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Coat of arms of Galicia (1772-1918)
Location of the historical landscape of Galicia in Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)

Galicia ( Ukrainian Галичина Halychyna , Polish Galicja , Russian Галиция Galizija ) is a historical region in Western Ukraine (Eastern Galicia) and in southern Poland ( West Galicia ).

The territory came in 1772 as part of the first partition of Poland as crown land Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to the Austrian Habsburgs , and in 1804 became part of the Empire of Austria . From 1867 to 1918 it was crown land in the cisleithan (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary .

Map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1846–1918)

Name and coat of arms


The names Galicia and Lodomeria are umlauts of the cities of Halych (also Galitsch, Latinized: Galicia) on the Dniester and Volodymyr in Volhynia . In their new form, the names were part of the Hungarian royal statute because the Principality of Halych-Volhynia briefly belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary in the 14th century under King Louis of Hungary and Poland (initially through the governor Wladislaus II of Opole ) and Queen Maria . From there, the name was taken as a designation for the area that had come to Austria during the First Partition of Poland .

The phonetic equality with the Spanish region of Galicia (Spanish: Galicia) is coincidental.

coat of arms

Description: In the blue shield divided by red bars is a black jackdaw at the top and three golden royal crowns at the bottom . From 1772 to 1804, the Galician coat of arms showed only two or three golden crowns against a blue background. On older coats of arms the closed temple crown of the kingdom adorned the shield.

Conjectures have been published about the choice of the heraldic animal. The jackdaw is said to have been an idea of ​​Austrian officials when the new coat of arms was introduced in 1804, because there were many jackdaws in Galicia. Because “jackdaw” means “галка” (pronounced: “galka”, “halka”) in East Slavic languages, the coat of arms can have been made “talking” in this way . Initially, the coat of arms is said to have shown the "undesigned" or "stunted" eagle of the coat of arms of Halytsch. The place name gave Galicia its name and comes from "галка". However, according to a map from 1831, which depicts Poland in 1764, the heraldic animal of Halytsch was already a jackdaw and therefore already "talking".


Austrian Galicia 1772–1918 in today's Europe
Coat of arms of the Ruthenian Voivodeship , Polish Województwo Ruskie 1366–1772, Poland

The territory of Galicia (within the borders of the crown land in 1914) comprised 78,502 km² and today covers:

In Galicia is part of the Ukrainian Carpathians and on the border with Transcarpathia with the Hoverla , the highest mountain in Ukraine at 2060 m.

Bigger cities

In 1776 311 places (towns and markets) in the crown land had city rights, the largest of which were:

  • Biala (Polish Biała ), town charter 1723
  • Brody (ukr. Броди), first mentioned in 1084, Magdeburg city law 1584
  • Butschatsch (Ukrainian Бучач, Polish Buczacz ), Magdeburg city law 1393
  • Drohobych (Ukrainian Дрогобич, Polish Drohobycz ), founded in 1422.
  • Jaroslau (Polish Jarosław , Ukrainian Ярослав / Jaroslaw ), founded in 1351.
  • Lemberg (Ukrainian Львів / Lwiw , Polish Lwów ), around 1256.
  • Przemysl (Polish: Przemyśl , Ukrainian Перемишль / Peremyschl ), mentioned in 981 as a city of the Kiever Rus, origin of the Piasts, 1383.
  • Sambir (Ukrainian Самбір, Polish Sambor ), founded in 1390.
  • Ternopil (Ukrainian Тернопіль, Polish Tarnopol ), founded in 1540.
  • Tarnow (Polish Tarnów ), founded in 1380.
  • Sbarash (Ukrainian Збараж, Polish Zbaraż ), city charter 1569.

This Josefstadt (Polish: Podgórze ), founded in 1784 , actually had the character of towns, in contrast to the other localities, whose population lived mainly from agriculture. After the third partition of Poland, the number of localities with city rights rose to over 400, of which Kraków (Polish Kraków , ukr. Краків / Krakiw , city rights 1257) was the largest. Under Joseph II, the administration strove to desurbanize the crown land in order to bring these places under aristocratic jurisdiction. Urbanization did not accelerate until the second half of the 19th century. In the early 20th century, fifteen cities had over fourteen thousand inhabitants, u. a .:

  • Kolomea (Ukrainian Коломия / Kolomyja , Polish Kołomyja ), founded in 1370.
  • New Sandez (Polish Nowy Sącz ), founded in 1292.
  • Rzeszów (ukr. Ряшів / Rjaschiw ), founded in 1354.
  • Stanislau (formerly Stanislawiw , Ukrainian Івано-Франківськ / Iwano-Frankiwsk , Polish Stanisławów ), founded in 1663.
  • Stryj (Ukrainian Стрий) founded in 1431.


The population according to the colloquial language according to censuses:

1851 1880 1890 1900 1910
Polish 1,864,101 (40.92%) 3,058,400 (51.32%) 3,509,183 (53.11%) 3,988,702 (54.52%) 4,672,500 (58.22%)
Ukrainian 2,281,839 (50.09%) 2,549,707 (42.79%) 2,835,674 (42.91%) 3,074,449 (42.02%) 3,208,092 (39.97%)
German 93,387 (2.05%) 324,336 (5.44%) 227,600 (3.44%) 211,752 (2.89%) 90,114 (1.12%)
total 4,555,477 5,958,907 6,607,816 7,315,939 8,025,675

In the 1851 census, 312,962 (6.87%) Jews were expelled separately; if they spoke Yiddish , they were counted as German speakers in the following censuses.

The population according to religion

1846 1880 1890 1900 1910
Roman Catholic 2,205,237 (46.58%) 2,714,977 (45.56%) 2,997,430 (45.36%) 3,350,512 (45.79%) 3,732,569 (46.51%)
Greek Catholic 2,183,112 (46.11%) 2,510,408 (42.13%) 2,790,449 (38.14%) 3,104,103 (42.43%) 3,379,613 (42.11%)
Evangelical AB 24,552 (0.51%) 36,672 (0.62%) 38,289 (0.58%) 40,004 (0.55%) 33,209 (0.41%)
Israelite 317,225 (6.70%) 686,596 (11.52%) 772,213 (11.69%) 811,371 (11.09%) 871,895 (10.86%)
total 4,734,427 5,958,907 6,607,816 7,315,939 8,025,675

In Poland:

The population by nationality according to census:

1921 1931
Poland 4,333,219 (57.9%) 5,021,600 (59%)
Ukrainians & Ruthenians 2,680,530 (35.8%) 2,874,400 (33.8%)
Jews 428,026 (5.7%) 549,100 (6.5%)
German 39,810 (0.5%) 40,300 (0.5%)
total 7,487,924 8,508,800


Early history

After the Germanic tribes ( Lugier and Gepiden ) who lived there had left the area of ​​what would later become Galicia at the time of the Great Migration , it was settled by Slavs from the middle of the 6th century , who were west of the Sans Lechian West Slavs and east of it to the East Slavs . The western tribes (spatially belonging to the later Lesser Poland) joined forces with Poland under Boleslaw I. Chrobry after temporarily joining the Great Moravian state in the 9th century and the Bohemian state in the 10th century. The eastern tribes, however, submitted to the Grand Duke of Kiev and only temporarily came under the rule of Boleslaws.

Principalities of Volhynia, Halych and Halych-Volodymyr

Principalities of Halitsch and Volhynia 1144–1199

After various turmoil, two larger principalities were consolidated in the 12th century: Halych and Volodymyr , from which the names of the later Habsburg crown lands Galicia and Lodomeria can be traced back. Both principalities were characterized by flourishing trade and prosperity.

