|Forms of government and government in the world|
The term monarchy ( old Gr . Μοναρχία monarchía 'sole rule ', from μόνος monos 'one' and ἄρχειν archein 'rule') denotes a form of government with one person, the monarch, who typically holds the office of head of state for life or until his abdication. The monarchy thus forms the counterpart to the modern republic . As a rule, the office is transferred from the circle of noble people by inheritance (dynastic principle) or by election.
The powers of the person concerned can vary depending on the form of the monarchy: This spectrum ranges from almost none ( parliamentary monarchy ) to a constitutionally limited ( constitutional monarchy ) to sole, unrestricted political power ( absolute monarchy ). The degenerate, illegitimate and despotic form of monarchy is tyranny .
In addition, a distinction is made between hereditary and elective monarchy : In the first-mentioned form, the ruler is determined by succession , in the second- mentioned form by an election, usually for life. In hereditary monarchies, the head of state's claim to power is usually traced back to a divine determination (sacred elements). Worship as an independent deity or person of divine origin ( god-king , sacred kingship ) is also possible (very common in ancient empires, e.g. in ancient Egypt or - in a modified form - in the Roman empire , but also in more recent times, e.g. . in the empire of China or until after the Second World War in Japan ).
The state theory or ideology that justifies the monarchy is monarchism or royalism. A supporter of the monarchy is referred to as a monarchist or royalist , an opponent as a republican, monarchomach or antimonarchist.
The type of monarchy that legitimizes itself in terms of a deity or a deified hero of origin and his line of descent usually precedes cultural history. It is a characteristic of gentilian and traditional society insofar as the family union and the system of descent have great weight in it. In this sense, the German word " König " continues to exist as an old derivation of "cunne" ("Volksstamm").
The corresponding monarchy can be traced back to ancient Egypt , where the pharaoh was worshiped as a future god. Comparable are Romulus for the Roman royalty and the tribe of David for the ancient Hebrews. For other cultures, the imperial system in ancient China can be invoked, which called the ruler, among other things, the “son of heaven” ( Chinese Pin , Pinyin tiānzi ), a “ mandate of heaven ” (天命, tiānmìng ) in his rule and saw him thereby bestowed absolute power.
For the occasional parallel rule of several monarchs see dyarchy , for history see also under king .
In ancient Greece , monarchy was initially understood pejoratively and used synonymously with tyranny . In the Attic democracy , the word was then applied to the mythical kings such as Theseus , but not to the negatively assessed rulers of the Persian Empire . Herodotus (approx. 480-420 BC) called the "good" autocratic rulers who are oriented towards the common good as monarchs. With Plato (427–347 BC), too , the monarchy is the ideal type of rule of an individual oriented towards the common good. This understanding was first developed further by his student Aristotle (384-324 BC) and later by the Greek historian Polybius (around 200 BC to around 118 BC). She falls as the tyranny under the rule of a single Aristotle used this monarchy as a generic term, the good basil ( βασιλεία includes kingship) and poor tyranny.
In the ancient theory of the state, the concept was widespread that every form of rule oriented towards the common good (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy ) has a degenerate counterpart oriented only to the individual interests of the rulers (tyranny, oligarchy , democracy or ochlocracy ). Realizing that these six basic forms of constitution are necessarily unstable, Polybius in particular developed the idea of the constitutional cycle, which relates these forms of rule to one another. Empirically, however, the ancient authors mainly found mixed forms.
- Basic forms of constitutions (after Polybios)
|One||Monarchy or Basilie||Tyranny|
|All||Democracy or politics||Ochlocracy|
Elective and hereditary monarchy
The electoral monarchy (with often a limited number of candidates and voters) seems to be historically older than the hereditary monarchy , which successfully reduced the risk of civil war in the succession. The Kingdom of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation were electoral monarchies until their end. The following four countries are currently electoral monarchies: the Vatican , Cambodia , Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates .
