Wladislaus II. (Opole)

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Wladislaus II. Of Opole (also Ladislaus II. Of Opole , Wladislaw II. Of Opole ; Polish Władysław Opolczyk , Czech Vladislav II. Opolský ; * between 1326 and 1332 ; † May 18, 1401 in Opole ) was a Bohemian feudal from 1356 - and Hereditary Duke of Opole , 1367–1372 Palatine of Hungary , 1370–1392 Polish feudal duke of Wieluń , 1372–1378 governor in the "Rus" , 1377–1378 governor of Poland , 1375–1396 Bohemian liege duke of Pless , 1378–1392 Polish liege duke of Dobrin and Kujawien , 1382–1385 regent of the Opole partial duchies Falkenberg and Strehlitz and 1384–1390 Bohemian liege duke of Jägerndorf . He came from the Opole branch of the Silesian Piasts .

Seal of Duke Wladislaus II of Opole


  • Title in Latin: "Ladislaus Dei Gracia Dux Opoliensis Wieloniensis et Terre Russie Domin et Heres"
  • Translation: "Wladislaus, by the grace of God , Duke of Opole and Wieluń, lord and heir of the Rus country "


Wladislaus was the eldest son of Duke Bolko II of Opole and Elisabeth, daughter of Duke Bernhard II of Schweidnitz . Because of his mother's family ties to the Anjou family , he came to the Hungarian court at an early age. There he married Elisabeth in 1355, daughter of the Hospodar Nikolaus Alexander ( Nicolae Alexandru ; † 1364) of Wallachia . As the brother-in-law of the Roman-German Emperor Charles IV , whose vassal he was as Duke of Opole, and nephew of the Hungarian King Louis of Anjou , he was related to the most powerful European monarchs of the 14th century.

After the death of his father in 1356, Wladislaus and his younger brother Bolko III took over. together ruled the Duchy of Opole. Because of the frequent absences of Vladislav, it was practically exercised by Bolko alone. After the death of their uncle Bolko II von Schweidnitz in 1368, Wladislaus and his brother Bolko got into armed conflict with the Liegnitz Duke Ludwig I because of the pledges of Kreuzburg and Pitschen that their uncle had left them in their will.

After the death of the last Polish king Casimir III. from the Kujavian branch of the Piasts in 1370, Wladislaus ensured the smooth transition of the Polish crown to the Hungarian King Ludwig von Anjou, who was crowned King of Poland in the same year. Subsequently, King Ludwig Wladislaus awarded the title of Palatine of Hungary and Count of Pressburg . In addition, he transferred the areas of Polish Bunzlau , Wieluń , Dobrin and Rotussia to him in his newly won Kingdom of Poland . Wladislaus promoted the development of the state of Rotreußen, which had fallen fallow after decades of war, by founding cities according to Magdeburg law , settling the country with German, Hungarian and Polish farmers, craftsmen, citizens, nobles and the clergy, and by promoting trade and industry .

In 1374, Wladislaus was involved in obtaining the Kaschau privilege , with which King Ludwig obtained the approval of the female line of succession from the Polish nobility. In 1375, Wladislaus acquired the dominions of Pless and Nikolai from Duke Johann I in Troppau . After King Ludwig's mother Elisabeth , who in fact ruled the government in Poland, had to leave Poland, Wladislaus, who was now at the height of his power, was the sole governor of the Kingdom of Poland from 1377-1378.

After the death of his brother Bolko III. In 1382, Wladislaus ruled his Duchy of Opole alone. Since the city of Opole was subsequently divided into two between him and his four nephews, he built the new castle, which was included in the wall ring. In 1384 he granted Guttentag the city charter of Magdeburg.

In negotiations, Wladislaus secured the Polish throne for Hedwig von Anjou , the youngest daughter of King Ludwig I. At the age of eleven, she was crowned “King” of Poland in 1384, as the dignity of “Queen of Poland” was not known. In 1386, Wladislaus was allowed to be the godfather of Hedwig's future husband, the heathen Lithuanian prince Jogaila , who took the first name of his godfather and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło .

In 1385 Wladislaus acquired the Duchy of Jägerndorf from Duke Johann II of Troppau , which he sold to his brother-in-law Jobst von Moravia in 1390 . In 1387 the Bohemian King Wenceslaus IV transferred the city of Namslau to him .

From 1388 there were armed conflicts between King Jagiełło and Wladislaus, the cause of which was the increasingly anti-Polish politics of Wladislaus. Even as governor of Poland he exercised a German-friendly administration and a foreign policy balanced with the Teutonic Order . In addition, he turned increasingly politically to the Bohemian King Wenceslaus IV. With his influential position, he pursued the plan in 1391 to smash the Kingdom of Poland and divide it between the Kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia , the Electorate of Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order. After he had transferred the Dobrin in his possession to the Teutonic Order in 1392, King Jagiełło undertook a military campaign in the Opole region and devastated it.

Because of these disputes, Wladislaus lost all possessions outside of Silesia with the exception of Polish Bunzlau. He spent the rest of his life in seclusion in his Duchy of Opole. This pledged he his bishop 1393 nephew John I and its younger brothers Bolko IV. , Heinrich († 1394) and Bernhard , wherein Wladislaus a lifelong usufruct was granted.

Wladislaus merits include the closer ties between the principality of Wallachia, which is striving for independence, to Hungary, as well as the regulation of the succession between the Hungarian Anjou dynasty and the German imperial family of the Luxembourgers . With the conquest of the Bulgarian Kingdom of Vidin , the Hungarian southern border was secured from the advancing Turkish Ottomans . He strengthened the Catholic Church by founding an archbishopric in Halicz and the pilgrimage site on the Hellen Berg in Czestochowa .

Wladislaus II died in Opole in 1401. His body was buried in the Franciscan church there. Since he only left daughters, his nephew Bolko IV followed him as Duke of Opole. Wladislaus widow Eufemia received Oberglogau as a widow's residence . She died between 1418 and 1424.

Marriage and offspring

Around 1355, Wladislaus married Elisabeth († 1370), daughter of Nikolaus Alexander, voivode of Wallachia from the house of Bessarabia . The daughters came from this marriage:

After Elisabeth's death in 1370, Wladislaus married Eufemia († 1418/1424), daughter of Siemowit III, Duke of Mazovia, before 1379 . From this marriage the daughters emerged:

  • Hedwig († after 1390), married around 1390 Wigunt Aleksander (brother of the Polish King Jagiełło), Prince of Kernavė in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  • Eufemia († 1408), princess of Opole


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Richard Roepell and Jacob Caro : Geschichte Polens , p. 379.
  2. which included the towns of Wieluń, Bolesławiec , Brzeźnica , Krzepice , Olsztyn , Bobolice , Czestochowa in south-eastern Greater Poland on the border with Silesia; Richard Roepell and Jacob Caro: History of Poland , p. 373
  3. King Ludwig the Great, in his capacity as King of Poland, had Galicia and Lodomeria, the former Ruthenian principality of Halych-Volhynia, also called Red Russia , detached from the Polish Empire in 1370 and administered directly by the Kingdom of Hungary: Richard Roepell and Jacob Caro: Geschichte Poland , p. 379
  4. Joseph Calasanza von Arneth: Geschichte des Kaiserthumes Österreich , p. 381
  5. Ludwig Christoph Franz Kühnast: Historical news about the city of Bromberg , p. 31
  6. ^ Max Töppen: Historisch-Comparative Geographie von Preussen , p. 93
  7. ^ Václav Vladivoj Tomek : Handbook of Austrian History , p. 362
  8. around 1378