The country has been the scene of repeated battles between the Rus, Hungarians and Poles. In 1182 Casimir , Duke of Poland, expelled Prince Roman Mstislavich . Nevertheless, Roman was later able to bring the area under his control and in 1199 unite Halych with the Principality of Volodymyr to form the Principality of Halitsch-Volhynia . But he fell in 1205 in the fight against Poland. In the same year, the Hungarian King Andrew II accepted the title Galiciae et Lodomeriae Rex . In 1225 Roman's son Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia ruled the Duchy of Halych, but temporarily lost it to Hungary in 1236.

Principalities of Kievan Rus 1237

Galicia was badly affected by the Mongol storm in 1241, and Daniel was forced to recognize the supremacy of the Golden Horde . After the Mongol storm, the Grand Duchy of Kiev also sank to insignificance. The princes of Galicia sought a protective connection with the West and sought union with the Catholic Church . Daniel was crowned "King of Russia" by the Pope in 1253 after converting to the Catholic faith. His son Lev and his grandson Juri also held this title. Under the later sovereigns, however, the country fell into disrepair, even though it had extended its rule beyond Kiev.

Poland-Lithuania (Polish rule and Grand Duchy of Lithuania)

Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland (red) and the northern border of the Crown Land of Galicia in Austria after 1848 (blue line), see also Voivodeships of the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic

After the death of the last Rurikid prince in 1332, his nephew, a scion of the Mazovian branch of the Piasts , became ruler of Halych-Volhynia: Bolesław Georg II. In 1340 he was poisoned by boyars who accused him of preferring Catholics. There was a power struggle between Poland, the Piast presented dynastic claims, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , which already other Ruthenian areas dominated, and the Golden Horde, in the wake of the Mongol rule the tribute dominion over almost all Ruthenian principalities claimed.

The most important parts of the disputed area were subjugated by the Polish King Casimir the Great . These included the cities of Halytsch , Lemberg , Chełm , Bełz , Wolodymyr , the Sanok region and the Podolia region . This began the Polonization of the country and the increasing enforcement of the Catholic Church. Under Louis the Great , who ruled Poland and Hungary in personal union, the Catholic hierarchy was permanently established. Under his rule, the area came to Hungary in 1378. After Ludwig's death in 1382, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jagiełło married the Polish Queen Jadwiga , and the two countries were thus permanently linked, initially in personal union . Jagiełło conquered Galicia again in 1387 for Poland, which it then remained until the First Partition of Poland in 1772 . When Poland and Lithuania merged into the Union of Lublin in 1569 to form the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic , Galicia was also divided into voivodeships:

The Ukrainian part of the population in the Lemberg Archeparchy belonged to the Eastern Catholic Churches for the most part only from 1677 (81 years after the Union of Brest ) .

Occupation by the dividing powers

  • Austrian occupation in 1769 and 1770
  • The Bar Confederation caused unrest in southern Poland from 1768 to 1772.

    Already in 1769 the deposit area Spiš was occupied by the Austrian troops, in the next year parts of the Starosteien of Nowy Targ , Czorsztyn and Nowy Sącz with the country Muszyna followed . On May 21, 1771, the Polish noble families were defeated by Russia in the decisive battle at Lanckorona .

    The Petersburg Agreement was signed between Prussia, Russia and Austria in February 1772. The military occupation was led by Field Marshal Nikolaus I. Joseph Esterházy de Galantha with General Andreas Hadik from Hungary and General Richard d'Alton from Silesia. D'Alton's army marched into Poland near Biala on May 12th, and two days later a corps from Prešov crossed the Hungarian-Polish border. D'Alton followed the withdrawn Russian troops and captured the castle in Lanckorona on June 8th, after which Tyniec and Wieliczka were occupied until June 11th . In late July he set up his headquarters near Tarnów . Andreas Hadik took Jarosław and Przemyśl in June, making the zone of occupation reach the line between the Vistula and the San. It was not until the middle of September 1772 that Field Marshal Esterházy's army established itself in Lemberg, which had previously been occupied by the Russians.

    The next conference of the three states in St. Petersburg approved the first partition of Poland on August 5, 1772. On September 11, the Habsburg manifesto justifying the division was published. In September the Viennese government installed the first governor, Johann Anton von Pergen , in Lemberg . The next year, on September 30, 1773 , the Polish Sejm was forced to confirm the division. The imperial manifesto of November 15, 1773 obliged local representatives of the nobility, citizens, Jews and others to pay homage to Maria Theresa in ceremonies in numerous localities on December 29, 1773. The greatest resistance of the aristocratic families was later broken by the threat of confiscations.



    Galicia 1772-1918
    Counties of Galicia (orange) and New Galicia (yellow) in 1805

    In 1772, when Poland was first partitioned, Galicia and the Ruthenian Voivodeship as well as the southern part of Lesser Poland (parts of the Sandomir and Krakow Voivodeships with the district of Silesia : Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator ) fell to the Habsburg Monarchy . They were combined with the previously occupied Nowy Targ, Czorztyn and Nowy Sącz to form the crown land "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria". Galicia was initially divided into six parts of the country (Lemberg, Halytsch, Belz / Zamość, Sambir, Wieliczka and Pilzno / Rzeszów) with 59 district districts, two years later the number of district districts was reduced to 19. In 1782 the district districts were dissolved and only 18 districts remained at the top, each with a district chief. The Starosteien and Voivodships were dissolved and the former crown estates ( Camerale ) passed into the possession of the House of Habsburg . The Polish judiciary was closed and a new legal system was introduced.

    Count Johann Anton von Pergen became civil governor . In 1774 Austria conquered Bukovina from the Ottoman Empire . In 1786 this was incorporated into the crown land of Galicia. In the following years, under Joseph II, thousands of families , mainly from the Palatinate , immigrated to Galicia and settled there mostly in newly founded localities as German communities. In 1795, after the Third Partition of Poland, large areas of the remaining Polish state, including Krakow and Lublin, became part of the Habsburg Empire. They were incorporated into the Crown Land of Galicia as West Galicia. In 1809, after the Treaty of Schönbrunn , the Zamosc district was ceded to the Duchy of Warsaw .

    A year later, in 1810, Austria ceded the Tarnopol and Czortkow districts to Russia , but received them back in the Peace of Paris in 1814 . In 1846 Bukovina became a separate Austrian crown land. In that year the Republic of Krakow came to Austria. In 1849 the Grand Duchy of Krakow became part of the Crown Land of Galicia. The Austrian Galicia reached far to the west beyond what is now Ukraine and, since 1846, has included Krakow as well as Tarnów and Rzeszów . The name of the crown land was officially the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Grand Duchy of Krakow and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator .

    As of 1773

    After Galicia was incorporated into the Habsburg hereditary lands , a census was carried out at the urging of the Imperial Army . In 1773 Galicia had an area of ​​83,000 km² with about 2.65 million inhabitants, who were spread over 280 cities and markets and about 5500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families with 95,000 members. The unfree population numbered 1.86 million, that is more than 70% of the population. A small part of them were full farmers, the vast majority (84%) of the unfree had little or no property.

    There were over 4,000 Catholic churches and 244 synagogues and almost 16,000 inns, and there was one inn for about 160 residents. The following were also counted: 216 monasteries, 363 castles, 6450 noble farms. The residential buildings were divided into 121,000 town and farmhouses, 15,700 houses inhabited by Jews and 322,000 farmhouses ( chalupen , smoke houses without chimneys).

