from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Settlement areas As a majority population in Romania and Moldova.
As a minority in the Ukraine , Bulgaria , Hungary , Greece , Serbia , North Macedonia , Albania and Croatia
language Romanian in the broader sense: Daco-Romanian , Aromanian / Mazedorumänisch , Meglenorumänisch , Istrorumänisch
religion Christian (mainly Orthodox , partly also Greek Catholic )
ethnicities Romanians in the broader sense: Dakorumans , Aromanians / Macedorumans , Istrorumans and Meglenorumans
The distribution area of ​​the 4 Balkan Romance (Wallachian) languages. In the areas outside of Romania and Moldova, the Romansh-speaking population is often less numerous than the non-Romansh majority population

Wallachians (other names: Wallachen , Wlachen , Vlachen , Wlachi , Vlasi , Vlax , Wallachians , Valachos , Vlachos , Olah , Ulah , Blahoi , Ottoman eflaki ) is a collective name for Romansh-speaking ethnic groups in Southeastern Europe who speak several closely related Balkan Romance languages .

Mostly the Romans are referred to in the broader sense of the term: Dakorumans (the Romanian-speaking population in Romania , Moldova , northern Bulgaria , Serbia ( eastern central Serbia and Vojvodina ), Ukraine and Hungary ), Aromanians (Macedorumans), Meglenorumans and Istrian romanians .

Historically, the settlers in the colonization of the Carpathians were also named in the documents according to Wallachian law , including the ancestors of the Carpathian Russians and the Gorals . They spread a specific lifestyle as well as a Romance vocabulary as far as the Moravian Wallachia in the Czech Republic .


The term Wallachian was always a foreign name ( exonym ): The Wallachians use names derived from the Latin Romanus (German "Römer" or "Roman"), for example Român (Pl. Români), Rumân (Pl. Rumâni), Rumâr (Pl. Rumâri), Rămăn (Pl.Rămăni) or Armân / Makedonarmãn (Pl. Armânji / Makedonarmãnji)

The term Wallachia originally comes from Germanic and was used by South Slavic and then partly Latin and Greek mediation in various areas to denote mainly Romanized or Romanic ethnic groups. The underlying Germanic word "Walchen" (adjective " welsch "), Old High German Walha (adjective walhisk), most likely from the Celtic Ethnonym (common names) of the Volker borrowed (by the Grimm's Law changed). When the Celtic neighbors of the Germanic tribes were Romanized, the Germanic peoples continued to use the term “welsch” for their neighbors, which gave it the meaning “Romanesque”. Further examples of the use of the Germanic word in different parts of Europe are Wales on the island of Great Britain and Wallonia , in both cases as a designation for Celtic settlement areas. The name of the canton of Valais in Switzerland, on the other hand, is presumably derived from the Latin vallis , the landscape of Galicia in East Central Europe from the Prince's seat of Halitsch and the autonomous region of Galicia in Spain from the name of the ancient Gallakers .

Other Romance peoples also have exonyms that emerged from the term "Welsche". For example, Italians are called olasz in Hungarian , while the older Hungarian name for Romanians is oláh . Germans in South Tyrol call their Italian fellow citizens "Walsche", although the word has meanwhile assumed a derogatory meaning. In German-speaking Switzerland, people from the French-speaking part of the country are still referred to as "Welsche". In Polish , the name Włosi is used for Italians and Włochy for Italy, while the old name for Romanians is Wołoch . In the West Slovenian dialects the Friulians are called Lah . In Transylvania , the Transylvanian Saxons called the Romanian population "Blochen" or "Blechen".


The inhabitants of Wallachia were called "Wallachians" by the foreigners. The Principality of Moldova was sometimes called "Moldo-Valahia" by foreigners. The Polish and Russian chronicles from the 12th century., Including the Primary Chronicle , denote the Romanians east of the Carpathians as "Bolohowenen". The Romanian principality, which emerged south of the Carpathian Mountains in the 14th century, was referred to by foreigners as " Wallachia ", but this state called itself "Țara Românească" or "Țeara Rumânească", meaning "Romanian land". Since the middle of the 19th century, the Romanians were called less and less with the exonym "Wallachians". Today only small groups of Romanians from Eastern Serbia and Northern Bulgaria have this foreign name, but they call themselves "români" or "rumâni" (= "Romanians") in their Romanian mother tongue .

Wallachian settlements existed in the northern Carpathians ( Carpathian Ukraine , Slovakia , Poland , Czech Republic / Moravian Wallachia ) and in the western Balkan peninsula ( Morlaken in Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, southern Serbia). They are novels that were Slavicized during the Middle Ages but retained their customs and occupation as shepherds (including transhumance , a form of sheep-raising widespread among the Wallachians). The Wallachians in the northern Carpathians were Romanians who had immigrated from the Maramures , while the Morlaken ( Mauro Wallachians) in the western Balkans .

Some Roma groups who lived as serfs in Wallachia during the Middle Ages and still live in Romania and the neighboring countries are sometimes referred to as Wallachians, but the correct name is “Vlax Roma”.


The possibility that the Stećci are a cultural heritage of the Romanesque ethnic group of the Mauro Walachians is also being considered.

Stećci in “block form” near Blidinjsko jezero

Individual evidence

  1. Archived copy ( memento of the original from October 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.vorarlberger-walservereinigung.at
  2. ^ Noel Malcolm: A short history of Bosnia. Pan Books, London 2002, ISBN 0-330-41244-2 , pp. 70 ff.
  3. ^ Marian Wenzel, Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes-Who Made Them and Why? "Sudost-Forschungen 21 (1962): 102-143
  4. ^ John VA Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century, University of Michigan Press, 1994, p.19
  5. Miloševic, Ante (1991). Stecci i Vlasi: Stecci i vlaške migracije 14. i 15. stoljeca u Dalmaciji i jugozapadnoj Bosni [Stecci and Vlachs: Stecci and Vlach migrations in the 14th and 15th century in Dalmatia and Southwestern Bosnia] (in Croatian). Split: Regionalni zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, p.8

Web links