In Europe , until Christianization, there was usually some form of elective monarchy. Both Germanic and Celtic tribes chose their " chiefs ", but these usually came from powerful and influential family clans . Nevertheless, there was no automatic succession for them as in a hereditary monarchy. In the event of death or loss of the king's salvation , a new leader was elected or proclaimed through various rituals ( thing , raising a shield ) . In the Saxon order , a duke was only elected for the time of a war , a field campaign or raid , who after the end of this war became a simple freeman again. Another rule was rejected by the free peasant warriors.
This pre-feudalist order, which was partly democratic , came to an end with Christianization. When in the Roman Empire Emperor Constantine the Great put Christianity on an equal footing with other religions with the Edict of Tolerance of Milan in 313 , an alliance between the church institutions and the state authority began . The church of that time legitimized absolute rule and succession with the ideology of rule by God's grace . In return, it secured itself a privileged position and participation in power, which it retained in most countries until the time of the French Revolution .
In the Middle Ages, Europe was increasingly ruled by hereditary monarchies: the monarch was at the head of a structure of regionally more or less homogeneous domains that were given as fiefs to followers. This feudal system formed the basis of the administration and the military in the ruled areas, but suffered from the increasing demands of the feudal takers to dispose of their territories themselves in succession and to give fiefs from them to followers. Until early forms of the modern state emerged , the Roman-German or Polish monarch in fact lost more and more power to the feudal nobility thus formed , whereas the French or Prussian monarchy overturned them and was able to enforce an absolutist monarchy.
Forms of monarchy
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, further differentiations or subtypes emerged in modern Europe , which in addition to the form of government also provide information about the system of government and the distribution of power. Today the division is mostly made into absolute, constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. This triad is also used by important political scientists such as Karl Loewenstein , Ernst Fraenkel and Eckhard Jesse .
In this form the monarch has the claim to sole state power ; the nobility loses its position in the feudal system in exchange for privileges in the state and military. The monarch is “legibus absolutus” ( Latin for “detached from the laws”), which means that he is not subject to the laws that he himself enacts. The best-known example of the monarch's claim to absolute rule is the Sun King Louis XIV , whose self-image " L'État, c'est moi " (German: "I am the state") can be seen as a downright prototype for this development . In the long run, however, the absolute claim to power cannot be enforced against the nobility and the aspiring bourgeoisie ; where absolute monarchy survives, it assumes elements of republic or democracy . Despite difficulties in defining the term, today (2011) Brunei , the Vatican City , Saudi Arabia , Eswatini , Qatar and Oman can be regarded as currently existing absolute monarchies. In the spring of 2006, the king, who had ruled absolutely until then, had to accept that he was largely deposed in Nepal . In May 2008, the monarchy was abolished in Nepal and a republic was proclaimed. In Bhutan , the absolute monarchy was converted into a constitutional monarchy by a constitution on July 18, 2008. The degenerate, despotic and autocratic form of the absolute monarchy is also known as tyranny .
In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch's power is no longer absolute, but limited and regulated by the constitution . The monarch and parliament must share power. Laws require the consent of both bodies. However, the government continues to be directed by the monarch and not by a representative body and is dependent on him. that is, he can depose the government. Examples of this are the German Empire (1871–1918) and Monaco (since 1911). The concrete distribution of power between parliament and monarch varies and can sometimes go in one direction or the other. The Principality of Liechtenstein , for example, is a constitutional hereditary monarchy in which the government is determined by the Liechtenstein Parliament and only appointed by the Prince . However, the government in Liechtenstein also depends on the prince's trust. The Principality of Liechtenstein thus represents a constitutional monarchy with strong democratic- parliamentary features.
Parliamentary monarchies have a parliamentary system of government . The head of government and, if applicable, the other members of the government are elected or factually determined by parliament and are dependent on its trust. In contrast to the constitutional monarchy, the monarch does not have the option of removing the government. As a rule, it exercises little or no influence on state affairs, as these are conducted by parliament and the government, which are therefore the bearers of state power. Therefore, the monarch mostly only has representative and state notarial tasks, such as the formal appointment of the head of government and ministers or the signing of laws. Here his room for maneuver is very limited, as he cannot block parliamentary decisions - he has no right of veto. The monarchy is under the primacy of parliament and could even be abolished by parliament or a referendum.