    Population structure

    Wilhelm August Stryowski : Jewish Wedding in Galicia (1883)

    Many ethnic groups lived in Galicia : Poles , Ruthenians (Ukrainians), Russians , Germans , Armenians , Jews , Moldovans (Romanians), Hungarians , Roma , Lipovans and others. The Poles, Ruthenians and Jews made up the largest proportion, the former largely inhabiting the western part of the country, whereas the Ruthenians predominantly inhabited the eastern part of the country ( Ruthenia ). Jews and Armenians preferred to dominate trade, with Jews making up about eight percent of the population at the time.

    Old statistics contain information about the number of Poles, Ruthenians and Jews in the population. However, it is difficult to define the difference between ethnic, linguistic and national affiliation, since census records not nationality but colloquial language.

    The denomination is therefore used as a further distinguishing feature: the Poles were Roman Catholic , the Ruthenians mostly belonged to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church , rarely to the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church which had followers in the northeast of the Kingdom of Hungary . Their followers are often referred to as Uniate because they recognize the Pope as head. The opposition between Poles and Ruthenians was caused not only by the economic oppression of the Ruthenians by the Polish nobility, but also by different religious views.

    The third large denominational group were the Jews, who mostly adhered strictly to their faith. In Galicia, the mystical movement of Hasidism had had a very wide following since the 18th century . There were also some Jewish sects, to which the agricultural Karaites were to be counted, which were characterized by particularly strict rites. The Jews of Galicia mostly belonged to the Ashkenazim , whose ancestors immigrated from Germany in the Middle Ages.

    The Catholic churches of roughly the same size in Lemberg were presided over by an archbishop for the Roman Catholics and a metropolitan for the Uniate . In the district towns the Jews were subordinate to the district rabbis , otherwise to the community leaders . The Protestants of the Church of the Augsburg Confession and the Church of the Helvetic Confession , who later came to the country as settlers, had the superintendent of Galicia as the highest regional church authority. The Mennonites , who also came to the country as German-speaking settlers at the end of the 18th century , formed the municipality of Lemberg-Kiernica with several meetinghouses .

    Galician Parliament 1775

    The Polish nobility and the higher clergy initially lost the privileges they had acquired over the centuries. The crown made sustained efforts to achieve reconciliation with the nobility. In 1775 Austria set up a Galician Landtag , a kind of aristocratic parliament . It raised the importance of the Polish nobility above the hereditary nobility in the motherland. Every Polish nobleman was made knightly , many members of the nobility, former castellans , voivodes and starosts were raised to the rank of count against the fourth part of the otherwise levied tax . With this, Vienna wanted to secure loyal partners.

    For the unfree peasants, often Ruthenians, little changed at first; their views were raised by no one and were irrelevant.


    All of the measures planned by the House of Habsburg require a functioning bureaucracy that previously did not exist. That is why not only German teachers, doctors, technicians and lawyers, but also many Austrian administrative officials who were rejected as occupiers by the intelligentsia there, were seconded to the new Crown Land.

    In 1776 there were 724 civil servants in the country, within four years that number rose to 17,135. The central administration, the gubernium , was set up in Lviv, presided over by a governor appointed by the emperor .

    Not least because of the establishment of the state authorities, however, the cities, which had languished after their heyday in the Renaissance , took off again. The most important trading cities at the beginning of the 19th century were Lviv and Brody .


    The farmers made up the largest proportion of the workforce; their chances of development were slim. Since the economic forms were extremely backward compared to Western Europe, the yields remained low despite high labor-intensive commitment. The large estates were mostly Meierhöfe , which were leased by the landlords. The unfree subjects were only allowed to marry with the permission of the Lord and had to buy the permit for money. Unauthorized leaving the service resulted in the harshest penalties. The sons were not allowed to learn a trade because the landlord would have lost labor.

    The unfree farmer had to give his landlord much of the income he had earned. In addition, the farmers had to do robot labor: the national average for each family about two months a year. These subordinate duties were not tied to the person, but to the property, even if a nobleman took over a farm from a landlord, he was subject to interest and robots , but did not do the work personally. The tax payments of the mostly aristocratic landowners to the land consisted solely of a property tax, which was extremely low. So before 1772 for the area of ​​one Łan / ukr. лан, that was almost 17 ha, only two groschen of tax to be paid.

    Only a little more than eleven percent of the total area was cultivated, half of the land consisted of pastures and meadows. The fields were subject to three-field farming , but one year of fallow land was often not enough, so that the fields sometimes had to remain uncultivated for three or even four years before the sowing yielded the harvest again. The cultivation of forage crops (especially clover , as was common in other countries at that time) was unknown, so that field fertilization remained sparse. Since the cattle were not kept in stalls, there was no further source of fertilizer production. The yields were therefore extremely poor; they often only made up twice the sowing . The amount of rye produced was around 190 liters per inhabitant. Bread therefore had to be baked largely from oats and barley , because the amount of rye produced was nowhere near enough, as a lot was also exported and a considerable proportion was distilled into schnapps.

    The alcoholism of the rural population was a major problem, especially since it was promoted by contractual obligations towards the landlords to buy a given quantity of schnapps from their distilleries.

    There was practically no industry in this resource-rich country, with the exception of the only tobacco factory in Wynnyky , a leather factory in Busk, and a few iron hammer and smelting works . Only the salt played a significant role, and there were also a few glassworks . These two sectors of activity also played a disastrous role: For the salt Cooking needed energy and to recover potash for glass production was overexploitation driven to the woods, so that soon a barely approached the cities manageable problem in obtaining the required winter heating material . Planned reforestation did not take place. In western Galicia, weaving was carried out at home.

    The main reason for the conditions described was the poor condition of the school system. In the country there were practically no schools at all, in the cities only a few, so that the majority of the population consisted of illiterate people .

    Settlement patent 1781

    At the time of the constitution of the Crown Land of Galicia, the situation of handicrafts and agriculture was extremely backward compared to the Western European countries. Joseph II therefore decided in his settlement patent from September 17, 1781 to recruit traders, craftsmen and farmers for the new crown land. In no way was a Germanization of the country in mind here; rather, the new settlers were promised an instructive role model. In particular, the people of the Palatinate from the Rhine came into question, because the unfortunate division of real estate there had made the farms so small that, on the one hand, intensive farming had to be developed and, on the other hand, the farmers required manual skills for the necessary sideline income.

    There was a great incentive to emigrate to Galicia, because the authorities provided the new colonists with land, houses, stables, cattle and farm implements free of charge. The size of the farms was about 4, 8 or 15 hectares according to today's area, it depended on the amount of capital brought with you, the size of the family and the quality of the field. The colonists were exempt from all taxes for ten years, while the farm owners and their eldest sons were exempt from military service. Moreover, in the tolerance patent of November 10, 1781, the new Protestant citizens were allowed to practice their religion to a degree that was still unthinkable in the Archduchy of Austria.

    From June 1782 to January 1786, 14,735 colonists came into the country. They were either settled in newly founded villages or in extensions of existing villages (so-called attinences).

    The crown estates of the Polish crown used by Austria for colonization and those of the contemplative monasteries that were abandoned by order of Joseph II in his entire domain were almost exclusively in the west of the country. In Eastern Galicia, where under the even more backward agriculture of the Ruthenians, an improvement through the settlement of immigrants from the German lands seemed even more desirable, no state land was available. The Austrian administration therefore tried successfully to encourage the large Polish landowners to settle German colonists on their estates under similar conditions (so-called private colonization).

