , (= Regensburg writings from philosophy, politics, society and history; 5), Lit, Münster, 2003, ISBN 3-8258-5975- 4th
  • Rodica Vârtaciu-Medelet: Baroque in the Banat. A European cultural landscape . Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg, 2012. ISBN 978-3-7954-2607-1 .
  • Josef Wolf (Hrsg.): Sources on the economic, social and administrative history of the Banat in the 18th century , Tübingen, 1995
  • Josef Wolf: Development of the ethnic structure of the Banat 1890–1992 (Atlas East and Southeast Europe / Ed .: Austrian East and Southeast Europe Institute; 2: Population; 8 = H / R / YU 1, Hungary / Romania / Yugoslavia) , Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagbuchhandlung, Berlin - Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-443-28519-8

Web links

Wiktionary: Banat  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Banat  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rudolf Spek: Concise Dictionary of Frontier and Foreign Germanism, Vol . 1 . 1933, p. 208 .
  2. ^ A b Anton Scherer : Suevia-Pannonica . Graz 2009, p. 14 .
  3. ^ Petar Skok: Toponomastika Vojvodine . In: Vojvodina . tape 1 .. Novi Sad 1939, p. 108-127 .
  4. Anton Scherer: Bane and Banate - Etymology of the name from the 10th century to 1941 . Danubio-Suevia, Graz 1989, p. 16 .
  5. Lexicon of the Middle Ages , Volume 2 . LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-423-59057-2 .
  6. ( Memento from September 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), Anton Zollner: From the prehistory of the Temeschburg fortress
  7. Nicolae Iliesiu, Petru Ilieşu: Timişoara: monografie istorică . Ed. Planetarium, 2003, ISBN 973-97327-2-0 , p. 430 (Romanian).
  8. Harald Roth (Ed.): Banat, Batschka, Syrmien / Wojwodina - Study book Eastern Europe. Volume 1: History of East Central and Southeast Europe . Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-8252-3173-6 , pp. 109-111 .
  9. Dr. István Berkeszi: Small monograph of the royal city of Temesvár , 1900
  10. ^ "Little Vienna" on the Bega - Timisoara ( Memento from September 19, 2006 in the Internet Archive ),
  11. ^ Konrad Clewing, Oliver Jens Schmitt: Geschichte Südosteuropas. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2012, p. 151.
  12. Banat . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 2, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 308.
  13. , The Swabian Trains
  14. , The colonization of the Banat after the Turkish period, especially with emigrants from Lorraine and Luxembourg
  15. Cornelius R. Zach: The neutrality of Romania (August 1914 - August 1916) in the mirror of memorialism on (PDF; 2.1 MB)
  16. ^ German consulate in Timisoara
  17. , Richard Weber: The turmoil of the years 1918-1919 in Timisoara
  18. Journal for foreign public law and international law: Serbia - Regulation on the internal administration of the Banat
  19. ^ Michael Portmann , Arnold Suppan : Serbia and Montenegro in World War II (1941-1944e / 45) . In: Österreichisches Ost- und Südosteuropa-Institut (Ed.): Serbia and Montenegro: Space and Population, History, Language and Literature, Culture, Politics, Society, Economy, Law . LIT Verlag, Münster 2006, ISBN 3-8258-9539-4 . Page 274/275
  20. ^ Slavko Goldstein : The Second World War. In: Dunja Melčić (Ed.): The War in Yugoslavia. Prehistory, course and consequences manual. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen / Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-531-13219-9 , pp. 170-185; here: p. 172.
  21. ^ Thomas Casagrande: The Volksdeutsche SS-Division "Prinz Eugen". The Banat Swabians and the National Socialist war crimes. Campus, Frankfurt 2003 ISBN 3-593-37234-7 , pp. 176f
  22. ^ Thomas Casagrande: The Volksdeutsche SS-Division "Prinz Eugen". The Banat Swabians and the National Socialist war crimes. Campus, Frankfurt 2003 ISBN 3-593-37234-7 , p. 179.
  23. ^ Karl-Heinz Schlarp: Economy and Occupation in Serbia. 1941-1944. A contribution to the National Socialist economic policy in Southeast Europe. , Steiner-Verlag-Wiesbaden-GmbH, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-515-04401-9 (Sources and studies on the history of Eastern Europe 25), (At the same time: Hamburg, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1983), p 301.
  24., The destruction of the Jews of Romania , in English
  25. ^ , Incursion in the life and history of the Jew community in Timișoara , in English
  26. IC Butnaru: The silent Holocaust: Romania and Its Jews . Greenwood Press; illustrated edition, 1992, ISBN 0-313-27985-3 , pp. 140 (English).
  27. , Yehouda Marton, Paul Schveiger, Radu Ioanid: Arad , 2008
  28. ^ Mariana Hausleitner : Working group of historical research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany, Munich: Germans and other minorities of Southeast Europe in the social upheaval of 1944/45. Reviewed on 16./17. July 2005
  29. Annemarie Weber: Romaniendeutsche ?: Discourses on the group identity of a minority (1944–1971) , Volume 40 by Studia Transylvanica, Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2010, ISBN 3-412-20538-9 , p. 342, here p. 146
  30. ^ A b Center against Expulsions : The Fate of the Germans in Romania. ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  31. , WW2 timeline - Eastern Europe, in English
  32. , Historical background , in English
  33. Stephan Olaf Schüller: For Faith, Leader, People, Father or Motherland ?: the struggles for German youth in the Romanian Banat (1918–1944) , Volume 9 of Studies on the History, Culture and Society of Southeast Europe, LIT Verlag Münster, 2009 , ISBN 3-8258-1910-8 , p. 558, here p. 280
  34. Land Reform Act No. 187 of March 23, 1945.
  35. ^ Electronic Banat
  36. Hildrun Glass: Germans and other minorities in Southeast Europe in the social upheaval of 1944/45 . ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: Working Group of Historical Research Institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany (PDF; 71 kB), 16./17. July 2005
  37. ^ Michael Portmann , Arnold Suppan : Serbia and Montenegro in World War II. In: Austrian Institute for East and Southeast Europe: Serbia and Montenegro: Space and Population - History - Language and Literature - Culture - Politics - Society - Economy - Law. LIT Verlag 2006, p. 277 f.
    Zoran Janjetović: The conflicts between Serbs and 'Danube Swabians' . ( Memento from December 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: The Influence of National Socialism on Minorities in Eastern Central and Southern Europe. Editors: Mariana Hausleitner , Harald Roth , IKS Verlag, Munich 2006.
  38. ^ Resettlers / late repatriates . In: Online encyclopedia on the culture and history of Germans in Eastern Europe of the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg and the Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe (BKGE) .
  39. ^ , Die Zeit , Christian Schmidt-Häuer: Where CNN never comes - Romania's Banat: A peaceful mixture of peoples in times of ethnic wars , April 23, 1998
  40. ^ , Siebenbürgische Zeitung : "Banat Promontory" on the moon , June 17, 2005