Almost all Western European monarchies developed into parliamentary monarchies in the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The parliamentary monarchy has usually emerged gradually as a result of democratization processes in the European monarchies. It is the result of the attempt to democratize the monarchies without abolishing them. Other examples are the 15 Commonwealth Monarchies.
What makes it difficult to assign individual states to the constitutional or parliamentary monarchy is the fact that the constitutional text and constitutional reality often diverge. In purely constitutional terms, i.e. de jure, most monarchies are constitutional, but in political practice, i.e. de facto, the majority of monarchies are parliamentary. The monarchs renounce the perception of their prerogatives , do not interfere in day-to-day political affairs and limit themselves to their representative and mediating role. Ultimately, the decisive factor for the assignment is "not the extent of the formal powers [...], but the practical design of the office as head of state". However, crisis or exceptional situations can also lead to a change in the understanding of office.
In the English-speaking world, the term " parliamentary monarchy " is unusual, which is why the term " constitutional monarchy " is always used here . A differentiation based on the terminology is therefore not possible. The division between constitutional and parliamentary monarchy is often not as sharp in English as it is in German. The reason for this inaccuracy is the view that a monarchy with a constitution (and thus usually with a representative system ) inevitably developed into a parliamentary system of government. After all, legislation and the budget are the means of power for parliament to implement a policy of its own choosing.
List of current monarchies
Recognized, independent states
The following list includes 44 monarchies, of which 43 are member states of the United Nations and the Vatican (the Holy See officially represents the Vatican as a subject in international law in diplomatic relations). As a result, about a quarter of the recognized independent states are monarchies. The list of independent sovereign monarchies currently includes the following states :
|country||Form of monarchy||monarch||Current||Remarks|
|Japan||Parliamentary||Tennō (often translated as "emperor")||Naruhito||The Japanese emperor is de jure not a head of state and has no political power, but is considered a “symbol of the state”. He performs purely representative tasks. Japan is also the oldest surviving monarchy in the world. The traditional role of the Japanese Tennō (天皇, Japanese for "Heavenly Ruler") as religious leaders of Shintoism is now only nominal.|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Parliamentary||queen||Elizabeth II||-|
|Bahrain||Constitutional||king||Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa||An emirate until 2002, since then a kingdom. After the democratic reforms started in 2000, it is now a constitutional monarchy.|
|Barbados||Parliamentary||queen||Elizabeth II||In September 2020, the Barbadian Prime Minister Mia Mottley announced that the country would be declared a republic on the occasion of the 55th anniversary of Independence Day on November 30, 2021.|
|Bhutan||Constitutional||king||Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck||Buddhist absolute monarchy from 1907 to July 18, 2008, constitutional monarchy since then. The kings of Bhutan are called Druk Gyalpo ( Dzongkha for "Dragon King").|
|Denmark||Parliamentary||queen||Margrethe II.||The Danish monarch is head of both Greenland and the Faroe Islands . Succession to the throne has also been open to women since 1953 .|
|Eswatini||Absolutely||king||Mswati III.||Last absolute monarchy in Africa. The democratization process is ongoing.|
|Jordan||Constitutional||king||Abdullah II||Established by the United Kingdom in 1921 .|
|Cambodia||Norodom Sihamoni||Monarchy again since the new constitution of 1993.|
|Netherlands||king||Willem-Alexander||Divided into the Netherlands with its 12 provinces and 3 special municipalities (BES islands) and the autonomous countries of Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten .|
|Lesotho||Letsie III.||"Supreme Chief" until 1965. The king has no executive or legislative functions.|
|Malaysia||Abdullah Sultan Ahmad Shah||Elective monarchy . Malaysia consists of thirteen federal states, including nine sultanates (see section " Subnational Monarchies "). The king is elected every five years by the country's nine sultans from among their ranks on a rotating basis. The official title of the head is Yang di-Pertuan Agong , in German "Supreme Ruler".|