    Tax reform 1783

    In 1783 Joseph II enacted a comprehensive tax reform aimed at a fairer distribution of burdens independent of noble privileges.

    Austrian Empire 1804

    In 1804 Galicia became an integral part of the new Austrian Empire .

    The Duchy of Auschwitz - Zator, which was temporarily spun off from Galicia and assigned to Austrian Silesia from 1818 or 1820–1850, was a formal member of the German Confederation at the time , although before 1772 it was subject to Poland and not the Holy Roman Empire .

    Map of Galicia (1836)

    In 1907 and 1911, Galicia elected members of the Reichsrat , the parliament in Vienna, with universal male suffrage (see also list of electoral districts in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ).

    1848 uprising

    As a result of the Polish uprising in 1848 ( Wielkopolska Uprising ), the Republic of Krakow was abolished in the same year with the consent of the protecting powers. In 1849 this area was declared a Grand Duchy with the city and assigned to Galicia. Bukovina, on the other hand, became its own crown land in the same year.

    There was also considerable unrest in Lemberg; the commanding general Hammerstein had the city bombarded with cannons, which set fire to many important old buildings. Eventually the academy, the university library, the old theater and the town hall fell to the flames. Galicia had to endure the state of siege until 1854.

    At that time Galicia had 5.3 million inhabitants, who lived in around 300 towns and market towns and in 6300 villages.

    Autonomy 1867

    As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867, Galicia was also granted greater autonomy. It now belonged to the cisleithan half of the empire.

    The entire population had the unified Austrian citizenship with the same rights and duties, all ethnicities and religions had equal rights. A settlement was agreed with the Poles. Emperor Franz Joseph I agreed to the polonization of the school system and administration. In other areas, too, the Poles were granted growing influence, so that from 1867 Galicia was given de facto autonomy. The local government took place in the parliament and in the country's Committee (the state government) expressed the general government administration remained with the area under the Vienna government kk governor's office in Lviv and under its control, reorganized 74 district headquarters . (The formal organization was the same as in the other crown lands of Cisleithania .)

    In 1873 Galicia was finally granted full autonomy under Polish leadership. The Polish nobility, under the leadership of Count Agenor Goluchowski, began a process of nationalization that was supposed to guarantee Polish supremacy in all areas. Thanks to the right to vote in the curia , Poles had an absolute majority in the Galician state parliament for a long time. In the Austro-Hungarian government there was a Minister for Galicia who was always of Polish nationality until the end of the monarchy. Polish politicians were appointed by the emperor to other important ministerial posts in the imperial and royal government in Vienna. Until the end of the monarchy, the Polish Club in the Austrian Reichsrat was the most closed national faction that ultimately supported the domestic and foreign policy of the Viennese government without reservation and was rewarded with favors and benefits for Galicia.

    Polish was made an official language as early as 1866 , and its use in official matters was compulsory from 1869.

    The Polish-dominated autonomy ignored the wishes of the Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in eastern Galicia. This had detrimental consequences not only for the Ruthenians, but also for the small German minority in Galicia. Whereas the rights and conditions once granted to immigrants by Joseph II had long since largely fallen victim to the central bureaucracy of the Austrian monarchy, now even worse times were dawning for the Germans. The official language became Polish, the use of the German language in the public service was restricted to a minimum (only the kuk military and the kk state railways stayed with the German service language).

    The state parliament of the crown country consisted of 151 members (as of 1894): three archbishops, five bishops, two university rectors, 44 representatives of the large estates, 20 of the cities and markets, three of the chambers of commerce and trade, 74 of the rural communities. The state committee (the state government) had six members. Galicia elected 63 of the then 353 members to the Reichsrat , the entire Austrian parliament; only Bohemia was more strongly represented with 92 MPs.

    At that time Galicia had 6.6 million inhabitants, 74 district administrations subordinate to the Imperial and Royal Lieutenancy and the magistrates of Lemberg (32 km², 128,000 inhabitants) and Krakow (8 km², 75,000 inhabitants), two higher regional courts , two regional courts , 13 district courts and 164 district courts . In addition, there were two operations directorates of the kk state railways in Galicia , 671 post offices, 528 telegraph offices and chambers of commerce and industry in Lemberg, Cracow and Brody.

    Population and area

    In the years since 1869, censuses have shown the following population figures:

    • 1869 : 5,444,689
    • 1880 : 5,958,907
    • 1890 : 6,607,816
    • 1900 : 7.315.939
    • 1914 : 8,212,000 (approx.)

    In 1892 a birth surplus of 10 per 1000 inhabitants was determined, in 1890 84 inhabitants per square kilometer were determined.

    In western Galicia the Poles and in eastern Galicia always the Ruthenians made up the majority. In 1900 Poles accounted for 54.75%, Ruthenians 42.20% and Germans 2.9% of the population. The Poles formed the Galician nobility, the urban population and in the west also the peasant class. According to religion, 46% of Galicians were Catholics, 42.5% Greek Catholics, 11% Jews and 0.5% Evangelicals .

    The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria had an area of ​​78,497 km² in 1914. The capital was Lviv (today Lviv in Ukrainian ).

    The situation of the rural population and the largely unassimilated Jews in the east remained problematic in the structurally weak region . For this reason, too, populist peasant movements soon emerged , which laid the foundations for the peasant parties that were powerful in the interwar period . The liberal intellectual climate on the eve of the First World War also made it possible for paramilitary groups to be set up to fight for independence. Initially, however, there was no clear and generally supported political concept for further development.

    The population increased to more than eight million people by 1914. Since around three quarters of the population lived from agriculture, arable land became very scarce. This led to great emigration: During this time, many thousands of people left the country every year. They either emigrated overseas or to the province of Posen or went to Germany , France or Denmark as seasonal workers .

    Beginning of the Galician Reichsstraße on the Biała , in the direction of Lemberg

    In the years 1780 to 1785 the Wiener Hauptstrasse (later a Reichsstrasse ) from Vienna to Lemberg was built, also called Kaiser-Chaussee , Wiener Postroute or Wiener Haupt Comercial Strasse ( WH on the maps) ( Polish tract środkowogalicyjski ) around the newly conquered country to integrate. The road, of previously unknown quality in this area, led via Olomouc in Moravia , Friedek , Teschen and Bielitz in Silesia, in Galicia via Biala , Kęty , Andrychów , Wadowice , Myślenice , Gdów , Bochnia , Brzesko , Tarnów , Ropczyce , Rzeszów , Przeworsk , Jarosław , Przemyśl and Horodok (Gródek) .

    The engineer of this road, Johann Gross, built almost 2000 km of solid roads in the first 30 years, including a paved shortcut over the Kocierska pass (718 m) in the Little Beskids and over Saybusch (continuation via Trenčín ).

    The first railway line in Galicia opened in 1847: the Kraków-Upper Silesian Railway ; construction began on the initiative of the Senate of the City of Krakow in 1844 in the still partially independent Republic of Krakow . This was followed by the construction of the Emperor Ferdinand's Northern Railway ; the Vienna main street lost its importance.

    In 1892 the Galician railway network, largely operated by the Imperial and Royal State Railways with their headquarters in Lemberg, comprised 2704 km. The Galician network included:

    In 1901 three express trains ran daily from Kraków Central Station to Vienna North Station ; they covered the 413 km long route in seven to eight and a half hours. It took about six hours from Krakow to Lviv. In 1901, direct coaches, dining and sleeping cars ran from Vienna to Krakow, Lemberg, Podwoloczyska (border with Russia) and Itzkany (today Suceava Nord; at that time border between Bukovina and Romania). The connection between Vienna and Warsaw on the Northern Railway also ran through Galicia. The main train station built in Lviv in 1904, from which numerous international train connections originated, symbolizes the importance of rail transport at that time.