|Morocco||Constitutional||Mohammed VI||Sultanate until 1957, kingdom since then.|
|New Zealand||Parliamentary||queen||Elizabeth II||Since 1907|
|Norway||Parliamentary||king||Harald V.||Exists since 872, from 1380 to 1905 in personal union with Denmark and Sweden. Independent kingdom since 1905. Since 1990, the line of succession has also been open to women.|
|Papua New Guinea||Parliamentary||queen||Elizabeth II||-|
|Saudi Arabia||Absolutely||king||Salman ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz||Islamic monarchy. United since 1932.|
|Sweden||Parliamentary||Carl XVI. Gustaf||Succession to the throne has also been open to women since 1979 . The monarch has no political power.|
|Spain||Felipe VI.||Declared a kingdom again in 1947 under the Franco dictatorship , de facto since 1975.|
|St. Kitts and Nevis||queen||Elizabeth II||-|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||-|
|Tonga||Parliamentary||Tupou VI.||The traditional Polynesian king title "Tu'i tongo" was replaced by a western one in 1865 before the beginning of the British protectorate .|
|United Kingdom||The British monarch is also the head of the following crown possessions (territories directly subordinate to the crown) or overseas territories (former crown colonies ): Guernsey , Jersey , Isle of Man , Anguilla , Bermuda , British Virgin Islands , British Indian Ocean Territory , Cayman Islands , Falkland Islands , Gibraltar , Montserrat , Pitcairn Islands , St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha , South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands .|
|1 Grand Duchy|
|Luxembourg||Parliamentary||Grand duke||Henri I.||Ruled by the Dutch monarchs until 1890 . Since the constitutional reform in 2008, the monarch has barely held any political power.|
|Andorra||Parliamentary||Co-princes||Bishop Joan Enric Vives i Sicília||Andorra is a dyarchy because it has two equal heads of state, namely the incumbent Bishop of Urgell and the current French President .|
|Liechtenstein||Constitutionally "on a democratic and parliamentary basis"||Prince||Hans-Adam II.||-|
|Brunei||Absolutely||sultan||Hassanal Bolkiah||The official title of the head is "Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan", in German "Supreme Ruler".|
|Oman||Haitham bin Tariq bin Taymur||-|
|Qatar||Absolutely||emir||Tamīm bin Hamad ath-Thānī||-|
|Kuwait||Constitutional||Nawaf al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah||Absolute monarchy until 1991, parliament formed between 1991 and 1996 .|
|United Arab Emirates||Constitutional||President||Chalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan||Optionally Empire consisting of 7 Emirates (see section " Sub-national monarchies "). Formally, any of the seven federal emirs can be elected head of the federal government, but traditionally the current emir of Abu Dhabi is always elected.|
|1 sovereign territorial base of the Holy See|
|Vatican city||Absolute elective monarchy||Pope||Francis||Last absolute monarchy in Europe and the only Christian theocracy in the world. The Pope is elected by cardinals with the right to vote in the conclave and, as Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church, is ex officio monarch of the Vatican City.|
Apart from the countries listed above, there are the following monarchies, each of which lies within an internationally recognized, independent state with a federal structure . In some cases, these states are even republican at the federal level.
Crown possessions of the British Crown
|guernsey||duke||Elizabeth II||Duchy of Normandy|
|jersey||duke||Elizabeth II||Duchy of Normandy|
|Isle of Man||lord||Elizabeth II||Lordship Man|
- List of monarchies in Africa
- List of monarchies in Asia
- List of monarchies in Europe
- List of the richest monarchs
- Monarchism in the German-speaking area
- Pretender to the throne
- List of headgear of monarchical heads at state level
- Horst Dreitzel: Concepts of monarchy in princely society. Semantics and theory of domination in Germany from the Reformation to the Vormärz . 2 volumes. Böhlau, Cologne and others 1991, ISBN 3-412-22788-9 .
- Hartmut Fähndrich (Ed.): Inherited power. Monarchies and dynasties in the Arab world . Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2005, ISBN 3-593-37733-0 .
- Pierre Miquel: Europe's last kings. The monarchy in the 20th century . DVA, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-421-06692-2 (most recently: Albatros, Düsseldorf 2005, ISBN 3-491-96149-1 )
- Torsten Oppelland: The European Monarchy. Their origin, development and future . Merus, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-939519-52-2 .