    On June 1, 1901, the construction of the Oder-Vistula-Dniester Canal was decided by the Austrian House of Representatives through a bill, but never realized.

    Furthermore, there were around 13,000 km of land and more than 2000 km of waterways.


    Until the end of the First World War , Galicia had the largest oil reserves in Europe; the Galician oil fields have been industrially exploited since the second half of the 19th century. Up to 1900 an annual production volume of one million tons was reached, and in 1912 Austria-Hungary rose to the third largest oil producing country in the world after the United States with a production of 2.9 million tons of crude oil, which was almost exclusively extracted in Galicia States and Russia on. In 1910, 2.1 million tons of oil were produced in Galicia, which corresponded to about five percent of world production.

    However, other branches of the economy were hardly developed. At the time of the founding , the country had almost no industry, but trades and crafts also worked with technically outdated procedures. Around the turn of the 19th century, some attempts to improve were to be found, but mining was underdeveloped , also with regard to the rich mineral resources such as iron, lead , coal and salt . In the Drohobytsch district there was the only noteworthy ironworks , with an annual capacity of around 450 t of cast and wrought iron . In the western Galician district of Chrzanów , a mining area was created (Polish: Zagłębie Krakowskie = Cracow mining area ) and the city of Biała with Silesian Bielitz (today Bielsko-Biała ) became the third center of the textile industry in Austria after Brno and Liberec .

    There was also salt production, largely produced by boiling, whereby the wood required for firing was again a decisive factor. In the Sambor district in 1791, more than 10,000 t of table salt were extracted using the brewing process, some of which were sold outside the country.

    The craft was mostly limited to satisfying the modest needs of the rural population. The many home weavers and potters were of somewhat greater importance . In Tomaczow in Eastern Galicia there was a faience factory that produced and exported very good goods. The home weavers usually made very coarse linen or drill , which only brought a modest profit. Also flax and hemp were grown and preferred to ropes for harness processing. In those places where there were still notable oak forests, the company had relocated to the manufacture of barrel staves , but also especially of ship planks , and even to the construction of entire ships for the rivers San and Vistula . The trade in honey and wax was of lesser importance, the latter, if possible in a bleached state, being important for the indispensable candle production alongside sebum .

    For information on economic discrimination against Jewish Galicians by Polish decision-makers, see the section entitled “ Jewish population ”.


    The universities of Cracow and Lviv , where a number of Polish scientists were trained, exerted an important influence on intellectual life . In return, the Polish conservative camp pledged its loyalty to the House of Habsburg. The two universities had around 2,500 students at the time, and the language of instruction was Polish. There were also three theological schools, one art school and one arts and crafts school, and ten educational institutions for teachers. The University of Lemberg was founded in 1784 and has only got off the ground slowly. At the instigation of Joseph II, the then famous Garellische Library was brought from Vienna to Lemberg. When the uprising was put down in 1848, the Austrian military not only set fire to and destroyed some buildings in the city, they also destroyed this library.

    Lviv, the state capital, was home to a large number of administrative, ecclesiastical and judicial institutions. The city soon achieved remarkable prosperity, and public life emulated that in Vienna . Yet the spiritual life was very modest; there was, for example, in Galicia only a single Polish book printing , in Zamosc , and the only German printing company could only exist because they have the right to reprint the Gubernial ordinances and Profiles had leased. In 1829 there were already six book printers, but one printer still had around 450,000 residents.

    In general, however, the level of education, especially in the country, was very low. The cause was undoubtedly the school system, which had improved considerably since the beginning of Austrian rule, but was still far from being able to withstand comparison with Austria and the German states. There was no compulsory schooling before 1867 , but pastors and teachers tried to persuade the farmers to send their children to school. In the sowing and harvesting season , however, the children were needed on the farms. In small villages there were at best trivial schools in which the children were poorly instructed in religion and in reading, writing and arithmetic by auxiliary teachers. If the community was small and poor and a school was not approved because of the small number of children, then at least a winter or corner school was maintained, where the so-called teacher, usually a farmer who knows how to read, alternates the children in farmhouses during the winter months gathered and briefly briefed in reading.

    The language of instruction in the cities, until then German, became largely Polish after 1867. The state school law of 1873 resulted in a reorganization of the elementary schools and their doubling. Of the around 5,000 primary schools, 0.5% had German as the language of instruction, from which one can conclude that on the national average, almost half of German-speaking children were taught in their mother tongue. No figures are available for teaching in Ruthenian mother tongue.

    Around 1890, Galicia had 28 grammar schools , two secondary schools and four secondary schools . There were about a million school-age children, but fewer than half a million children actually attended school. There were 5,140 full-time teachers for every 100 schoolchildren. There is no statistical information on the proportion of illiterate people in the first few decades. In 1885 there were no schools in 2376 parishes (that was about half). In 1890 80% of the population was still ignorant of writing. By 1914 the proportion had been reduced to 64%.

    Jewish population, anti-Semitism, Germanization
    Jews in Galicia
    and their proportion of the Galician population
    year number proportion of
    1772 171,851 6.4%
    1817 200,402 5.7%
    1831 232,000 5.5%
    1841 273,000 6.2%
    1846 317.225 6.7%
    1851 333.451 7.3%
    1857 448.973 9.7%
    1869 575,433 10.6%
    1880 686,596 11.5%
    1890 772.213 11.7%
    1900 811.371 11.1%
    1910 871.895 10.9%
    Proportion of Jewish population in Galicia in 1910

    The Jewish Galicians had their own city ​​quarters ( shtetl ) almost everywhere and were almost to themselves in some small towns in eastern Galicia. Books and newspapers appeared in their language, Yiddish . The (assimilated) Jews in the larger cities spoke and wrote German or Polish . Outstanding intellectual impulses came from the Jews of Galicia, not only in the religious and philosophical fields. B. Martin Buber - but also in literary terms - such as Joseph Roth , Soma Morgenstern , Manès Sperber or Mascha Kaléko - as well as in other areas (natural sciences, film, law, etc.). These impulses were based on the fact that scholarship and education had been in high esteem among Jews for centuries and that families, insofar as they were financially able to do so, made great efforts to provide their children with education. The Jews were the only group of the population who did not develop a nationalist -particular perspective, but who regarded the entire monarchy as their home. The Zionism played well in the Galician Jews a significant role as founding Lviv was the Jewish National Party .

    From the 1840s the Jewish population in Galicia began to increase. The reasons for this lay in immigration from Russia and the Russian part of Poland under Emperor Nicholas I , who restricted the rights of Russian and Polish Jews and imposed additional obligations on them. In addition, he established a " Paleon of Settlement " in several western provinces of Russia , which in future should have been the only area in which the Jewish population was allowed. This policy was followed more or less strictly for a long time, which led many Jews to emigrate from Russia. Many went to the United States , and many to Galicia. One reason for this immigration was probably that, from the Revolution of 1848 and the Tolerance Patent of 1867, Jews hardly had to fear any state disadvantages due to their religious beliefs in Austria, since all religions were now equal before the state. There were also lower death rates among Jews from the cholera epidemics of the 1850s.

    Many Jews in Galicia assimilated, also because they were not recognized as a separate nation in the Habsburg monarchy. The assimilation was supported by Emperor Joseph II, who promoted the Germanization of the Jews by setting up German-Jewish primary schools in which German was spoken instead of Yiddish. In addition, all Galician Jews - like all other Jews in the Habsburg Empire - were given German names. Since the officials tasked with finding a name were inspired by colors, the landscape or plant names, many names such as Roth, Blumenthal or Rosenzweig were given.

    The economic situation of the bulk of the Jewish Galicians was just as poor as that of the Ruthenian population. Some of them lived in dire poverty. The so-called Jewish professions were overcrowded, the numerous small businesses were barely able to adequately support the mostly large families. In 1857, 2,000 Galician Jews emigrated, compared to 7,000 in 1890. The majority of them preferred the United States as an emigration destination. Between 1880 and 1910 a total of 236,504 Jewish Galicians emigrated to the United States, mostly via Hamburg and the shipping companies there.

    Since the Galician Compromise, the Jews recognized their Polish nationality more and more and assimilated linguistically to the majority population. This reduced the proportion of German-speaking Galicians, most of whom were Jews. In 1880 5.4% of the population declared themselves to be German-speaking, in 1910 it was only 1.1%. The proportion of Jews in Galicia remained constant at 11%, the proportion of German-speaking non-Jews at 0.5%.

    In the eastern part of the Crown Land , Polish landowners ruled over Ukrainian farmers. The Jews, who made up over ten percent of the population there, as traders and craftsmen had long played an intermediary role between the nobility and large landowners and the poor peasants. Most of them lived in the cities, where they made up a large proportion of the population, or in their own villages ( shtetls ). In the spirit of Polish nationalism, they should now be pushed back from these key positions in society, the economy should become “more Polish” and industrialization, which Galicia had slept through as a de facto “agricultural colony ” of the monarchy, should be caught up.

    The Polish aristocracy founded cooperatives and syndicates ( kółka rolnicze ) and supported Poland in setting up their own companies in order to push back Jewish manufacturers, craftsmen and traders. At the same time, Jews were systematically disadvantaged economically and exposed to anti-Semitic agitation. The Catholic Church revived old anti-Semitic ritual murder legends . All this increasingly led to a pogrom-like mood in the Polish-Christian population and increasing pressure to emigrate among the Jews due to the increasing social, economic and political disadvantages and restrictions. From 1871 calls for economic boycotts against Jews increased, and in the 1890s violent attacks against the Jewish population group increased.

    Ukrainian attempts at emancipation

    In the second half of the 19th century, national-Ukrainian parties emerged which advocated the elimination of Polish supremacy in Austria's largest crown land. This exacerbated the differences between Poles and Ruthenians, as the Ukrainians in old Austria were called in German at the time. At the beginning of the 20th century there were extensive agricultural strikes in Eastern Galicia, in which Polish landowners and Ukrainian farmers faced each other.

    By introducing universal, equal and secret electoral rights for men to the House of Representatives in Vienna in 1907, Ukrainians succeeded in significantly increasing their political influence. The Imperial and Royal Government therefore pushed for a compromise between Poles and Ukrainians. The main focus was on increasing the proportion of Ukrainian mandates in the Galician state parliament and the establishment of a Ukrainian university in Lviv. The promotion of the Ukrainians by the Vienna central government led to growing tensions with the Russian Empire, where massive action had been taken against the Ukrainians who lived on Russian territory since the Stolypin coup in 1907. The partial equalization between Ukrainians and Poles in Galicia at the beginning of 1914 led to an intensification of the differences between the dual monarchy and the tsarist empire.

    The conflict between Ukrainians and Poles was carried out at the time of the dissolution of Old Austria in the autumn of 1918 with armed force, with the Polish side preventing the secession of Eastern Galicia.

    German minority
    alternative description
    Naturalization certificate for a person resettled from Galicia as a result of the Hitler-Stalin Pact

    Galicia has been inhabited by a small number of German merchants from Silesia and Hungary and by Polish Roman Catholics since the 13th century . At that time the lands belonged mainly to Benedictines and Cistercians as well as princes and large landowners. From the middle of the 14th century, so-called forest Germans settled in the Sub - Carpathians , but they were Polonized by the 18th century at the latest .

    After the fighting against the Turks and especially the Battle of Kahlenberg in 1683, large parts of the country had to be repopulated. The settlement of the German population at that time is difficult to determine and is controversial.

    After the Petersburg Treaties of 1772, which provided for the division of Poland to Russia, Prussia and Austria, Galicia came to Austria. This part of the former Poland was Polish in the west (but there were some mostly German-speaking places on the western edge around the city of Biała , see Bielitz-Bialaer Sprachinsel ) and in the east it was inhabited by Ruthenians. This part was repopulated mainly under the reign of Maria Theresa from 1774 (settlement in the cities) and under Emperor Joseph II from 1781 (settlement also in the countryside, see Josephine colonization ) until 1836 by German / Austrian immigrants from southern Germany and Bohemia .

    From 1790 onwards, Polish landlords also began to be interested in accepting settlers, because they had meanwhile recognized the benefits of German and Bohemian settlers for agriculture. This resulted in a large number of private foundations east of the Josephinian settlement border. Settlers were brought into the country, received jungle for clearing in exchange for a certain fee, and were allowed to use the land obtained in this way as their property for agriculture. In the period between 1811 and 1848, private landlords increasingly settled farmers and forest workers from Bohemia. For the German minority of the Galician population, the term Galiziendeutsche was used in the 20th century .

    Until the end of the First World War, Galicia was the Austrian crown land, and the various ethnic groups such as Poles, Ukrainians, Jews and Germans lived next to each other, even if the villages were largely “national”. Ukrainians and Germans inherited many dishes and customs from one another.

    After the First World War, Galicia first belonged to the West Ukrainian People's Republic and then to Poland. German traditions and the German language were suppressed by the new Polish state. In 1921 there were 39,810 (0.53%) Germans, ten years later 40,300 (0.47%). In 1937 there were 28,750 German Protestants of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions in Lesser Poland (90.3% of the members).

    Galicia-German resettlers, Heinrich Himmler on the right , near Przemyśl (1940), photo from the Federal Archives

    In 1939, Galicia was divided between Hitler and Stalin even before the beginning of the Second World War . Before the end of the war against Poland, a German-Soviet commission was formed and all persons and their property were registered. At the end of 1939 / beginning of 1940 around 50,000 Galicians of German descent were resettled in the German Reich . This was very chaotic. Through various camps, often the husbands and sons and mothers were housed with the daughters in different camps, the Germans were in the annexed Reichsgau Wartheland brought . There were families who came to Upper Silesia via a detour from camps in Berlin and Saxony . That ended the history of the Germans in Galicia.

    Ethnic and political situation

    Although the country could look back on a long history, it was anything but a unity, neither ethnically nor politically or denominationally. The geographical location within the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy (since 1867) was by no means ideal. Galicia was cordoned off from Hungary by the Beskids and Forest Carpathians , which had not yet been well-developed in terms of traffic, and the common border with the rest of Cisleithania was only a few kilometers long. The country was unprotected to the north and east, so that it was difficult for the military to defend , as demonstrated in the First World War , despite the construction of fortresses like Przemyśl .

    After 1867, Galicia took part in the constitutional development of Old Austria ( December Constitution ) on an equal footing, so that all citizens were guaranteed certain basic rights. The unified Austrian citizenship, which all Galicians possessed, enabled them to immigrate to other parts of Cisleithania; an option that was heavily used from the start of World War I when Eastern Galicia became a frontline area. The involvement of Polish aristocrats in the Viennese government used them to gain advantages for their clientele. Only the universal male suffrage for the Reichsrat as the central parliament (not for the Galician state parliament!) Led to democratic approaches from 1907 onwards .