- Gisela Riescher , Alexander Thumfart : Monarchies. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2008, ISBN 978-3-8329-3827-7 .
- ↑ Tom Thieme: Monarchies. Discontinued or future models of political order in the 21st century? Baden-Baden 2017.
- ^ A b Justus Cobet : Monarchia. In: Der Neue Pauly , Volume 8: Mer – Op. JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2000, p. 352.
- ↑ Plato, Politicus , 291c-303d.
- ↑ Polybios 1,1,6,3-10.
- ↑ Wilfried Nippel : Political Theories of Greco-Roman Antiquity. In: Hans-Joachim Lieber (ed.): Political theories from antiquity to the present. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1993, pp. 29 ff. And 39 ff.
- ↑ Tobias Haas: Monarchies versus Republics. A contribution to the differentiation of types of political systems . Freiburg 2014, p. 195 f . ( uni-freiburg.de ).
- ↑ Peter Schwacke / Guido Schmidt ,: Staatsrecht . 5th edition. Stuttgart 2007.
- ^ Karl Loewenstein : The monarchy in the modern state . Frankfurt a. M. 1952.
- ↑ Ernst Fraenkel : Forms of State . In: Ernst Fraenkel / Karl Dietrich Bracher (ed.): State and politics . 3. Edition. Frankfurt a. M. 1964, p. 317-319 .
- ↑ Eckhard Jesse : Typology of Political Systems of the Present . In: Harald Geiss (Ed.): Basic knowledge of politics (= series of publications by the Federal Agency for Civic Education; Bd. 345 ). 3. Edition. Bonn 1997, p. 239-312 .
- ↑ Nepal monarchy abolished . BBC
- ^ Bhutan Constitution. on: telegraphindia.com , proclamation of the constitutional monarchy in Bhutan.
- ↑ Tobias Haas: Monarchies versus Republics. A contribution to the differentiation of types of political systems . Freiburg 2014, p. 189 ( uni-freiburg.de ).
- ↑ a b c Tom Thieme: The form of government monarchy in the 21st century - typology, overview and comparison . 2017, p. 313 ( vr-elibrary.de ).
- ^ Winfried Steffani : Parliamentary and presidential democracy. Structural Aspects of Western Democracies . Opladen, 1979, p. 38 f .
- ↑ Tobias Haas: Monarchies versus Republics. A contribution to the differentiation of types of political systems . Freiburg 2014, p. 190 f . ( uni-freiburg.de ).
- ↑ Klaus von Beyme : The parliamentary democracy. Origin and functioning 1789-1999 . 4th edition. Opladen, Wiesbaden 2004.
- ↑ Tobias Haas: Monarchies versus Republics. A contribution to the differentiation of types of political systems . Freiburg 2014, p. 192 f . ( uni-freiburg.de ).
- ↑ Tobias Haas: Monarchies versus Republics. A contribution to the differentiation of types of political systems . Freiburg 2014, p. 194 f . ( uni-freiburg.de ).
- ↑ Richard Rose: Monarchy, Constitutional . In: Seymour Martin Lipset (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of Democracy . tape III . London 1995, p. 843-847 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Commonwealth Kingdoms (monarchies in which the British monarch is head of state and is represented by a governor general ).
- ^ Barbados to remove Queen Elizabeth as head of state. BBC News, September 16, 2020, accessed September 16, 2020 .
- ↑ Martin Sebaldt: The power of parliaments, functions and performance profiles of national representative bodies in the old democracies of the world . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2009.
- ↑ Steffanie Richter: Aotearoa model: the process of electoral reform in New Zealand . Galda + Wilch, Berlin 1999, p. 15 .
- ↑ Ismail Dalay / Supriyo Bhattacharya: New Zealand . In: Matthias Kowasch / Wolfgang Gieler / Andreas Dittmann (eds.): The foreign policy of the states of Oceania A manual: From Australia to New Zealand, from Samoa to Vanuatu . Ferdinand Schöningh, 2010, p. 93-106 .
- ^ Hermann Groß / Walter Rothholz: The political system of Norway . In: Wolfgang Ismayr (Ed.): The Norwegian political system . UTB, 1997, p. 125-157 ( springer.com ).