    The contrast between the ruling Poles on the one hand and the mostly serving Ruthenians, as the Ukrainians were called, and the Jewish Galicians on the other, had a very problematic effect on the development of the country. The land-owning aristocracy wanted, as in the Kingdom of Hungary , to retain their privileges; Ruthenians and Jews were, as it were, disadvantaged economically and in terms of political representation.

    Galicia in the First World War

    Kingdom of Galicia, administrative units (1914)

    Like many other European powers, Russia had territorial goals and wishes for expansion before the First World War .

    Shortly after the beginning of the war, Russian troops occupied, among other things, the Austro-Hungarian Galicia (August 24 to September 11, 1914). Austria-Hungary's army in World War I had to retreat to the Carpathian Mountains in September (August 26 to September 1) after an advance on Galicia’s capital Lviv due to the overwhelming Russian superiority .

    The Russian Foreign Minister Sasonow drew up a 13-point program on September 14, 1914 - with a view to these successes - which in some aspects can be seen as a counterpart to Bethmann Hollweg's September program .

    Sasonow planned primarily territorial cessions of Germany, allegedly on the basis of the nationality principle. Russia would annex the lower reaches of the Nyemen ( Prussian Lithuania ) and the eastern part of Galicia as well as annex the eastern part of the province of Posen , (Upper) Silesia and western Galicia to Russian Poland . Pan-Slavism certainly played a role in these annexation plans .

    In 1917, in order to exonerate them, the Western Powers urged Russia to carry out an offensive planned by Russian Minister of War Kerensky that began on June 30th. After initial success, the offensive got stuck on July 11th. On July 19, German and Austro-Hungarian troops started a counterattack near Tarnopol. They succeeded in recapturing eastern Galicia and Bukovina.

    On November 6 and 7, 1917, the Bolsheviks took power in Russia (" October Revolution ").

    On December 15, an armistice was agreed between the Central Powers and Russia, and a week later (initially unsuccessful) peace negotiations were opened in Brest-Litovsk, which ended on March 3, 1918 with the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty .

    Restructuring plan not implemented in 1918

    As part of the Bread Peace of Brest-Litovsk , which was concluded with the Ukrainian People's Republic on February 9, 1918 , Austria-Hungary undertook to combine the eastern part of Galicia, which is predominantly inhabited by Ukrainians, with Bukovina into a separate autonomous crown land by July 31, 1918. The plan was not implemented and on July 4, 1918, Austria-Hungary terminated the agreement.

    After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary

    Galicia and Volhynia in again independent Poland

    At the end of the First World War, Austria-Hungary dissolved: its parts either became independent or joined neighboring countries. Galicia left the monarchy on October 30, 1918; the dominant Polish politicians declared the entire former crown land part of the new Polish state. In contrast, the Ukrainians claimed the eastern part of Galicia. Thus, at the end of 1918, the West Ukrainian People's Republic ( Sachidna Ukrainska Narodna Respublika [SUNR]) was proclaimed in Lemberg, which itself had a Polish majority but was in a Ukrainian-populated area . This could not hold up against the invading Polish army in the Polish-Ukrainian war , so that East Galicia became Polish in May 1919. This was followed in 1920 by the Polish-Soviet War . The three wars, which continued for more than six years, destroyed and decimated Eastern Galicia.

    The former crown land of Galicia was divided into four voivodships in the Second Polish Republic: Krakow , Lemberg , Stanisławów and Tarnopol , which covered a total area of ​​79,373 km². The population was 7.488 million in 1921, of which 4.333 million (57.9%) Poles, 2.680 million (35.8%) Ukrainians, 428,000 (5.7%) Jews. In 1931 there were 8.509 million, of which 5.901 million (59%) were Poles, 2.874 million (33.8%) Ukrainians and 549,000 (6.5%) Jews.

    The name Galicia ( Galicja in Polish ) was reluctant to use by Poles at the time; the term Lesser Poland was preferred in its place , including Małopolska Wschodnia ( Eastern Lesser Poland ) for Eastern Galicia . The officials were almost exclusively Poles, who often pursued a policy of polonization on their own and treated the Ukrainians as second-class citizens from above. Relations collapsed completely in 1930. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists carried out numerous terrorist attacks. In revenge for these actions, the Polish administration used many pacifications, arrests, and so on, often of innocent Ukrainian people. Tensions intensified after the murders of Tadeusz Hołówko (1931) and especially of Bronisław Pieracki (1934). This lasted until the Second World War.

    Second World War and consequences

    During the Second World War , the area was initially divided between the German Empire and the Soviet Union . Western Galicia became part of the General Government as the district of Krakow (excluding the districts of Bielitz , Saybusch and Krenau , which were directly attached to the Third Reich), while the Soviet Union joined Eastern Galicia to the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic up to the River San . After the German attack on the Soviet Union , Eastern Galicia was also incorporated into the Generalgouvernement (see District of Galicia ).

    At the Yalta Conference , the Curzon Line was established as the Soviet western border. As a result, two smaller areas of Galicia that had been Soviet from 1939 to 1941 reverted to Poland. Today the western part of Galicia belongs to Poland, the eastern part with Lviv to the Ukraine.

    In all the countries of Eastern Europe, large ethnic population shifts were part of Soviet post-war policy from 1944 to 1946. The Poles of Eastern Galicia were resettled or expelled to the formerly German areas in western Poland. Conversely, Ukrainians from Poland were resettled in western Ukraine. With that, the Poles disappeared from Eastern Galicia and Volhynia , where they had lived since the late Middle Ages. The population of Eastern Galicia was now almost completely Ukrainian for the first time.

    See also


    • Klaus Bachmann : "A stove of enmity against Russia" - Galicia as a hot spot in the relations between the Danube monarchy and Russia (1907–1914). Publishing house for history and politics, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-7028-0374-2 .
    • Harald Binder: Galicia in Vienna: parties, elections, parliamentary groups and members of parliament in transition to mass politics. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3326-X .
    • Abraham J. Brawer: Galicia as it came to Austria, a historical-statistical study of the internal conditions of the country in 1772 . Freytag and Tempsky, Leipzig / Vienna 1910. (Reprint: Scherer-Verlag, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-89433-007-4 ).
    • Norman Davies : Vanished Empires: The History of Forgotten Europe. 3rd, revised and corrected edition. Theiss, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-8062-3116-8 , pp. 485-539 (= 9. Galicia: The Kingdom of the Naked and the Hungry (1773-1918) ).
    • Verena Dohrn : Journey to Galicia. Border landscapes of old Europe . Verlag Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-10-015310-3 .
    • Claudia Erdheim : It's no longer kosher. A family story. Novel. Czernin Verlag, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7076-0208-7 .
    • Claudia Erdheim : The Stetl. Galicia and Bukovina 1890–1918. Album Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-85164-167-7 .
    • Alexander Granach : There goes a person - autobiographical novel . btb-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-442-73603-4 .
    • Georg Hinrichsen: Letters from Galicia, written in 1913 by Karl Hinrichsen . Publisher Cuvillier. Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-86537-646-0 .
    • Irene Kohl , Emil Brix , Klaus Beitl (eds.): Galicia in Pictures: the original illustrations for the “Kronprinzenwerk” from the holdings of the Fideikommissbibliothek of the Austrian National Library . Association for Folklore , Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-900359-73-3 .
    • Roman Lach, Thomas Markwart: Ghost Landscape Galicia. Karl Emil Franzos, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Joseph Roth, Alfred Döblin, Bruno Schulz. (online at: ) .
    • Karlheinz Mack (ed.): Galicia at the turn of the century. Political, social and cultural connections with Austria. Publishing house for history and politics, Vienna 1990, ISBN 3-7028-0290-8 .
    • Bertha Pappenheim , Sara Rabinowitsch : On the situation of the Jewish population in Galicia . Frankfurt am Main 1904 (full text at Wikisource).
    • Martin Pollack : To Galicia - from Hasids, Hutsuls, Poles and Ruthenians. An imaginary journey through the vanished world of Eastern Galicia and Bukovina. Brandstätter Verlag, Vienna 1984, ISBN 3-85447-075-4 . (New edition: Galicia: a journey through the vanished world of Eastern Galicia and Bukowina. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2001, ISBN 978-3-458-34447-6 ).
    • Isabel Röskau-Rydel: German history in Eastern Europe - Galicia, Bukowina, Moldau . Verlag Siedler-Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-88680-781-9 .
    • Thomas Sandkühler: “Final Solution” in Galicia. The murder of Jews in Eastern Poland and the rescue initiatives of Berthold Beitz 1941–1944. Verlag Dietz, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-8012-5022-9 .
    • Ralph Schattkowsky, Michael G. Müller (eds.): Identity change and national mobilization in regions of ethnic diversity: a regional comparison between West Prussia and Galicia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century . (Conferences on East Central Europe Research 20). Herder Institute, Marburg 2004, ISBN 3-87969-313-7 .
    • Evelyn Scheer, Gert Schmidt : Discovering Ukraine - Between the Carpathian Mountains and the Black Sea . Trescher-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89794-060-4 .
    • Kai Struve: Peasants and Nation in Galicia: on belonging and social emancipation in the 19th century . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Verlag, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-36982-4 .
    • Lutz C. Kleveman: Lemberg. The forgotten center of Europe. Structure, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-351-03668-3 .

    Web links

    Commons : Galicia  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Franz Gall : Austrian heraldry. Handbook of coat of arms science. Böhlau, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-205-05352-4 , p. 199
    2. Friedrich Justin Bertuch : General geographical ephemeris. Volume 26, Verlag des Landes-Industrie Comptoirs, Weimar 1808, p. 105
    3. ^ Krzysztof Lipiński: In Search of Kakanien. Literary forays into a sunken world. Röhrig, Sankt Ingbert 2000, ISBN 3-86110-235-8 , p. 25.
    4. ^ Hipolit Stupnicki : The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Lemberg 1853, p. 6, note, digitized
    5. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch : On the height. Leipzig 1882, Volume 2, p. 111
    6. ^ Maria Regina Korzeniowska : Atlas historyczny, genealogiczny, chronologiczny i geograficzny Polski. Warsaw 1831. Repository , digitized
    7. ^ Konrad Meus: Wadowice 1772-1914. Study przypadku miasta galicyjskiego [A study of a Galician town] . Księgarnia Akademicka, Kraków 2013, ISBN 978-83-7638-345-3 , p. 33 (Polish).
    8. K. Meus, Wadowice ..., p. 39.
    10. Only the self-declaration as a Jewish nationality, there were many more people of the Mosaic religion , but who considered themselves to be members of the Polish a. a. Nationalities considered.
    11. ^ Gotthold Rhode : History of Poland. An overview. Verlag Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1966, p. 48.
    12. a b c d Przemysław Stanko: Monografia Gminy Wilkowice . Wydawnictwo Prasa Beskidzka, Wilkowice 2014, ISBN 978-83-940833-0-4 , p. 173-174 (Polish).
    13. a b Jerzy Polak, Piotr Kenig: Bielsko-Biała. Monografia miasta . Biała od zarania do zakończenia I wojny światowej (1918). 2nd Edition. tape II. . Wydział Kultury i Sztuki Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej, Bielsko-Biała 2011, ISBN 978-83-60136-36-2 , p. 197 (Polish).
    14. a b c d e f K. Meus, Wadowice ..., p. 34.
    15. a b c d e f g K. Meus, Wadowice ..., p. 35.
    16. a b c Bielsko-Biała, Monografia miasta, 2011, Volume IV, p. 206.
    17. Horst Glassl: The Austrian furniture factory in Galicia (1772-1790). Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 1975, ISBN 3-447-01684-1 , p. 78.
    18. Ludwig Schneider: The colonization work Josef II. In Galicia. Presentation and lists of names. Verlag Hirzel, Leipzig 1939, Reprint 1989, Scherer Verlag Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-002-3 , p. 10.
    19. ^ H. Pauls, Cornelius Krahn: Galicia (Poland & Ukraine) . In: Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
    20. Most historians cite April 6, 1818 as the beginning of membership, when the German Confederation recognized the border shift. The actual, legally binding imperial patent was not issued until March 2, 1820. A patent dated October 29, 1850 rejoined Galicia outside the German Confederation. see. Andrzej Nowakowski: Terytoria oświęcimsko-zatorskie w Związku Niemieckim. Zarys prawno-historyczny. In: Przegląd Historyczny 76/4 (1985), pp. 783-793 , here: p. 787.
    21. ^ Anson Rabinbach : The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. In: Austrian History Yearbook. Vol. XI, Berghahn Books / Rice University Press, Houston 1975, ISBN 3-11-015562-1 , p. 51.
    22. Law of April 2, 1873, RGBl. 1873 p. 161ff.
    23. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 5th edition. 7th volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1895, p. 19.
    24. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 5th edition. 7th volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1895, p. 16 f.
    25. Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon. 6th edition. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, Volume 7, p. 272.
    26. Historia: Pierwsza bita droga w Polsce powstała w naszym regionie
    27. ^ Wilfried Schimon: Austria-Hungary's motor vehicle formations in World War 1914–1918. A contribution to the history of technology in the world war. Hermagoras Verlag, Klagenfurt / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-7086-0243-1 , p. 118.
    28. ^ Joseph Buzek: The problem of emigration in Austria. In: Journal for Economics, Social Policy and Administration. Vol. 10, 1901, p. 492, quoted from: Anson Rabinbach: The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. Austrian History Yearbook, Vol. XI, Berghahn Books / Rice University Press, Houston 1975, ISBN 3-11-015562-1 , p. 48.
    29. ^ Gustav Adolf Schimmer : The Jews in Austria according to the census of December 31, 1880. Vienna 1881, quoted from: Rabinbach, Austrian History Yearbook, Vol. XI, p. 48.
    30. Rabinbach, Austrian History Yearbook Vol. XI. P. 48.
    31. a b Lutz C. Kleveman: Jerusalem of the East. March 21, 2017, accessed on June 9, 2019 : “Persuaded by Hamburg shipping companies, a total of 236,504 Jewish Galicians emigrated to the United States between 1880 and 1910. This high number shows that many attempts at assimilation have failed. "
    32. ^ Peter GJ Pulzer: The emergence of political anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria from 1867 to 1914. Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-525-36954-9 , p. 173.
    33. ^ Resettlement 1939/41, Prof. Dr. Müller (PDF, 232 kB)
    34. Jew. According to the official population census in 1921 and 1931.
    35. Grzegorz Rąkowski: Przewodnik po Ukrainie Zachodniej. Część III. Ziemia Lwowska . Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rewasz", Pruszków 2007, ISBN 978-83-8918866-3 , p. 49 (Polish).
    36. ^ Andreas Kappeler: Brief history of the Ukraine. Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-58780-1 , p. 224 f.

    Coordinates: 49 ° 31 '  N , 23 ° 15'  E